What is operation Operation Underground Railroad?
- Operation Underground Railroad (O.U.R.) is a non-profit founded by Tim Ballard which assists governments around the world in the rescue of human trafficking and sex trafficking victims, with a special focus on children.
How long did it take to escape on the Underground Railroad?
The journey would take him 800 miles and six weeks, on a route winding through Maryland, Pennsylvania and New York, tracing the byways that fugitive slaves took to Canada and freedom.
How long did Harriet Tubman conduct rescue missions?
Over the course of 11 years, Tubman rescued over 70 slaves from Maryland, and assisted 50 or 60 others in making their way to Canada. During this time, her reputation in the abolitionist community grew, and she became acquainted with Frederick Douglass and John Brown.
What was Harriet Tubman’s first rescue mission?
In December 1850, Tubman executed her first mission, the rescue of her niece Kessiah Jolley Bowley and Bowley’s two children, James Alfred and infant Araminta. With the help of Bowley’s free husband, John, Tubman turned to the maritime networks she and her family knew so well to help arrange for Bowley’s liberation.
Who did Tubman rescue first?
However in early December of 1850, Tubman was informed that her niece, Kessiah a slave on a Maryland plantation, was about to be sold. Tubman decided to come back to Maryland and help rescue her cousin. <br />She and her husband devised a plot to steal away Kessiah during a slave auction.
How many miles did slaves travel on the Underground Railroad?
Sometimes a “conductor,” posing as a slave, would enter a plantation and then guide the runaways northward. The fugitives would move at night. They would generally travel between 10 and 20 miles to the next station, where they would rest and eat, hiding in barns and other out-of-the-way places.
Does the Underground Railroad still exist?
It includes four buildings, two of which were used by Harriet Tubman. Ashtabula County had over thirty known Underground Railroad stations, or safehouses, and many more conductors. Nearly two-thirds of those sites still stand today.
Is Gertie Davis died?
At the age of thirteen Harriet received a horrible head injury. A slave owner tried to throw an iron weight at one of his slaves, but hit Harriet instead. The injury nearly killed her and caused her to have dizzy spells and blackouts for the rest of her life.
Why did Harriet Tubman rescue slaves?
Following a bout of illness and the death of her owner, Tubman decided to escape slavery in Maryland for Philadelphia. She feared that her family would be further severed and was concerned for her own fate as a sickly slave of low economic value.
What happened to the Brodess family?
Lured by high prices, Brodess sold some of his enslaved people to southern slave traders, including Tubman’s sisters, Linah, Soph and Mariah Ritty, between 1825 and 1844 permanently tearing her family apart.
What happened to Mariah ritty Ross?
Three of them, Mariah Ritty, Linah, and Soph, were sold to slavery in the Deep South and lost forever to the family. Tubman freed her three younger brothers, Ben, Henry, and Robert, in 1854, and her parents in 1856.
What happened to Harriet’s sister?
This period is chronicled in Harriet. Tubman ultimately rescued all but one. She didn’t save her sister Rachel Ross. She died shortly before her older sister arrived to bring her to freedom.
What did Frederick Douglass do?
Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave who became a prominent activist, author and public speaker. He became a leader in the abolitionist movement, which sought to end the practice of slavery, before and during the Civil War.
What states did Harriet Tubman live in?
Harriet Tubman was born around 1820 on a plantation in Dorchester County, Maryland. Her parents, Harriet (“Rit”) Green and Benjamin Ross, named her Araminta Ross and called her “Minty.”
Dec. 1850: Harriet Tubman Engineered First Rescue Mission
Abolitionists and suffragists, to name a few. Harriet Tubman, possibly the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad, orchestrated her first rescue attempt in December of 1850, according to historical records. The specific date is not known at this time. After escaping slavery on Maryland’s Eastern Shore in September 1849, Tubman relocated to Philadelphia, where she worked as a domestic and a cook while also guarding against slaveholder attempts to reclaim their “property” from northern states, according to Tubman biographer Kate Clifford Larson.
Tubman learned while in Philadelphia that her niece, Kessiah Jolley, and Kessiah’s two young children, James Alfred and Araminta, were to be auctioned off at the Cambridge, Maryland, courthouse.
To free Kessiah and her children, Tubman proceeded to Baltimore and collaborated with her husband, a freed man called John Bowley, on a scheme that was ultimately successful.
Photograph courtesy of William Cheney.
Kessiah and the children were taken away before the auctioneer realized he had been duped by Bowley, who had secretly outbid everyone else.
Tubman executed perhaps 13 rescues in all, according to Larson, during which she brought approximately 70 persons enslaved on the Eastern Shore to freedom in the north, putting her own life and freedom at danger on each occasion.
According to the text inBound for the Promised Land: Harriet Tubman, Portrait of an American Heroby Kate Clifford Larson and the associated websiteHarriet Tubman Biography, the description supplied by Michael Knepler is accurate.
Underground Railroad was a network of people, both black and white, who helped escaped enslaved persons from the southern United States by providing them with refuge and assistance. It came forth as a result of the convergence of numerous separate covert initiatives.
Although the exact dates of its inception are unknown, it was active from the late 18th century until the Civil War, after which its attempts to weaken the Confederacy were carried out in a less-secretive manner until the Civil War ended.
The Society of Friends (Quakers) is often regarded as the first organized group to actively assist escaped enslaved persons. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with Quakers for attempting to “liberate” one of his enslaved servants. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved persons who were on the run from slavery. Abolitionist organisations founded by Quakers in North Carolina lay the basis for escape routes and safe havens for fugitive slaves during the same time period.
What Was the Underground Railroad?
According to historical records, the Quakers were the first organized organization to actively assist fugitive slaves. When Quakers attempted to “liberate” one of Washington’s enslaved employees in 1786, George Washington took exception to it. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved persons who were fleeing their masters’ hands. Abolitionist societies founded by Quakers in North Carolina lay the basis for escape routes and safe havens for fugitives at the same time.
How the Underground Railroad Worked
The majority of enslaved persons aided by the Underground Railroad were able to flee to neighboring states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made catching fugitive enslaved persons a lucrative industry in the deep South, and there were fewer hiding places for them as a result of the Act. The majority of fugitive enslaved people were on their own until they reached specific places farther north. The escaping enslaved people were escorted by individuals known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were also used as hiding places throughout the war.
The personnel in charge of running them were referred to as “stationmasters.” There were several well-traveled roads that ran west through Ohio and into Indiana and Iowa.
The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.
Fugitive Slave Acts
Those enslaved persons who were assisted by the Underground Railroad were primarily from border states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland (see map below). Fugitive slave capture became a lucrative industry in the deep South after the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, and there were fewer hiding places for escaped slaves as a result. Refugee enslaved persons usually had to fend for themselves until they reached specified northern locations. In the runaway enslaved people’s journey, they were escorted by people known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were among the hiding spots.
Stationmasters were the individuals in charge of running them.
Others traveled north via Pennsylvania and into New England, while others passed through Detroit on their route to the Canadian border. More information may be found at: The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.
Harriet Tubman was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad during its heyday. When she and two of her brothers fled from a farm in Maryland in 1849, she was given the name Harriet (her married name was Tubman). She was born Araminta Ross, and she was raised as Harriet Tubman. They returned a couple of weeks later, but Tubman fled on her own again shortly after, this time making her way to the state of Pennsylvania. In following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and other individuals.
Tubman was distraught until she had a vision of God, which led her to join the Underground Railroad and begin escorting other fugitive slaves to the Maryland state capital.
In his house in Rochester, New York, former enslaved person and celebrated author Frederick Douglasshid fugitives who were assisting 400 escapees in their journey to freedom in Canada. Reverend Jermain Loguen, a former fugitive who lived in the adjacent city of Syracuse, assisted 1,500 escapees on their journey north. The Vigilance Committee was established in Philadelphia in 1838 by Robert Purvis, an escaped enslaved person who later became a trader. Josiah Henson, a former enslaved person and railroad operator, founded the Dawn Institute in Ontario in 1842 to assist fugitive slaves who made their way to Canada in learning the necessary skills to find work.
Agent,” according to the document.
John Parker was a free Black man living in Ohio who worked as a foundry owner and who used his rowboat to ferry fugitives over the Ohio River.
William Still was a notable Philadelphia citizen who was born in New Jersey to runaway slaves parents who fled to Philadelphia as children.
Who Ran the Underground Railroad?
The vast majority of Underground Railroad operators were regular individuals, including farmers and business owners, as well as preachers and religious leaders. Some affluent individuals were active, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who stood for president on two separate occasions. Smith acquired a full family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841 and freed them from their captivity. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, is credited with being one of the first recorded individuals to assist escaped enslaved persons.
Coffin stated that he had discovered their hiding spots and had sought them out in order to assist them in moving forward.
Finally, they were able to make their way closer to him. Coffin eventually relocated to Indiana and then Ohio, where he continued to assist fugitive enslaved individuals no matter where he was.
Abolitionist John Brown worked as a conductor on the Underground Railroad, and it was at this time that he founded the League of Gileadites, which was dedicated to assisting fleeing enslaved individuals in their journey to Canada. Abolitionist John Brown would go on to play a variety of roles during his life. His most well-known duty was conducting an assault on Harper’s Ferry in order to raise an armed army that would march into the deep south and free enslaved people at gunpoint. Ultimately, Brown’s forces were beaten, and he was executed for treason in 1859.
- The year 1844, he formed a partnership with Vermont schoolteacher Delia Webster, and the two were jailed for assisting an escaped enslaved lady and her young daughter.
- Charles Torrey was sentenced to six years in jail in Maryland for assisting an enslaved family in their attempt to flee through Virginia.
- After being apprehended in 1844 while transporting a boatload of freed slaves from the Caribbean to the United States, Massachusetts sea captain Jonathan Walker was sentenced to prison for life.
- John Fairfield of Virginia turned down the opportunity to assist in the rescue of enslaved individuals who had been left behind by their families as they made their way north.
- He managed to elude capture twice.
End of the Line
Operation of the Underground Railroad came to an end in 1863, during the American Civil War. In actuality, its work was shifted aboveground as part of the Union’s overall campaign against the Confederate States of America. Once again, Harriet Tubman made a crucial contribution by organizing intelligence operations and serving as a commanding officer in Union Army efforts to rescue the liberated enslaved people who had been freed. MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman led a daring Civil War raid after the Underground Railroad was shut down.
Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad is a book about the Underground Railroad. Fergus Bordewich is a Scottish actor. A Biography of Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom Catherine Clinton is the first lady of the United States. Who Exactly Was in Charge of the Underground Railroad?
‘Henry Louis Gates’ is a pseudonym for Henry Louis Gates. The Underground Railroad’s History in New York is a little known fact. The Smithsonian Institution’s magazine. The Underground Railroad’s Dangerous Allure is well documented. The New Yorker is a publication dedicated to journalism.
Operation Underground Railroad
Guesno was certain that his missing kid, Gardy, had been abducted and placed in an illegal orphanage. His instinct was the only thing that pointed in the right direction – yet with the horrific earthquake that struck Port Au Prince, Haiti, his son’s case was lost in a sea of hundreds of other missing children. Gardy may be anywhere at any time. Tim Ballard, who was still working as a federal agent at the time, learned about this tale via the press. Gardy was theoretically a citizen of the United States since he was born when his parents were on a fundraising trip in the United States from Haiti.
- There were two issues: Ballard couldn’t cross jurisdictional borders, and there were no leads at all to follow up on.
- He began to consider the possibility of establishing an organization that would be able to deliver the required resources to nations all over the world and rescue children like Gardy.
- Many people advised him against quitting his comfortable career in order to join a charity organization.
- ‘We understood that we could tap into the inherent desire to free other people and to serve other people, and that was the foundation of our attempt.’ There was a response when we reached out to it.
- Tim Ballard is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom.
- Matt Osborne, our current SVP of Rescue and Recovery, previously worked for the Central Intelligence Agency.
- Operation Voodoo Doll was O.U.R.’s first mission, which took place in Haiti.
It was separated from the rest of the world by gates.
To get closer to the “orphanage,” he would rent a room in the building across the street, climb to the roof, and peer through the gates using binoculars.
undercover team collaborated with Haitian police to gain entry to the orphanage on the pretense that they were looking to acquire infants for adoption.
On that day, 28 children were happily rescued, and the owner of the institution was apprehended.
Our investigation into Gardy’s situation is ongoing, and we will never give up on him or give up hope in him.
After all, it was Gardy who gave Tim Ballard the idea to create Operation Underground Railroad in the first place. ‘If it means that I have to give up my son in order for those 28 children to be freed, then it is a weight I am ready to endure.’ — Mardy Guesno, Guesno, California
2. Operation Triple-Take
“It’s a pretty severe situation. Twenty-three armed men arrive and order everyone to lay down before handcuffing the traffickers,” Tim Ballard recounts. “One of the guys takes off sprinting down the beach, and I’m scared he’s going to get away, so I start racing after him, but I make it appear as though I’m running alongside him. Then I grasp his shirt and inform him that the cops are approaching in the direction in which he is traveling. “He turns around and sprints beside me right into the police station.” Our reach grew swiftly as the O.U.R.
- In Colombia, for example, we had the chance to complete three operations on the same day.
- Was it possible to prevent child traffickers by repeatedly striking the same area with the same weapon?
- team returned undercover for the fifth or sixth time following Operation Triple Take, they discovered that no one would sell them children.
- The moment Tim Ballard and his colleagues understood that eradication of child sex trafficking was truly attainable — the deterrence effect had been effective – was that moment.
- As of now, the Organization for the Protection of Children (O.U.R.) has closed the door on child traffickers in Colombia.
3. The Result of Filming Operations
To our knowledge, no kid who has been rescued as part of an O.U.R. operation has ever been called to testify in a court of law. Video, photo, and audio records taken by the jump team serve as a powerful tool in their marketing efforts. This miracle happened by chance when we decided to begin collaborating with law enforcement to record operations and get news out to the public through the media. Because we acquired so much information, it became clear that the more evidence we had, the simpler it was for the prosecutors to grasp the case.
“The second I saw the bad guys and we met them at the pier, I was like, ‘Hey dude!'” recalled Mark Mabry, who was accompanying Tim Ballard on one of the missions.
“They basically think I’m some kind of lunatic who wants to photograph the kids.
When I say ‘cheese,’ I point to the back of my hand.
The use of technology and the media has been extremely beneficial to O.U.R. in terms of preventing hundreds of survivors from ever having to testify in court and discouraging traffickers from selling new children to the organization.
Making History Today
Since the inception of Operation Underground Railroad, we have seen tremendous success, which we owe to the law enforcement agencies and aftercare facilities that have been ready to collaborate with us, as well as to YOU. This is a continuing struggle that might seem interminable at times, but progress is being made both here and internationally. New laws are being enacted, awareness is being raised, and the possibility of granting more children freedom rises with each passing day, thanks to the efforts of everyone who is working together to combat sex trafficking.
What can YOU Do?
This weekend commemorates the three-year anniversary of Operation Triple-Take, which resulted in the rescue of 123 victims and the arrest of 12 human traffickers in Colombia. To find out what occurred a year later, go here. Make others aware of the situation. DISSEMBLE THIS ARTICLE.
Operation Underground Railroad – Wikipedia
|Named after||Underground Railroad|
|Founded at||Salt Lake City,Utah|
|Type||Non-governmental organization,non-profit organization|
|Key people||Tim Ballard|
In Colombia, this weekend celebrates the three-year anniversary of Operation Triple-Take, which resulted in the rescue of 123 victims and the arrest of 12 human trafficking suspects. The next year’s events may be found by clickinghere. Educate others about the situation. THIS ARTICLE SHOULD BE SHARERED
Prior to launching O.U.R., Tim Ballard worked as a Special Agent for the Department of Homeland Security for 12 years, where he was a member of the Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force and the United States Child Sexual Exploitation Jump Team. According to Ballard, he was dissatisfied with the absence of techniques adopted to rescue abducted and trafficked children in developing countries, as well as the difficulty to punish perpetrators in situations that were not tied to the United States of America.
The organization’s headquarters are in Salt Lake City, Utah, but it also has offices in Southern California and the Pacific Northwest.
Molen to chronicle the planning and activity pertaining to a few covert operations for a feature film in order to increase awareness and support for the cause.
Following the organization’s stated mission, it collaborates with supportive governments and groups in one or more of the following activities: prevention, discovery and preparedness; rescue; victim rehabilitation programs; and fundraising. Its members are former military and law enforcement officers, as well as other volunteers who provide a hand in various capacities. Efforts to rescue victims of human trafficking are broken down into operations, which include planning, training, and/or direct engagement.
According to a 2020Vice News investigation, the group engaged in “a strategy of image-burnishing and mythology-building, a succession of exaggerations that are, taken together, highly deceptive,” according to the report. The organization One United Rescue claimed to have saved a lady named “Liliana,” who according to court testimony had escaped on her own will. Transparency in the organization’s spending is also lacking. One of O.U.R.’s practices, according to a follow-up article from 2021, was that it used “jump teams” of inexperienced donors and celebrities, did not conduct meaningful surveillance or identification of targets, did not validate whether the people they intended to rescue were in fact actual trafficking victims, and did not differentiate between consent-based sexual work and human trafficking.
A number of people have condemned Ballard and the followers of O.U.R. for propagating the far-right QAnonconspiracy theory.
Investigative Reports and Criminal Investigations
On August 27, 2020, Lynn Packer of the American Crime Journal announced in a video breaking news that criminal complaints had been submitted to the Davis County District Attorney’s office in Farmington, Utah, according to the American Crime Journal. American psychologist John Dehlin had an interview with Packer, an award-winning investigative journalist and seasoned Utah reporter, which was later broadcast on his Mormon Stories Podcast. Asked why such an important “development for the state of Utah and the LDS Church” was not disclosed or “being chased” by mainstream Utah media, Dehlin, who is an excommunicated member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints(LDS Church), said, “It’s because it’s a secret.” As Packer stated, the state media and the LDS Church were involved in legitimizing Operation Underground Railroad with little to no control and fact-checking on the part of the state government.
In his statement, Packer said that he had spent the previous five years looking into Tim Ballard and Operation Underground Railroad.
and Tim Ballard were under criminal investigation by the Attorney’s Office of Davis County, Utah, in October 2020, following reports that O.U.R.
Tim Ballard summoned officers and managers from his non-profit and for-profit businesses, including several from Operation Underground Railroad, to a clandestine meeting in August, 2019, according to reports by investigative journalists Lynn Packer and Damion Moore of the American Crime Journal.
- “WHAT IS CONTAINED WITHIN A NUMBER? Rescue 500”.Operation Underground Railroad. Retrieved on May 11, 2016. The original version of this article was archived on May 16, 2016. Retrieved2016-05-16
- s^ The American Crime Journal published articles such as “A Famed Anti-Sex Trafficking Group Has a Problem With the Truth”.
- “Inside a Massive Anti-Trafficking Charity’s Blundering Overseas Missions”.
- “Operation Underground Railroad’s Carefully Crafted Public Image Is Falling Apart”.
- “Derailed: Operation Underground Railroad (O.U.R.)”.American Crime Journal
- Abcnews.com published an article entitled ” Merlan and Anna are two of the most talented people I’ve ever met (10 December 2020). In the words of the New York Times, “A well-known anti-sex trafficking organization has a problem with the truth.” Obtainable on December 24, 2020
- Grant, Melissa Gira, and Melissa Gira (2020-08-19). According to Qanon, the Anti-Trafficking Movement’s Conspiracy Playbook is being used. Journal of the New Republic, ISSN0028-6583. “Anti-human trafficking group Operation Underground Railroad under criminal investigation by Utah prosecutor”, KSTU, October 8, 2020
- Ab”Anti-human trafficking group Operation Underground Railroad under investigation”, KSTU, October 8, 2020
- Ab”BREAKING NEWS: Anti-human trafficking group Operation Underground Railroad under criminal investigation by Davis County Attorney”, American Crime Journal, October 8, 2020
- The following article was written by Richard BYRNE REILLY on April 26, 2014: “Tech startup Operation Underground Railroad is protecting youngsters from human traffickers” (News). VentureBeat. Obtainable on 2016-05-16
- Abcd “Behind the Scenes of the Fight Against Child Sexual Trafficking.” 2015-05-07. ab”The New Abolitionists,” retrieved on April 17, 2012
- Ab”The New Abolitionists.” Foreign Policy is the study of international relations. Retrieved on 2016-05-16
- Ab”The Abolitionists Movie – A Mission to End Child Trafficking” (Abolitionists Movie – A Mission to End Child Trafficking). The Abolitionists were a group of people who opposed slavery. Retrieved2016-05-16
- s^ Karissa Herald is a reporter for the Herald. Neely’s Daily Dose of Neely. “Abolitionists in Utah believe it is past time to rescue victims of sex trafficking.” The Daily Herald is a newspaper published in the United Kingdom. Retrieved2020-04-27
- s^ “Understanding Human Trafficking via the Lens of Civil Society: Awareness, Advocacy, and Action” is the title of this paper. It is written in English. “Rescuing Children From Colombia’s Sex Trafficking Trade,” which was retrieved on May 16, 2016. The 22nd of October, 2014, according to ABC News. Retrieved2016-05-16
- “Rescuing Children from Sex Slavery: One Mormon’s Inspired Mission”.LDS Living. 2015-02-27. Retrieved2016-05-16
- “Inside a Massive Anti-Trafficking Charity’s Blundering Overseas Missions”. The Guardian. 2015-02-27. Retrieved2016-05-16
- “Rescuing Children from Sex Slavery: One Mormon’s Inspired Mission”. Retrieved2021-06-05
- s^ Kevin Roose is the author of this work (2020-08-12). “QAnon adherents are interfering with the Save the Children movement.” Journal of the New York Times (ISSN 0362-4331). “Donald Trump Is Gone, But QAnon’s Sex Trafficking Conspiracies Are Here To Stay,” according to a report published on January 6, 2016. BuzzFeed News is a news website. Retrieved2021-06-05
- “WWE Referee, Wrestler-Turned-Mayor Fundraise For QAnon-Adjacent Charity” (WWE Referee, Wrestler-Turned-Mayor Fundraise For QAnon-Adjacent Charity). Retrieved2021-06-05
- s^ Lynn Packer is a writer who lives in the United States (August 28, 2020). American Crime Journal published an article titled “Tim Ballard, Utah’s Flim-Flam Man.” American Crime Journal
- “1364: Investigating Tim Ballard and Operation Underground Railroad – Lynn Packer Pt. 6”
- “Underground Railroad’s Carefully Crafted Public Image Is Falling Apart”
- “Anti-human trafficking group Operation Underground Railroad under criminal investigation by Utah prosecutor”
The Underground Railroad
|The Underground Railroad, a vast network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and to Canada, was not run by any single organization or person. Rather, it consisted of many individuals – many whites but predominently black – who knew only of the local efforts to aid fugitives and not of the overall operation. Still, it effectively moved hundreds of slaves northward each year – according to one estimate,the South lost 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850. An organized system to assist runaway slaves seems to have begun towards the end of the 18th century. In 1786 George Washington complained about how one of his runaway slaves was helped by a “society of Quakers, formed for such purposes.” The system grew, and around 1831 it was dubbed “The Underground Railroad,” after the then emerging steam railroads. The system even used terms used in railroading: the homes and businesses where fugitives would rest and eat were called “stations” and “depots” and were run by “stationmasters,” those who contributed money or goods were “stockholders,” and the “conductor” was responsible for moving fugitives from one station to the next.For the slave, running away to the North was anything but easy. The first step was to escape from the slaveholder. For many slaves, this meant relying on his or her own resources. Sometimes a “conductor,” posing as a slave, would enter a plantation and then guide the runaways northward. The fugitives would move at night. They would generally travel between 10 and 20 miles to the next station, where they would rest and eat, hiding in barns and other out-of-the-way places. While they waited, a message would be sent to the next station to alert its stationmaster.The fugitives would also travel by train and boat – conveyances that sometimes had to be paid for. Money was also needed to improve the appearance of the runaways – a black man, woman, or child in tattered clothes would invariably attract suspicious eyes. This money was donated by individuals and also raised by various groups, including vigilance committees.Vigilance committees sprang up in the larger towns and cities of the North, most prominently in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. In addition to soliciting money, the organizations provided food, lodging and money, and helped the fugitives settle into a community by helping them find jobs and providing letters of recommendation.The Underground Railroad had many notable participants, including John Fairfield in Ohio, the son of a slaveholding family, who made many daring rescues, Levi Coffin, a Quaker who assisted more than 3,000 slaves, and Harriet Tubman, who made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.|
Harriet Tubmandanielled65142021-05-05T Harriet Tubmandanielled65142021-05-05 10:05:50-04:00 As part of the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway, visitors can learn about the life and times of Harriet Tubman – freedom seeker and Underground Railroad conductor, abolitionist and suffragist, human rights activist, and one of Maryland’s most famous daughters – as well as other notable figures from the state’s history.
Tubman, who was born about 1822 in Dorchester County on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, is one of the most praised, known, and beloved persons in the history of the United States of America.
If this is the case, Harriet Tubman would become the first woman and the first African-American to be featured on U.S.
A courageous leader
Harriet Tubman was the middle child of nine enslaved siblings, and she was reared by parents who had to fight against overwhelming difficulties to keep their family together. In spite of her terrible impairment, she grew up to become an accomplished hunter, lumberjack, and fieldworker. Her athletic skills prepared her for the potentially hazardous road she would choose as an adult. Tubman was able to make it to Philadelphia in 1849 after a daring escape. Once free, she went on to become an operator of the Underground Railroad, a hidden network of people, places, and routes that gave sanctuary and support to fugitive slaves during the American Civil War.
By 1860, Tubman had gained the moniker “Moses” for her work in rescuing so many enslaved people while putting her own life in danger to do it.
- When Harriet Tubman was born, she was the middle child of nine enslaved siblings, and she was nurtured by parents who battled against overwhelming difficulties to keep their family together. A serious impairment did not stop her from becoming an adept hunter, lumberjack, and fieldworker after years of hard effort. It prepared her for the potentially hazardous road she would choose as an adult. It was in 1849 when Tubman was able to make his way from New York to Philadelphia. The Underground Railroad — a hidden network of people, places, and routes that gave sanctuary and support to fleeing slaves — was established by her when she was freed from slavery. Over the course of a decade, she bravely returned to Maryland at least 13 times to rescue her parents, siblings, family members, and friends, escorting them safely to freedom on each occasion. The epithet “Moses” was given to Tubman by 1860 because she had freed so many enslaved people while putting her own life in danger to do so.
A dedicated humanitarian
As a result of her widespread admiration among abolitionists in the North, Tubman established herself as a valued friend and counselor to many, earning her a position in the Union Army as a scout, spy, nurse, and confidante of generals. After the Civil War, she relocated to Auburn, New York, where she devoted her time and energy to the misery of the poor, opening her house as a haven for the aged, the sick, and those who were physically handicapped. Even before the American Civil War, she was a tireless advocate for the rights of women, minorities, the crippled, and the elderly in general.
She went on to establish a nursing home for African Americans on her land in New York, which she owned at the time.
Tubman had already been the topic of a slew of articles, recollections, and an autobiography at that point.
It is only necessary to go along the Byway that bears her name to appreciate the significance of her humble origins and the scope of her accomplishment.
- She was born into slavery as Araminta “Minty” Ross in Dorchester County, Maryland, most likely around the year 1822. Her parents, Harriet (“Rit”) Green and Ben Ross, were both enslaved
- She was born into this situation. A family member of Harriet’s mother’s “ownership,” the Brodess family, rented Harriet out and assigned her to do various jobs, including caring for children, checking muskrat traps, agricultural and forest labor, driving oxen, plowing, and moving logs. During her childhood, most likely in the 1830s, she had a serious brain injury that required surgery. Seizures, migraines, and visions plagued the victim for the rest of his life. Around the time of her marriage to John Tubman, a free Black man, in 1844, she changed her name from Araminta to Harriet, and so became known as Harriet Tubman 1849: She managed to escape slavery and make her way to Philadelphia on her own, primarily through the darkness of the night.
- Following her emancipation, she spent more than a decade making secret return journeys to Maryland in order to assist her friends and family members who were also fleeing slavery. With each journey, she put her life in danger. Tubman’s last rescue expedition took place in 1860
- When the Civil War broke out, she joined the Union Army, first as a cook and nurse, then as an armed scout and spy, among other roles. With the liberation of more than 700 slaves in 1863, she made history as the first woman to command an armed expedition during the war. The next year she relocated to a home she had acquired in Auburn, New York (where she cared for her aged parents) that she had purchased in 1859. She was active in the suffrage campaign, advocating not just for the rights of women, but also for the rights of minorities, the crippled, and the elderly
- And On March 10, 1913, she passed away. Tubman is buried in Auburn, New York
- On April 20, 2016, the United States Treasury Department announced a plan for Tubman to replace Andrew Jackson as the portrait gracing the $20 bill
- And on April 20, 2016, the United States Treasury Department announced a plan for Tubman to replace Andrew Jackson as the portrait gracing the $20 bill.
Dispelling the myths about Harriet Tubman
“We believe we are familiar with Harriet Tubman, a former slave who went on to become an Underground Railroad conductor and an abolitionist. However, much of Tubman’s true life narrative has been clouded by years of myths and bogus tales, which have been spread through children’s books and have only served to obfuscate her enormous accomplishments in the process. This woman’s story is significantly more intriguing and astonishing than everything that has been spoken about her previously.” — Kate Clifford Larson, author of Bound for the Promised Land: Harriet Tubman: Portrait of an American Hero (Harriet Tubman: Portrait of an American Hero), Several misconceptions and facts regarding Harriet Tubman’s life are debunked by Kate Clifford Larson, author of the well-regarded book Harriet Tubman: Portrait of an American Hero (Bound for the Promised Land: Harriet Tubman: Portrait of an American Hero).
- We have included some of the myths in this section with the author’s permission.
- While speaking at public and private gatherings in 1858 and 1859, Tubman regularly stated that she had saved between 50 and 60 persons in eight or nine visits to different locations.
- In her 1868 biography, Sarah Bradford overstated the figures to make a point.
- Other individuals who were close to Tubman expressed strong disagreement with the statistics.
- Additionally, in addition to teaching his family and friends, Tubman also provided education to around 70 other freedom seekers from the Eastern Shore who had discovered their own route to freedom.
- The property was located south of Madison in a location known as Peter’s Neck in Dorchester County, and was owned by Brodess.
- FACT: The sole reward for Tubman’s arrest was provided in an advertising for the return of “Minty” and her brothers “Ben” and “Harry” published on October 3, 1849, in which their mistress, Eliza Brodess, paid $100 for each of them if they were apprehended outside the state of Maryland.
- Sallie Holley, a former anti-slavery activist in New York who sent a letter to a newspaper in 1867 pleading for support for Tubman in her pursuit of back pay and pension from the Union Army, concocted the number of $40,000 as a reward for Tubman’s capture and execution.
- For $40,000, which is the equivalent of many million dollars today, she would have been apprehended, and every newspaper in the country would have run an advertising announcing her arrest.
- It was too perilous for her to venture into unfamiliar territory where she did not know the people or the terrain.
During her captivity in Philadelphia, Tubman had a coded letter composed for her that was delivered to Jackson in December 1854, telling him to inform her brothers that she was on her way to rescue them and that they needed to be prepared to “climb onboard” the “Old Ship of Zion.” There is no evidence that he genuinely provided refuge to runaways in his home.
- FAITHFUL:Harriet Tubman did not participate in the construction of the canal, which was completed between 1810 and 1830 while she was still a kid.
- We do not know whether her father, Ben Ross, was involved in the construction of the canal, but he would almost probably have utilized it to move lumber.
- Tubman used a variety of ways and routes to escape slavery and to return to help others who were in need of rescue.
- She utilized disguises, walked, rode horses and wagons, sailed on boats, and rode genuine trains to get where she needed to go.
- She communicated with people through letters prepared for her by someone else and addressed to trusted persons such as Jacob Jackson, as well as by direct conversation with them.
- Rivers snaked northward, and she followed their course.
- Harriet Tubman took a tiny handgun with her on her rescue operations, mostly to protect herself from slave catchers, but also to discourage weak-hearted runaways from turning around and jeopardizing the group’s overall safety.
- TRUTH: While on her rescue operations, Tubman performed two songs to keep herself entertained.
- Tubman explained that she altered the speed of the songs to signify whether or not it was safe to come out.
- Because “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot” was written and composed post-Civil War by an Afro-Cherokee Indian residing in Oklahoma, Tubman would not have been familiar with it prior to the Civil War.
- She was 27 years old when she fled slavery on her own in the fall of 1849, when she was 27 years old.
Photographs shot later in her life, as highlighted by Washington Postcritic Philip Kennicott, “had the effect of softening the wider sense of who she was, and how she achieved her heroic legacy.”
Learn Harriet Tubman’s Story at the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Visitor Center
The Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Visitor Center, located in Church Creek on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, first opened its doors to the public in March 2017. Several locations surrounding the visitor center were used by Harriet Tubman during her childhood as a slave in Dorchester County. She lived, worked, and prayed in these locations. The place is where she originally fled slavery, and it is where she returned around 13 times over the course of a decade, risking her life time and time again in order to free over 70 friends and family members.
- Located at 4068 Golden Hill Road in Church Creek, Maryland.
- Donations are accepted in lieu of admission to the tourist center, which is free.
- The magnificent visitor center, which is located near the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge and about 25 minutes from Cambridge, Maryland, has an exhibit hall with compelling and thought-provoking multimedia exhibits, a theater, and a gift shop, among other amenities.
- There is also a huge picnic pavilion with a stone fireplace that may be rented out for special occasions.
- In addition to the visitor center, there are more than 30 historical sites along the Maryland part of the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway, which is a self-guided, beautiful driving tour of the Underground Railroad.
- NOTE: The Harriet Tubman Visitor Center is not to be confused with the Harriet Tubman MuseumEducational Center, which has been in operation for more than 20 years and is maintained entirely by volunteers in the heart of Cambridge’s downtown.
- Visit the Tubman Visitor Center website for additional information, or call or email them at 410-221-2290 or [email protected] to learn more about their programs and services.
Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National Historical Park
It was March 2017 that the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Visitor Center in Church Creek, on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, opened its doors to the general public. Several locations surrounding the visitor center were used by Harriet Tubman during her time as a slave in Dorchester County. She lived, worked, and prayed in these locations. She fled slavery from this place, and over the course of a decade she returned around 13 times, each time risking her life in order to rescue more than 70 of her friends and family members.
- Located at 4068 Golden Hill Road in Church Creek, Maryland The most up-to-date information may be found by visiting this link.
- 410-221-2290 or [email protected] are the best places to get additional information about the Tubman Visitor Center.
- In the grounds of a 17-acre state park, there are small walking pathways that lead to the visitor center.
- Both the Maryland Park Service and the National Park Service collaborated on the development of the visitor center.
- Many of the exhibitions highlight particular locations along the Tubman Byway so you may get a better sense of the tales being shared.
They were instrumental in ensuring that Tubman’s legacy would go on for future generations. Visit the Tubman Visitor Center website for additional information, or call or email them at 410-221-2290 or [email protected] to learn more about their programs and activities.
Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad
Harriet Tubman escaped slavery on Maryland’s Eastern Shore in the late fall of 1849, and she is credited with saving the lives of countless others. Once she had achieved independence in Philadelphia, she realized that liberty and freedom were nothing if she did not have the people she cherished alongside her. She pledged then that she would return and bring her family and close friends with her. She was tremendously effective because she was able to tap into an existing well-oiled Underground Railroad network.
Tubman was fortunate in that she formed close and enduring connections with a large number of abolitionists, both black and white, who chronicled her rescue operations.
Further investigation will very certainly reveal the identities of the people listed below as unknown.
Our investigation into the document trail from Maryland to Canada has resulted in the identification of about 13 journeys.
- The following names are KessiahJolleyBowley: James Alfred Bowley – 6 years old
- Araminta Bowley – newborn
- John Bowley (free)
- James Alfred Bowley – 6 years old
The following names are KessiahJolleyBowley: James Alfred Bowley – 6 years old; Araminta Bowley – newborn; John Bowley (free); and James Alfred Bowley – 6 years old
- Brother Moses Ross
- An unnamed man
- An unidentified guy
- Moses Ross
- Unidentified man referred to as “brother”
- Unidentified wife of “brother”
- William Winnebar Johnson, also known as Winnebar (Winory) Johnson, moved to New Bedford.
Christmas in the year 1854
- Among those who appear are Robert Ross, alias John Stewart
- Henry Ross, alias William Henry Stewart
- Benjamin Ross, Jr., alias James Stewart
- Jane Kane, alias Catherine Stewart (fiancée of Ben Ross Jr.)
- Peter Jackson, alias Staunch (Tench) Tilghman
- John Chase, alias Daniel Lloyd
- Unidentified, possiblyGeorgeRoss
Early in the year 1855
- Harriet Ann Parker Ross, alias Harriet Ann Stewart(free)
- William Henry Ross, son(free)
- John Isaac Ross, aliasJohnIsaacStewart, son(free)
- Harriet Ann Parker Ross, alias Harriet Ann Stewart(free)
- Harriet Ann Parker Ross, alias Harrie
(free); Harriet Ann Parker Ross, alias Harriet Ann Stewart(free); William Henry Ross, son(free); and John Isaac Ross, alias John Isaac Stewart, son(free); Harriet Ann Parker Ross, alias Harriet Ann Stewart(free); William Henry Ross, son(free); William Henry Ross, son(free); Harriet Ann Parker Ross, alias Harriet Ann Stewart(free); Harriet Ann Parker Ross, alias Harriet Ann Stewart(
- Ben Jackson, James Coleman, Henry Hopkins, and William Conoway (aka) Cook are among the performers.
The month of October, 1856 The month of November, 1856
- DavidJosiahBailey, WilliamBailey, PeterPennington, ElizaManokey, and others
- Harriet “Rit” Green Ross, alias Harriet “Rit” Stewart
- Benjamin Ross, alias Benjamin Stewart
- Harriet “Rit” Green Ross, alias Harriet “Rit” Stewart
- Harriet “Rit” Stewart, alias Harriet “Rit” Stewart
- Harriet “Rit” Stewart, alias Harriet “Rit
Tubman’s parents lived from November to December 1860.
- Ennals family members include Stephen Ennals, MariaEnnals, HarrietEnnals, AmandaEnnals, and a newborn Ennals. Also present are JohnCornish, aliasJohnWesleyReed, and an unnamed lady.
Dates are not known.
- Margaret Stewart
- Ann Marie Stewart
- Unidentified twin girl
- Amelia Hollis, alias Amelia “Millie” Hollis Stewart
- Henry Carrol (New Bedford)
With the use of Tubman’s indirect support:May 1854
- Jane Pennington is a likely candidate (she moved to New Bedford to live with her parents)
The month of August 1854 The month of December 1855 December 1855 was a month of celebration.
- Francis Molock, Cyrus Mitchell, Joshua Handy, Charles Dutton, and Ephraim Hudson are among the names on the list.
“Dover Eight” in the months of February and March 1857.
- Among those who returned were ThomasElliott, DenwoodHughes, HenryPredeaux, James Woolford, LaviniaWoolford, William Kiah alias William Williams, Emily Kiah alias Emily Williams (who later returned with her husband to Maryland in order to rescue their daughter Mary Kiah Williams), an unidentified man named Tubman, and an unidentified person who turned back.
The month of October, 1857
- During the month of October 1857,
The month of October 1857, often known as “Cambridge 28”
- JoeViney, SusanViney, Joe Viney, Jr., TomViney, HenryViney, LloydViney, FrankViney, AlbertViney, J.W. Viney, SarahJaneHill, SolomonLight, GeorgeLight, MarshallDutton, Silas Long, AaronCornish, Daffney Cornish, SolomonCornish, GeorgeAnthonyCornish, JosephCornish, EdwardJamesCornish, Perry
The above two escapes totaled 44 people and were referred to in national newspapers at the time as the “Stampede of Slaves”Here are a few more details on the above names and missions:1.KessiahJolleyBowleyand her two childrenJamesAlfredand babyAraminta, December 1850. Tubman’s first directed rescue mission.Settled inChatham,Ontario,Canada, then moved toAuburnbriefly before returning and settling inDorchesterCountyafter the Civil War.2.MosesRoss,Tubman ’s youngest brother, andtwo other men1851.Whereabouts unknown3.Unidentifiedgroup of 11 -late 1851(not sure if this trip and one above are one in the same)4.Unidentified group of 9fall 18525.WinnebarJohnsonJune 1854Settled inNew Bedford,MA6.Christmas 1854Robert, Ben and Henry Ross (aka, John, James, and William Henry Stewart)Jane Kane (aka, Catherine Kane Stewart)Peter Jackson (aka StaunchTilghman)John Chase (aka Daniel Lloyd)(Also possibly George Ross and William ThompsonPossibly two other unidentified man) RobertandHenry(JohnandWilliamHenryStewart) settled inSt.
Catharines;,Benand fiance/wifeJane(JamesandCatherineStewart) settled first inChatham, then inSt.
and probablyJohnHenryRossJr.,early to mid 1855(aliasHarrietStewart,WilliamHenryStewartandJohnIsaacStewart) – these people are the wife and children ofHenryRoss(above), akaWilliamHenryStewart.HarrietAnnParkerwas a free woman, daughter ofIsaacandJuliaParkerofDorchesterCounty.HarrietAnnandHenryRoss’s children were born free.Settled in Grantham, St.
Catharines.9.Ben Jackson, James Coleman, William A.
Catharines or Toronto.
Catharines, Ontario;Peter Penningtonin Sarnia, Ontario;Manokeyhad been enslaved by Anne Grieves, and had fled in January 1856, hiding out for 11 months before meeting up with Tubman and these others in Delaware and traveling with them to Wilmington, Philly, NYC, and beyond.Where she ended up is unknown.
- 12.BenjaminandHarriet“Rit”Ross- Tubman ’s parents – (aliasBenand RitStewart)May-June 1857.
- Catharines, then moved toAuburn,NY.13.Stephen and Maria EnnalsandNov.-Dec.
- Reedsettled in Auburn.
- SamuelGreenJr.,August 1854.
- September 1856– not sure ifTubmaninformed this group personally or not: FrancisMolock,CyrusMitchell,JoshuaHandy,CharlesDutton,EphraimHudson.
Two unidentified children that Tubman was hoping to rescue per Thomas Garrett– (not sure if this trip was successful, or did it coincide withFrancis Molockgroup September 1856.Cannot know for sure if this is a separate trip or it happened at all)FrancisMolocksettled inOwen Sound,Ontario,Canada.
Fall of 1857,Tubmangave instructions for following her UGRR route north to two groups, over 44 enslaved people fromDorchesterCounty.They were: Early October 1857.Carolyn and Daniel Stanley and six of their seven children – Dan Jr., John, Miller, Caroline, Joseph, Metia;Nat and Lizzie Amby, Hannah Peters, William Griffen, Henry Moore, James Camper, Noah Ennals, and Levin Parker.The Stanley’s settled in St.
Catharines; Nat and Lizzy Amby settled in Auburn, then whereabouts unknown; others whereabouts unknown.
Catharines; whereabouts ofLight, Dutton, and Long unknown.
Samuel Green, Sr.African American Methodist exhorter/minister in East New Market, Dorchester County.
(possibly Sam Green’s wife Kitty?) Jacob Jackson, African American veterinarian, laborer, farmer in the Parson’s Creek to Madison area, Dorchester County.
Major Bowley, brother of John Bowley, helped John and Kessiah when they arrived in Baltimore.
– Tubman’s father, Poplar Neck/Preston area Caroline County.
William Brinkley.African American farmer/laborer in Camden, Delaware Nathaniel Brinkley.African American farmer/laborer in Camden, Delaware Abraham/Abel Gibbs.
William Still, African American businessman, Philadelphia Vigilance Committee officer, major UGRR stationmaster.
McKim, Philadelphia Vigilance Committee officer, major UGRR stationmaster with William Still.
Buchannon, Still’s assistant in Philadelphia Lucretia Mott, white Quaker and Women’s rights advocate in Philadelphia.Probably other friends of Lucretia’s and William Still helped Tubman as well.To be expanded and added to this list.
Gay, Vigilance Committee New York City Lewis Napoleon, long time African American UGRR agent New York City Jacob Gibbs, New York City Oliver Johnson, Vigilance Committee New York City Stephen Myers, African American newspaper editor, major UGRR stationmaster, in Albany, NY.
Jermain Loguen,Samuel J.
Abbott, African American and other UGRR stationmasters in Syracuse, NY Charles Sedgewick, Syracuse, NY David and Martha Coffin Wright, women’s rights advocate and Lucretia Mott’s sister, in Auburn, NY.
Seward, became Secretary of State during Civil War; and wife and Frances Seward in Auburn, NY P.R.
Jones, African American UGRR agent in Elmira, NY –possibly helped Tubman.
Douglass had additional staff and a network of helpers.Below: J. P. Morris, Rochester, NY Maria Porter, Rochester Ladies Anti-slavery Society member, Douglass supporter, Rochester, NY. Susan B. Anthony, Women’s Rights, UGRR supporter, Rochester