What was the Underground Railroad and how did it work?
- During the era of slavery, the Underground Railroad was a network of routes, places, and people that helped enslaved people in the American South escape to the North. The name “Underground Railroad” was used metaphorically, not literally. It was not an actual railroad, but it served the same purpose—it transported people long distances.
When did smoking stop on London underground?
In 1985, smoking was banned on underground platforms, but not on those above ground. A few years later in 1987, smoking in stations and on trains was banned for a six-month trial period, and the full ban was finally enacted later that year when the King’s Cross fire killed 31 people on November 18 1987.
Did they use steam trains on London underground?
Steam locomotive, 1866 When the world’s first underground railway opened in London in 1863, the only trains available were steam powered. Coke was used instead of coal as it creates less smoke, and there were ‘blow holes’ at intervals around the railway, but the atmosphere underground was still very unpleasant.
How long did it take to complete the first electric subway line of Europe back in 1896?
It took a little less than two years to build an electric underground railway: the Budapest Metro Line No. 1 system. The first such railway in continental Europe, it began operating in 1896.
Where did the soil from the London underground go?
They dug another hole to put it in. They dug a big hole and buried it. As an aside, the soil from the construction of The Royal Docks was shipped upstream and used to fill in the marshy area where Battersea Park now stands.
When did they ban smoking on planes?
In 1988, airlines based in the United States banned smoking on domestic flights of less than two hours, which was extended to domestic flights of less than six hours in February 1990, and to all domestic and international flights in 2000.
When did they ban smoking on buses?
London Transport Buses: Smoking Ban (Hansard, 13 March 1991 )
How were the first underground trains powered?
Early years The world’s first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, and borrowing trains from other railways to supplement the service.
When did London Underground go electric?
On 18 December 1890, the world’s first electric railway deep underground was opened. It ran from King William Street in the City of London, under the River Thames, to Stockwell.
When did London Underground stop using steam trains?
However, 22 and 23 June 2019 saw the final time a heritage steam train will travel on the Underground in central London — owing to the installation of a new signalling system on the Circle, District, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines.
What city is home to Europe’s oldest subway line?
London and the world’s oldest subways (1863) The underground or tube in London is the oldest transport system of its kind in the world. It opened on 10th January 1863 with steam locomotives. Today, there’s an underground network of 408 kilometres of active lines that will take you anywhere in the city.
What is the oldest underground in the world?
The Metropolitan line is the oldest underground railway in the world. The Metropolitan Railway opened in January 1863 and was an immediate success, though its construction took nearly two years and caused huge disruption in the streets. Read more about the Metropolitan line.
What is the oldest subway system in the world?
The London Underground is the oldest metro system in the world, with services operating from 1890.
Where does the spoil from Crossrail go?
99% of the material has been reused or recycled with half being donated to the RSPB for Wallasea and the remainder used for agricultural land and recreational facilities.
Who dug the London Underground?
Construction of the City and South London Railway (C&SLR) was started in 1886 by James Henry Greathead using a development of Barlow’s shield. Two 10-foot-2-inch (3.10 m) circular tunnels were dug between King William Street (close to today’s Monument station) and Elephant and Castle.
How deep is the London Underground?
The deepest station is Hampstead on the Northern line, which runs down to 58.5 metres. 15. In Central London the deepest station below street level is also the Northern line. It is the DLR concourse at Bank, which is 41.4 metres below.
Trains in the subway system The New York Times, January 11th, 1863 The Metropolitan (underground) Railway was officially opened to the public yesterday, and hundreds of thousands of people were able to satisfy their curiosity about this means of transportation that runs beneath the streets of the capital city. It was necessary to start running the trains from the Paddington (Bishop’s-road) station as early as six o’clock in order to accommodate working people, and there was a large number of people from that class who took advantage, in order to get to and from their places of employment, on the new railway.
From this time on, and throughout the morning, every station became suffocatingly crowded with anxious travellers who were admitted in sections; however, those who ventured to take their tickets at any point below Baker-street had little chance of getting a seat, as the occupants were primarily “long distance,” or terminus, passengers, with only a few notable exceptions.
If the collection of numbers is any indication, King’s cross station, which is unquestionably the most beautiful station on the line, puts even the termini in the shadow, was perhaps the most popular stop for visitors.
Yesterday, the gas burned brightly throughout every journey, and in some cases, the gas was turned on so strongly in the first-class carriages, each of which had two burners, that when the carriages were stationary, newspapers could be read with ease; however, when the carriages were in motion, the draft through the apertures of the lamps created so much flickering that such a feat was extremely difficult.
While the second-class carriages are very tastefully appointed with leathered chairs and are really comfortable, overcrowding is impossible in the first-class trains because of the compartments and arms.
To summarize, on one of the excursions between Portland Road and Baker Street, not only were the passengers immersed in steam, but it is quite unlikely that they were not also subjected to the discomfort of smoke as well.
There had been approximately 25,000 people transported over the line up to six o’clock, and it is heartening to note that, despite the eagerness with which the public crowded into the carriages, even while the trains were in motion, there had been no single accident of any kind reported up to that time.
The First Subway, The Metropolitan Railway, Opens in London : History of Information
On January 10, 1863, the Metropolitan Railway, the world’s first subway system, commenced operations in London’s King’s Cross Station. Smoke from steam engines working through tunnels, on the other hand, created discomfort for passengers and reduced the allure of this means of transportation for many people. In order to address this difficulty in London, there were various suggestions to create pneumatic or cable-hauled trains between 1863 and 1890, but none of them were successful until the system was electrified in the 1890s.” On Saturday, January 10, 1863, the 3.75-mile (6-kilometer) railway was officially opened to the public.
Pancras), and Farringdon Street (now Farringdon), there were stations at Paddington (Bishops Road) (now Paddington), Edgware Road, Baker Street, Portland Road (now Great Portland Street), and Farringdon.” The railway was regarded as a success as it carried 38,000 people on its first day of operation, with GNRtrains supplementing the service.
- The five intermediate stops were to be served in 18 minutes according to the original itinerary.
- during the evening rush hour.
- and 5:40 a.m.
- Soon after the company’s founding, there was a rift between the two firms about the necessity of increasing service frequency, and the GWR withdrew its shares from the market in August 1863 as a result.
- At first, passengers were not deterred by the smoke-filled stations and trains, and ventilation was subsequently improved by creating an aperture in the tunnel between King’s Cross and Gower Street and removing windows from the station roofs.
- This resulted in a Board of Trade report in 1897, which said that a pharmacist was treating persons who were in discomfort after traveling on the railway with his ‘Metropolitan Mixture,’ which he had developed.
More openings were proposed in the study, but the line was electrified before any of these were constructed” (Wikipedia article on Metropolitan Railway, accessed 01-07-2013).
A history of the London Underground – CBBC Newsround
- It first opened its doors on January 9, 1843.
- One hundred and fifty thousand individuals passed through the tunnel on its first day of operation.
- The world’s first subterranean train system was built in London.
- The Metropolitan Train Company opened the world’s first subterranean railway system on January 10, 1863.
- A large number of additional lines would be added to the Underground train network over time, although the most of it was constructed within the next 50 years.
- The first steam train to pass through the Thames Tunnel.
- Eventually, enough money had been generated by visitors visiting the tunnel to allow it to be expanded to accommodate the transportation of freight under the river.
In addition, because the tunnel was built beneath a river, there were no ventilation shafts to allow smoke to exit the tunnel, which resulted in a significant buildup of smoke within the tunnel, which was not pleasant for the train drivers who had to operate in it.
The world’s first electric train runs far below for the first time.
Discover how a remarkable contraption enabled construction workers to tunnel beneath London.
It ran from King William Street in the City of London, beneath the River Thames, and into Stockwell, where it was decommissioned in 2011.
As a result of the use of electric trains, tunnels could be built far deeper below and even ride on top of one another.
There are 29 stations in total, each of which is shared with another Tube line.
The year 1908 marked the beginning of the widespread adoption of the iconic circle logo.
For the first time, the term “Underground” appeared in a station, and the world’s first electric ticket machine was also installed.
Technological breakthroughs would have a profound impact on the Underground in the years to come.
Where did the map of the Tube come from?
The colorful map showing all of the lines on the Tube is one of the most well-known visuals linked with the system.
As opposed to sketching the Tube lines exactly where they were geographically located, he based his design on an electrical circuit diagram.
They were an instant hit, and additional maps had to be bought within a month of their release!
According to legend, the Bakerloo line was established as a result of businessmen’s complaints that they couldn’t get to and from Lord’s Cricket Ground fast enough!
This photograph depicts Londoners taking cover on a platform at Bounds Green tube station on October 6, 1940, as well as what the station looks like now.
Many people spent many nights sleeping on platforms in order to avoid the bombs that were raining on London from the sky above.
Today’s tube system Photographs courtesy of Getty Images Hundreds of tube trains are now in service across London’s subterranean network.
In 2007, the world’s oldest subterranean railway network celebrated the achievement of transporting one billion people in a single year for the first time.
In order to create the first new line of the London Subterranean in over 50 years, a massive project known as Crossrail – Europe’s largest underground construction project – is now underway. The Underground network now comprises 270 stations and 11 lines, which is an increase over the previous year.
First Day of the London Tube
When the Metropolitan Train Company began construction on a tunnel more than three miles long from Paddington Station to Farringdon Street in 1860, it was considered the world’s first subterranean railway system. It was partly sponsored by the City of London, which was suffering from severe horse-drawn traffic congestion, which was having a negative impact on the city’s commercial environment at the time. Originally conceived by the City solicitor, Charles Pearson, who had been advocating for the construction of a subway system for some years.
Sadly, he passed away in 1862, only a few months before his vision came to fruition.
Among those who worked on the project was John Fowler, who went on to become the top railway engineer of his day and to design the Forth Bridge in Scotland.
A deep trench was constructed using the ‘cut and cover’ method along what are now the Marylebone Road and the Euston Road, turning south-east beside Farringdon Road, and then turning north-east again.
On the way to Farringdon, which was built on the former site of the City cattle market and was not entirely inappropriately constructed as things turned out, stations lit by gas were built at Paddington, Edgware Road, Baker Street, Great Portland Street, Euston Road, and King’s Cross on the way to Paddington.
Gladstone, who was Chancellor of the Exchequer at the time, and his wife Catherine were among the passengers.
There was a snag when the nasty Fleet Ditch sewage backed up and inundated the Farringdon Road construction, but it was resolved and the line’s completion was celebrated on January 9th, 1863, at a meeting of railway executives, Members of Parliament, and City grandees, including the lord mayor.
- Starting at Paddington, around 600 people were transported in two trains up the route to Farringdon Street station, where a dinner was served, speeches were delivered, and appropriate tributes were given to Charles Pearson’s memory were paid.
- On the next day, a Saturday, the line was made available to the general public, and a large number of individuals came to try it out.
- The subterranean had been ridiculed in the music halls and was jokingly referred to as ‘the Drain’ (the Drain).
- However, the railway was an enormous success, and The Times described it as “the greatest engineering marvel of the twentieth century”.
- The fact that passengers were initially prohibited from smoking in the carriages did little to alleviate the situation.
- Other lines were quickly added to the expanding network, deeper underground tunnels were constructed, and the steam trains were eventually phased out in favor of electric trains.
- It was the first railway line to be referred to as ‘the tube,’ and the windowless cars with their richly upholstered interiors were known as ‘padded cages’ among the public.
A more long-lasting consequence was that commuting became significantly simpler, causing London to spread out even more from its center, while the number of people actually residing in the City of London fell drastically in response.
Mind the Gap! The Underground Railway
Martin 220 explains that while the automatic “Mind The Gap” warning on London’s Tube goes back to the late 1960s, the subterranean rails themselves were invented in the nineteenth century. Eric Hobsbawn informs us that our overground railway network was fully developed as early as 1850, according to Hobsbawn: The development of about six thousand miles of railway in the United Kingdom between 1820 and 1850 was mostly the product of two unusual bursts of focused investment followed by construction, the minor “railway craze” of 1837-7 and the giant “railway mania” of 1844-7.
- The large rail terminals were distributed across the city of Washington.
- As it is today, the Victorians were concerned about the congestion on the highways at the same time we are concerned about it today.
- Charles Pearson (1793-1862), the City of London’s lawyer, was equally concerned about the well-being of Londoners themselves: “A destitute man is bound to the ground.
- in Martin 22).
- The railway would go through a broad, covered-over cutting, according to his plans.
- Additionally, it would connect Farringdon with new estates of cottages for craftsmen and clerks, which he believes should be erected 6 miles north of London and would be accessible at low ticket costs.
- This occurred in connection with the relocation of the livestock market from Smithfield (the one to which the cattle had been transported past the china shops of Oxford Street) to the more open and uncluttered Islington area.
- He proposed “a railway going down the Fleet valley to Farringdon that would be shielded by a glass envelope,” which would be powered by “atmospheric electricity so that smoke from steam engines would not cloud the glass” (Walmer 8).
It was a really groundbreaking endeavor, the first of its type in the history of the human race.
Down and Under, Up and Over
Martin 220 notes that, while the automated “Mind The Gap” message on London’s Tube goes back to the late 1960s, the subterranean rails themselves are a Victorian idea. We should remember that our overground railway system was fully developed as early as 1850, according to Eric Hobsbawn. The development of about six thousand miles of railway in the United Kingdom between 1820 and 1850 was mostly the product of two unusual bursts of focused investment followed by construction, the minor “railway craze” of 1837-7 and the giant “railway mania” of 1844-5.
- The major rail terminals were distributed across the city of Washington.
- Congestion on the roadways was a source of anxiety for the Victorians, just as it is now.
- Charles Pearson (1793-1862), the City of London’s lawyer, was particularly concerned about the well-being of the city’s inhabitants: “A destitute man is bound to the location where he stands.
- in Martin 22).
- The railway would go through a large, covered-over cutting, according to his plans.
- Furthermore, it would link Farringdon with new estates of cottages for craftsmen and clerks, which he believes should be erected 6 miles north of London and would be accessible at low ticket costs.
- This occurred in connection with the relocation of the livestock market from Smithfield (the one to which the cattle had been transported past the china shops of Oxford Street) to the more open and uncluttered Islington area of London.
In order to make it easier for travelers to reach their destinations within the metropolis, he proposed “a railway running down the Fleet valley to Farringdon that would be protected by a glass envelope,” which would be powered by “atmospheric power” so that smoke from steam engines would not obscure the glass (Walmer 8).
That it was the first of its sort anywhere in the world was truly groundbreaking.
The Opening of the Metropolitan Line
Before it was officially opened, the Metropolitan Railway in London may be seen on the left. Chancellor of the Exchequer Gladstone himself is shown to the right of the man with a white hat in this image taken in 1862. “The Guide to the Metropolitan Railway,” as shown on the right. Fun(1866). On January 10, 1863, the very first day that the Metropolitan Railway was available to the public, around 30,000 people took use of the new mode of transportation (Wolmar 41). Considering that one contemporaneous report estimated the number of passengers to be around 25,000 by 6 p.m., this appears to be a reasonable estimate; however, the London Transport Museum reports even higher figures: “nearly 4000 passengers were transported between Paddington and Farringdon, with the journey taking approximately 18 minutes” (“Public Transport”).
- The novel introduction of gas into the carriages is intended to dispel any uneasy feelings that passengers, particularly ladies, might have about riding for such an extended period of time through a tunnel.
- Although (according to the same source) second-class passengers sat in “leathered” chairs and first-class people sat in armrests, the remainder of the passengers were less comfortable.
- Smoking was initially outlawed on subterranean trains, but due to public demand, provisions were established to allow for it.
- (Martin 40).
- In fact, as an American writer R.
Blumenthal discovered when he took the tube from New York to London’s Moorgate Street: “The compartment in which I sat was filled with passengers who were smoking pipes, as is the British custom, and because the smoke and sulphur from the engine had filled the tunnel, all the windows had to be shut.” The air was thick with sulphur, coal dust, and vile fumes from the oil light above, and by the time we reached Moorgate Street, I was close to death from asphyxiation and heat exhaustion.
I believe that these Underground railways should be phased out as soon as possible since they are a danger to public health.
Whatever the air quality and other inconveniences, Pearson had been correct: people took advantage of the new means of transportation since it was far more convenient and quicker than trudging into town via muddy or dusty streets, and waiting in a tangle of horse-drawn carriages on the roadways.
Since its inception in 1866, it has been recognized as fulfilling two separate functions, for business and pleasure: “As a general rule, business travels eastward with the sun to its headquarters in the city.
Up to the Present
James Henry Greathead, whose life was honoured in a bronze statue by James Butler, RA, which was unveiled in Cornhill in 1994. (b. 1931). Workers laboring underground within a traveling shield at the top of the image. “Construction of the Central Line,” according to the source. With such a high level of demand, the system was destined to expand. However, it could only do this by crisscrossing the metropolis beneath its buildings and going beneath the Thames. The engineer, James Greathead (1844-1896), was responsible for making this feasible.
- A more experienced elder man, Peter Barlow (1809-1885; brother of William Henry Barlow), provided him with training and he eventually became his assistant, putting keen steel cutting blades to Barlow’s massive cylindrical Travelling Shield.
- The long-awaited “tube” had finally come.
- Some early guests were naturally apprehensive about traveling beneath the surface of the ocean.
- The South Kensington Tube Station, which initially opened its doors in 1868, however this particular entry “only” opened its doors in 1907.
- Trains on this level are smaller than those on the cut-and-cover lines in order to fit into the narrower tunnels on this level of the system.
- Six years later, the City and Southwark line, then known as the City and Southern line, and eventually a portion of the Northern line, became the world’s first underground electric railway when it was opened as part of the Northern line.
- Other major cities began to follow in London’s footsteps.
- The Glasgow Subway was finished 10 years later, in the same year as Budapest’s Line 1 was built as well.
- The construction of the New York Metro began in 1904.
- Meanwhile, London’s own network continued to expand, particularly under the direction of Frank Pick (1878-1941), whose flare for design resulted in the creation of the iconic tube roundel.
Harry Beck, an engineering draughtsman, designed the world-famous tube map in 1932, which features unique colors for each line and is still in use today (1902-1974). It was necessary to install the Victoria and Jubilee lines later on.
The London Tube in Context
On the left is a bronze statue by James Butler, RA, in Cornhill, which honors James Henry Greathead, who was just recently remembered (b. 1931). Workers working underground within a traveling shield at the top of the image. Right: The Central Line is being built, according to the source. With such a high level of demand, it was inevitable that the system would expand. Only by crisscrossing the city beneath its buildings and traveling beneath the Thames could it accomplish this feat. Greathead was the engineer who made this feasible, and he lived from 1844 to 1896.
Moving forward below ground under pressure, this forced its way through the London clay, with a small team of workmen inside removing the loosened clay and fitting new sections of tunnel into place one after the other: “This sped up the tunnelling and served as the foundation for future shield technology” (Halliday 47).
- Some guests were apprehensive about traveling under water, which is understandable.
- This entrance to the South Kensington Tube Station, which originally opened its doors in 1868 but only became operational in 1907, was the first to be built.
- Trains on this level are smaller than those on the cut-and-cover lines in order to fit into the narrower tunnels on this level of the network.
- After that, the City and Southwark line, first known as the City and Southern line, eventually a portion of the Northern line, became the world’s first underground electric railway, marking a significant milestone in the history of transportation in London.
- Many other major cities followed in the footsteps of the British capital.
- After a ten-year wait, the Glasgow Subway opened in the same year as Hungary’s Line 1 was finished.
- Beginning in 1904, construction on the New York City subway system began.
- London’s own network, meanwhile, continued to expand, particularly under the direction of Frank Pick (1878-1941), whose flare for design resulted in the iconic tube roundel we know today.
It was Harry Beck, an engineering draughtsman, who designed the world-famous tube map in 1932, with its different colors for each line (1902-1974). It was necessary to install the Victoria and Jubilee lines later.
“Greathead, J. H. (1844-1896),” by Ronald M. Birse, revised by Ronald M. Birse. One of the most comprehensive biographies available online is the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, which was published online on August 1, 2016. “The Central Line of the London Underground is currently under construction.” The British Library, accessed August 1, 2016. The photograph has been labeled “Public domain.”) “The Metropolitan Railway: A Guide to the System.” The 15th of September, 1866, was a good time.
- Stephen Halliday is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom.
- Breedon Books published the book in Derby in 2003.
- Industrialization and Empire: The Origins of the Industrial Revolution, 2nd edition The New Press published a book in 1999 titled Andrew Martin is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom.
- Mark Mason is the author of this work.
- Random House Publishing Limited, London, 2013.
- “Pearson, Charles (1793–1862), lawyer and urban reformer,” by Michael Robbins, is available online.
- Smith, P.
- Bloomsbury Publishing Company, London, 2012.
- (includes brilliant audio-visual material on the construction and opening of the Metropolitan Line).
- Underground Railway: The Construction and Evolution of the London Underground, and How It Transformed the City for the Better.
- Created on the 1st of August, 2016.
Read on to learn more about the fascinating and diverse history of the lines that run through our public transportation system. The history of the London Subterranean can be traced back to 1863, when the Metropolitan Railway, the world’s first underground railway, opened between Paddington and Farringdon, stopping at six intermediate stops along the route. Hundreds of stations and 11 lines have been added since then, allowing the Underground network, popularly known as the Tube by generations of Londoners, to reach all the way out to the capital’s suburbs and far afield.
Explore the fascinating and diverse history of the lines that run through our public transportation system. When the Metropolitan Railway, the world’s first underground railway, was built between Paddington and Farringdon in 1863, it served six intermediate stations between the two major cities of London. Hundreds of stations and 11 lines have been added since then, allowing the Underground network, popularly known as the Tube by generations of Londoners, to reach as far as the capital’s suburbs and even beyond.
London’s rise to become the world’s foremost metropolis during the nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first centuries would not have been feasible if it had not been for the Underground’s ability to transport people.
It wasn’t until 1968 that the Victoria line, the first new route through central London in more over 60 years, was inaugurated, and it wasn’t until 1979 that the Jubilee line was completed. The extension of the Jubilee line to London’s Docklands, completed in 1999, has aided in the redevelopment and expansion of the Canary Wharf commercial district in the capital. The London Underground became a completely owned subsidiary of Transport for London (TfL) in 2003. Renovating hundreds of stations and upgrading lines to provide faster, more frequent, and more reliable service have all been part of our comprehensive plan to improve the Tube, which has included installing step-free access at numerous locations and completely rebuilding some central London stations that have become too small to accommodate the large number of people who pass through the station every day.
The additional capacity that these enhancements will provide is desperately required.
According to legend, the Bakerloo line was established when a group of businessmen expressed dissatisfaction with the time it took them to and from Lord’s Cricket Ground to see a match. The instantaneous success of the line, on the other hand, demonstrated that they were not the only ones who required the service. The railway station welcomed more than 36,000 people when it opened on March 10, 1906, despite the fact that the cricket season had not yet begun. As being known for a while as the Baker Street and Waterloo Railway (a nickname invented by The Evening News), the Bakerloop moniker remained, and the name was formally adopted in July 1906 after the railway was renamed.
Key Bakerloo line dates
- The ElephantCastle station opens its doors in 1906. 1915 – The Baker Street line is extended to Queen’s Park, completing the extension. A section of the Metropolitan railway, the Stanmore branch, is taken over by the Bakerloo line in 1939. 1979 – The Jubilee line is inaugurated, while the Stanmore branch of the Bakerloo line is decommissioned after 40 years of service. 1982 – The four peak-hour trains between Queen’s Park and Watford Junction are discontinued. In 1989, the services between Queen’s Park and HarrowWealdstone were re-established.
ElephantCastle station opens its doors in 1906. Queen’s Park is reached once the line is expanded from Baker Street. The Stanmore branch of the Metropolitan line is taken over by the Bakerloo line in 1939. After 40 years, the Stanmore branch of the Bakerloo line is decommissioned and replaced by the Jubilee line. 1982 – The four peak-period trains between Queen’s Park and Watford Junction are no longer operated. resumption of service between Queen’s Park and HarrowWealdstone in 1989
Key Central line dates
- The Central London Railway is inaugurated in 1900. To assist with the White City Exhibition, the line is extended west to Wood Lane. In 1912, the line is extended east from Bank to Liverpool Street. 1920 – The line is extended to the west to Ealing Broadway. 1945 – Following World War II, additional lines next to the main line railway are put into service. They go from North Acton to West Ruislip and contain new tunnels from Liverpool Street to Leyton
- They also run from North Acton to West Ruislip. In 1994, the shuttle service between Epping and Ongar is terminated due to a decrease in passenger numbers.
However, despite the fact that the first circular service began in 1884, the Circle line as we know it did not actually begin operating until the 1930s. Despite the fact that the moniker “Circle line” initially appeared on a billboard in 1936, it took another 13 years for it to be designated as a distinct line on the Tube map. The lines used by the Circle line were operated by the Metropolitan Railway and the District Railway, two corporations that couldn’t come to an agreement on how to run the route together.
The Circle line between Hammersmith and Edgware Road, via Aldgate, was closed in December 2009 and replaced with an end-to-end service between Hammersmith and Edgware Road.
Key Circle line dates
- However, despite the fact that the first round service began in 1884, the Circle line as we know it did not truly begin until the 1930s. The moniker ‘Circle line’ initially appeared on a billboard in 1936, but it took another 13 years before it was designated as a distinct line on the London Underground map. Two railroad firms competed to operate the Circle line’s track system, and they were unable to reach an agreement on how the line should be operated. District Railway ran the trains in a clockwise direction, whereas Metropolitan Railway ran them in a counter clockwise direction originally because of their disparities. The Circle line between Hammersmith and Edgware Road, via Aldgate, was decommissioned in December 2009 and replaced with an end-to-end service between the two stations.
The District line, which runs between South Kensington and Westminster, initially opened its doors on Christmas Eve 1868. Following then, it expanded both east and west, reaching as far as Windsor in the process. The route was expanded from Ealing Broadway to Windsor in 1883, and it has operated services as far south as Southend at various times during its history. Uxbridge and Hounslow were previously served by the District line until being relocated to the Piccadilly line in 1933 and 1964, respectively.
Key District line dates
- 1868 – The construction of the first segment of what is now known as the District line begins. From South Kensington to Westminster, it travels the whole length of the city. A new railway line is built between Gloucester Road and West Brompton in 1869. It is extended to Hammersmith in 1874, Richmond in 1877, and Ealing Broadway in 1879
- Then it is terminated in 1885 after just two years of service between Ealing and Windsor. Mark Lane (now Tower Hill) is reached by the railroad by the year 1884. It is extended to Uxbridge in 1910, after an earlier expansion to Hounslow (which was completed in 1884).
The Hammersmith and City Railway, which opened on June 13, 1864, was intended to serve as a feeder to the Metropolitan line, with the extension going through fields on the outskirts of suburban areas to Hammersmith. It wasn’t until 1988, however, that the line was granted independence and became known as the HammersmithCity line in and of itself. When it was opened, the two-mile-long railway was served by only two stations: Notting Hill (now Ladbroke Grove) and Shepherd’s Bush, which were jointly operated by the Great Western Railway (GWR) and the Metropolitan Railway (MR).
There are 29 stations in all, each of which is shared with another tube line.
Key HammersmithCity line dates
- The Hammersmith and City Railway, which opened on June 13, 1864, was intended to serve as a feeder to the Metropolitan line, with the extension going through fields on the outskirts of suburbia to Hammersmith. In 1988, however, the line was granted independence and became known as the HammersmithCity line in and of itself. When it was opened, the only stations on the two-mile-long railway were Notting Hill (now Ladbroke Grove) and Shepherd’s Bush, which were jointly operated by the Great Western Railway (GWR) and the Metropolitan Railway (MR). Several distinctive stations on the HammersmithCity line have been lost when the Circle line began operating trains on its ‘loop’ in 2009. There are 29 stations in all, each of which is shared with another tube line (see map).
Although a handful of Jubilee line stations are among the most recent additions to the Underground system, the line also serves several stations that were built more than a century ago. A new tunnel network connecting central London was officially inaugurated on May 1, 1979, with the Jubilee line being the first (stretching for 4 kilometres between Baker Street and Charing Cross with the former Bakerloo line branch north of Baker Street to Stanmore). It had previously been a part of the Metropolitan Railway, until being transferred to the Bakerloo line in 1939, when a new length of twin tube tunnels between Baker Street and Finchley Road (which included stations at St John’s Wood and Swiss Cottage) was also completed and inaugurated.
The £3.5 billion Jubilee line extension project began in 1993 with the breaking ground of a new station.
The expansion from Green Park to Stratford was completed in three parts between 1999 and 2000.
Since its completion, the Jubilee line extension has aided and contributed to the enormous expansion of London’s Docklands as a center for commercial, residential, and recreational activities, as well as the development of the surrounding area.
The Metropolitan Train, which ran between Paddington and Farringdon and was completed in 1863, was the world’s first urban subterranean railway system. The construction of an extension from Baker Street to Swiss Cottage in 1868, however, effectively ended this claim to renown. Metropolitan Railway recognized a marketing opportunity with the growth of suburban areas in the north west of London, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, and Middlesex (dubbed ‘Metroland’) in the twentieth century: by promoting dream homes in the countryside, they could also highlight their own fast, rail services to get people there.
Metroland was immortalized in a 1973 BBC television program, which was narrated by Sir John Betjeman, who was then Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom.
Key Metropolitan line dates
- The railway between Paddington and Farringdon is inaugurated in 1863. Baker Street to Swiss Cottage is connected by a railway line built in 1868. Aylesbury is reached by line expansions in 1892. The Uxbridge branch opens its doors in 1904. 1905 – The first electric trains arrive, and they are progressively spread along the entire route, with the exception of the section beyond Rickmansworth. The Watford branch opens its doors in 1925. The Bakerloo line is extended to Stanmore in 1932, but this branch is absorbed into the Bakerloo line in 1939. 1961 – The electrification of the route between Rickmansworth and Amersham and Chesham brings the end of the steam trains running north of Rickmansworth. British Rail (now Chiltern Railways) assumes responsibility for services beyond of Amersham. New electric trains are launched in 2012, marking the first time on the Underground that air conditioning and full-length, walk-through interiors have been provided.
In 1937, the Northern line was formed by merging two independent railways: the City and South London Railway, and the Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway. It grew a bit during World War II, although the war halted the pace of construction. Northern Heights proposals, which included extensions to Mill Hill, Brockley Hill, Elstree, and Bushey Heath (known as the Northern Heights plan), were hampered by post-war constraints and were never implemented. In 1954, the ideas for this project were eventually scrapped.
Key Northern line dates
- The CitySouth London Railway, which runs from King William Street (near Bank) to Stockwell, is established in 1890
- The Charing Cross, Euston, and Hampstead Railway (also known as the Hampstead Railway) is established in 1907. In addition to a branch that goes from Camden Town to Highgate, it connects the Strand (Charing Cross) to Golders Green. The Hampstead Railway is extended to Edgware in 1921. The City and South London Railway establishes a connection with the Hampstead Railway in Camden Town in 1922. The City and South London/Hampstead Railway is extended southwards to Morden and Kennington in 1926. The City and South London/Hampstead Railway is renamed the Northern line in 1933. From 1939 until 1941 The new Northern line connects Archway and East Finchley, as well as High Barnet and Mill Hill East
- It was opened in December. First Capital Connect (now known as British Rail) takes over the tunneled link between Finsbury Park and Moorgate, which runs through Essex Road.
The Piccadilly line, formerly known as the Great Northern, PiccadillyBrompton Railway, was built between Finsbury Park and Hammersmith and inaugurated on December 15, 1906. The route remained mostly unchanged until the 1930s, when it underwent a fast expansion that resulted in the addition of stations that are now considered great examples of period design. Arnos Grove, Southgate, and Sudbury Town, to name a few examples, are all designated historic sites. With the development of Heathrow Airport, which saw the opening of Heathrow Terminals 1-5 between 1977 and 2008, there has also been a need for expansion.
Key Piccadilly line dates
- 1906 – The line opens between Finsbury Park and Hammersmith
- The opening of a branch line from Holborn to Aldwych in 1907
- During the years 1932 to 1933, the line was extended to South Harrow, Arnos Grove, Hounslow West, Uxbridge, and Cockfosters. Heathrow Terminals 1, 2, and 3 are inaugurated in 1977. With the advent of Terminal 4, the Heathrow service is transformed into a closed loop. 1994 – The Piccadilly line’s Aldwych branch is closed due to a lack of passengers and excessive operating expenses. Heathrow Terminal 5 opens its doors in 2008
The Victoria line was built at the end of the 1960s with the primary goal of connecting four main line terminals: Euston, St. Pancras, King’s Cross, and Victoria. However, the line’s beginnings date back to 1943 and its construction began in 1963. The County of London Plan, which laid out future plans for the Victoria line, was published in 1939, but World War II and post-war restrictions forced the plans to be shelved for another decade. Parliamentary authority to construct the line was granted in 1955, but due to finance issues, real building work did not begin until 1962.
The Victoria line, which was built in phases between 1968 and 1971, connected parts of north and south London that had previously been without an Underground station to the rest of the city.
With such technology, the train doors might be closed and the train would drive itself to the next stop, guided by coded impulses delivered through the track, all at the push of a button. In 2012, the original 1968 line had a comprehensive renovation and modernization.
In 1898, the WaterlooCity line (also known as the ‘Drain’) was completed, becoming London’s second deep-level Tube railway system. When it was first proposed, it was supported by the London and South Western Railway company, whose trains terminated at Waterloo station. The fact that it would provide commuters with a direct train link to and from the City of London was a major selling point for the new route. From 1940 until 1994, wooden-built trains ran on the route, but they were later replaced by specially constructed, Tube-sized cars that were based on the technology of the Southern Railway’s trains; however, these cars were also finally replaced in 1994.
The Forgotten Hero of the American Subway
The Underground Racist Movement|Article
The Forgotten Hero of the American Subway
The Underground Race|Article about the Race Underground