How Has The Massa Underground Railroad? (Solution)

What was the purpose of the Underground Railroad in Massachusetts?

  • It provided escaped slaves a means of reaching freedom in the north, especially after the Fugitive Slave Acts were passed in 1793 and 1850. These incredible places in Massachusetts were stops on the underground railroad, sheltering runaway slaves on their way to freedom.

Did the Underground Railroad go through Massachusetts?

The underground railroad was a string of safe houses that extended from the American south all the way to Canada. These incredible places in Massachusetts were stops on the underground railroad, sheltering runaway slaves on their way to freedom.

What city in Massachusetts has strong connections to the Underground Railroad?

Boston’s Underground Railroad Boston served as a destination for many people escaping slavery on the underground railroad. Freedom seekers arriving in the city found that Boston’s tightly knit free Black community provided support and a welcome sanctuary as they began their new lives.

How successful was the Underground Railroad?

Ironically the Fugitive Slave Act increased Northern opposition to slavery and helped hasten the Civil War. The Underground Railroad gave freedom to thousands of enslaved women and men and hope to tens of thousands more. In both cases the success of the Underground Railroad hastened the destruction of slavery.

Did the Underground Railroad operate in New England?

The Underground Railroad was a network of people who hid fugitives from slavery in their homes during the day. At night they moved them north to free states, Canada or England. Here, then, are six New England stops on the Underground Railroad, one for each of the New England states.

What are the routes of the Underground Railroad?

These were called “stations,” “safe houses,” and “depots.” The people operating them were called “stationmasters.” There were many well-used routes stretching west through Ohio to Indiana and Iowa. Others headed north through Pennsylvania and into New England or through Detroit on their way to Canada.

Where was the Underground Railroad in Maine?

All over the state, in Brunswick, Topsham, Auburn up to Brewer, Orono, Eastport and Fort Kent, approximately 75 homes and churches have been identified as stops along the underground railroad.

How long was the Big Dig?

The Central Artery/Tunnel Project (CA/T), commonly known as the Big Dig, was a megaproject in Boston that rerouted the Central Artery of Interstate 93 (I-93), the chief highway through the heart of the city, into the 1.5-mile (2.4 km) tunnel named the Thomas P. O’Neill Jr.

Does the Underground Railroad still exist?

It includes four buildings, two of which were used by Harriet Tubman. Ashtabula County had over thirty known Underground Railroad stations, or safehouses, and many more conductors. Nearly two-thirds of those sites still stand today.

How many slaves did Harriet Tubman save?

Fact: According to Tubman’s own words, and extensive documentation on her rescue missions, we know that she rescued about 70 people —family and friends—during approximately 13 trips to Maryland.

Was Vermont part of the Underground Railroad?

Vermont was very active in the anti-slavery movement before the Civil War. It is known that many slaves escaped through Vermont to Canada, but until recently there has not been much documentary evidence of who they were, how they escaped, what their routes were, or how they might have been hidden.

Was Maine part of the Underground Railroad?

During the mid-1800s, Maine was seen as one of the last steps on the road to freedom for many African-Americans trying to escape slavery through the Underground Railroad. The Underground Railroad consisted of an elaborate network of people and places to help hide slaves and get them to free states or Canada.

Was Rhode Island part of the Underground Railroad?

Few Rhode Islanders involved in the Underground Railroad are known to us today, and personal accounts are likewise sparse.

Traveling the Underground Railroad in Massachusetts

There was an underground railroad that ran from the south all the way up to Canada, and it was a succession of safe homes. This network of safe homes provided refuge and safety for escaped slaves who were attempting to gain freedom in the northern hemisphere. The Fugitive Slave Acts, passed in 1793 and 1850, made it permissible for slave hunters to go to free states and apprehend fugitive slaves, despite the fact that slavery was outlawed in the northern states at the time of its passage. A small number of slaves took their chances and settled in free states, but a large number of others travelled through these states on their way to Canada, where slavery was banned and slave hunters were barred from entering.

In 1998, the National Park Service established a program dedicated to discovering and protecting subterranean railroad sites, which has resulted in the identification of 23 sites in New England alone.

Ross Farm:

There was an underground train system that ran from the southern United States all the way up to Canada. For escaped slaves striving to attain freedom in the north, these safe homes provided shelter and security. The Fugitive Slave Acts, passed in 1793 and 1850, make it permissible for slave hunters to go to free states and apprehend fugitive slaves, despite the fact that slavery was still outlawed in the northern states. A small number of slaves took their chances and settled in free states, but a large number of others travelled through these states on their way to Canada, where slavery was banned and slave hunters were barred from entering the country.

As part of its Underground Railroad Preservation Program, the National Park Service established in 1998, it has discovered 23 underground railroad sites in New England alone, with the goal of conserving these places for future generations.

Liberty Farm:

Liberty Farm is a farm in the United States of America. Abolitionists Stephen Symonds Foster and his wife Abby Kelley previously lived at Liberty Farm in Worcester, a federal-style home built in the manner of the time. In their respective roles as speakers, Kelley and Foster traveled the country, speaking out not just against slavery but also for women’s rights and other social concerns of the day. The husband and wife welcomed fugitive slaves into their home as soon as they moved into their new home in 1847, after acquiring it.

Every time the couple’s home was confiscated by the government for unpaid taxes, friends and neighbors would step in and purchase the property and return it to them.

The Wayside:

Liberty Farm is a farm in the United States that produces a variety of fruits and vegetables. Stephen Symonds Foster and his wife Abby Kelley owned Liberty Farm in Worcester, a federal-style home that still stands today. They were both lecturers who travelled the country, speaking out not just against slavery, but also on themes such as gender equality and other social challenges of the day. The husband and wife welcomed escaped slaves into their home as soon as they took possession of the property in 1847.

The couple’s home was confiscated by the government for non-payment of past taxes on a regular basis, but friends and neighbors would purchase the property and return it to them.

The Hayden House:

The Hayden House is a historic building in Washington, D.C. It is one of the most well-documented stops on the Underground Railroad, and it is located in Boston’s Hayden House. Lewis Hayden, an escaped slave, and his wife Harriet lived in this mansion, which was built in the 1860s. In the 1850s, the Hayden family acquired the house and converted it into a boarding house for their guests. Beginning in the 1850s and continuing into the Civil War, the Haydens had a large number of slaves in their house, including a well-known slave couple named William and Ellen Craft, who were born into slavery.

The slave hunters were unable to find any slaves in Boston.

Williams Ingersoll Bowditch House:

The William Ingersoll Bowditch House is located in the town of Bowditch in the town of William Ingersoll Bowditch. It is located in Brookline, Massachusetts, just outside of Boston, and was built in the late nineteenth century by William Ingersoll Bowditch. The mansion, which was erected in 1844, was the residence of William Ingersoll Bowditch, a local conveyancer, town selectman, and abolitionist who was also an abolitionist. The son of abolitionist John Brown was taken into hiding by Bowditch after his father’s conviction and death during the unsuccessful attack on Harper’s Ferry in Virginia.

Jackson Homestead:

Jackson’s Homestead is a historic site in Jackson, Tennessee. A Federalist-style house erected in Newton in 1809 by Timothy Jackson, the Jackson homestead is a historic landmark. After participating in the Revolutionary War, Jackson decided to build a house for himself. Jackson’s son, William, was an abolitionist who, after inheriting the mansion from his father, opened the doors to fugitive slaves seeking refuge. It was Ellen, William’s daughter, who recounted the night a fugitive slave arrived to the house: “the Homestead’s doors were always open with a welcome to any of the workers against slavery, who may come and go as frequently and for as long as it suited their convenience or pleasure.” A station on the “Underground Rail Road,” which was constantly assisting escaped slaves from the South on their journey to Canada, the Homestead was one of the stops on their route.

  1. I recall my father being woken up by pebbles being hurled against his window one night between midnight and one o’clock in the morning.
  2. Bowditch responded that it was him who had arrived, accompanied by a fugitive slave whom he desired father to conceal until the morning and then assist him on his route to Canada, for his master was in Boston seeking for him.
  3. Father took him in and the next morning transported him 15 miles to a train station from where he could board a vehicle to travel to Canada with his family.
  4. I’ve had a number of fugitives take refuge at my home.
  5. Jackson in Newton.
  6. Muriel Hoffacker is one of the sources.

‘Lewis and Harriet Hayden House’ was featured in the Salem News, published by The Eagle-Tribune Publishing Co on February 13, 2010. “List of Sites for the Underground Railroad Travel Itineray,” according to the National Park Service. The National Park Service (NPS)

6 Incredible Places Around Massachusetts That Were Once Part Of The Underground Railroad

Jackson’s Homestead is a historic site in Jackson County, Georgia, that was built in the early 1800s. A Federalist-style house erected in Newton in 1809 by Timothy Jackson, the Jackson farm is a historic site. After participating in the Revolutionary War, Jackson decided to build a mansion for himself. The home was inherited by Jackson’s son, William, who was a staunch abolitionist who welcomed escaped slaves into the house after his father died. It was Ellen, William’s daughter, who recounted the night an escaped slave arrived to the house: “the Homestead’s doors were always open with a welcome to any of the workers against slavery, who may come and go as frequently and for as long as it suited their convenience or pleasure.

  • I recall my father being woken up by pebbles hurled at his window one night between midnight and one o’clock.
  • ‘It’s me,’ Bowditch answered, holding a fugitive slave, who asked Father to conceal him until the next morning and then assist him on his route to Canada, because his master was seeking for him in Boston.
  • It was impossible for him to have gone securely through any of the Boston stations.” An 1893 letter from William Ingersoll Bowditch, who wrote about the Jackson Homestead, provides more proof of its use: “We had no regular route and no regular station in Massachusetts.
  • In most cases, I forwarded them on to Wm.

He could easily forward anyone because his residence is on the Worcester Railroad.” Because of the death of their patriarch in 1855, the Jackson family could no longer afford to house fugitive slaves in their home and instead devoted their time to numerous charitable and community groups in Newton.

“Underground Railroad Exploration Event.” ‘Lewis and Harriet Hayden House’ appeared in the Salem News, published by The Eagle-Tribune Publishing Co on February 13, 2010.

Park Service of the United States of America

Boston: An Underground Railroad Hub – Boston African American National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)

Jackson Homestead is a historic site in Jackson, Tennessee. Timothy Jackson erected the Jackson homestead, a Federalist-style house in Newton, Massachusetts, in 1809. After participating in the Revolutionary War, Jackson returned home to build his dream house. When Jackson’s son, William, acquired the mansion from his father, he was an abolitionist who welcomed escaped slaves into the home. When William’s daughter Ellen described the night a fugitive slave arrived to the house, she said: “the Homestead’s doors were always open with a welcome to any of the workers against slavery for as frequently and as long as it suited their convenience or pleasure.” A station on the “Underground Rail Road,” which transported fugitive slaves from the South to Canada, was located at the Homestead.

  1. by rocks hurled against his window.
  2. Bowditch responded that it was him who had arrived, accompanied by a fugitive slave whom he asked father to conceal until the morning and then assist him on his route to Canada, for his master was in Boston hunting for him.
  3. He would not have been able to leave safely via any Boston Station.” An 1893 letter from William Ingersoll Bowditch, who wrote about the Jackson Homestead, provides more proof of its use: “We had no regular route and no regular stop in Massachusetts.
  4. In most cases, I forwarded them to Wm.

Because his residence is located on the Worcester Railroad, he could readily forward anyone.” Upon the death of their patriarch in 1855, the Jackson family could no longer afford to house fugitive slaves in their home and instead devoted their time to different charitable and community groups in Newton.

“An Exploration of the Underground Railroad” is the name of the event.

Salem News, The Eagle-Tribune Publishing Co., 13 February 2010, “Lewis and Harriet Hayden House,” Salem, Massachusetts, USA. The National Park Service has compiled a “List of Sites for the Underground Railroad Travel Itineray,” which may be seen here. The National Park Service (NPS),

Merrimack Valley’s Underground Railroad

Emma Limperis, a guest writer for the Greater Merrimack Valley CVB, wrote this post. Historic architecture in the Merrimack Valley may be traced back to the late 1800s, when the region was at its most prosperous during the industrial revolution. The construction of Greek revival-style architecture, which comprised columns, porches, and symmetrical facing dwellings, was popular among rich Merrimack Valley people from the 1830s through the 1850s, according to historical records. Interiorly, many homes had open floor designs with minimal corridors and chambers that were nestled into other, bigger areas.

  • Several of these architectural treasures played a crucial role in a pivotal period of American history: the Underground Railroad, the laborious journey that many African-Americans from the southern states took to escape from slavery.
  • A large number of local households and companies that supported abolitionism in the north built and exploited these hideaway locations to offer safe shelter for fugitive slaves on their journey to Canada.
  • By the late 1830s, more and more safe homes in Lowell were springing up as part of the Underground Railroad, thanks to the efforts of local churches such as St.
  • It was at this church home close to St.
  • There are still pillars supporting the front entrance, as well as two large chimneys on either side of the roof, which distinguish the structure.
  • As a result, the brick home still has its original pulley fan system and attic hideaway, as well as secret chambers in the bar, which were used during Prohibition years after it was built.
  • Despite this, the mansion was originally held by slave owner Samuel Whitney in the 18th century, whose own slave, named Casey, managed to escape from the house and join colonial rebels during the American Revolutionary War.
  • The Mechanic’s Hall, now known as theOld City Hallon Merrimack Street in Lowell, was a popular destination for former slave Nathaniel Booth, who established a barber shop there until he was forced to flee to avoid capture by slave hunters in 1850.
  • The usage of lit lanterns and hanging quilts served as a universal code for safe places along the Underground Railroad, and particular knocks or songs were sung as the language of slave refugees seeking sanctuary from their captivity.

Every season of the year, visitors to the Merrimack Valley may take advantage of this unique piece of history. the History Month website.

The Underground Railroad

By Emma Limperis, a guest writer for the Greater Merrimack Valley Convention and Visitors Bureau Historic architecture in the Merrimack Valley may be traced back to the late 1800s, when the region was at its most prosperous during the industrial boom period. The construction of Greek revival-style architecture, which comprised columns, porches, and symmetrical fronted dwellings, was popular among rich Merrimack Valley people from the 1830s through the 1850s. Many homes featured open floor layouts with few corridors and rooms that were contained within bigger areas on the inside.

  1. Several of these architectural treasures played a crucial role in a pivotal period of American history: the Underground Railroad, the laborious journey that many African-Americans from the southern states used to escape slavery.
  2. In the north, many local families and companies that supported abolitionism built and exploited these hideaway sites to offer safe shelter for fugitive slaves on their journey to Canada.
  3. Several local denominations, including St.
  4. One important station on the Underground Railroad was the church building close to St.
  5. With pillars displaying the front entrance and two conspicuous chimneys on either side of the roof, the stone home is still in good condition today.
  6. The brick home still maintains its original pulley fan system and attic hideaway, as well as secret compartments in the bar that were used years later during Prohibition, which can be found on the second floor.
  7. Despite this, the mansion was originally held by slave owner Samuel Whitney in the 18th century, whose own slave, Casey, managed to escape from the house and join the colonial rebels during the Revolutionary War, ironically.
  8. When Nathaniel Booth was forced to run from slave hunters in 1850, Mechanic’s Hall, now known as the Old City Hall on Merrimack Street in Lowell, served as a conspicuous lodging for him.
  9. The usage of lit lanterns and hanging quilts served as a universal code for safe places along the Underground Railroad, and particular knocks or songs were sung as the language of slave refugees seeking sanctuary from their captors.

Every season of the year offers visitors to the Merrimack Valley the opportunity to take in this unique piece of history. the History Month web site.

Underground Railroad in Massachusetts

Jackson’s Homestead is a historic site in Jackson, Tennessee. The Jackson farmhouse, located at 527 Washington Street in Newton, Massachusetts, is a Federalist-style house that was constructed in 1809. William Jackson was an abolitionist who opened his home to escaped slaves who were seeking refuge. A photograph of the Jackson family taken around 1846. The following is a narrative given by William’s daughter Ellen about the night an escaped slave arrived to the house: “The Homestead’s doors were always open with a welcome to any of the workers against slavery for as frequently and as long as it suited their convenience or pleasure,” she said.

  1. I recall my father being woken up by pebbles being hurled against his window one night between midnight and one o’clock in the morning.
  2. In response, Bowditch informed Father that it was really he who had arrived with a fugitive slave who asked him to conceal until dawn and then assist him on his route to Canada, as his owner was in Boston seeking for him.
  3. He would not have been able to leave safely from any Boston Station.
  4. Those who made contributions of bedding, clothes, and books to the black colleges of Hampton and Tuskegee Institutes had their contributions documented in the Society’s minute book, which may be found here.
  5. This is a difficult question to answer.
  6. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 permitted slave hunters to go to free states, arrest runaways, and return them to their masters in the slave states, despite the fact that slavery was outlawed in the northern United States at the time of the act’s passage.
See also:  What Were Stops Along The Underground Railroad Called? (Solution)

According to John Michael Vlach, Professor of American Studies and Anthropology at George Washington University, the heroism of African Americans is lessened by the usage of train analogies, which direct the majority of focus away from the ‘conductors’ and their’stations.’ Since the first secondary stories of the Underground Railroad came in print after the Civil War, with Siebert’s being the most important among them, there has been an overwhelming inclination to emphasize those white abolitionists who supported fugitives in their escapes.

  1. … Every participant in this protracted and widespread act of civil disobedience, both the runaways and those who assisted them, ran the possibility of being beaten, imprisoned, or subjected to other consequences.
  2. While great courage was required of everyone involved, it was the fugitive slaves who were the most vulnerable and whose efforts should be seen as the most courageous of all.
  3. Ross Farm is a family-owned and operated farm in the United Kingdom.
  4. Burt sold the site to Samuel Whitmarsh in 1834, who used the proceeds to cultivate mulberry trees and construct a silk factory on the adjacent Mill River.
  5. Image: The Northampton Association for Education and Industry, a municipal association founded in 1841, originally owned the 300-acre Ross Farm, which is now privately owned.
  6. Our station was on the route that ran from Hartford to New York City, yet we occasionally had customers who came up from the Hudson River Valley or diagonally across the Pennsylvania border.
  7. Austin was also a committed abolitionist, and he welcomed escaping slaves who were on their way to Canada into his house.

The Supreme Court’s Justice Roger Taney said that African Americans “did not have any rights that the white man was obligated to recognize.” This ruling, according to Samuel Hill, “frightened the fugitives who had been driven to this region by the anti-slavery spirit of the locality, so that they soon after went to Canada, in which the Dred Scott decision had no power.” This location eventually became a stop on the so-called Underground Railroad, which was used to transfer fugitives from the United States to Canada.

  • Liberty Farm is a farm in the United States of America.
  • Kelly joined the Female Anti-Slavery Society of Lynn after attending a speech by William Lloyd Garrison about the abolition of slavery in Lynn, Massachusetts.
  • As she collaborated with abolitionists like as Angelina Grimke, her political beliefs became increasingly extreme.
  • Pictured: Liberty Farm, the house of Abby Kelley in Worcester, Massachusetts.
  • When the couple acquired Liberty Farm, which contained a farmhouse in the Federal style, near Worcester, Massachusetts, it was in 1847.
  • One of the secrets of Liberty Farm was a secret vault in the cellar of the house, measuring five by ten feet in size.
  • The Fosters used this vault to hide runaways who were in their custody.

Kelley worked for women’s suffrage and had a significant impact on future suffragists such as Susan B.

Furthermore, she assisted in the organization of the first National Women’s Rights Convention, which took place in Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1850.

As a result of their escape from slavery in Kentucky in 1844, Harriet Bell Hayden and her husband Lewis Hayden traveled first to Ohio, then to Michigan before eventually settling in Boston, Massachusetts, where they became strong abolitionists in the city.

The Hayden House in Boston is one of the most well-documented sites on the Underground Railroad, according to historians.

A fleeing slave couple, William and Ellen Craft, were aided by the Haydens in 1850, when they were protected by them from slave hunters on the prowl in Boston.

The slave hunters were unable to find any slaves in Boston.

Abridged version of the following passage from The Underground Railroad Railroad in Massachusetts: As anti-slavery groups began to take shape in Danvers, Massachusetts, the town became a focal point for the Underground Railroad, thanks to the efforts of a number of laborers, notably Mr.

D.

When she was approximately seven years old, Sarah Elizabeth Bradstreet recalls a fugitive coming to their house who “had ran away after witnessing his wife and children sold to other owners.” Sarah Elizabeth Bradstreet is a descendant of the Baker family.

After a fortnight of care, he was deemed well enough to be discharged from the hospital.

Another terrible had to be nursed back to health before he could continue his journey northward.

Baker went to the border and waited on the American side because he was concerned that the last man would not have enough money to pay the toll to cross the bridge into Canada.

Baker paid his toll.

Wilbur Siebert’s The Underground Railroad Railroad in Massachusetts is available as a PDF download. Traveling the Underground Railroad in Massachusetts is part of the state’s historical legacy.

Springfield, MA – Our Plural History

African Americans in wagon and on foot, escaping from slavery via the Underground Railroad. Credit: Library of Congress, PrintsPhotographs Division,(cph 3a29554/ LC-USZ62-28860)

resisting slavery

By the 1830s Springfield was a key station along the Underground Railroad, a secret network of escape routes and hiding places used by African-Americans fleeing slavery in the South. Conductors along the way, both black and white, assisted runaway slaves with food and shelter in attics, cellars, deep holes in the ground, and hidden rooms. Running at night and hiding by day, escaping slaves —perhaps several thousand out of a population of almost three million —made their way to freedom in the northern U.S. and Canada.Massachusetts was at the forefront of the anti-slavery movement. In 1788, members of the Massachusetts legislature banned the slave trade within the state’s borders. The last slave in Springfield, a fugitive from Schenectady, New York, was freed in February 1808. After her owner came to town to reclaim her, three local selectmen and eighteen others purchased then freed the woman, named Jenny. She settled west of Goosepond, near what later became known as Winchester Square. 1The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 allowed slave hunters to capture runaways in the North and made it a crime to harbor or assist escaping slaves. Free blacks and abolitionists repudiated the law, which they argued made the North complicit in the continuation of slavery. At increasing risk to their own lives and freedom, they continued in their efforts to help escaping slaves.In the late 1850s there were more than two hundred free black residents of Springfield. The first African American church in town, organized in 1844 as the Sanford Street Free Church, hosted visits by abolitionist champions Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth. In response to the Fugitive Slave Law, John Brown, Springfield’s most ardent abolitionist, formed an organization of black and white members dedicated to preventing the recapture of escaping slaves.Brown used his own home and two warehouses he owned near the railroad station as safe-houses. Thomas Thomas, a former slave and an associate of Brown, hid runaway slaves in an alcove in the restaurant he owned on the corner of Worthington and Main.The Chapin family, operators of theMassasoit Hotelon the corner of Main and Rail Road Streets (today known as Gridiron Street), fed and hid slaves in a crawl space beneath the hotel’s main stairway. Reverend Samuel Osgood hid groups of escaping slaves in his home, in a backroom known as “the prophet’s chamber.” Rufus Elmer’s shoe shop on the corner of Lyman and Main became an after-hours meeting place where conductors on the Underground Railroad shared information and made plans. Husband and wife Jeremy and Phoebe Warriner converted a granary bin beneath the kitchen of their inn and tavern into a holding space large enough to hide ten escaping slaves.Through the efforts of the local abolitionist community, those slaves fortunate enough to make it as far as Springfield found rest and nourishment on their way farther north. Canada became their primary destination once the Fugitive Slave Law made even New England unsafe for runaways. The stories and experiences of abolitionists and fugitive slaves following the Connecticut River northward can be found in a fascinating collection of letters preserved at the Rokeby Museum in Ferrisburgh, Vermont. Springfield’s role in the Underground Railroad is commemorated by theAfrican American Heritage Trail, which marks important sites associated with the fight against slavery. 1Jeanette G. Davis-Harris,Springfield’s Ethnic Heritage: The Black Community(Springfield: U.S.A. Bicentennial Committee of Springfield, 1976), p. 2.Table of Contents

Underground Railroad

Jackson’s Homestead is a historic site in Jackson County, Georgia, that was built in the early 1800s. It was erected in 1809 and is located at 527 Washington Street in Newton, Massachusetts. The Jackson homestead is a Federalist-style residence. During the Civil War, William Jackson was an abolitionist who opened his home to fleeing slaves seeking refuge. The Jackson family in the year 1846. Image: “The Homestead’s doors were always open, and we welcomed any of the employees who were against slavery as frequently and for as long as it suited their convenience or pleasure,” William’s daughter Ellen recalled the night a fugitive slave visited to the house.

  • I recall my father being woken up by pebbles hurled at his window one night between midnight and one o’clock.
  • In response, Bowditch informed Father that it was indeed he who had arrived with a fugitive slave who asked him to conceal until dawn and then assist him on his route to Canada, for his owner was in Boston seeking for him.
  • Father took him in and the next morning transported him 15 miles to a train station from where he could board a vehicle to travel to Canada with his family and friends.
  • Her contributions to the founding of the Freedman’s Aid Society in Newton were invaluable, and she served as its president from 1865 until 1902.
  • Establishing the Railroad as a Concept What was the process of establishing the Underground Railroad?
  • It is most commonly defined as a network of safe houses that ran from the southern United States all the way up to Canada, providing refuge and nutrition for fugitive slaves during their journey northward.
  • A small number of slaves were able to go to the free states, but the majority fled to Canada, where slavery was banned and slave hunters were barred from entering.

… Participants in this long-running and widely disseminated act of civil disobedience, including the runaways and those who assisted them, were subjected to beatings and other forms of punishment.

However, while great courage was required of everyone involved, it was the fugitive slaves who were the most vulnerable and whose efforts should be seen as the most courageous of the bunch.

Ross Farm is a family-owned and operated farm located in the town of Ross in the county of Ross.

After selling the land to Samuel Whitmarsh in 1834, Whitmarsh began planting mulberry trees on the site and building a silk mill on the Mill River, which is located nearby.

Image: In 1841, the Northampton Association for Education and Industry purchased the 300-acre Ross Farm and turned it into a community society.

However, we occasionally had customers who came up part way via the Hudson River Valley or diagonally across the Pennsylvania border to our station, which was on the route from Hartford heading north.

Additionally, Austin was an outspoken abolitionist, and he welcomed escaping slaves who were on their way to Canada into his house.

African Americans, according to Supreme Court Justice Roger Taney, “had no rights that the white man was obligated to honor.” This ruling, according to Samuel Hill, “frightened the fugitives who had been driven to this region by the anti-slavery spirit of the locality, so that they soon after went to Canada, in which the Dred Scott decision had no authority.” Later, this location was used as a stop on the so-called Underground Railroad, which was used to carry fugitives to Canada.

  1. Liberty Farm is a farm in the United States that produces a variety of fruits and vegetables.
  2. The Female Anti-Slavery Society of Lynn was founded by Kelley after she attended a talk by William Lloyd Garrison on abolition of slavery in Lynn, Massachusetts.
  3. Slavery was abolished, and African Americans were given full civil rights, which she pushed for.
  4. Abby Kelley and Stephen Symonds Foster were married in 1845 in the state of New Hampshire.
  5. From the commencement of the Civil War to the end of their twenty-five-year residence, they housed runaway slaves.
  6. Only a trap-door in the floor of the chamber above served as an entrance to this vault.
  7. Abolitionists and women’s rights activists, Kelley and Foster also worked as speakers, traveling the country to promote their causes.

Anthony and Lucy Stone.

HAYDEN HOUSE is a mansion in the English countryside near London.

As a result of their escape from slavery in Kentucky in 1844, Harriet Bell Hayden and her husband Lewis Hayden made their way first to Ohio, then to Michigan before settling in Boston, Massachusetts, where they became strong abolitionists in the city.

Images from the Underground Railroad: The Hayden House in Boston is one of the most well-documented stops on the Underground Railroad.

A fleeing slave pair, William and Ellen Craft, sought assistance from the Haydens in 1850, and the couple was protected from slave hunters on the prowl in Boston.

Despite their efforts, the slave hunters were unsuccessful.

Sarah Elizabeth Bradstreet’s full name is Sarah Elizabeth Bradstreet Abridged version of the following excerpt from The Underground Railroad Railroad in Massachusetts: The town of Danvers, Massachusetts, became an Underground Railroad hub as anti-slavery societies began to form there.

and Mrs.

Brooks Baker, who lived in a cottage on the corner of Elm and Putnam streets, helped to establish the Underground Railroad in Danvers in 1850.

The elderly negro was placed on a layer of brown sugar in the bed in an above chamber while her parents cooked a layer of brown sugar in the bed with a warming-pan and then laid him down to heal his back, which was still sore from the whippings he’d suffered.

While her mother fed him soup with a spoon, she looked after another fugitive who was approximately thirty-five years old.

Mr.

After Mr.

According to him afterwards, “he’d never witnessed any living creature move as quickly” as that slave did during his “dash across the bridge to freedom.” SOURCES Signage: Ross Farm – Northampton, MAClio: Liberty Farm, Stephen and Abby Foster’s Home, and others In Massachusetts, the Underground Railroad was established by Wilbur Siebert, who wrote The Underground Railroad Railroad in Massachusetts.

Walking the Underground Railroad in Massachusetts, a piece of American history

Quaker Abolitionists

The Society of Friends (Quakers) is often regarded as the first organized group to actively assist escaped enslaved persons. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with Quakers for attempting to “liberate” one of his enslaved servants. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved persons who were on the run from slavery. Abolitionist organisations founded by Quakers in North Carolina lay the basis for escape routes and safe havens for fugitive slaves during the same time period.

What Was the Underground Railroad?

The Underground Railroad was first mentioned in 1831, when an enslaved man named Tice Davids managed to escape from Kentucky into Ohio and his master blamed a “underground railroad” for assisting Davids in his liberation. When a fugitive slave called Jim was apprehended in 1839 in Washington, the press said that the guy confessed his plan to travel north along a “underground railroad to Boston” while under torture. The Vigilance Committees, which were established in New York in 1835 and Philadelphia in 1838 to safeguard escaped enslaved persons from bounty hunters, rapidly expanded their duties to include guiding enslaved individuals on the run.

MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman and her fellow fugitives used the following strategies to escape through the Underground Railroad:

How the Underground Railroad Worked

The majority of enslaved persons aided by the Underground Railroad were able to flee to neighboring states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made catching fugitive enslaved persons a lucrative industry in the deep South, and there were fewer hiding places for them as a result of the Act. The majority of fugitive enslaved people were on their own until they reached specific places farther north. The escaping enslaved people were escorted by individuals known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were also used as hiding places throughout the war.

The personnel in charge of running them were referred to as “stationmasters.” There were several well-traveled roads that ran west through Ohio and into Indiana and Iowa.

The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.

Fugitive Slave Acts

The Fugitive Slave Acts were a major cause for many fugitive slaves to flee to Canada. This legislation, which was passed in 1793, authorized local governments to catch and extradite fugitive enslaved individuals from inside the borders of free states back to their places of origin, as well as to penalize anybody who assisted the fleeing enslaved people. Personal Liberty Laws were introduced in certain northern states to fight this, but they were overturned by the Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was intended to reinforce the preceding legislation, which was perceived by southern states to be insufficiently enforced at the time of passage.

The northern states were still considered a danger zone for fugitives who had managed to flee.

Some Underground Railroad operators chose to station themselves in Canada and sought to assist fugitives who were arriving to settle in the country.

Harriet Tubman

In many cases, Fugitive Slave Acts were the driving force behind their departure. This legislation, which was passed in 1793, authorized local governments to catch and extradite fugitive enslaved persons from inside the borders of free states back to their places of origin, as well as to penalize anybody who assisted the runaway slaves. Personal Liberty Laws were introduced in several northern states to oppose this, but they were overturned by the Supreme Court in 1842. Aiming to improve on the previous legislation, which southern states believed was being enforced insufficiently, the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed.

It was still considered a risk for an escaped individual to travel to the northern states.

In Canada, some Underground Railroad operators established bases of operations and sought to assist fugitives in settling into their new home country.

Frederick Douglass

In his house in Rochester, New York, former enslaved person and celebrated author Frederick Douglasshid fugitives who were assisting 400 escapees in their journey to freedom in Canada. Reverend Jermain Loguen, a former fugitive who lived in the adjacent city of Syracuse, assisted 1,500 escapees on their journey north. The Vigilance Committee was established in Philadelphia in 1838 by Robert Purvis, an escaped enslaved person who later became a trader. Josiah Henson, a former enslaved person and railroad operator, founded the Dawn Institute in Ontario in 1842 to assist fugitive slaves who made their way to Canada in learning the necessary skills to find work.

Agent,” according to the document.

John Parker was a free Black man living in Ohio who worked as a foundry owner and who used his rowboat to ferry fugitives over the Ohio River.

William Still was a notable Philadelphia citizen who was born in New Jersey to runaway slaves parents who fled to Philadelphia as children.

Who Ran the Underground Railroad?

The vast majority of Underground Railroad operators were regular individuals, including farmers and business owners, as well as preachers and religious leaders. Some affluent individuals were active, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who stood for president on two separate occasions. Smith acquired a full family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841 and freed them from their captivity. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, is credited with being one of the first recorded individuals to assist escaped enslaved persons.

Coffin stated that he had discovered their hiding spots and had sought them out in order to assist them in moving forward.

Finally, they were able to make their way closer to him. Coffin eventually relocated to Indiana and then Ohio, where he continued to assist fugitive enslaved individuals no matter where he was.

John Brown

Ordinary individuals, farmers and business owners, as well as pastors, were the majority of those who operated the Underground Railroad. Several millionaires, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who campaigned for president twice, were involved. For the first time in his life, Smith purchased and freed a whole family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, was one of the earliest recorded individuals to assist fleeing enslaved persons. Beginning in 1813, when he was 15 years old, he began his career.

They eventually began to make their way closer to him and eventually reached him.

End of the Line

Operation of the Underground Railroad came to an end in 1863, during the American Civil War. In actuality, its work was shifted aboveground as part of the Union’s overall campaign against the Confederate States of America. Once again, Harriet Tubman made a crucial contribution by organizing intelligence operations and serving as a commanding officer in Union Army efforts to rescue the liberated enslaved people who had been freed. MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman led a daring Civil War raid after the Underground Railroad was shut down.

Sources

Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad is a book about the Underground Railroad. Fergus Bordewich is a Scottish actor. A Biography of Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom Catherine Clinton is the first lady of the United States. Who Exactly Was in Charge of the Underground Railroad? ‘Henry Louis Gates’ is a pseudonym for Henry Louis Gates. The Underground Railroad’s History in New York is a little known fact. The Smithsonian Institution’s magazine. The Underground Railroad’s Dangerous Allure is well documented.

Underground Railroad Affiliations In The Merrimack Valley

Because of its collection of hidden historical treasures and secrets that are still alive in the present day, the Merrimack Valley has long been known for its preservation of historic architecture and homes built generations ago, which are etched into the walls and inscribed into the floors of preserved architecture and homes built generations ago. On this side of Boston, it’s nearly hard to find a place that doesn’t have its fair share of stories that date back to the 1800s, the heyday of the industrial revolution during when most of the Merrimack Valley’s most prominent structures were constructed.

The interior designs of these residences were diverse.

There were a few that had the extra convenience of isolated secret chambers in basements or attics, and others that had crawl spaces in walls and fireplaces as well.

In the Merrimack Valley, a number of Underground Railroad Houses were discovered along a path taken by escaped slaves on their way out of Boston, which frequently passed via Lowell and other communities east of the Merrimack River and on their way to Vermont.

Mill owners and investors were concerned that if slaves were not working on plantations in the southern United States to gather the cotton needed for the mills to run, no one would be able to perform the essential task that was essential to the mills’ survival, and the mills would be forced to close.

  1. The city hosted a number of anti-slavery agitators, including George Thompson and William Lloyd Garrison, who spoke publicly about their ideas.
  2. Anti-slavery organizations such as St.
  3. A key station on the Underground Railroad, the church building next to St.
  4. The stone house is still standing there today, with pillars supporting the front entrance and two large chimneys on either side of the roof, as shown by the presence of the pillars.
  5. Anne’s was where Reverend Edson assisted blacks in their escape from slavery in the early 1830s, according to local legend.
  6. Another likely Underground Railroad station is the well-known Worthen House Café, which is the oldest bar in Lowell to this day and is the oldest in the United States.

The Wayside House in Concord, Massachusetts, has a long list of reasons why it is such a well-known and well-preserved structure today, including the fact that it was not only the home of authors Louisa May Alcott, Margaret Sidney, and Nathaniel Hawthorne, but it also served as a safe haven for fugitive slaves in 1847.

  1. Samuel Whitney, one of the company’s very first owners, was a slave owner.
  2. Years later, in 1846, when the Alcott family acquired control of the Wayside House, the home was renamed the “Hillside” and opened its doors to all fugitive slaves.
  3. Increasingly near to the outbreak of the Civil War, the Underground Railroad gained momentum as the number of slaves it was able to liberate increased by the hundreds of thousands each year.
  4. When Nathaniel Booth was forced to leave to avoid capture by slave catchers in 1850, he stayed in the Mechanic’s Hall on Merrimack Street in Lowell, which is now known as the Old City Hall.
  5. Specific signals, such as burning lanterns or hanging quilts, were thought to be the universal code for safe places along the Underground Railroad, while certain knocks or songs were thought to be the language of slave refugees seeking asylum.

It is the people of the Merrimack Valley who have shaped this defining past, which has resulted in our being the quirky, friendly town that we are today. Additional resources include:

The Underground Railroad

The Underground Railroad, a vast network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and to Canada, was not run by any single organization or person. Rather, it consisted of many individuals – many whites but predominently black – who knew only of the local efforts to aid fugitives and not of the overall operation. Still, it effectively moved hundreds of slaves northward each year – according to one estimate,the South lost 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850. An organized system to assist runaway slaves seems to have begun towards the end of the 18th century. In 1786 George Washington complained about how one of his runaway slaves was helped by a “society of Quakers, formed for such purposes.” The system grew, and around 1831 it was dubbed “The Underground Railroad,” after the then emerging steam railroads. The system even used terms used in railroading: the homes and businesses where fugitives would rest and eat were called “stations” and “depots” and were run by “stationmasters,” those who contributed money or goods were “stockholders,” and the “conductor” was responsible for moving fugitives from one station to the next.For the slave, running away to the North was anything but easy. The first step was to escape from the slaveholder. For many slaves, this meant relying on his or her own resources. Sometimes a “conductor,” posing as a slave, would enter a plantation and then guide the runaways northward. The fugitives would move at night. They would generally travel between 10 and 20 miles to the next station, where they would rest and eat, hiding in barns and other out-of-the-way places. While they waited, a message would be sent to the next station to alert its stationmaster.The fugitives would also travel by train and boat – conveyances that sometimes had to be paid for. Money was also needed to improve the appearance of the runaways – a black man, woman, or child in tattered clothes would invariably attract suspicious eyes. This money was donated by individuals and also raised by various groups, including vigilance committees.Vigilance committees sprang up in the larger towns and cities of the North, most prominently in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. In addition to soliciting money, the organizations provided food, lodging and money, and helped the fugitives settle into a community by helping them find jobs and providing letters of recommendation.The Underground Railroad had many notable participants, including John Fairfield in Ohio, the son of a slaveholding family, who made many daring rescues, Levi Coffin, a Quaker who assisted more than 3,000 slaves, and Harriet Tubman, who made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.

Eastern Illinois University : Teaching with Primary Sources

Because of its collection of hidden historical treasures and secrets that are still alive in the present day, the Merrimack Valley has long been known for its preservation of historic architecture and homes built centuries ago, which are etched into the walls and inscribed into the floors of preserved architecture and homes built centuries ago. On this side of Boston, it’s nearly hard to find a place that doesn’t have its fair share of stories that date back to the 1800s, the heyday of the industrial revolution during when most of the Merrimack Valley’s most notable landmarks were constructed.

  1. These residences have a variety of interior designs.
  2. There were a few that had the extra convenience of quiet secret chambers in basements or attics, and some that had crawl spaces in walls and fireplaces.
  3. In the Merrimack Valley, a number of Underground Railroad Houses were discovered along a path taken by escaped slaves on their way out of Boston, which frequently passed via Lowell and other communities east of the Merrimack River and on their way to Vermont and Canada.
  4. Those who owned cotton plantations in the southern United States believed that without slaves working on the farms, no one would be able to harvest the cotton needed to keep the mills running, and as a result, the mills would be forced to close.
  5. George Thompson and William Lloyd Garrison were among the anti-slavery agitators who came to speak about their convictions in the city.
  6. Anti-slavery organizations such as St.
  7. A key station on the Underground Railroad, the church building next to St.
  8. In the current day, the stone house still exists on the site, with two large chimneys on either side of the roof, and pillars supporting the front entrance and the front doorway.
  9. Anne’s was where Reverend Edson assisted blacks in their escape from slavery in the early 1830s, according to historical records.
  10. Worthen House Café, the well-known bar in Lowell and the oldest tavern in the city, is another likely Underground Railroad site.

A number of factors contribute to the Wayside House’s current status as a well-known and preserved structure, including the fact that it was not only home to authors Louisa May Alcott, Margaret Sidney, and Nathaniel Hawthorne, but it also served as a safe haven for fugitive slaves in 1847, according to the National Trust for Historic Preservation.

  • Samuel Whitney, one of the company’s very first owners, was a slave trader and owner of slaves.
  • When the Alcott family purchased the Wayside House in 1846, it was converted into a “Hillside,” which was available to all fugitive slaves who had fled the plantation.
  • Increasingly near to the outbreak of the Civil War, the Underground Railroad gained momentum as the number of slaves it was able to liberate increased by the hundreds of thousands every year.
  • It was in the Mechanic’s Hall on Merrimack Street in Lowell, today known as the Old City Hall, where Nathaniel Booth made his home for a while before fleeing to avoid capture by slave catchers in 1850.
  • There are reports that specific indicators, such as lit lanterns or hanging quilts, served as a universal code for safe places along the Underground Railroad, and that particular knocks or songs were sung as a language of slave exiles seeking refugee protection.

It is the people of the Merrimack Valley who have shaped this defining past, which has resulted in our being the quirky, friendly town that we have become. the following websites.

A Dangerous Path to Freedom

Traveling through the Underground Railroad to seek their freedom was a lengthy and risky trek for escaped slaves. Runaway slaves were forced to travel long distances, sometimes on foot, in a short amount of time in order to escape. They accomplished this while surviving on little or no food and with little protection from the slave hunters who were rushing after them in the night. Slave owners were not the only ones who sought for and apprehended fleeing slaves. For the purpose of encouraging people to aid in the capture of these slaves, their owners would post reward posters offering monetary compensation for assisting in the capture of their property.

  1. Numerous arrested fugitive slaves were beaten, branded, imprisoned, sold back into slavery, or sometimes killed once they were apprehended.
  2. They would have to fend off creatures that wanted to kill and devour them while trekking for lengthy periods of time in the wilderness, as well as cross dangerous terrain and endure extreme temperatures.
  3. The Fleeing Slave Law of 1850 permitted and promoted the arrest of fugitive slaves since they were regarded as stolen property rather than mistreated human beings under the law at the time.
  4. They would not be able to achieve safety and freedom until they crossed the border into Canada.
  5. Aside from that, there were Underground Railroad routes that ran south, on their way to Mexico and the Caribbean.
  6. He was kidnapped from his northern abode, arrested, and prosecuted in Boston, Massachusetts, under the provisions of this legislation.
  7. After the trial, Burns was returned to the harshness of the southern states, from which he had thought he had fled.

American Memory and America’s Library are two names for the Library of Congress’ American Memory and America’s Library collections.

He did not escape via the Underground Railroad, but rather on a regular railroad.

Since he was a fugitive slave who did not have any “free papers,” he had to borrow a seaman’s protection certificate, which indicated that a seaman was a citizen of the United States, in order to prove that he was free.

Unfortunately, not all fugitive slaves were successful in their quest for freedom.

Harriet Tubman, Henry Bibb, Anthony Burns, Addison White, Josiah Henson, and John Parker were just a few of the people who managed to escape slavery using the Underground Railroad system.

He shipped himself from Richmond, Virginia, to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in a box that measured three feet long, two and a half feet deep, and two feet in diameter. When he was finally let out of the crate, he burst out singing.

ConductorsAbolitionists

Train conductors on the Underground Railroad were free persons who provided assistance to escaped slaves moving via the Underground Railroad system. Runaway slaves were assisted by conductors, who provided them with safe transportation to and from train stations. They were able to accomplish this under the cover of darkness, with slave hunters on their tails. Many of these stations would be in the comfort of their own homes or places of work, which was convenient. They were in severe danger as a result of their actions in hiding fleeing slaves; nonetheless, they continued because they believed in a cause bigger than themselves, which was the liberation thousands of oppressed human beings.

  • They represented a diverse range of ethnicities, vocations, and socioeconomic backgrounds.
  • Due to the widespread belief that slaves were considered property, the freeing of slaves was perceived as a theft of slave owners’ personal belongings.
  • Captain Jonathan Walker was apprehended off the coast of Florida while attempting to convey slaves from the United States to freedom in the Bahamas.
  • With the following words from one of his songs, abolitionist poet John Whittier paid respect to Walker’s valiant actions: “Take a step forward with your muscular right hand, brave ploughman of the sea!
  • She never lost sight of any of them during the journey.
  • He went on to write a novel.
  • John Parker is yet another former slave who escaped and returned to slave states in order to aid in the emancipation of others.

Rankin’s neighbor and fellow conductor, Reverend John Rankin, was a collaborator in the Underground Railroad project.

The Underground Railroad’s conductors were unquestionably anti-slavery, and they were not alone in their views.

Individuals such as William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur and Lewis Tappan founded the American Anti-Slavery Society, which marked the beginning of the abolitionist movement.

The group published an annual almanac that featured poetry, paintings, essays, and other abolitionist material.

Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave who rose to prominence as an abolitionist after escaping from slavery.

His other abolitionist publications included the Frederick Douglass Paper, which he produced in addition to delivering public addresses on themes that were important to abolitionists.

Anthony was another well-known abolitionist who advocated for the abolition of slavery via her speeches and writings.

For the most part, she based her novel on the adventures of escaped slave Josiah Henson.

Efforts of Abolitionists Telling Their Story:Fugitive Slave Narratives

Henry Bibb was born into slavery in Kentucky in the year 1815, and he was the son of a slave owner. After several failed efforts to emancipate himself from slavery, he maintained the strength and persistence to continue his struggle for freedom despite being captured and imprisoned numerous times. His determination paid off when he was able to successfully escape to the northern states and then on to Canada with the assistance of the Underground Railroad, which had been highly anticipated. The following is an excerpt from his tale, in which he detailed one of his numerous escapes and the difficulties he faced as a result of his efforts.

  • I began making preparations for the potentially lethal experiment of breading the shackles that tied me as a slave as soon as the clock struck twelve.
  • On the twenty-fifth of December, 1837, the long-awaited day had finally arrived when I would put into effect my previous determination, which was to flee for Liberty or accept death as a slave, as I had previously stated.
  • It took every ounce of moral strength I have to keep my emotions under control as I said goodbye to my small family.
  • Despite the fact that every incentive was extended to me in order to flee if I want to be free, and the call of liberty was booming in my own spirit, ‘Be free, oh, man!
  • I was up against a slew of hurdles that had gathered around my mind, attempting to bind my wounded soul, which was still imprisoned in the dark prison of mental degeneration.
  • Furthermore, the danger of being killed or arrested and deported to the far South, where I would be forced to spend the rest of my days in hopeless bondage on a cotton or sugar plantation, all conspired to discourage me.
  • The moment has come for me to follow through on my commitment.
  • This marked the beginning of the construction of what was known as the underground rail route to Canada.

For nearly forty-eight hours, I pushed myself to complete my journey without food or rest, battling against external difficulties that no one who has never experienced them can comprehend: “not knowing when I might be captured while traveling among strangers, through cold and fear, braving the north winds while wearing only a thin layer of clothing, pelted by snow storms through the dark hours of the night, and not a single house in which I could enter to protect me from the storm.” This is merely one of several accounts penned by runaway slaves who were on the run from their masters.

Sojourner Truth was another former slave who became well-known for her work to bring slavery to an end.

Green and many others, including Josiah Henson, authored autobiographies in which they described their own personal experiences.

Perhaps a large number of escaped slaves opted to write down their experiences in order to assist people better comprehend their struggles and tribulations; or perhaps they did so in order to help folks learn from the mistakes of the past in order to create a better future for themselves.

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