How Did You Know What Houses Were Safehouses On The Underground Railroad? (Solution)

What were the stations on the Underground Railroad?

  • William Jackson’s house in Newton, Massachusetts, was a “station” on the Underground Railroad. The Jacksons were abolitionists, people who worked to end slavery.

What were the safe houses that were a part of the Underground Railroad called?

These were called “stations,” “safe houses,” and “depots.” The people operating them were called “stationmasters.” There were many well-used routes stretching west through Ohio to Indiana and Iowa.

Did the Underground Railroad have houses?

These unassuming homes once played vital roles in the fight against slavery, serving as shelter for those escaping to freedom.

Where did the Underground Railroad have safe houses?

In the years leading up to the Civil War, the black abolitionist William Still offered shelter to hundreds of freedom seekers as they journeyed northward.

How do you know if House was underground railroad?

1) Check the date when the house was built.

  1. Check the date when the house was built.
  2. At your county clerk’s office, or wherever historical deeds are stored in your locality, research the property to determine who owned it between the American Revolution and the Civil War (roughly 1790-1860).

Where is William Still House?

This led him and his wife Letitia to move to a relatively new rowhouse on the east side of Ronaldson Street between South and Bainbridge Streets, which still stands today at 625 S. Delhi Street. The Stills occupied this house, which was an Underground Railroad Way Station, from 1850 through 1855.

How many slaves escaped on the Underground Railroad?

The total number of runaways who used the Underground Railroad to escape to freedom is not known, but some estimates exceed 100,000 freed slaves during the antebellum period.

What happened to Cesar in the Underground Railroad?

While the show doesn’t show us what happens after their encounter, Caesar comes to Cora in a dream later, confirming to viewers that he was killed. In the novel, Caesar faces a similar fate of being killed following his capture, though instead of Ridgeway and Homer, he is killed by an angry mob.

What was life like on the Underground Railroad?

African Americans fled slavery in the South for a variety of reasons. Brutal physical punishment, psychological abuse and endless hours of hard labor without compensation drove many slaves to risk their lives to escape plantation life.

Who made it a crime to help runaway slaves?

An important part of that system was the Fugitive Slave Act passed by Congress and signed by President George Washington, who owned more than 100 slaves himself, in February 1793. The act made it a federal crime to assist those who had escaped slavery or to interfere with their capture.

Were quilts used in the Underground Railroad?

Two historians say African American slaves may have used a quilt code to navigate the Underground Railroad. Quilts with patterns named “wagon wheel,” “tumbling blocks,” and “bear’s paw” appear to have contained secret messages that helped direct slaves to freedom, the pair claim.

Why was a home on the Underground Railroad called a station?

What was a “station” on the Underground Railroad? Using the terminology of the railroad, people’s homes or businesses, where fugitive passengers and conductors could safely hide, were “stations.” Those who went south to find slaves seeking freedom were called “pilots.”

10 Historic Homes That Were Part of the Underground Railroad

1 out of 11 This vast network of “stations” and “depots,” which served as a conduit for slaves fleeing to freedom from the tip of Florida and the Gulf Coast of Louisiana up into the northern states and beyond, was known as the Underground Railroad. The courageous people who risked their lives in the name of freedom were aided along the road by those who were outspoken in their opposition to slavery. The “station masters,” persons who ran safe stops along the road, built concealed chambers, and devised sophisticated ruses to mislead even the most diligent bounty collector, were of great significance to the operation.

Here is a tiny selection of historic properties that served as stopping points on the Underground Railroad in the United States.

Welcome to the “President’s” House

2 out of 11 A total of 2,000 runaway slaves were harbored and assisted by Levi Coffin, the unofficial “president” of the Underground Railroad, during their escape to a better life in the North. His residence in Fountain City, Indiana, came to be known as the “Grand Central Station” of the Underground Railroad because of the number of people that passed through it. His involvement in attempts to offer assistance to newly freed slaves grew throughout the Civil War, and he was elected to represent the United States at the International Anti-Slavery Conference in Paris in 1867.

A Family Affair

3 out of 11 During the 1850s, the Johnson family played a significant part in the anti-slavery campaign in the city of Philadelphia. The five siblings and their wives utilized their home, as well as the homes of neighbors and other relatives, to house fleeing slaves during the Civil War. Activists in the American Anti-Slavery Society and Germantown Freedmen’s Aid Association, the Johnsons were among the most renowned abolitionists of their day, and they were also members of the United States Congress.

Quiet Resistance

the 3rd of November 3rd While living in Philadelphia during the 1850s, the Johnson family played a significant part in the anti-slavery struggle. In addition to their own house, the five siblings and their spouses utilized the homes of their relatives in the surrounding area to provide refuge to escaped slaves. These abolitionists included the Johnsons, who were active members of the American Anti-Slavery Society and the Germantown Freedmen’s Aid Association. They were among the most renowned abolitionists of their time.

Wayside Cabin

5 out of 11 The Mayhew Cabin is the sole certified Underground Railroad site in Nebraska, and it is located in the town of Mayhew. Abolitionist John Brown was a close friend of Mrs. Mayhew’s younger brother, John Henry Kagi, who had strong anti-slavery sentiments and became a close companion of the family.

When Brown and Kagi released 11 slaves in 1859, they concealed them in different sites around Nebraska City, including Kagi’s sister’s cabin and numerous other surrounding areas, until the fugitives were able to escape to Canada. Ammodramus obtained this image from Wikimedia Commons.

A Grand Depot

6th of November James Jordan, a staunch abolitionist who had fled his home Virginia in the 1840s, eventually settled in Iowa. His initial house in the region was a simple lean-to, but in 1850 he began construction of a stately residence for his wife and their six children, who were living at the time. Jordan’s family grew to include 11 children as the family’s majestic Victorian home in West Des Moines, Iowa, was expanded over the years. Jordan served as the county’s “principal conductor” on the Underground Railroad, and the enormous residence became a popular stop for travelers on the Underground Railroad.

Goddesshanna’s photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Hospitable Homestead

7th of November The Jackson Homestead, a Federal-style structure in Newton, Massachusetts, was constructed in 1809 to lodge fugitive slaves on their passage to freedom in Canada. During his time in Congress (1833-1837), the house’s owner, William Jackson, was also a member of Congress. Even after his death in 1855, his family remained actively involved in abolitionist movements. His widow established the Freedmen’s Aid Society in Newton, Massachusetts, in 1865. In related news, preservationists are attempting to cool down seven historic landmarks, according to Wikimedia Commons via Historic Newton.

The Busy Abolitionist

Eighteenth-century cottage near Osawatomie, Kansas, which is now the home of the John Brown Museum, was the residence of Reverend Samuel Adair and his wife Florella, who happened to be the half-sister of abolitionist John Brown. 8 /11 Brown made use of the cottage when he was staying with his sister as a base of operations. It was also a stop on the Underground Railroad, and it’s thought that the family used the rear chamber to hide escaped slaves during the Civil War. This is only one of a number of John Brown locations in the surrounding region.

Welcoming Guests

the number nine and eleven This house was erected in 1835 by Nathan M. Thomas, an ardent abolitionist who also happened to be the first physician in Kalamazoo County, Michigan. As early as the 1840s, he and his wife were hosting fugitive slaves on their way north to freedom. In Schoolcraft, between 1,000 and 1,500 former slaves went through the home, according to Mrs. Thomas’s diary. Mrs. Thomas worked frantically to prepare food and make beds for their extra “guests,” and she was responsible for anybody who happened to be staying in her home.

Speaking Out

ten and eleven Over a 15-year period, Seth M. Gates provided safe haven for fleeing slaves in the cellar and attic of his Warsaw, New York, residence. During that period, he also served as a member of the United States House of Representatives for five years.

Gates was an ardent abolitionist who once had a $500 reward placed on his head by a Southern planter who was fed up with his meddling in his business. Related: 12 Historic Homes You Can Visit from the Comfort of Your Own Couch Wikimedia Commons image courtesy of Pubdog

Famed Author and Abolitionist

In 1873, more than 20 years after completing her most famous book, Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, moved to this Cincinnati, Ohio, house with her husband and two adult children. The house is now known as the Stowe House Museum. The Harriet Beecher Stowe House was not a station on the Underground Railroad, but it was the home of a prominent author who used her platform to draw attention to the suffering of slaves seeking freedom for themselves and their families. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons user Greg5030.

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Safe Houses

Kansas The John Brown Cabin is a log structure that was built in the late 1800s. The John Brown Cabin, which was constructed in 1855 and served as the headquarters for his abolitionist operations, was dedicated to the memory of John Brown. Along with three of his sons, he participated in the battle for slaves’ rights and freedom. Iowa Todd House is a family-owned and operated business. The Todd House, erected in 1853, was a well-known Underground Railroad site for slaves attempting to flee to freedom in the northern United States.

  1. The George B.
  2. Around 1856, George Hitchcock constructed a stone home, which served as a vital station on the Underground Railroad.
  3. Henderson Lewelling House is a historic mansion in Henderson, North Carolina.
  4. Friends from the abolitionist movement gathered in the house to discuss their participation in the Underground Railroad.
  5. Jordan House is a private residence in the heart of the Jordan Valley.
  6. Several phases of construction took place between 1850 and 1870, according to Jordan.
  7. It became a well-known resting place for slaves attempting to flee to the north.
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Joseph Goodrich, an Underground Railroad conductor, was responsible for the construction of the Milton House.

In order to escape being discovered by visitors at the Milton House Inn, fleeing slaves would enter the log cabin, according to local lore.

Illinois Owen Lovejoy’s House is located in the town of Owen Lovejoy.

It is currently a National Historic Landmark, and it served as a terminal for the Underground Railroad during its time there.

House of John Hossack The mansion, which was erected for John Hossack in 1854, is still standing today.

Up to 13 fugitive slaves were hidden in the house until they were able to reach the next stop on the Underground Railroad in relative safety.

Richard Eells’ Residence This house was erected in 1835 by Dr.

He was an enthusiastic participant in the Underground Railroad movement.

Beecher Hall is a mansion in the English countryside.

Illinois College had strong links to the Underground Railroad throughout its time there.

Michigan Dr.


It is one of the most active Underground Railroad stations in the state of Michigan.

Indiana Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church William Paul Quinn and Augustus Turner founded this church in 1836, and it has been in continuous operation since then.

There were many people of the surrounding community who were opposed to their involvement in the UndergroundRailroad, which is said to have been responsible for the fire that destroyed the church in 1862.

Levi Coffin built the house in 1839, and it is still standing today.

Eleutherian College was built between 1854 and 1856 on the site of a former convent.

Some of the trustees of the college were among the most active participants in the Underground Railroad during the Civil War.

This home served as a stop on the Underground Railroad during its active period.

Lyman and his wife were among the most prominent Underground Railroad campaigners of their time.

The Madison Historic District is located in the city of Madison, Wisconsin.

Many abolitionists settled in the area, and they supported freedom seekers and conductors in the region’s northern reaches.

Parker House is a historic landmark in the city of Johnstown, Pennsylvania.

In this capacity, he served as a conductor on the Underground Railroad, directing fleeing slaves to safe homes and abolitionists who would house and guide them to the next stop along the route.

His residence, which was located on the banks of the Ohio River, was regarded to be one of the earliest stations along this path of the Underground Railroad.

House built by Daniel Howell Hise In the 1850s, Daniel Hise and his family bought the property on which they now reside.

The home was utilized as a temporary halt on the Underground Railroad, where fugitive slaves could eat and rest until dusk, when they could go to the next station and continue their freedom journey.

In 1840, William Hubbard built this house for himself and his family.

Because of its proximity to Lake Erie, it was frequently the last stop on the journey.

Pennsylvania Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church The church, which is located in Reading, Pennsylvania, was constructed in 1837.

Oakdale Oakdale was established in 1840 by Isaac and Dinah Mendenhall as a summer home for their children.

It served as a stopover for fleeing slaves from the southern United States on their trip north.

White Horse Farm is a family-owned and operated farm in the town of White Horse.

In 1840, he offered his home as a significant station on the Underground Railroad, which became known as the Underground Railroad.

Johnson House is a private residence in the city of Johnson. In the 1850s, this mansion was converted into a working depot. The Johnson family utilized their house, as well as the homes of relatives in the surrounding area, to shelter runaway slaves on their journeys to freedom from slavery.

Pathways to Freedom

What was the Underground Railroad?The Underground Railroad was a secret network organized by people who helped men, women, and children escape from slavery to freedom. It operated before the Civil War (1861-1865) ended slavery in the United States. The Underground Railroad provided hiding places, food, and often transportation for the fugitives who were trying to escape slavery. Along the way, people also provided directions for the safest way to get further north on the dangerous journey to freedom.Enslaved people escaping North would often stay in “safe houses” to escape capture.These houses were owned by people, both black and white, who were sympathetic to the cause.The people who helped enslaved people escape were called “conductors” or “engineers.” The places along the escape route were called “stations.” Sometimes those escaping were called “passengers.” Sometimes they were called “cargo” or “goods.” Conductors helped passengers get from one station to the next. Sometimes they traveled with people escaping all the way from the South, where they had been enslaveed, to the North or to Canada, where they would be free. Sometimes the conductors traveled only a short distance and then handed those escaping to another helper. Engineers, who were the leaders of the Underground Railroad, helped enslaved people who were running away by providing them with food, shelter, and sometimes jobs. They hid them from people who were trying to catch them and return them to slavery.A well-organized network of people, who worked together in secret, ran the Underground Railroad. The work of the Underground Railroad resulted in freedom for many men, women, and children. It also helped undermine the institution of slavery, which was finally ended in the United States during the Civil War. Many slaveholders were so angry at the success of the Underground Railroad that they grew to hate the North. Many northerners thought that slavery was so horrible that they grew to hate the South. These people who hated each other were ready to go to war when the time came.Why was it called that?«back to About home

Underground Railroad Safe House Discovered in Philadelphia

A contemporary street view photograph of the row home where conservationists think William Still and his wife Letitia originally lived, as captured by Google Street View. Google Maps in the public domain View from the street On their way northward, hundreds of freedom seekers sought refuge with William Still, a black abolitionist in the years preceding up to the Civil War, who provided them with food and shelter. Still’s narrow house in Philadelphia served as an important stop on the Underground Railroad, and as Meagan Flynn reports for the Washington Post, a team of preservationists believes they have finally identified the house where Still and his wife Letitia once lived.

  1. The Philadelphia Historical Commission decided earlier this month to place a row home on South Delhi Street (originally Ronaldson Street) on the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, which assures that the building cannot be demolished or drastically changed in the future.
  2. A large number of nineteenth-century maps and city documents were searched through by preservationists in their pursuit of this important historic property.
  3. Then one of the historians, Jim Duffin, stumbled upon an advertising in a newspaper from 1851 for a dressmaking company “done in the nicest manner by Letitia Still,” which revealed Letitia’s address.
  4. During the 1840s, Still relocated from New Jersey to Philadelphia where he began working for the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society.
  5. Despite this, he remained engaged in the Committee at a perilous period for abolitionists, when the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act had introduced heavy sanctions for anybody found supporting freedom seekers.
  6. Jane Johnson and her two boys were among those who sought safety, and their dramatic narrative of escape was aired across the country.
  7. As they were prepared to board a boat to go from Philadelphia, Still and another abolitionist, Passermore Williamson, hurried over to Johnson and assured her that she would be able to become a free woman if she joined them on their journey.
  8. Williamson and Still were apprehended as a result of their courageous deeds, and the story of their exploits served to galvanize support for the abolitionist movement.

According to historianEric Foner, who wrote a letter of support for the campaign to save Still’s house, in the midst of a nationwide movement to demolish controversial Confederate monuments, it is critical to remember the importance of elevating sites that are significant to African American history.

about what aspects of our past we chose to honor and why,” says the author. History of African Americans Heritage of Cultural Values SlaveryRecommended VideosDiscoveriesSlavery

Myths About the Underground Railroad

When it comes to teaching African-American Studies today, one of the great delights is the satisfaction that comes from being able to restore to the historical record “lost” events and the persons whose sacrifices and bravery enabled those events to take place, never to be lost again. Among our ancestors’ long and dreadful history of human bondage is the Underground Railroad, which has garnered more recent attention from teachers, students, museum curators, and the tourism industry than any other institution from the black past.

  1. Nevertheless, in the effort to convey the narrative of this magnificent institution, fiction and lore have occasionally taken precedence over historical truth.
  2. The sacrifices and valor of our forefathers and foremothers, as well as their allies, are made all the more noble, heroic, and striking as a result.
  3. I think this is a common misconception among students.
  4. As described by Wilbur H.
  5. Running slaves, frequently in groups of up to several families, were said to have been directed at night on their desperate journey to freedom by the traditional “Drinking Gourd,” which was the slaves’ secret name for the North Star.

The Railroad in Lore

Following is a brief list of some of the most frequent myths regarding the Underground Railroad, which includes the following examples: 1. It was administered by well-intentioned white abolitionists, many of whom were Quakers. 2. The Underground Railroad was active throughout the southern United States. Most runaway slaves who managed to make their way north took refuge in secret quarters hidden in attics or cellars, while many more managed to escape through tunnels. Fourteenth, slaves made so-called “freedom quilts,” which they displayed outside their homes’ windows to signal fugitives to the whereabouts of safe houses and safe ways north to freedom.

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When slaves heard the spiritual “Steal Away,” they knew Harriet Tubman was on her way to town, or that an ideal opportunity to run was approaching.

scholars like Larry Gara, who wrote The Liberty Line: The Legend of the Underground Railroad and Blight, among other works, have worked tirelessly to address all of these problems, and I’ll outline the proper answers based on their work, and the work of others, at the conclusion of this piece.

First, a brief overview of the Underground Railroad’s history:

A Meme Is Born

As Blight correctly points out, the railroad has proven to be one of the most “enduring and popular strands in the fabric of America’s national historical memory.” Since the end of the nineteenth century, many Americans, particularly in New England and the Midwest, have either made up legends about the deeds of their ancestors or simply repeated stories that they have heard about their forebears.

It’s worth taking a look at the history of the phrase “Underground Railroad” before diving into those tales, though.

Tice Davids was a Kentucky slave who managed to escape to Ohio in 1831, and it is possible that the phrase “Underground Railroad” was invented as a result of his successful escape.

According to Blight, he is believed to have said that Davids had vanished as though “the nigger must have gone off on an underground railroad.” This is a fantastic narrative — one that would be worthy of Richard Pryor — but it is improbable, given that train lines were non-existent at the time.

  • The fleeing slave from Washington, D.C., who was tortured and forced to testify that he had been taken north, where “the railroad extended underground all the way to Boston,” according to one report from 1839, was captured.
  • constructed from Mason and Dixon’s to the Canada line, upon which fugitives from slavery might come pouring into this province” is the first time the term appears.
  • 14, 1842, in the Liberator, a date that may be supported by others who claim that abolitionist Charles T.
  • Torrey.

Myth Battles Counter-Myth

Historically, the appeal of romance and fantasy in stories of the Underground Railroad can be traced back to the latter decades of the nineteenth century, when the South was winning the battle of popular memory over what the Civil War was all about — burying Lost Cause mythology deep in the national psyche and eventually propelling the racist Woodrow Wilson into the White House. Many white Northerners attempted to retain a heroic version of their history in the face of a dominant Southern interpretation of the significance of the Civil War, and they found a handy weapon in the stories of the Underground Railroad to accomplish this goal.

Immediately following the fall of Reconstruction in 1876, which was frequently attributed to purportedly uneducated or corrupt black people, the story of the struggle for independence was transformed into a tale of noble, selfless white efforts on behalf of a poor and nameless “inferior” race.

Siebert questioned practically everyone who was still alive who had any recollection of the network and even flew to Canada to interview former slaves who had traced their own pathways from the South to freedom as part of his investigation.

In the words of David Blight, Siebert “crafted a popular tale of largely white conductors assisting nameless blacks on their journey to freedom.”

Truth Reveals Unheralded Heroism

Historically, the appeal of romance and fantasy in stories of the Underground Railroad can be traced back to the latter decades of the nineteenth century, when the South was winning the battle of popular memory over what the Civil War was all about — burying Lost Cause mythology deep in the national psyche and eventually propelling the racist Woodrow Wilson to the presidency. Many white Northerners attempted to retain a heroic version of their history in the face of a dominant Southern interpretation of the significance of the Civil War, and they found a valuable weapon in the stories of the Underground Railroad to do this.

Immediately following the collapse of Reconstruction in 1876, which was frequently attributed to supposedly ignorant or corrupt black people, the story of the struggle for freedom was transformed into a tale of noble, selfless white efforts on behalf of a downtrodden and faceless, nameless race of “inferiors.” Wilbur Siebert’s 1898 essay on the Underground Railroad is credited with a great deal of modern ignorance and myth-making regarding the railroad.

Siebert interviewed practically everyone who was still alive who had any recollection of the network and even flew to Canada to interview former slaves who had traced their own pathways from slavery to freedom in the United States.

He also placed far too much emphasis on the work of so-called white conductors.

Underground Railroad

Underground Railroad was a network of people, both black and white, who helped escaped enslaved persons from the southern United States by providing them with refuge and assistance. It came forth as a result of the convergence of numerous separate covert initiatives. Although the exact dates of its inception are unknown, it was active from the late 18th century until the Civil War, after which its attempts to weaken the Confederacy were carried out in a less-secretive manner until the Civil War ended.

Quaker Abolitionists

The Society of Friends (Quakers) is often regarded as the first organized group to actively assist escaped enslaved persons. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with Quakers for attempting to “liberate” one of his enslaved servants. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved persons who were on the run from slavery. Abolitionist organisations founded by Quakers in North Carolina lay the basis for escape routes and safe havens for fugitive slaves during the same time period.

The African Methodist Episcopal Church, which was founded in 1816, was another religious organization that took a proactive role in assisting escaping enslaved persons.

What Was the Underground Railroad?

The Underground Railroad was first mentioned in 1831, when an enslaved man named Tice Davids managed to escape from Kentucky into Ohio and his master blamed a “underground railroad” for assisting Davids in his liberation. When a fugitive slave called Jim was apprehended in 1839 in Washington, the press said that the guy confessed his plan to travel north along a “underground railroad to Boston” while under torture. The Vigilance Committees, which were established in New York in 1835 and Philadelphia in 1838 to safeguard escaped enslaved persons from bounty hunters, rapidly expanded their duties to include guiding enslaved individuals on the run.

MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman and her fellow fugitives used the following strategies to escape through the Underground Railroad:

How the Underground Railroad Worked

The majority of enslaved persons aided by the Underground Railroad were able to flee to neighboring states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made catching fugitive enslaved persons a lucrative industry in the deep South, and there were fewer hiding places for them as a result of the Act. The majority of fugitive enslaved people were on their own until they reached specific places farther north. The escaping enslaved people were escorted by individuals known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were also used as hiding places throughout the war.

The personnel in charge of running them were referred to as “stationmasters.” There were several well-traveled roads that ran west through Ohio and into Indiana and Iowa.

The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.

Fugitive Slave Acts

The Fugitive Slave Acts were a major cause for many fugitive slaves to flee to Canada. This legislation, which was passed in 1793, authorized local governments to catch and extradite fugitive enslaved individuals from inside the borders of free states back to their places of origin, as well as to penalize anybody who assisted the fleeing enslaved people. Personal Liberty Laws were introduced in certain northern states to fight this, but they were overturned by the Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was intended to reinforce the preceding legislation, which was perceived by southern states to be insufficiently enforced at the time of passage.

The northern states were still considered a danger zone for fugitives who had managed to flee.

Some Underground Railroad operators chose to station themselves in Canada and sought to assist fugitives who were arriving to settle in the country.

Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad during its heyday. When she and two of her brothers fled from a farm in Maryland in 1849, she was given the name Harriet (her married name was Tubman). She was born Araminta Ross, and she was raised as Harriet Tubman. They returned a couple of weeks later, but Tubman fled on her own again shortly after, this time making her way to the state of Pennsylvania. In following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and other individuals.

Tubman was distraught until she had a vision of God, which led her to join the Underground Railroad and begin escorting other fugitive slaves to the Maryland state capital.

Frederick Douglass

She was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad, and her name is Harriet Tubman. In 1849, she and two of her brothers managed to escape from a farm in Maryland, where they were born into slavery under the name Araminta Ross. Harriet Tubman was her married name at the time. While they did return a few of weeks later, Tubman set out on her own shortly after, making her way to the state of Pennsylvania. In following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and other people.

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Tubman was distraught until she had a vision of God, which led her to join the Underground Railroad and begin escorting other runaway slaves to the Maryland state capital of Fredericksburg.

Who Ran the Underground Railroad?

The vast majority of Underground Railroad operators were regular individuals, including farmers and business owners, as well as preachers and religious leaders. Some affluent individuals were active, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who stood for president on two separate occasions. Smith acquired a full family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841 and freed them from their captivity. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, is credited with being one of the first recorded individuals to assist escaped enslaved persons.

Coffin stated that he had discovered their hiding spots and had sought them out in order to assist them in moving forward.

Coffin eventually relocated to Indiana and then Ohio, where he continued to assist fugitive enslaved individuals no matter where he was.

John Brown

Abolitionist John Brown worked as a conductor on the Underground Railroad, and it was at this time that he founded the League of Gileadites, which was dedicated to assisting fleeing enslaved individuals in their journey to Canada. Abolitionist John Brown would go on to play a variety of roles during his life. His most well-known duty was conducting an assault on Harper’s Ferry in order to raise an armed army that would march into the deep south and free enslaved people at gunpoint. Ultimately, Brown’s forces were beaten, and he was executed for treason in 1859.

  1. The year 1844, he formed a partnership with Vermont schoolteacher Delia Webster, and the two were jailed for assisting an escaped enslaved lady and her young daughter.
  2. Charles Torrey was sentenced to six years in jail in Maryland for assisting an enslaved family in their attempt to flee through Virginia.
  3. After being apprehended in 1844 while transporting a boatload of freed slaves from the Caribbean to the United States, Massachusetts sea captain Jonathan Walker was sentenced to prison for life.
  4. John Fairfield of Virginia turned down the opportunity to assist in the rescue of enslaved individuals who had been left behind by their families as they made their way north.

Fairfield’s strategy was to go around the southern United States appearing as a slave broker. He managed to elude capture twice. He died in 1860 in Tennessee, during the American Reconstruction Era.

End of the Line

Operation of the Underground Railroad came to an end in 1863, during the American Civil War. In actuality, its work was shifted aboveground as part of the Union’s overall campaign against the Confederate States of America. Once again, Harriet Tubman made a crucial contribution by organizing intelligence operations and serving as a commanding officer in Union Army efforts to rescue the liberated enslaved people who had been freed. MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman led a daring Civil War raid after the Underground Railroad was shut down.


Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad is a book about the Underground Railroad. Fergus Bordewich is a Scottish actor. A Biography of Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom Catherine Clinton is the first lady of the United States. Who Exactly Was in Charge of the Underground Railroad? ‘Henry Louis Gates’ is a pseudonym for Henry Louis Gates. The Underground Railroad’s History in New York is a little known fact. The Smithsonian Institution’s magazine. The Underground Railroad’s Dangerous Allure is well documented.

Underground Railroad

When describing a network of meeting spots, hidden routes, passages, and safehouses used by slaves in the United States to escape slave-holding states and seek refuge in northern states and Canada, the Underground Railroad was referred to as the Underground Railroad (UR). The underground railroad, which was established in the early 1800s and sponsored by persons active in the Abolitionist Movement, assisted thousands of slaves in their attempts to escape bondage. Between 1810 and 1850, it is estimated that 100,000 slaves escaped from bondage in the southern United States.

Facts, information and articles about the Underground Railroad

Aproximate year of birth: 1780


1780 is a rough estimate.

Slaves Freed

Estimates range between 6,000 and 10,000.

Prominent Figures

Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. William Still is a well-known author and poet. Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by author Levi Coffin. John Fairfield is a well-known author.

Related Reading:

The Story of How Canada Became the Final Station on the Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman’s Legacy as a Freedom Fighter and a Spion is well documented.

The Beginnings Of the Underground Railroad

Even before the nineteenth century, it appears that a mechanism to assist runaways existed. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with the assistance provided to one of his escaped slaves by “a organization of Quakers, founded for such purposes.” The Religious Society of Friends, or Quakers as they are more officially known, were among the first abolitionist organizations to emerge. Their influence may have played a role in Pennsylvania becoming the first state to abolish slavery, which was home to a large number of Quakers.

In recognition of his contributions, Levi is often referred to as the “president of the Underground Railroad.” In Fountain City, Ohio, on Ohio’s western border, the eight-room Indiana home they bought and used as a “station” before they came to Cincinnati has been preserved and is now a National Historic Landmark.

“Eliza” was one of the slaves who hid within it, and her narrative served as the inspiration for the character of the same name in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s abolitionist classic Uncle Tom’s Cabin.

The Underground Railroad Gets Its Name

Owen Brown, the father of radical abolitionist John Brown, was a member of the Underground Railroad in the state of New York during the Civil War. An unconfirmed narrative suggests that “Mammy Sally” designated the house where Abraham Lincoln’s future wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, grew up and served as a safe house where fugitives could receive food, but the account is doubtful. Routes of the Underground Railroad It was not until the early 1830s that the phrase “Underground Railroad” was first used.

Fugitives going by water or on genuine trains were occasionally provided with clothing so that they wouldn’t give themselves away by wearing their worn-out job attire.

Many of them continued on to Canada, where they could not be lawfully reclaimed by their rightful owners.

The slave or slaves were forced to flee from their masters, which was frequently done at night.

Conductors On The Railroad

A “conductor,” who pretended to be a slave, would sometimes accompany fugitives to a plantation in order to lead them on their journey. Harriet Tubman, a former slave who traveled to slave states 19 times and liberated more than 300 people, is one of the most well-known “conductors.” She used her shotgun to threaten death to any captives who lost heart and sought to return to slavery. The Underground Railroad’s operators faced their own set of risks as well. If someone living in the North was convicted of assisting fugitives in their escape, he or she could face fines of hundreds or even thousands of dollars, which was a significant sum at the time; however, in areas where abolitionism was strong, the “secret” railroad was openly operated, and no one was arrested.

His position as the most significant commander of the Underground Railroad in and around Albany grew as time went on.

However, in previous times of American history, the phrase “vigilance committee” generally refers to citizen organizations that took the law into their own hands, prosecuting and hanging those suspected of crimes when there was no local government or when they considered the local authority was corrupt or weak.

White males who were found assisting slaves in their escape were subjected to heavier punishments than white women, but both were likely to face at the very least incarceration.

The most severe punishments, such as hundreds of lashing with a whip, burning, or hanging, were reserved for any blacks who were discovered in the process of assisting fugitive fugitives on the loose.

The Civil War On The Horizon

Events such as the Missouri Compromise and the Dred Scott decision compelled more anti-slavery activists to take an active part in the effort to liberate slaves in the United States. After Abraham Lincoln was elected president, Southern states began to secede in December 1860, putting an end to the Union’s hopes of achieving independence from the United States. Abolitionist newspapers and even some loud abolitionists warned against giving the remaining Southern states an excuse to separate. Lucia Bagbe (later known as Sara Lucy Bagby Johnson) is considered to be the final slave who was returned to bondage as a result of the Fugitive Slave Law.

Her owner hunted her down and arrested her in December 1860.

Even the Cleveland Leader, a Republican weekly that was traditionally anti-slavery and pro-the Fugitive Slave Legislation, warned its readers that allowing the law to run its course “may be oil thrown upon the seas of our nation’s difficulties,” according to the newspaper.

In her honor, a Grand Jubilee was celebrated on May 6, 1863, in the city of Cleveland.

The Reverse Underground Railroad

Because of events like the Missouri Compromise and the Dred Scott decision, an increasing number of anti-slavery activists were involved in the movement to liberate slaves. Southern states began seceding in December 1860, following the election of Abraham Lincoln to the president, putting a crimp in the works of the Union. Abolitionist newspapers and even some loud abolitionists urged against giving the remaining Southern states an excuse to separate. Lucia Bagbe (later known as Sara Lucy Bagby Johnson) is considered to be the final slave who was returned to bondage as a result of the Fugitive Slave Act.

Her owner hunted her down and arrested her in December 1860.

In fact, the Cleveland Leader, a Republican journal that had previously taken a strong stance against slavery and the Fugitive Slave Legislation, warned its readers that allowing the law to run its course “may be oil thrown upon the rivers of our nation’s problems.” Lucy was sent to Ohio County, Virginia, where she was chastised, but she was eventually released when Union soldiers conquered the region.

On May 6, 1863, the city of Cleveland hosted a Grand Jubilee in her honor.

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