How Did Slaves Communicate In The Underground Railroad? (Correct answer)

Spirituals, a form of Christian song of African American origin, contained codes that were used to communicate with each other and help give directions. Some believe Sweet Chariot was a direct reference to the Underground Railroad and sung as a signal for a slave to ready themselves for escape.

What code words were used in the Underground Railroad?

The code words often used on the Underground Railroad were: “ tracks” (routes fixed by abolitionist sympathizers); “stations” or “depots” (hiding places); “conductors” (guides on the Underground Railroad); “agents” (sympathizers who helped the slaves connect to the Railroad); “station masters” (those who hid slaves in

How did slaves communicate to each other in plantations?

Through singing, call and response, and hollering, slaves coordinated their labor, communicated with one another across adjacent fields, bolstered weary spirits, and commented on the oppressiveness of their masters.

How did Harriet Tubman communicate with slaves?

Harriet Tubman and other slaves used songs as a strategy to communicate with slaves in their struggle for freedom. Coded songs contained words giving directions on how to escape also known as signal songs or where to meet known as map songs.

How did slaves communicate through art?

Ultimately the slaves persevered through crucial times by singing and dancing, slaves would later use the arts to express their hopes of freedom. Slaves sang and danced to “Songs of freedom.” Most of these songs were sung throughout the voyage in the underground railroad.

Why did they call it underground railroad?

(Actual underground railroads did not exist until 1863.) According to John Rankin, “It was so called because they who took passage on it disappeared from public view as really as if they had gone into the ground. After the fugitive slaves entered a depot on that road no trace of them could be found.

Was the Underground Railroad an actual railroad?

Nope! Despite its name, the Underground Railroad wasn’t a railroad in the way Amtrak or commuter rail is. It wasn’t even a real railroad. The Underground Railroad of history was simply a loose network of safe houses and top secret routes to states where slavery was banned.

How did Harriet Tubman get involved in the Underground Railroad?

The Underground Railroad and Siblings Tubman first encountered the Underground Railroad when she used it to escape slavery herself in 1849. Following a bout of illness and the death of her owner, Tubman decided to escape slavery in Maryland for Philadelphia.

Why did Harriet Tubman wear a bandana?

As was the custom on all plantations, when she turned eleven, she started wearing a bright cotton bandana around her head indicating she was no longer a child. She was also no longer known by her “basket name”, Araminta. Now she would be called Harriet, after her mother.

What was the Underground Railroad password?

Spin the ring clockwise or counter-clockwise to line up letters along the ring with the red arrow at the top, then press the center button to input a letter. The password for this lock is RAILROAD, which was indicated by the clues on the marked seals along the trail.

What methods did slaves use to escape?

Freedom seekers used several means to escape slavery. Most often they traveled by land on foot, horse, or wagon under the protection of darkness. Drivers concealed self-liberators in false compartments built into their wagons, or hid them under loads of produce. Sometimes, fleeing slaves traveled by train.

Why were coded communications important to the success of the Underground Railroad?

Communication and secrecy were key to the successful operation of the Underground Railroad. Both fugitive slaves and members of the Underground Railroad learned to code and decode hidden messages, and to disguise signs to avoid capture. There were code names for routes and code numbers for towns.

How did slaves learn to speak English?

So when slaves arrived in the U.S., they picked up English words from their masters and then organized those words based on the grammar they already knew.

Underground Railroad Secret Codes : Harriet Tubman

Supporters of the Underground Railroad made use of the following words: Railroad conductors were hired on a daily basis to construct their own code as a secret language in order to assist slaves in escaping. The railroad language was chosen since it was a new mode of transportation at the time, and its communication language was not widely used. Secret code phrases would be used in letters sent to “agents” in order to ensure that if they were intercepted, they would not be apprehended. A form of Underground Railroad code was also utilized in slave songs to allow slaves to communicate with one another without their owners being aware of their activities.

Agent Coordinator, who plotted courses of escape and made contacts.
Baggage Fugitive slaves carried by Underground Railroad workers.
Bundles of wood Fugitives that were expected.
Canaan Canada
Conductor Person who directly transported slaves
Drinking Gourd Big Dipper and the North Star
Flying bondsmen The number of escaping slaves
Forwarding Taking slaves from station to station
Freedom train The Underground Railroad
French leave Sudden departure
Gospel train The Underground Railroad
Heaven Canada, freedom
Stockholder Those who donated money, food, clothing.
Load of potatoes Escaping slaves hidden under farm produce in a wagon
Moses Harriet Tubman
Operator Person who helped freedom seekers as a conductor or agent
Parcel Fugitives that were expected
Patter roller Bounty hunter hired to capture slaves
Preachers Leaders of and spokespersons for the Underground Railroad
Promised Land Canada
River Jordan Ohio River
Shepherds People who encouraged slaves to escape and escorted them
Station Place of safety and temporary refuge, a safe house
Station master Keeper or owner of a safe house

Following that will be Songs of the Underground Railroad. Underground Railroad codes, coded language, coded music, Underground Railroad followers, underground railroad, supporters of the Underground Railroad Underground Railroad is a subcategory of the category Underground Railroad.

6 Strategies Harriet Tubman and Others Used to Escape Along the Underground Railroad

Despite the horrors of slavery, the decision to run was not an easy one. Sometimes escaping meant leaving behind family and embarking on an adventure into the unknown, where harsh weather and a shortage of food may be on the horizon. Then there was the continual fear of being apprehended. On both sides of the Mason-Dixon line, so-called slave catchers and their hounds were on the prowl, apprehending runaways — and occasionally free Black individuals likeSolomon Northup — and taking them back to the plantation where they would be flogged, tortured, branded, or murdered.

In total, close to 100,000 Black individuals were able to flee slavery in the decades leading up to the Civil War.

The majority, on the other hand, chose to go to the Northern free states or Canada.

1: Getting Help

Harriet Tubman, maybe around the 1860s. The Library of Congress is a federal government institution that collects and organizes information. No matter how brave or brilliant they were, few enslaved individuals were able to free themselves without the assistance of others. Even the smallest amount of assistance, such as hidden instructions on how to get away and who to trust, may make a significant difference. The most fortunate, on the other hand, were those who followed so-called “conductors,” like as Harriet Tubman, who, after escaping slavery in 1849, devoted her life to the Underground Railroad.

Tubman, like her other conductors, built a network of accomplices, including so-called “stationmasters,” who helped her hide her charges in barns and other safe havens along the road.

She was aware of which government officials were receptive to bribery.

Among other things, she would sing particular tunes or impersonate an owl to indicate when it was time to flee or when it was too hazardous to come out of hiding. She also mailed coded letters and dispatched couriers to deliver them.

2: Timing

Tubman developed a number of other methods during the course of her career to keep her pursuers at arm’s length. For starters, she preferred to operate during the winter months when the longer evenings allowed her to cover more land. Also, she wanted to go on Saturday because she knew that no announcements about runaways would appear in the papers until the following Monday (since there was no paper on Sunday.) Tubman carried a handgun, both for safety and to scare people under her care who were contemplating retreating back to civilization.

The railroad engineer would subsequently claim that “I never drove my train off the track” and that he “never lost a passenger.” Tubman frequently disguised herself in order to return to Maryland on a regular basis, appearing as a male, an old lady, or a middle-class free black, depending on the occasion.

  1. They may, for example, approach a plantation under the guise of a slave in order to apprehend a gang of escaped slaves.
  2. Some of the sartorial efforts were close to brilliance.
  3. They traveled openly by rail and boat, surviving numerous near calls along the way and eventually making it to the North.
  4. After dressing as a sailor and getting aboard the train, he tried to trick the conductor by flashing his sailor’s protection pass, which he had obtained from an accomplice.
  5. Enslaved women have hidden in attics and crawlspaces for as long as seven years in order to evade their master’s unwelcome sexual approaches.

4: Codes, Secret Pathways

In order to maintain a safe distance between herself and her pursuers, Tubman devised a number of additional methods throughout time. Because of the longer evenings throughout the winter, she was able to cover more land when she operated. It was also more convenient for her to go on Saturday since she knew that no announcements about runaways would appear in newspapers until the following Monday (since there was no paper on Sunday.) For safety and to frighten those under her supervision who were considering going back, Tubman carried a revolver.

The railroad engineer would subsequently claim that “I never ran my train off the track” and that “I never lost a passenger.” Tubman frequently disguised herself in order to return to Maryland on a regular basis, masquerading as a man, an old lady, or a middle-class free black, depending on the circumstances.

  1. If they want to apprehend a bunch of escapees, they can join a plantation on the pretext of being a slave.
  2. There were a few attempts at fashion that came close to becoming brilliant.
  3. After surviving numerous close calls while traveling openly by rail and boat, they were able to make it to the North.
  4. The conductor was fooled when he approached him on the train platform in sailor attire, flashing the conductor’s pass, which he had obtained from an accomplice.

For seven years, one enslaved lady hid in an attic crawlspace, desperate to escape her master’s unwelcome sexual approaches. Others chose to ensconce themselves in wooden crates and sail themselves from the capital of Virginia to the city of Philadelphia, where abolitionists were based.

5: Buying Freedom

The Underground Railroad, on the other hand, functioned openly and shamelessly for long of its duration, despite the passing of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act, which prescribed heavy fines for anybody proven to have helped runaways. Stationmasters in the United States claimed to have sheltered thousands of escaped slaves, and their activities were well documented. A former enslaved man who became a stationmaster in Syracuse, New York, even referred to himself in writing as the “keeper of the Underground Railroad depot” in his hometown of Syracuse, New York.

At times, abolitionists would simply purchase the freedom of an enslaved individual, as they did in the case of Sojourner Truth.

Besides that, they worked to sway public opinion by funding talks by Truth and other former slaves to convey the miseries of bondage to public attention.

6. Fighting

The Underground Railroad volunteers would occasionally band together in large crowds to violently rescue fleeing slaves from captivity and terrify slave catchers into going home empty-handed if all else failed. Perhaps unsurprisingly, John Brown was one among those who advocated for the use of brutal force. Abolitionist leader John Brown led a gang of armed abolitionists into Missouri before leading a failed uprising in Harpers Ferry, where they rescued 11 enslaved individuals and murdered an enslaver.

Brown was followed by pro-slavery troops throughout the voyage.

Underground Railroad Terminology

Written by Dr. Bryan Walls As a descendant of slaves who traveled the Underground Railroad, I grew up enthralled by the stories my family’s “Griot” told me about his ancestors. It was my Aunt Stella who was known as the “Griot,” which is an African name that means “keeper of the oral history,” since she was the storyteller of our family. Despite the fact that she died in 1986 at the age of 102, her mind remained keen till the very end of her life. During a conversation with my Aunt Stella, she informed me that John Freeman Walls was born in 1813 in Rockingham County, North Carolina and journeyed on the Underground Railroad to Maidstone, Ontario in 1846.

  1. Many historians believe that the Underground Railroad was the first big liberation movement in the Americas, and that it was the first time that people of many races and faiths came together in peace to fight for freedom and justice in the United States.
  2. Escaped slaves, as well as those who supported them, need rapid thinking as well as a wealth of insight and information.
  3. The Underground Railroad Freedom Movement reached its zenith between 1820 and 1865, when it was at its most active.
  4. A Kentucky fugitive slave by the name of Tice Davids allegedly swam across the Ohio River as slave catchers, including his former owner, were close on his trail, according to legend.
  5. He was most likely assisted by nice individuals who were opposed to slavery and wanted the practice to be abolished.
  6. “He must have gotten away and joined the underground railroad,” the enraged slave owner was overheard saying.
  7. As a result, railroad jargon was employed in order to maintain secrecy and confound the slave hunters.
See also:  Which States Utilize The Underground Railroad The Most?

In this way, escaping slaves would go through the forests at night and hide during the daytime hours.

In order to satiate their hunger for freedom and proceed along the treacherous Underground Railroad to the heaven they sung about in their songs—namely, the northern United States and Canada—they took this risky route across the wilderness.

Despite the fact that they were not permitted to receive an education, the slaves were clever folks.

Freedom seekers may use maps created by former slaves, White abolitionists, and free Blacks to find their way about when traveling was possible during the day time.

The paths were frequently not in straight lines; instead, they zigzagged across wide places in order to vary their smell and confuse the bloodhounds on the trail.

The slaves could not transport a large amount of goods since doing so would cause them to become sluggish.

Enslaved people traveled the Underground Railroad and relied on the plant life they encountered for sustenance and medical treatment.

The enslaved discovered that Echinacea strengthens the immune system, mint relieves indigestion, roots can be used to make tea, and plants can be used to make poultices even in the winter when they are dormant, among other things.

After all, despite what their owners may have told them, the Detroit River is not 5,000 miles wide, and the crows in Canada will not peck their eyes out.

Hopefully, for the sake of the Freedom Seeker, these words would be replaced by lyrics from the “Song of the Fugitive: The Great Escape.” The brutal wrongs of slavery I can no longer tolerate; my heart is broken within me, for as long as I remain a slave, I am determined to strike a blow for freedom or the tomb.” I am now embarking for yonder beach, beautiful land of liberty; our ship will soon get me to the other side, and I will then be liberated.

No more will I be terrified of the auctioneer, nor will I be terrified of the Master’s frowns; no longer will I quiver at the sound of the dogs baying.

All of the brave individuals who were participating in the Underground Railroad Freedom Movement had to acquire new jargon and codes in order to survive. To go to the Promised Land, one needed to have a high level of ability and knowledge.

Music Was The Secret Language Of The Underground Railroad

Dr. Bryan Walls’s contribution My family’s “Griot” (grandfather) told me stories of his ancestors who were slaves on the Underground Railroad, and I grew up interested by what he had to say. It was my Aunt Stella who was known as the “Griot,” which is an African name that means “keeper of the oral history,” since she was the family storyteller. Despite the fact that she died in 1986 at the age of 102, her mind remained keen till the very end of her existence. Aunt Stella told me that John Freeman Walls was born in 1813 in Rockingham County, North Carolina, and that he moved to Maidstone, Ontario, Canada, in 1846, via the Underground Railroad.

People of all races and faiths came together in harmony to fight for freedom and justice along the Underground Railroad, which is widely regarded as the first great freedom movement in the Americas and the first instance in which people of different races and faiths came together to fight for freedom and justice.

  1. People who helped escaped slaves needed to be nimble with their thoughts and possess a lot of insight and information.
  2. The Underground Railroad Freedom Movement reached its zenith between 1820 and 1865, when it had its greatest popularity.
  3. Tice managed to evade capture after they crossed the border near the town of Ripley, Ohio (which was a busy “stop” on the Underground Railroad).
  4. “Abolitionists” were those who supported freedom and opposed slavery.
  5. Secrets were essential since slaves and anybody who assisted them in their escape from slavery faced heavy consequences.

The following code words were frequently used on the Underground Railroad: “tracks” (routes fixed by abolitionist sympathizers); “stations” or “depots” (hiding places); “conductors” (guides on the Underground Railroad); “agents” (sympathizers who assisted slaves in connecting to the Railroad); “station masters” (those who hid slaves in their homes); “passengers,” “cargo,” “fleece,” Even though the constellations sometimes fluctuate, the North Star stays constant in the night sky, according to millennia of African wisdom passed down through generations.

  1. This led to the escapees running through the woods at night and hiding during the day.
  2. In order to fulfill their thirst for freedom and proceed along the treacherous Underground Railroad to the heaven they sung about in their songs—namely, the northern United States and Canada—they took this risky route through the forest.
  3. They were brilliant folks, despite the fact that they were not permitted to receive an education while under slavery.
  4. Maps created by former slaves, White abolitionists, and free Blacks would aid the freedom seekers with instructions and geographical markers when traveling was possible during the day.
  5. The paths were not always in straight lines; they frequently zigzagged across wide regions in order to change their smell and confuse the bloodhounds tracking them.
  6. In order to keep their speed as high as possible, the captives could not carry a large amount of supplies.
  7. Slaves relied on local plant life for sustenance and medical treatment while traveling the Underground Railroad route.
  8. The enslaved discovered that Echinacea strengthens the immune system, mint relieves indigestion, roots can be used to make tea, and plants can be used to make poultices even in the winter when they are dormant, all of which were previously unknown.
  9. They would discover that, contrary to what their owners may have told them, the Detroit River was not 5,000 miles wide and that the crows in Canada would not peck their eyes out.
  10. It is hoped that these lyrics would give birth to lyrics from the “Song of the Fugitive: The Freedom Seeker,” which would be beneficial to him.
  11. The auctioneer will no longer be a source of dread, and the Master’s frowns will no longer make me shudder at the sound of hounds barking.

All of the brave individuals who were participating in the Underground Railroad Freedom Movement had to acquire new jargon and ciphers in order to communicate. To get to the Promised Land, it took a tremendous deal of talent and expertise.

Follow The Drinking Gourd

“When the light returns and the first fowl calls, follow the drinking gourd to the water source. “Follow the drinking gourd to where the elderly guy is waiting to take you to freedom.” ” Follow The Drinking Gourd ” is considered to be one of the greatest examples of a “map song,” as it offers vital information for slaves attempting to elude capture. This poem’s first line refers to the beginning of spring (when the days are longer), which was the finest time to embark on the lengthy trek to the North.

When travelers followed the path of the constellation Polaris (the north star), they had a guide in the night sky that guided them in the direction of freedom and independence.

Wade In The Water

“Take a dip in the water. God is going to cause turmoil in the sea. What is the identity of those children who are all dressed in red? God is going to cause turmoil in the sea. They must be the ones who followed Moses. “God is going to cause turmoil in the sea.” Some believe that Harriet Tubman used the song “Wade In The Water,” which used Biblical imagery to avoid being suspected, to instruct runaway slaves on how to avoid capture and escape from slavery. If they were concerned that they were being followed, they might take cover in the water, which would keep bloodhounds off their trail.

It has been covered by a variety of artists, including Mavis Staples, Eva Cassidy, and Bob Dylan, since it was initially released as a song with words in 1901.

Swing Low, Sweet Chariot

“Swing low, lovely chariot, coming for to bring me home, Swing low, sweet chariot, coming for to carry me home, Swing low, sweet chariot, coming for to carry me home, Swing low, sweet chariot, coming for to carry me home.” I looked around Jordan and what did I see coming for me to take me home, I don’t know. Coming after me is a group of angels who are determined to bring me home. ” Swing Low, Sweet Chariot ” is thought to be Harriet Tubman’s favorite song, and it is one of the most enduring tunes from this time period.

The Underground Railroad’s directors (sweet chariot) were known to as the “band of angels” since they would soon arrive from the south (swing low) to escort slaves up the railroad to freedom (carry me home).

Underground Music Today

The chariot is coming to take me home, Swing low, lovely chariot, the chariot is coming to take me home, Swing low, sweet chariot, the chariot is coming to take me home, swing low, dear chariot, the chariot is coming to take me home Looking about Jordan, I noticed something: a vehicle coming towards me, presumably to transport me home. They are following me, bringing me back to the place of my origin. ” Swing Low, Sweet Chariot ” is supposed to be Harriet Tubman’s favorite song, and it is undoubtedly one of the most enduring tunes from this period.

The Underground Railroad’s directors (sweet chariot) were known to as the “band of angels” since they would soon arrive from the south (swing low) to escort slaves to freedom in the north (carry me home).

Eastern Illinois University : Teaching with Primary Sources

However, many of the intriguing and lesser known elements of the Underground Railroad are not included in many textbooks, despite the fact that it is an essential part of our nation’s history. It is intended that this booklet will serve as a window into the past by presenting a number of original documents pertaining to the Underground Railroad. Broadsides, prize posters, newspaper clippings, historical records, sheet music, pictures, and memoirs connected to the Underground Railroad are among the primary sources included in this collection.

  1. The Underground Railroad was a covert structure established to assist fugitive slaves on their journey to freedom in the United States.
  2. As a result, secret codes were developed to aid in the protection of themselves and their purpose.
  3. Runaway slaves were referred to as cargo, and the free persons who assisted them on their journey to freedom were referred to as conductors.
  4. These stations would be identified by a lantern that was lighted and hung outside.

A Dangerous Path to Freedom

Traveling through the Underground Railroad to seek their freedom was a lengthy and risky trek for escaped slaves. Runaway slaves were forced to travel long distances, sometimes on foot, in a short amount of time in order to escape. They accomplished this while surviving on little or no food and with little protection from the slave hunters who were rushing after them in the night. Slave owners were not the only ones who sought for and apprehended fleeing slaves. For the purpose of encouraging people to aid in the capture of these slaves, their owners would post reward posters offering monetary compensation for assisting in the capture of their property.

  • Numerous arrested fugitive slaves were beaten, branded, imprisoned, sold back into slavery, or sometimes killed once they were apprehended.
  • They would have to fend off creatures that wanted to kill and devour them while trekking for lengthy periods of time in the wilderness, as well as cross dangerous terrain and endure extreme temperatures.
  • The Fleeing Slave Law of 1850 permitted and promoted the arrest of fugitive slaves since they were regarded as stolen property rather than mistreated human beings under the law at the time.
  • They would not be able to achieve safety and freedom until they crossed the border into Canada.
  • Aside from that, there were Underground Railroad routes that ran south, on their way to Mexico and the Caribbean.
  • He was kidnapped from his northern abode, arrested, and prosecuted in Boston, Massachusetts, under the provisions of this legislation.
  • After the trial, Burns was returned to the harshness of the southern states, from which he had thought he had fled.

American Memory and America’s Library are two names for the Library of Congress’ American Memory and America’s Library collections.

He did not escape via the Underground Railroad, but rather on a regular railroad.

See also:  Who Freed The Most Slaves In The Underground Railroad? (Question)

Since he was a fugitive slave who did not have any “free papers,” he had to borrow a seaman’s protection certificate, which indicated that a seaman was a citizen of the United States, in order to prove that he was free.

Unfortunately, not all fugitive slaves were successful in their quest for freedom.

Harriet Tubman, Henry Bibb, Anthony Burns, Addison White, Josiah Henson, and John Parker were just a few of the people who managed to escape slavery using the Underground Railroad system.

He shipped himself from Richmond, Virginia, to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in a box that measured three feet long, two and a half feet deep, and two feet in diameter. When he was finally let out of the crate, he burst out singing.

ConductorsAbolitionists

Train conductors on the Underground Railroad were free persons who provided assistance to escaped slaves moving via the Underground Railroad system. Runaway slaves were assisted by conductors, who provided them with safe transportation to and from train stations. They were able to accomplish this under the cover of darkness, with slave hunters on their tails. Many of these stations would be in the comfort of their own homes or places of work, which was convenient. They were in severe danger as a result of their actions in hiding fleeing slaves; nonetheless, they continued because they believed in a cause bigger than themselves, which was the liberation thousands of oppressed human beings.

  • They represented a diverse range of ethnicities, vocations, and socioeconomic backgrounds.
  • Due to the widespread belief that slaves were considered property, the freeing of slaves was perceived as a theft of slave owners’ personal belongings.
  • Captain Jonathan Walker was apprehended off the coast of Florida while attempting to convey slaves from the United States to freedom in the Bahamas.
  • With the following words from one of his songs, abolitionist poet John Whittier paid respect to Walker’s valiant actions: “Take a step forward with your muscular right hand, brave ploughman of the sea!
  • She never lost sight of any of them during the journey.
  • He went on to write a novel.
  • John Parker is yet another former slave who escaped and returned to slave states in order to aid in the emancipation of others.

Rankin’s neighbor and fellow conductor, Reverend John Rankin, was a collaborator in the Underground Railroad project.

The Underground Railroad’s conductors were unquestionably anti-slavery, and they were not alone in their views.

Individuals such as William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur and Lewis Tappan founded the American Anti-Slavery Society, which marked the beginning of the abolitionist movement.

The group published an annual almanac that featured poetry, paintings, essays, and other abolitionist material.

Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave who rose to prominence as an abolitionist after escaping from slavery.

His other abolitionist publications included the Frederick Douglass Paper, which he produced in addition to delivering public addresses on themes that were important to abolitionists.

Anthony was another well-known abolitionist who advocated for the abolition of slavery via her speeches and writings.

For the most part, she based her novel on the adventures of escaped slave Josiah Henson.

Efforts of Abolitionists Telling Their Story:Fugitive Slave Narratives

Henry Bibb was born into slavery in Kentucky in the year 1815, and he was the son of a slave owner. After several failed efforts to emancipate himself from slavery, he maintained the strength and persistence to continue his struggle for freedom despite being captured and imprisoned numerous times. His determination paid off when he was able to successfully escape to the northern states and then on to Canada with the assistance of the Underground Railroad, which had been highly anticipated. The following is an excerpt from his tale, in which he detailed one of his numerous escapes and the difficulties he faced as a result of his efforts.

  1. I began making preparations for the potentially lethal experiment of breading the shackles that tied me as a slave as soon as the clock struck twelve.
  2. On the twenty-fifth of December, 1837, the long-awaited day had finally arrived when I would put into effect my previous determination, which was to flee for Liberty or accept death as a slave, as I had previously stated.
  3. It took every ounce of moral strength I have to keep my emotions under control as I said goodbye to my small family.
  4. Despite the fact that every incentive was extended to me in order to flee if I want to be free, and the call of liberty was booming in my own spirit, ‘Be free, oh, man!
  5. I was up against a slew of hurdles that had gathered around my mind, attempting to bind my wounded soul, which was still imprisoned in the dark prison of mental degeneration.
  6. Furthermore, the danger of being killed or arrested and deported to the far South, where I would be forced to spend the rest of my days in hopeless bondage on a cotton or sugar plantation, all conspired to discourage me.
  7. The moment has come for me to follow through on my commitment.
  8. This marked the beginning of the construction of what was known as the underground rail route to Canada.

For nearly forty-eight hours, I pushed myself to complete my journey without food or rest, battling against external difficulties that no one who has never experienced them can comprehend: “not knowing when I might be captured while traveling among strangers, through cold and fear, braving the north winds while wearing only a thin layer of clothing, pelted by snow storms through the dark hours of the night, and not a single house in which I could enter to protect me from the storm.” This is merely one of several accounts penned by runaway slaves who were on the run from their masters.

Sojourner Truth was another former slave who became well-known for her work to bring slavery to an end.

Green and many others, including Josiah Henson, authored autobiographies in which they described their own personal experiences.

Perhaps a large number of escaped slaves opted to write down their experiences in order to assist people better comprehend their struggles and tribulations; or perhaps they did so in order to help folks learn from the mistakes of the past in order to create a better future for themselves.

Underground Railroad Symbols: Secret Codes ***

Underground Railroad Symbols for kids: The Underground Railway HistoryThere were harsh penalties for runaway slaves and their helpers – refer to theFugitive Slave Act.Although slaves had been trying to escape from slavery for many years the name “Underground Railroad” only started to be used in 1831 followingthe religious revival of theSecond Great Awakeningwhich resulted in the1830 Abolitionist Movementwhich became active followingNat Turner’s Rebellionleading to the establishment of theUnderground Railroad.For additional information also refer toUnderground Railroad MapsUnderground Railroad Symbols for kids: The Name “Underground Railway”The term “Underground Railroad” was chosen in 1831 as a secret code name for the escape routes used by fugitive slaves. The reason the name was chosen was this date coincided withthe time the first railroads began to run in America – refer toAmerican Railroads.The word “underground” was added meaning a covert group organized to hide a secret operation.Underground Railroad Symbols for kids: Symbols and SignsThe”Underground Railroad”, operating under essential secrecy, adopted many symbols and signs that were made known to the fugitive slaves:● Passwords were used to ensure the fugitives were genuine ● Messages were sent by drumming stones together ● The hoot of an owl was used to convey messages ● Certain Songs were sung as symbols of Underground Railway members ● “All Clear” was conveyed in safe houses using a lighted lantern in a certain place as this symbol ● Knocks on doors used a coded series of taps as symbols of identity ● Certain items, such as a quilt, were hung on a clotheslineUnderground Railroad Symbols for kids: Quilt CodesUnsubstantiated theories has been offered that quilts were made containing Underground Railway symbols. The use of symbols on quilts were said to be an effective way for slaves to communicate nonverbally with each other andhelp each other to escape. This does make some sense in relation to quilts being hung on clotheslines. Symbols used to indicate routes:●Geese symbols flying North●Crossroads symbols that indicated Cleveland, Ohio●Bears Paw symbols conveying a message to take a mountain route●Bow tie symbols meaning it would be necessary to change from slave clothing●Broken dish symbols which would be used as directional symbols along the escape route● Symbols of log cabins told slaves to look for this symbol on their journey to freedom●Box symbols that indicated it was time to pack (box-up) ready to escape● Patterns called a monkey wrench were were symbols reminding slaves to prepare for the journey taking weapons or tools that would helpon their journey ● North Star symbols indicating the way to freedomUnderground Railroad Symbols for kids: The Secret Code NamesOnce the name”Underground Railroad”had been established, it was logical to use other secret words, phrases, codes, signs and symbols that referred to the operation of a real railroad. At this time everyone was talking about the new American railroad. It was essential to keep escape plans completely secret and by using these secret codes anyone who overheard such conversations would think they were talking about the railroad, not runaway slaves.Underground Railroad Symbols: The Secret Language of the “Underground Railway”The meaning of words and symbols used in the”Underground Railroad” relating to railways were as follows:Underground Railroad Symbols for kids – RailwaysWords, Signs and Symbols – Meaning and DefinitionUnderground Railroad -The name for the secret network of organizations and operations who helped slaves to escape slaveryRailroad Line -Line referred to the route from one safe house to anotherConductor -Conductors were those who guided fugitive slaves between safe housesStation master -The station master was the owner of a safe houseStation / Depot -Station and Depot were the secret names given to hiding places or safe houses used during escapesCargo / Freight -Cargo or Freight was the name given to fugitive slaves who received assistance from conductors on the Underground RailroadPassengers -Passengers was another name give to slaves traveling the escape routesBaggage -Baggage was another secret name for a fugitive slaveParcels -Term to indicate that fugitive slaves were on their way to a safe houseStockholders -The name given to abolitionists who donated money, food, shelter and clothing to the Underground RailwayTicket Agents -Agents was the name given to those who coordinated and planned escape routes. Slaves weregiven a ‘ticket’Operator or Engineer -Other names for a conductor (the guides)Jumping off place -Place of safe shelter for fugitive slavesPatty Rollers or Paddy Rollers -Patty Rollers, Pattyrollers or Paddy Rollers were slave catchers. Probably a derivation of patrollers but ‘Roller rigs’ was used for the investigation of steam locomotivesWords, Signs and Symbols-Meaning and DefinitionUnderground Railroad Symbols Facts for kids – RailwaysUnderground Railroad Symbols: Code words and phrases relating to ReligionJust as the American railroads provided secret words and symbols relating to the”Underground Railroad” it was also safe to apply religious words, signs and symbols to extend the vocabulary of the organization. Thewords, phrases and symbols used in the”Underground Railroad” relating to religion were as follows:Underground Railroad Symbols for kids – ReligiousWords, Signs and Symbols-Meaning and DefinitionCanaan -Canaan was a biblical term used to mean CanadaHeaven -The word used to describe the destination of a fugitive, usually referring to CanadaPreachers -Abolitionists or leaders of the”Underground Railroad”River Jordan -The secret code word for the Ohio RiverShepherds -Shepherds were alternative names for Conductors meaning those who guided fugitive slaves between safe housesMoses -Moses was the code name of Harriet Tubman, the most famous conductorGospel Songs -Gospel songs like “Steal away, steal away, steal away to Jesus”, “Swing low, sweet chariot” and “Wade in the Water” were used to indicate that an escape plan was about to be carried out or give reminders to use water to travel by. The song “Follow the Drinking Gourd” was a reminder to follow the North Star – as this would always lead the way to freedomWords, Signs and Symbols-Meaning and DefinitionUnderground Railroad Symbols for kids – ReligiousUnderground Railroad Symbols: Other Code words and phrasesOther secret words, phrases and symbols relating to the”Underground Railroad” were also used to extend the vocabulary of the network as follows:Underground Railroad Symbols and PhrasesPhrases-Meaning and Definition”The river bank makes a mighty good road” -A reminder to travel by water”The wind blows from the South today” -An alert that fugitive slaves were in the area”The dead trees will show you the way” -A reminder that moss grows on the North side of dead trees useful when the stars were not visible”Left foot, peg foot” -A description of a certain conductor”The friend of a friend sent me” -Password used by slave fugitivesPhrases-Meaning and DefinitionUnderground Railroad Symbols for kids – ReligiousUnderground Railroad Symbols: Other Useful Words and PhrasesOther useful words and phrases associated with the”Underground Railroad” are as follows:Underground Railroad – Meaning of Useful Words and PhrasesWords and Phrases-Meaning and DefinitionAbolitionist -A social reformer in favor of abolishing slaveryAntebellum -Antebellum is the name given to historical era that preceded the Civil WarEmancipation -Emancipation is the act of setting a person free from slaveryManumission -Manumission the formal act of freeing from slavery.A written legal document freeing a person from slaveryFree States -Free States that did not allow slaverySlave States -Slave States permitted slaveryThe Mason-Dixon Line -The Mason-Dixon Line is the boundary line dividing the northern free states from the southern slave statesThe ‘Gag rule’-TheGag Rulewas a provision that prevented the discussion of a topic in Congress, such as abolishing slaverySecession -Secessionwas the withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil WarFugitive Slave Law -The Fugitive Slave Laws were acts passed by Congress in 1793 and 1850 outlawing any efforts to impede the capture of runaway slavesMulatto -A word used to describe a child of a black person and a white personWords and Phrases-Meaning and DefinitionUnderground Railroad – Meaning of Useful Words and PhrasesBlack History for kids: Important People and EventsFor visitors interested in African American History refer toBlack History – People and Events.A useful resourcefor teachers, kids, schools and colleges undertaking projects for the Black History Month.Underground Railroad Symbols for kids – President Andrew Jackson VideoThe article on the Underground Railroad Symbols provides an overview of one of the Important issues of his presidential term in office. The following Andrew Jackson video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 7th American President whose presidency spanned from March 4, 1829 to March 4, 1837.Underground Railroad Symbols● Interesting Facts about Underground Railroad Symbols for kids ● Underground Railroad Symbols for kids ● The Underground Railroad Symbols, a Important event in US history ● Andrew Jackson Presidency from March 4, 1829 to March 4, 1837 ● Fast, fun, interesting Underground Railroad Symbols ● Picture of Underground Railroad Quilt Symbols ● Underground Railroad Symbols for schools, homework, kids and children
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Songs of the Underground Railroad – Wikipedia

Finding Polaris (Ursae Minoris), the North Star, can be accomplished by picturing a line running from Merak () to Dubhe () and then extending it for five times the distance between Dubhe () and Polaris. The title of the song is thought to be a reference to the star configuration (anasterism) known in America as the Big Dipper and in Europe as The Plough, both of which are visible in the night sky. The Big Dipper’s pointer stars are in perfect alignment with the North Star. As a result, the repeated lyric “Follow the Drinkin’ Gourd” in this song is sometimes understood as a directive to runaway slaves to trek north by following the North Star in this song.

Songs were used to send messages and directions regarding when, where, and how to flee, as well as to warn slaves of hazards and difficulties they may encounter along the way, because it was prohibited in most slave states to educate slaves to read or write.

Songs

” Follow the Drinkin’ Gourd ” is a song that has been attributed to the Underground Railroad. The title of the song is thought to be a reference to the star configuration (anasterism) known in America as the Big Dipper and in Europe as The Plough, both of which are visible in the night sky. The Big Dipper’s pointer stars are in perfect alignment with the North Star. The repeated lyric “Follow the Drinkin’ Gourd” in this song is sometimes understood as directions to fleeing slaves to journey north by following the North Star, which will take them to the northern states, Canada, and freedom: “Follow the Drinkin’ Gourd.” It’s said that the song contains escape instructions and a map that takes the listener from Mobile, Alabama up the Tombigbee River, across a split to the Tennessee River, and then downriver to the confluence of the Tennessee and Ohio rivers in Paducah, Kentucky Another song with a rumored hidden significance is “Now Let Me Fly,” which is based on the biblical account of Ezekiel’s Wheels and is sung by the band.

  • The majority of the song is devoted to the idea of a promised country.
  • According to some, the spiritual song “Go Down Moses,” which represents the biblical account of Moses guiding his people to freedom in Exodus, may be a veiled reference to the conductors on the Underground Railroad.
  • Music plays a significant role in the religion of African Americans today, just as it did in the telling of the story of liberation in the past.
  • Frederick Douglass, an American slave, wrote his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, in the nineteenth century (1845), Douglass provides examples of how the songs performed by slaves had different meanings, which he explains in detail.
  • In My Bondage and Freedom: A Novel, Douglass makes similar observations but does not provide conclusive proof.
  • We wanted to go to the north – and the north was Canaan, as it were.

Among others, it connoted the hope of a swift call to a realm of spirits; but among our party, it merely denoted the prospect of an expeditious journey toward a free state and freedom from all of the miseries and perils of slavery.” As with his previous observations, Douglass’ observations here do not provide conclusive evidence that slaves were successful in using coded song lyrics to aid their escape; he is writing here only about his small group of slaves who are encouraging one another as they finalize their plans to escape, not about the widespread use of coded song lyrics to aid escaping slaves.

According to his own words, at the beginning of this same paragraph, their master may have seen through their basic code: “I am the more inclined to believe that he suspected us since.

we did numerous foolish things, all of which were very well tailored to arouse suspicion.” Douglass quickly goes on to mention how their constant singing of the national anthem of freedom was one of the “many stupid things” that they had been doing.

Urban legend or truth

While many people think that the stories related about the songs of the Underground Railroad are real, there are also many others who feel the stories are not factual. Some believe that songs of the Underground Railroad are urban legends that date back to the late twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century. Skeptics contend that the narrative has been taken up by credulous authors and published as fact without any historical backing. Some authors who believe the song contained instructions for escaping slavery acknowledge the ephemeral nature of oral history, frequently prefacing their statements with phrases such as “supposed,” “according to folklorists,” and “gospelologists cite” to emphasize the transient nature of oral history.

” The arguments of some researchers are that while slave songs may have conveyed hope for release from the woes of this life, these songs did not provide literal assistance to runaway slaves.

There is evidence, however, that Harriet Tubman, a conductor on the Underground Railroad, made use of at least two songs.

“Follow the Drinkin’ Gourd”

According to some sources, the hypothesis arose from an elaboration of a folktale recorded in John A. Lomax’s 1934 book American Ballads and Folk Songs. He quotes a story from H.B Parks in his preface to “Foller de Drinkin’ Gou’d,” on page 227, in his section on reels: “One of my great-uncles, who was connected with the railroad movement, remembered that in the records of the Anti-Slavery Society there was a story of a peg-leg sailor, known asPeg-Leg Joe, who traveled through the South and induced young Negroes .

Peg-leg sailors would.

There was nothing else that could be discovered about the individual.

‘The grea’ huge un’ is known as the Ohio.

Songs associated with the Underground Railroad

  • Following the Drinking Gourd
  • Go Down Moses
  • Let Us Break Bread Together
  • Swing Low, Sweet Chariot
  • Steal Away(To Jesus)
  • Wade in the Water
  • Song of the Free
  • Follow the Drinking Gourd
  • Swing Low, Sweet Chariot On his album Africa/Brass, John Coltrane has a song named “Song of the Underground Railroad,” as well as “Down in the River to Pray,” ” Michael Row the Boat Ashore,” and ” Down in the River to Pray.”

See also

  • Songs like ” Jimmy Crack Corn,” ” Slave Songs of the United States,” and ” The Gospel Train” are among the best-known.

References

  1. ‘Follow the Drinking Gourd, A Cultural History’ is a book about following the drinking gourd. “Collection Story,” “Follow the Drinking Gourd: A Cultural History,” “Follow the Drinking Gourd: A Cultural History.” Song lyrics were retrieved on October 18, 2010
  2. This page was last modified on August 9, 2010. Ray Watson is the author of “Ezekiel’s Wheels” and “The Secret Place.” This page was last modified on August 9, 2010. Curry Brothers Publishing (2006) published the book The Legend of the Dancing Trees, Teachers Resource, written by Kenneth Curry and Gladys Menzies with Robert Curry. Every Time I Feel the Spirit: 101 Best-Loved Psalms, Gospel Hymns, and Other Spiritual Songs, by Gwendolin Sims Warren In Spiritual Songs of the African-American Church, published by Owl Books in 1999, p. 16 it is stated: Three of the songs in this spirituals section, ” Swing Low, Sweet Chariot “, “Go Down, Moses “, and “Steal Away “, are sung in the following ways: Craig Werner’s book, A Change Is Gonna Come: Music, Race, and the Soul of America, is a must-read. According to the University of Michigan Press (2006), p. 7: “Songs like, “Wade in the water,” “Good news, de chariot’s coming,” “Swing low sweet chariot,” and “Steal away” were all supposed to have coded meanings, according to Claude A. Green, Jr.’s OurStory: Putting Color Back Into His-Story: What We Dragged Out of Slavery, Infinity Publishing (2006), p. 47: “Songs like, “Wade in the water,” ” The following is taken from William C. Kashatus’ Just over the Line: Chester County and the Underground Railroad, published by the Chester County Historical Society in 2002, on page 18: ” “According to folklorists, some slaves communicated their intention to escape by singing songs whose lyrics contained hidden messages, such as “Follow the Drinking Gourd.” “Wade in the Water, Children,” says the instructor. “Let’s get together and have some bread.””
  3. Keys to the Rain: The Definitive Bob Dylan Encyclopedia, Billboard Books (2004), p. 665: Oliver Trager, Keys to the Rain: The Definitive Bob Dylan Encyclopedia, Billboard Books (2004), p. 665: “Gospelologists point to the song ” Wade in the Water ” as an example of a song that was written for one reason but was covertly utilized for a different one. Slaves recited it as part of the baptismal rite, but it was also used by Underground RailroadconductorHarriet Tubman (dubbed “a woman name Moses”) to communicate to fugitive slaves fleeing to the North that they should “wade in the water” in order to throw bloodhounds off their scent as they attempted to reach the North.”
  4. Marc Aronson’s article “History That Never Happened” appeared in the April 1, 2007 issue of School Library Journal. James Kelley is the author of this work (April 2008). “Whether via song, tale, or history, African American spirituals are defying claims of a hidden message. “Follow the Drinking Gourd,” the drinking gourd says “. In 2008, The Journal of Popular Culture published 41(2): 262–80 with the doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5931.2008.00502.x
  5. Joel Bresler’s “Follow the Drinking Gourd: A Cultural History” is available online. retrieved on 2008-05-05
  6. See pages 26–27
  7. Marc Aronson’s article “History That Never Happened” appeared in the April 1, 2007 issue of School Library Journal. “There may be an older version of “Follow the Drinkin’ Gourd” that was sung by escaping slaves, and this may be the discovery of some industrious researcher in the future. Our job to young readers, in the meantime, is to pay attention to our own doubts and to be candid skeptics in our own lives. It is up to the next generation of scholars to demonstrate that we were mistaken
  8. Follow the Drinking Gourd” by H.B. Parks (published in Volume VII of the Publications of the Texas Folk-Lore Society) is a spiritual song that James Kelley describes as “a song, a story, or history: resisting claims of a coded message in the African American spiritual “Follow the Drinking Gourd.” ” In addition, there is the constellation known as the Big Dipper, which is utilized for navigational purposes. The North Star will always point you in the right direction. Tubman is said to have utilized the Big Dipper and the North Star as navigational aids. In the words of some authors, Tubman would explain that her father taught her about the Big Dipper so that she would always know where she was on her road to freedom
  9. AbcWilliam C. Kashatus,Just over the Line: Chester County and the Underground Railroad, Chester County Historical Society (2002), p. 18
  10. AbcGwendolin Sims Warren,Ev’ry Time I Feel the Spirit: 101 Best-Loved Psalms, Gospel Hymns, and Spirituals, p. 18
  11. AbcWilliam C. Kashatus,Just over the Line: Chester County and the Underground Railroad, Chester Spiritual Songs of the African-American Church, Owl Books (1999), p. 16
  12. Ab Spiritual Songs of the African-American Church, Owl Books (1999), p. 16
  13. Claude A. Green, Jr., OurStory: Putting Color Back Into His-Story: What We Dragged Out of Slavery, Infinity Publishing (2006), p. 47
  14. Craig Werner, A Change Is Gonna Come: Music, Race, and the Soul of America, Infinity Publishing (2006), p. 47
  15. Claude A. Green, Jr., OurStory: Putting Color Back Into His-Story: What We Dragged Out of Slavery, Infinity Publishing 665
  16. Oliver Trager, Keys to the Rain: The Definitive Bob Dylan Encyclopedia, Billboard Books (2004)
  17. University of Michigan Press (2006), p. 7

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