The Underground Railroad was a secret system developed to aid fugitive slaves on their escape to freedom. Involvement with the Underground Railroad was not only dangerous, but it was also illegal. So, to help protect themselves and their mission secret codes were created.
How did slaves earn freedom?
1. Opportunities for most enslaved African Americans to attain freedom were few to none. Some were freed by their owners to honor a pledge, to grant a reward, or, before the 1700s, to fulfill a servitude agreement.
How did the railroad affect slavery?
Railroads bought and sold slaves with contracts and elaborate, printed bills of sale. They recorded these events in balance sheets and company account books. Railroads also developed forms for contracts to hire enslaved labor from slaveholders.
How did runaway slaves rely on the help of abolitionists to escape to freedom?
Underground Railroad “Stations ” Develop in Iowa In the 1840s and 1850s, abolitionists (those who wanted to abolish slavery) developed a system of “stations” that could move runaways toward the Mississippi River to Illinois on their way to freedom. They were also active in the Underground Railroad in the state.
How many slaves earned their freedom?
The North’s victory in the Civil War produced a social revolution in the South. Four million slaves were freed and a quarter million southern whites had died, one fifth of the male population. $2.5 billion worth of property had been lost. Slave emancipation did not come in a single moment.
How successful was the Underground Railroad?
Ironically the Fugitive Slave Act increased Northern opposition to slavery and helped hasten the Civil War. The Underground Railroad gave freedom to thousands of enslaved women and men and hope to tens of thousands more. In both cases the success of the Underground Railroad hastened the destruction of slavery.
What role did the Underground Railroad play?
The Underground Railroad provided hiding places, food, and often transportation for the fugitives who were trying to escape slavery. Along the way, people also provided directions for the safest way to get further north on the dangerous journey to freedom.
How did the Underground Railroad affect the Civil War?
The Underground Railroad physically resisted the repressive laws that held slaves in bondage. By provoking fear and anger in the South, and prompting the enactment of harsh legislation that eroded the rights of white Americans, the Underground Railroad was a direct contributing cause of the Civil War.
How did the Underground Railroad help enslaved African Americans?
How did the Underground Railroad help enslaved African Americans? It provided a network of escape routes toward the North. In his pamphlet Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, on what did David Walker base his arguments against slavery? They feared that the abolition of slavery would destroy their economy.
How many slaves did the Underground Railroad free?
According to some estimates, between 1810 and 1850, the Underground Railroad helped to guide one hundred thousand enslaved people to freedom.
What methods did slaves use to escape?
Freedom seekers used several means to escape slavery. Most often they traveled by land on foot, horse, or wagon under the protection of darkness. Drivers concealed self-liberators in false compartments built into their wagons, or hid them under loads of produce. Sometimes, fleeing slaves traveled by train.
The Underground Railroad – Lincoln Home National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)
When we talk about the Underground Railroad, we’re talking about the attempts of enslaved African Americans to earn their freedom by escaping bondage, which took place from the beginning of the Civil War to the end of the war. In every country where slavery existed, there was a concerted attempt to flee, first to maroon communities in remote locations far from settlements, then across state and international borders. Runaways were considered “fugitives” under the rules of the period because of their acts of self-emancipation, albeit in retrospect, the term “freedom seeker” appears to be a more fair description.
It’s possible that the choice to aid a freedom seeking was taken on the spur of the moment.
Freedom seekers traveled in a variety of directions, including Canada, Mexico, the United States West, the Caribbean islands, and Europe.
The Fugitive Slave Acts
Until the end of the Civil War, enslavement in the United States was considered lawful and acceptable. In contrast to the rhetoric of the Revolutionary War era about freedom, the new United States constitution safeguarded the rights of individuals to possess and enslave other people, including women. The Fugitive Slave Law of 1793 further reinforced these slaveholding rights, allowing for the return to captivity of any African American who was accused or simply suspected of being a freedom seeker under certain circumstances.
It was a $500 punishment for anybody who supported a liberator or just interfered with an arrest, a clear recognition of the significance and lasting influence on American society of the Underground Railroad phenomenon decades before it was given its official name.
Individuals in the North were brought face to face with the immoral issue by the spectacle of African Americans being reenslaved at the least provocation and the selling of abducted free African Americans to the South for slavery.
Those who aided freedom seekers in their attempts to flee were considered members of the Underground Railroad. “Buy us too,” says H.L. Stephens in his parting words. The Library of Congress is a federal government institution that collects and organizes information.
Motivation of Freedom Seekers
Time period, geographic location, kind of agriculture or industry, size of the slaveholding unit, urban vs rural environment, and even the temperament and financial stability of the enslaver all influenced the degree to which people were enslaved. All of these experiences have one thing in common: the dehumanization of both the victim and the oppressor as a result of the demands of a system that treats human beings as property rather than as individuals. This element, probably more than any other, helps to explain why some people opted to escape and why their owners were frequently taken aback by their actions.
Many people were able to flee because they had access to knowledge and abilities, including reading, which gave them an advantage.
The slaves rebelled despite the fact that the slavery system was intended to train them to accept it.
Geography of the Underground Railroad
Wherever there were enslaved African Americans, there were those who were desperate to get away. Slavery existed in all of the original thirteen colonies, as well as in Spanish California, Louisiana, and Florida, as well as in all of the Caribbean islands, until the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) and the British abolition of slavery brought an end to slavery in the United States (1834). The Underground Railroad had its beginnings at the site of enslavement in the United States. The routes followed natural and man-made forms of movement, including rivers, canals, bays, the Atlantic Coast, ferries and river crossings, as well as roads and trails and other infrastructure.
Freedom seekers used their inventiveness to devise disguises, forgeries, and other techniques, drawing on their courage and brains in the process.
Commemoration of Underground Railroad History
Commemoration may only take place if local Underground Railroad figures and events have been discovered and documented. Primary materials, such as letters from the time period, court testimony, or newspaper articles, are used to verify the historical record. Education and preservation of the public are the following steps, which will be accomplished through the preservation of major locations, the use of authentic history in heritage tourism and educational programs, museum and touring exhibits, and commemorative sculpture.
Whenever a site has been paved over, changed, or reconstructed, a pamphlet, walking tour, school curriculum, road marker, or plaque might be used to educate the public about the significance of the location.
A local festival might be organized to bring the history of the area to the attention of the general public.
Uncovering Underground Railroad History
Once local Underground Railroad figures and events are discovered, a commemorative ceremony may be planned for them. Primary sources, such as letters from the time period, court testimony, or newspaper articles, are used to verify the historical information in the text. Education and preservation of the public are the following steps, which will be accomplished through the preservation of major locations, the use of authentic history in heritage tourism and educational programs, museum and touring exhibits, and memorial sculpture.
Whenever a site has been paved over, changed, or reconstructed, a pamphlet, walking tour, school curriculum, road marker, or plaque might be used to educate the public about the significance of the place.
Unknown Underground Railroad Heroes
Abolitionist Harriet Tubman, known as the “Moses of her people,” and Frederick Douglass, a freedom seeker who rose to become the greatest African American leader of his time, are two of the most well-known figures linked with the Underground Railroad. Both were from the state of Maryland. Those seeking freedom, on the other hand, came from every part of the world where slavery was legalized, even the northern colonies. Harriet Jacobs arrived from North Carolina, where she had spent the previous seven years hidden in her grandmother’s attic.
- Louis and journeyed 700 miles until she reached Canada, where she sought sanctuary.
- Lewis Hayden, his wife, and their kid were able to flee from slavery in Kentucky to freedom in Ohio thanks to the assistance of Delia Webster and Calvin Fairbanks.
- Mary Ellen Pleasant, a black businesswoman from San Francisco, took in a fugitive named Archy Lee and hosted him in her house, setting the stage for an important state court case.
- Coffin and Rankin are two white clergymen from the Midwest who aided freedom seekers in their efforts to gain their independence.
- Residents of Wellington and Oberlin, Ohio, both black and white, stood up to slave hunters and refused to allow them to return John Price to his servitude in the state of Kentucky.
- Charles Torrey, Leonard Grimes, and Jacob Bigelow were among the members of a multiracial network in Washington, D.C., who worked for years to assist individuals like as Ann Marie Weems, the Edmondson sisters, and Garland White in their quest for freedom.
William and Ellen Craft managed to flee over one thousand miles from Georgia to Boston by putting on a convincing disguise.
National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom
Abolitionist Harriet Tubman, known as the “Moses of her people,” and Frederick Douglass, a freedom seeker who rose to become the greatest African American leader of his time, are two of the most well-known figures connected with the Underground Railroad. Maryland was the state of origin for both of these men. Those seeking freedom, on the other hand, came from every part of the world where slavery was legal, even the northern colonies. Having spent the previous seven years hidden in the attic of her grandmother’s house in North Carolina, Harriet Jacobs arrived in New York.
- Louis, abandoned her life and walked 700 miles until she reached Canada, where she sought sanctuary.
- A group of people led by Delia Webster and Calvin Fairbanks helped Lewis Hayden and his family escape from slavery in Kentucky and make it to Ohio.
- Mary Ellen Pleasant, a black businesswoman from San Francisco, took in a runaway named Archy Lee and hosted him in her house, resulting in a significant state court victory.
- Coffin and Rankin are two white clergymen from the Midwest who aided freedom seekers in their efforts to gain independence from the United States.
- Black and white residents in Ohio’s Wellington and Oberlin refused to allow slave hunters to transport John Price back to Kentucky, where he would be sold into slavery.
- Charles Torrey, Leonard Grimes, and Jacob Bigelow were all part of a multiracial network in Washington, D.C., that worked for years to assist persons like Ann Marie Weems, the Edmondson sisters, and Garland White in their quest for freedom.
6 Strategies Harriet Tubman and Others Used to Escape Along the Underground Railroad
Despite the horrors of slavery, the decision to run was not an easy one. Sometimes escaping meant leaving behind family and embarking on an adventure into the unknown, where harsh weather and a shortage of food may be on the horizon. Then there was the continual fear of being apprehended. On both sides of the Mason-Dixon line, so-called slave catchers and their hounds were on the prowl, apprehending runaways — and occasionally free Black individuals likeSolomon Northup — and taking them back to the plantation where they would be flogged, tortured, branded, or murdered.
In total, close to 100,000 Black individuals were able to flee slavery in the decades leading up to the Civil War. Some fled to Mexico or Spanish-controlled Florida, while others chose to remain in the wilderness. The majority, on the other hand, chose to go to the Northern free states or Canada.
1: Getting Help
Harriet Tubman, maybe around the 1860s. The Library of Congress is a federal government institution that collects and organizes information. No matter how brave or brilliant they were, few enslaved individuals were able to free themselves without the assistance of others. Even the smallest amount of assistance, such as hidden instructions on how to get away and who to trust, may make a significant difference. The most fortunate, on the other hand, were those who followed so-called “conductors,” like as Harriet Tubman, who, after escaping slavery in 1849, devoted her life to the Underground Railroad.
Tubman, like her other conductors, built a network of accomplices, including so-called “stationmasters,” who helped her hide her charges in barns and other safe havens along the road.
She was aware of which government officials were receptive to bribery.
Among other things, she would sing particular tunes or impersonate an owl to indicate when it was time to flee or when it was too hazardous to come out of hiding.
Tubman developed a number of other methods during the course of her career to keep her pursuers at arm’s length. For starters, she preferred to operate during the winter months when the longer evenings allowed her to cover more land. Also, she wanted to go on Saturday because she knew that no announcements about runaways would appear in the papers until the following Monday (since there was no paper on Sunday.) Tubman carried a handgun, both for safety and to scare people under her care who were contemplating retreating back to civilization.
The railroad engineer would subsequently claim that “I never drove my train off the track” and that he “never lost a passenger.” Tubman frequently disguised herself in order to return to Maryland on a regular basis, appearing as a male, an old lady, or a middle-class free black, depending on the occasion.
- They may, for example, approach a plantation under the guise of a slave in order to apprehend a gang of escaped slaves.
- Some of the sartorial efforts were close to brilliance.
- They traveled openly by rail and boat, surviving numerous near calls along the way and eventually making it to the North.
- After dressing as a sailor and getting aboard the train, he tried to trick the conductor by flashing his sailor’s protection pass, which he had obtained from an accomplice.
Enslaved women have hidden in attics and crawlspaces for as long as seven years in order to evade their master’s unwelcome sexual approaches. Another confined himself to a wooden container and transported himself from Richmond, Virginia, to Philadelphia, where abolitionists were gathered.
4: Codes, Secret Pathways
Circa 1887, Harriet Tubman (far left) is shown with her family and neighbors at her home in Auburn, New York. Photograph courtesy of MPI/Getty Images The Underground Railroad was almost non-existent in the Deep South, where only a small number of slaves were able to flee. While there was less pro-slavery attitude in the Border States, individuals who assisted enslaved persons there still faced the continual fear of being ratted out by their neighbors and punished by the law enforcement authorities.
In the case of an approaching fugitive, for example, the stationmaster may get a letter referring to them as “bundles of wood” or “parcels.” The terms “French leave” and “patter roller” denoted a quick departure, whilst “slave hunter” denoted a slave hunter.
5: Buying Freedom
The Underground Railroad, on the other hand, functioned openly and shamelessly for long of its duration, despite the passing of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act, which prescribed heavy fines for anybody proven to have helped runaways. Stationmasters in the United States claimed to have sheltered thousands of escaped slaves, and their activities were well documented. A former enslaved man who became a stationmaster in Syracuse, New York, even referred to himself in writing as the “keeper of the Underground Railroad depot” in his hometown of Syracuse, New York.
At times, abolitionists would simply purchase the freedom of an enslaved individual, as they did in the case of Sojourner Truth.
Besides that, they worked to sway public opinion by funding talks by Truth and other former slaves to convey the miseries of bondage to public attention.
The Underground Railroad volunteers would occasionally band together in large crowds to violently rescue fleeing slaves from captivity and terrify slave catchers into going home empty-handed if all else failed. Perhaps unsurprisingly, John Brown was one among those who advocated for the use of brutal force. Abolitionist leader John Brown led a gang of armed abolitionists into Missouri before leading a failed uprising in Harpers Ferry, where they rescued 11 enslaved individuals and murdered an enslaver.
Brown was followed by pro-slavery troops throughout the voyage.
Escapees from slavery travelled north in order to reclaim their freedom and escape harsh living conditions in their home countries. They required daring and cunning in order to elude law enforcement agents and professional slave catchers, who were paid handsomely for returning them to their masters’ possession. Southerners were extremely resentful of people in the North who helped the slaves in their plight. They invented the name “Underground Railroad” to refer to a well-organized network dedicated to keeping slaves away from their masters, which occasionally extended as far as crossing the Canadian border.
In 1850, Congress created the Fugitive Slave Law, which imposed severe fines on anybody found guilty of assisting slaves in their attempts to flee. Many people in the north were angry at the rule that obliged them to contribute to the maintenance of a system that they did not agree with.
Underground Railroad “Stations” Develop in Iowa
Iowa shares a southern border with Missouri, which was a slave state during the American Civil War. The abolitionist movement (those who desired to abolish slavery) built a system of “stations” in the 1840s and 1850s that could transport runaways from the Mississippi River to Illinois on their route to freedom. Activists from two religious movements, the Congregationalists and the Quakers, played crucial roles in the abolitionist movement. They were also involved in the Underground Railroad’s operations in the state of New York.
- According to one source, there are more than 100 Iowans who are participating in the endeavor.
- The Hitchcock House, located in Cass County near Lewis, is another well-known destination on the Underground Railroad in one form or another.
- George Hitchcock escorted “passengers” to the next destination on his route.
- Several of these locations are now public museums that are available to the general public.
- Individual families also reacted when they were approached for assistance.
- When the Civil War broke out and the Fugitive Slave Law could no longer be enforced in the northern states, a large number of slaves fled into the state and eventually settled there permanently.
- It was determined that segregated schools and discrimination in public accommodations were both unconstitutional in Iowa by the Supreme Court.
Iowa: A Free State Willing to Let Slavery Exist
In the south, Iowa borders Missouri, which was a slave state at one time. The abolitionists (those who desired to abolish slavery) constructed a system of “stations” in the 1840s and 1850s that could transport runaways from the Missouri River to Illinois on their route to freedom. People affiliated with the Congregationalists and the Society of Friends played significant roles in the abolitionist movement. Besides that, they were involved in the state’s Underground Railroad network. The Underground Railroad in Iowa was kept a closely guarded secret, therefore there are little written documents regarding it.
- In southwest Iowa near Council Bluffs, a free black man named John Williamson aided others escape slavery on their journey to freedom, establishing a major route across the state.
- Passengers were directed to the next stop by the Rev.
- James Jordan in West Des Moines and Josiah Grinnell in Grinnell were also key players in the endeavor, as did others in the region.
- We will never know how many black people the Underground Railroad helped because it was impossible to count.
- Free blacks who lived in the state, particularly in southeast Iowa, were frequently involved in the crime scene investigation process.
Many of these people eventually settled in the state and became citizens. African-American males were granted the right to vote in the state of Iowa as early as 1868. Segregated schools and discriminatory treatment in public accommodations were declared unlawful by the Iowa Supreme Court.
- $200 Reward: Poster for the Return of Formerly-Enslaved People, October 1, 1847 (Document)
- “Effects of the Fugitive-Slave-Law” Print, 1850 (Image)
- Fugitive Slave Law, 1850 (Document)
- Poster for the Return of Formerly-Enslaved People, October 1, 1847 (Document)
- Poster for the Return of Formerly-Enslaved People, October 1, 1847 (Do
How did runaway slaves rely on the help of abolitionists to escape to freedom?
- Article from the Anti-Slavery Bugle titled “William and Ellen Craft,” published on February 23, 1849 (Document)
- Anti-Slavery Bugle Article titled “Underground Railroad,” published on September 16, 1854 (Document)
- “A Presbyterian Clergyman Suspended for Being Connected with the Underground Railroad” Article published on November 8, 1855 (Document)
- William Maxson Home in West Liberty, Iowa, circa 1890 (Image)
How did some runaway slaves create their own opportunities to escape?
- A newspaper article entitled “The ‘Running of Slaves’ – The Extraordinary Escape of Henry Box Brown” published on June 23, 1849 (Document)
- The Henry “Box” Brown Song and the Engraved Box, published in 1850 (Image, Document)
- “The Resurrection of Henry ‘Box’ Brown at Philadelphia” illustration published in 1850 (Image)
- Robert Smalls: “The Steamer ‘Planter’ and Her Captor,” published on June 14, 1862 (Do
$200 Reward: Poster for the Return of Formerly-Enslaved People, October 1, 1847
- “The ‘Running of Slaves’ – The Extraordinary Escape of Henry Box Brown” Article, June 23, 1849 (Document)
- “The Resurrection of Henry ‘Box’ Brown at Philadelphia” Illustration, 1850 (Image)
- Robert Smalls: “The Steamer ‘Planter’ and Her Captor,” June 14, 1862 (Document)
- “A Bold Strike for Freedom” Illustration, 1872 (Image)
- “The Resurrection of Henry ‘Box’ Brown
“Effects of the Fugitive-Slave-Law” Illustration, 1850
- Written in strong opposition to the Runaway Slave Act, which was approved by Congress in September 1850 and expanded federal and free-state duty for the return of fugitive slaves, this letter is full of anger. The bill called for the appointment of federal commissioners who would have the authority to enact regulations. More information may be found here.
Fugitive Slave Law, 1850
- As a result of the Fleeing Slave Law of 1850, it became unlawful for anybody in the northern United States to aid fugitive slaves in their quest for freedom. This statute supplemented the 1793 Fugitive Slave Act with additional clauses addressing runaways, and it imposed even harsher sanctions for interfering with their escape. More information may be found here.
Anti-Slavery Bugle Article – “William and Ellen Craft,” February 23, 1849
- In this article from the abolitionist journal, The Anti-Slavery Bugle, the narrative of Ellen and William Craft’s emancipation from slavery is described in detail. Ellen disguised herself as a male in order to pass as the master, while her husband, William, claimed to be her servant as they made their way out of the building. More information may be found here.
Anti-Slavery Bugle Article – “Underground Railroad,” September 16, 1854
- The Anti-Slavery Bugle article indicates the number of runaway slaves in northern cities in 1854, based on a survey conducted by the organization. This group contained nine slaves from Boone County, Kentucky, who were seeking refuge in the United States. Their captors were said to be on the lookout for them in Cincinnati, and they were found. More information may be found here.
“A Presbyterian Clergyman Suspended for Being Connected with the Underground Railroad” Article, November 8, 1855
- During the year 1854, the Anti-Slavery Bugle published a report on the number of runaway slaves who had taken refuge in northern towns. This group included nine slaves from Boone County, Kentucky, who were seeking refuge in the United States from slavery. When they were mentioned as being in Cincinnati, they were found by their masters. More information may be found at:
William Maxson Home in West Liberty, Iowa, 1890
- In the mid-nineteenth century, the William Maxson residence in Springdale, Iowa, served as an Underground Railroad site for African-Americans. The house served as a training ground for abolitionist John Brown and his men before the attack on Harpers Ferry. The home has since been demolished, although it was in the vicinity of Springdale, which was. More information may be found here.
“Fugitive Slave Case Was Tried” – A Daily Gate City Article, April 13, 1915
- This story, which was published in the Keokuk, Iowa, newspaper The Daily Gate City in 1915, is about a trial that took place in Burlington in 1850. Buel Daggs, the plaintiff, sought $10,000 in damages as recompense for the services of nine slaves who had fled from Missouri and had worked for him as slaves. More information may be found here.
“The ‘Running of Slaves’ – The Extraordinary Escape of Henry ‘Box’ Brown” Article, June 23, 1849
- It was published in the Keokuk, Iowa newspaper The Daily Gate City in 1915 and is about a trial that took place in Burlington, Iowa, in 1850 and was published in The Daily Gate City. Buel Daggs, the plaintiff, sought $10,000 in damages as recompense for the services of nine slaves who had escaped from Missouri and had been working for him. More information may be found at:
Henry “Box” Brown Song and the Engraved Box, 1850
- Image of the engraving on the box that Henry “Box” Brown built and used to send himself to freedom in Virginia. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. There is a label on the box that says “Right side up with care.” During his first appearance out of the box in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the attached song, Henry “Box” Brown sang a song that is included here. More information may be found here.
“The Resurrection of Henry ‘Box’ Brown at Philadelphia” Illustration, 1850
- Henry “Box” Brown, a slave who escaped from Richmond, Virginia, in a box measuring three feet long, two and a half feet deep, and two and a half feet broad, is depicted in a somewhat comical but sympathetic manner in this artwork. In the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society’s administrative offices. More information may be found here.
Robert Smalls: “The Steamer ‘Planter’ and Her Captor,” June 14, 1862
- The escape of Robert Smalls and other members of his family and friends from slavery was chronicled in detail in an article published in Harper’s Weekly. Smalls was an enslaved African American who acquired freedom during and after the American Civil War and went on to work as a ship’s pilot on the high seas. More information may be found here.
“A Bold Stroke for Freedom” Illustration, 1872
- The image from 1872 depicts African Americans, most likely fleeing slaves, standing in front of a wagon and brandishing firearms towards slave-catchers. A group of young enslaved persons who had escaped from Loudon by wagon are said to be shown in the cartoon on Christmas Eve in 1855, when patrollers caught up with them. More information may be found here.
- Harriet Tubman Day is observed annually on March 31. The statement issued by the State of Delaware on the observance of Harriet Ross Tubman Day on March 10, 2017 may be seen on the website. Governor John Carney and Lieutenant Governor Bethany Hall-Long both signed the statement. Harriet Tubman – A Guide to Online Resources A wide range of material linked with Harriet Tubman may be found in these digital collections from the Library of Congress, which include manuscripts, pictures, and publications. It is the goal of this guide to consolidate connections to digital materials about Harriet Tubman that are available throughout the Library of Congress website. Scenes from Harriet Tubman’s Life and Times The website, which is accessible through the Digital Public Library of America, contains portions from the novel Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman, written by Sarah Bradford in 1869 and published by the American Library Association.
- Maryland’s Pathways to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in the State of Maryland On this page, you can find primary materials pertaining to Maryland and the Underground Railroad. Information from three former slaves, Samuel Green, Phoebe Myers, and others is included in this collection. “The Underground Railroad: A Secret History” by Eric Foner is a book on the history of the Underground Railroad. The author of this piece from The Atlantic discusses the “secret history” of the Underground Railroad, which he believes reveals that the network was not nearly as secretive as many people believe. Emancipation of William and Ellen Craft from Slavery According to “Documenting the American South,” this webpage focuses on how slaves William and Ellen Craft escaped from Georgia and sought asylum and freedom in the United States’ northern states.
Iowa Core Social Studies Standards (8th Grade)
The content anchor requirements for Iowa Core Social Studies that are most accurately reflected in this source collection are listed below. The subject requirements that have been implemented to this set are appropriate for middle school pupils and cover the major areas that make up social studies for eighth grade students in the United States.
- S.8.13.Explain the rights and obligations of people, political parties, and the media in the context of a range of governmental and nonprofit organizations and institutions. (Skills for the twenty-first century)
- SS.8.19.Explain how immigration and migration were influenced by push and pull influences in early American history. SS.8.21.Examine the relationships and linkages between early American historical events and developments in the context of wider historical settings
- In your explanation of how and why prevalent social, cultural, and political viewpoints altered over early American history, please include the following information: SS.8.23.Explain the numerous causes, impacts, and changes that occurred in early American history
- And The Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights, the Constitution, Washington’s Farewell Address, the Louisiana Purchase Treaty with France, the Monroe Doctrine, the Indian Removal Act, the Missouri Compromise, Dred Scott v. Sanford, and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo are examples of primary and secondary sources of information that should be critiqued with consideration for the source of the document, its context, accuracy, and usefulness.
The Underground Railroad
SS.8.13.Explain the powers and duties of individuals, political parties, and the media in a range of governmental and nonprofit organizations, including the United Nations. skills for the twenty-first century SS.8.19.Explain how immigration and migration were influenced by push and pull influences in early American history; and In larger historical settings, examine the relationships and linkages between early American historical events and developments. Explain how and why the dominant social, cultural, and political attitudes evolved during the early history of the United States.
The Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights, the Constitution, Washington’s Farewell Address, the Louisiana Purchase Treaty with France, the Monroe Doctrine, the Indian Removal Act, the Missouri Compromise, Dred Scott v.
‘Gateway To Freedom’: Heroes, Danger And Loss On The Underground Railroad
Before the discovery of Sydney Howard Gay’s database of fleeing slaves by a Columbia University freshman in 2007, very few researchers were aware of the existence of the record until 2007. The Underground Railroad’s Gay was an important operator from around the mid-1840s until about a year before the outbreak of the Civil War. He also served as the editor of the National Anti-Slavery Standard, a weekly newspaper published in Washington, D.C. When historian and Columbia University professor Eric Foner first examined the record, he recognized it was something special: it detailed the identities of runaway slaves, as well as their origins, owners, methods of escape, and those who assisted them on their journey to the North, among other things.
It is possible that people’s memories are little inaccurate, or that they are slightly inflated “Foner speaks with Terry Gross on Fresh Air.
“Foner describes the Big Migration as “a great social movement of the mid-19th century — and these are the things that motivate me in American history,” including “the fight of people to make this a better country.” That, in my opinion, is what true patriotism is all about.”
Before the discovery of Sydney Howard Gay’s record of fleeing slaves by a Columbia University freshman in 2007, very few researchers were aware of the existence of the record. The Underground Railroad’s Gay was an important operative from around the mid-1840s until about a year before the outbreak of the American Civil War (1860). The National Anti-Slavery Standard (a weekly publication) was also edited by him when he was at the helm. It was immediately apparent to historian and Columbia University professor Eric Foner that the document was unique: it listed the names of escaped slaves, their origins, their owners, how they managed to escape, and the people who assisted them on their journey to the North.
“Quite a bit of the material we have on the Underground Railroad comes from memoirs written many years after the Civil War, as you may be aware.
We have documentation from the very beginning of these events — it’s a really interesting and illuminating portrait of the life of these escaped slaves and the individuals who helped them,” explains the author.
“In the mid-nineteenth century, there was a huge social movement — and these are the things that motivate me in American history,” says Foner, “the battle of people to make this a better country.” Authentic patriotism, in my opinion, is defined as follows:”
The Underground Railroad in Wisconsin
In Calvert County, Maryland, a poster advertises a $600 prize for the return of three runaway slaves who have escaped. Take a look at the original source document here: WHI 1926 is a year in which the World Health Organization (WHO) was established. Between 1842 and 1861, more than 100 runaway slaves were assisted by Wisconsin people on their journey to freedom in Canada. However, because both the slaves and their rescuers were required to keep their activities hidden, specifics on how fugitives travelled through Wisconsin are scant.
- However, in 1850, the federal government implemented the Fugitive Slave Act, which obligated all Americans to assist in the return of any escaping enslaved persons to their enslavers’ possession.
- It was the Fugitive Slave Act that served as a rallying point for abolitionists, who felt morally obligated to break it and, as a result, became criminals in the eyes of the law as a result.
- The release of Joshua Glover from a Milwaukee jail in March 1854 was the state’s most famous episode; he was transported out of the city through a similar path, but boarded a boat in Racine and landed in Canada.
- After fending off their pursuers, the Stockbridge was able to transport them safely to Green Bay, where they were eventually transported by ship to Canada.
- He escorted them to Racine, Wisconsin, where they boarded a boat bound for Canada.
Three fugitive families were taken in by the town of Beloit at the onset of the Civil Conflict, and they stayed there when the war ended. Janesville locals banded together in the early months of 1861 to chase away a slave catcher who had tracked down one of their city’s inhabitants. Enlarge
Milton House, 1900 ca.
During the American Civil War, the Milton House was rumored to have been a stop on the Underground Railroad. It was erected in 1845 by Joseph Goodrich and converted into an inn a few years later. The frame home and log cabin behind the inn, as well as the Milton House Tavern, were all constructed by Goodrich as part of the project. The Milton House was eventually converted into a museum. Take a look at the original source document here: WHI 39828 (WHI 39828) The first time facts concerning these incidents came to light was in the 1880s and 1890s.
- As a result, they were able to compile just a small number of records pertaining to their illicit operations.
- In the aftermath of the runaway slave crisis, A.P.
- A large number of their “passengers” traveled up the Illinois River to Chicago, then overland along the coast to Kenosha, Racine or Milwaukee.
- In the end, the enslaved people were brought over the prairie to one of the lake ports, where they were met by a number of ship captains who agreed to carry them to other Canadian cities.
- abolitionist editor Chauncey Goodwin included a 75-page narrative in his family history, and other participants began to write down their memories and publish them.
- The following are the most important documentary sources for the Underground Railroad in Wisconsin, along with live links to their respective textual versions.
1842 — Caroline Quarlls
Among the first documented escapes through Wisconsin’s Underground Railroad is that of 16-year-old Caroline Quarlls, who fled from her enslaver in St. Louis on July 4, 1842, after being beaten by her captors. She traveled up the Mississippi River by riverboat to Alton, Illinois, and then crossed the border by stagecoach to Milwaukee, where she arrived in late July or early August of that year. It is possible that Quarlls was temporarily concealed there by sympathetic individuals, but when police tracked her out, she was escorted out of the country to Waukesha, a town known for its antislavery extremists.
- The entire story was recounted in detail by Waukesha editor Chauncey Olin in a book, and Mrs.
- So did the Rev.
- Dwinnell, who took her in as a refugee in Walworth County for a period of time.
A written version of Goodnow’s recollections is included in Olin’s 75-page memoir, which also includes the sole known image of Quarlls, as well as letters from her.
Joshua Glover’s head and shoulders are seen in this painting. View the original source document, which is:WHI 6270.
1854 — Joshua Glover
The rescue of Joshua Glover from the Milwaukee prison on March 11, 1854, is the most well-known fugitive slave episode in Wisconsin’s history. Glover was able to escape from his enslaver and flee Missouri in 1852, according to historical records. He eventually made his way to Racine, where he was discovered by his master two years later. A mass of anti-slavery protestors crashed down the doors of the Milwaukee jail and liberated Glover the following day. Glover had been apprehended under the federal Fugitive Slave Act and was transported to the Milwaukee jail.
Chauncey Olin, a Waukesha editor who was also engaged in the Glover affair, has written a memoir on the events that transpired.
An image of Glover, an anti-slavery demonstration flyer, and the memoir of the immigrant bricklayer who snatched a nearby beam and assisted in smashing the jail’s doors open are among the other records from the Glover case.
The escapes of Quarlls and Glover are only two of the most well-known stories from Wisconsin’s Underground Railroad. There were at least 100 others, but there aren’t many reports of what they went through. Several daring escapes were chronicled by historian John N. Davidson in the 1890s, while Underground Railroad “conductors” A.P. Dutton and Maximillian Heck shared their recollections in manuscript form during the same decade. According to research, the Milton House, located near Janesville, had been used frequently to house escaping enslaved individuals as well as escape slaves.
The lesson plans that follow provide fundamental information, recommended classroom exercises, discussion or writing assignment questions, and live connections to original sources. They may be utilized with kids at the elementary, middle, and high school levels, and they are based on events that occurred right here in Wisconsin. a) Slavery, abolitionism, and the Underground Railroad lesson plans include the following: