The Underground Railroad (miniseries)
|The Underground Railroad|
|Running time||20–77 minutes|
|Production companies||Plan B Entertainment Pastel Productions Big Indie Pictures Amazon Studios|
|Original network||Amazon Prime Video|
What was the Underground Railroad and how did it work?
- During the era of slavery, the Underground Railroad was a network of routes, places, and people that helped enslaved people in the American South escape to the North. The name “Underground Railroad” was used metaphorically, not literally. It was not an actual railroad, but it served the same purpose—it transported people long distances.
How long did The Underground Railroad journey take?
The journey would take him 800 miles and six weeks, on a route winding through Maryland, Pennsylvania and New York, tracing the byways that fugitive slaves took to Canada and freedom.
How long are The Underground Railroad episodes?
Watching Jenkins unleash his potent and profound film allegory in 10 episodes varying in length from 20 minutes to an hour is also really scary, possessed as it is of a sorrowful poetry that speaks urgently to an uncertain future. With this flat-out masterpiece, Jenkins has raised series television to the level of art.
What was the time frame of The Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad ( 1790s to 1860s ) was a linked network of individuals willing and able to help fugitive slaves escape to safety. They hid individuals in cellars, basements and barns, provided food and supplies, and helped to move escaped slaves from place to place.
How many episodes is The Underground Railroad?
Colson Whitehead’s 2016 novel, The Underground Railroad, won a Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award. Now, it’s a limited series directed by Academy Award-winner Barry Jenkins (Moonlight, If Beale Street Could Talk). In ten episodes, The Underground Railroad chronicles Cora Randall’s journey to escape slavery.
Can you hike the Underground Railroad?
Come to where the nation’s best-known “agent” of the Underground Railroad was born and raised. Miles of hiking and water trails within Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad State Park and Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge allow visitors to explore the landscape Tubman traversed.
What states was the Underground Railroad in?
Most of the enslaved people helped by the Underground Railroad escaped border states such as Kentucky, Virginia and Maryland. In the deep South, the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made capturing escaped enslaved people a lucrative business, and there were fewer hiding places for them.
Does the Underground Railroad still exist?
It includes four buildings, two of which were used by Harriet Tubman. Ashtabula County had over thirty known Underground Railroad stations, or safehouses, and many more conductors. Nearly two-thirds of those sites still stand today.
Will there be a second season of Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad Season 2 won’t come in 2021 Whether the series is renewed or not, we’ve got some bad news when it comes to the release date. The Underground Railroad Season 2 won’t come in 2021.
Is the Underground Railroad a true story?
Is it based on a true story? No, not exactly, but it is based on real events. The Underground Railroad is adapted from the novel of the same name by Colson Whitehead, that is described as alternative history.
How many slaves did Harriet Tubman save?
Fact: According to Tubman’s own words, and extensive documentation on her rescue missions, we know that she rescued about 70 people —family and friends—during approximately 13 trips to Maryland.
Who was the most famous conductor of the Underground Railroad?
Our Headlines and Heroes blog takes a look at Harriet Tubman as the most famous conductor on the Underground Railroad. Tubman and those she helped escape from slavery headed north to freedom, sometimes across the border to Canada.
How many chapters are in the Underground Railroad series?
Based on the 2016 Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Colson Whitehead, “The Underground Railroad” is a story divided into ten chapters, but not in a traditional episodic manner.
Where was Amazon’s Underground Railroad filmed?
Underground Railroad was filmed in the Savannah region and around the state of Georgia, which is located between Eastern Europe and Western Asia. The series includes 10 episodes and the filming for this series began in 2019.
Beginning in summer 2022, construction will begin and be completed by summer 2023. Design completion will occur in the fall of 2020, land acquisition completion will occur in the fall of 2020, utility relocation completion will occur in the spring of 2022, and design completion will occur in the fall of 2020.
Design completion is scheduled for the fall of 2020; land acquisition completion is scheduled for the fall of 2020; utility relocation completion is scheduled for the spring of 2022; construction begins in the summer of 2022; and construction is scheduled to be completed in the summer of 2023.
What Was the Underground Railroad?
Design completion is scheduled for fall 2020; land acquisition completion is scheduled for fall 2020; utility relocation completion is scheduled for spring 2022; construction begins in summer 2022; and construction is scheduled to be completed in summer 2023.
How the Underground Railroad Worked
The majority of enslaved persons aided by the Underground Railroad were able to flee to neighboring states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made catching fugitive enslaved persons a lucrative industry in the deep South, and there were fewer hiding places for them as a result of the Act. The majority of fugitive enslaved people were on their own until they reached specific places farther north. The escaping enslaved people were escorted by individuals known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were also used as hiding places throughout the war.
The personnel in charge of running them were referred to as “stationmasters.” There were several well-traveled roads that ran west through Ohio and into Indiana and Iowa.
The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.
Fugitive Slave Acts
The Fugitive Slave Acts were a major cause for many fugitive slaves to flee to Canada. This legislation, which was passed in 1793, authorized local governments to catch and extradite fugitive enslaved individuals from inside the borders of free states back to their places of origin, as well as to penalize anybody who assisted the fleeing enslaved people. Personal Liberty Laws were introduced in certain northern states to fight this, but they were overturned by the Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was intended to reinforce the preceding legislation, which was perceived by southern states to be insufficiently enforced at the time of passage.
The northern states were still considered a danger zone for fugitives who had managed to flee.
Some Underground Railroad operators chose to station themselves in Canada and sought to assist fugitives who were arriving to settle in the country.
Harriet Tubman was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad during its heyday. When she and two of her brothers fled from a farm in Maryland in 1849, she was given the name Harriet (her married name was Tubman). She was born Araminta Ross, and she was raised as Harriet Tubman. They returned a couple of weeks later, but Tubman fled on her own again shortly after, this time making her way to the state of Pennsylvania. In following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and other individuals.
Tubman was distraught until she had a vision of God, which led her to join the Underground Railroad and begin escorting other fugitive slaves to the Maryland state capital.
She was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad, and her name is Harriet Tubman. In 1849, she and two of her brothers managed to escape from a farm in Maryland, where they were born into slavery under the name Araminta Ross. Harriet Tubman was her married name at the time. While they did return a few of weeks later, Tubman set out on her own shortly after, making her way to the state of Pennsylvania. In following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and other people.
Tubman was distraught until she had a vision of God, which led her to join the Underground Railroad and begin escorting other runaway slaves to the Maryland state capital of Fredericksburg.
Who Ran the Underground Railroad?
Harriet Tubman was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad during her lifetime. When she and two of her brothers fled from a farm in Maryland in 1849, she was given the name Harriet Tubman (her married name was Araminta Ross). They returned a couple of weeks later, but Tubman fled on her own shortly after, making her way to Pennsylvania. In the following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and others. She attempted to rescue her spouse on her third trip, but he had remarried and refused to go.
Tubman transported large numbers of fugitives to Canada on a regular basis, believing that the United States would not treat them favorably.
Abolitionist John Brown worked as a conductor on the Underground Railroad, and it was at this time that he founded the League of Gileadites, which was dedicated to assisting fleeing enslaved individuals in their journey to Canada. Abolitionist John Brown would go on to play a variety of roles during his life. His most well-known duty was conducting an assault on Harper’s Ferry in order to raise an armed army that would march into the deep south and free enslaved people at gunpoint. Ultimately, Brown’s forces were beaten, and he was executed for treason in 1859.
- The year 1844, he formed a partnership with Vermont schoolteacher Delia Webster, and the two were jailed for assisting an escaped enslaved lady and her young daughter.
- Charles Torrey was sentenced to six years in jail in Maryland for assisting an enslaved family in their attempt to flee through Virginia.
- After being apprehended in 1844 while transporting a boatload of freed slaves from the Caribbean to the United States, Massachusetts sea captain Jonathan Walker was sentenced to prison for life.
- John Fairfield of Virginia turned down the opportunity to assist in the rescue of enslaved individuals who had been left behind by their families as they made their way north.
Fairfield’s strategy was to go around the southern United States appearing as a slave broker. He managed to elude capture twice. He died in 1860 in Tennessee, during the American Reconstruction Era.
End of the Line
Operation of the Underground Railroad came to an end in 1863, during the American Civil War. In actuality, its work was shifted aboveground as part of the Union’s overall campaign against the Confederate States of America. Once again, Harriet Tubman made a crucial contribution by organizing intelligence operations and serving as a commanding officer in Union Army efforts to rescue the liberated enslaved people who had been freed. MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman led a daring Civil War raid after the Underground Railroad was shut down.
Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad is a book about the Underground Railroad. Fergus Bordewich is a Scottish actor. A Biography of Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom Catherine Clinton is the first lady of the United States. Who Exactly Was in Charge of the Underground Railroad? ‘Henry Louis Gates’ is a pseudonym for Henry Louis Gates. The Underground Railroad’s History in New York is a little known fact. The Smithsonian Institution’s magazine. The Underground Railroad’s Dangerous Allure is well documented.
The Underground Railroad
|The Underground Railroad, a vast network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and to Canada, was not run by any single organization or person. Rather, it consisted of many individuals – many whites but predominently black – who knew only of the local efforts to aid fugitives and not of the overall operation. Still, it effectively moved hundreds of slaves northward each year – according to one estimate,the South lost 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850. An organized system to assist runaway slaves seems to have begun towards the end of the 18th century. In 1786 George Washington complained about how one of his runaway slaves was helped by a “society of Quakers, formed for such purposes.” The system grew, and around 1831 it was dubbed “The Underground Railroad,” after the then emerging steam railroads. The system even used terms used in railroading: the homes and businesses where fugitives would rest and eat were called “stations” and “depots” and were run by “stationmasters,” those who contributed money or goods were “stockholders,” and the “conductor” was responsible for moving fugitives from one station to the next.For the slave, running away to the North was anything but easy. The first step was to escape from the slaveholder. For many slaves, this meant relying on his or her own resources. Sometimes a “conductor,” posing as a slave, would enter a plantation and then guide the runaways northward. The fugitives would move at night. They would generally travel between 10 and 20 miles to the next station, where they would rest and eat, hiding in barns and other out-of-the-way places. While they waited, a message would be sent to the next station to alert its stationmaster.The fugitives would also travel by train and boat – conveyances that sometimes had to be paid for. Money was also needed to improve the appearance of the runaways – a black man, woman, or child in tattered clothes would invariably attract suspicious eyes. This money was donated by individuals and also raised by various groups, including vigilance committees.Vigilance committees sprang up in the larger towns and cities of the North, most prominently in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. In addition to soliciting money, the organizations provided food, lodging and money, and helped the fugitives settle into a community by helping them find jobs and providing letters of recommendation.The Underground Railroad had many notable participants, including John Fairfield in Ohio, the son of a slaveholding family, who made many daring rescues, Levi Coffin, a Quaker who assisted more than 3,000 slaves, and Harriet Tubman, who made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.|
The Underground Railroad movie review (2021)
“The Underground Railroad” by Barry Jenkins is much more than a history lesson; it is a genuinely important achievement that will be studied and pondered for years to come. It avoids the pitfalls of historical plays in surprising ways, blending beautiful sections of magical realism with stark reminders of the scars inflicted by the history of slavery to create a compelling and moving whole. It is horrifying, beautiful, emotional, and terrifying all at the same time, and it manages to be both deeply honest and lyrical at the same time.
- ” If Beale Street Could Talk,” he has taken on his most demanding production to date and created a huge event in the history of television.
- “The Underground Railroad,” which is based on the 2016 Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Colson Whitehead, is a tale broken into 10 parts, although not in the typical episodic fashion.
- When it comes to Jenkins’ ambition, the structure of “The Underground Railroad” speaks volumes.
- Having said that, I would not recommend that people binge watch this series over the course of a weekend and believe that Amazon would have been better served by releasing episodes weekly, enabling each episode to be absorbed in a manner that binge watching does not.
It tells the story of Cora (Thuso Mbedu), a slave who escapes from her Georgia plantation with another slave named Caesar (Aaron Pierre) in the mid-1800s and eventually finds her way to the Underground Railroad, which is reimagined as an actual rail system complete with conductors, engineers, and trains in “The Underground Railroad.” After hearing that she will see America through the train window in the premiere, Cora’s journey through America is somewhat fulfilled by the series’ arc, which takes her across the country, first to a community that appears safer but harbors dark secrets, and then through the heartland of the country in a way that forces her to confront her past and future.
- “The Underground Railroad” is more than a simple chase narrative, as it follows her as she flees from a ruthless slave catcher named Ridgeway (Joel Edgerton).
- Every performance in “The Underground Railroad” resonates, but Mbedu is the one who is supposed to carry the majority of the production, and she does so admirably.
- It was a wise choice to put newbies in the roles.
- That hasn’t altered in any way.
- The project’s success is dependent on the collaboration of Jenkins with his usual composerNicholas Britell and cinematographerJames Laxton, both of whom are important to the success of this project, which also features one of the finest sound designs in the history of television.
- Cora continuously challenges her independence and what that word really means at this point in American history, prompting the composer to use recurring motifs to his advantage (or what it means now, for that matter).
On the visual side, Jenkins and Laxton frequently use natural light sources such as candles or lanterns (and appeared to have discovered the “magic hour” on nearly every day of the shoot), and his camera brings these unforgettable faces to life as it gently moves back and forth—the production is sparsely edited, which adds to its mesmerizing power.
In doing so, he demonstrates an incredible empathy for the human condition that elevates his work to an entirely new level, never losing sight of Cora, Caesar, or even Ridgeway as individuals, even against a backdrop that could have allowed them to be reduced to mere devices in a larger picture or symbols for the hateful past of this nation.
- In the process, a history of suppression is transformed into an artistic undertaking that is ultimately about expression.
- It is now up to you to pay attention.
- It is a non-narrative companion piece that may be viewed before or after the film—I recommend seeing it after, but it can be used as an overture or an epilogue, depending on your preference.
- There is no narrative presented.
. there were moments when, when standing in the places where our ancestors had stood, we got the sensation of seeing them, actually seeing them, and it was our goal to record and share that sight with you.” The entire series was evaluated for consideration. Now available on Amazon Prime.
“The Underground Railroad” by Barry Jenkins is much more than a history lesson; it is a really historic achievement that will be studied and pondered for years to come. Unexpectedly, it manages to escape the pitfalls of historical plays by interspersing beautiful intervals of magical realism with cruel reminders of the scars inflicted by slavery’s history. It is terrible, beautiful, poignant, and horrifying all at the same time, and it manages to be both deeply honest and lyrical. The ability to identify the grace and poetry in the realism, and then to combine the two in his art, is one of Jenkins’ most amazing skills.
- A ten-chapter novella, “The Underground Railroad,” is based on the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel of the same name by Colson Whitehead, and is told in a non-traditional episodic fashion.
- With episodes ranging in length from 77 minutes to just under 20 minutes, Jenkins has been granted unlimited creative license in terms of organization.
- When it comes to Jenkins’ ambition, the structure of “The Underground Railroad” speaks volumes.
- To be clear, I would not urge viewers to binge watch this series over a weekend and believe that releasing episodes weekly would have been a better choice for Amazon because it would have allowed viewers to digest each episode individually rather than in a single sitting.
It tells the story of Cora (Thuso Mbedu), a slave who escapes from her Georgia plantation with another slave named Caesar (Aaron Pierre) and eventually finds her way to the Underground Railroad, which is reimagined as a real rail system complete with conductors, engineers, and trains in “The Underground Railroad.” After hearing that she will see America through the train window in the premiere, Cora’s journey through America is somewhat fulfilled by the series’ arc, which takes her across the country, first to a community that appears safe but harbors dark secrets, and then through the heartland of the country in a way that forces Cora to confront both her past and her future.
- “The Underground Railroad” is more than a simple chase narrative, as it follows her as she flees from a brutal slave catcher called Ridgeway (Joel Edgerton) on foot.
- “The Underground Railroad” is a production that resonates with every performance, but Mbedu is the one who is supposed to carry the majority of the load, and she does it admirably.
- The rest of the cast is outstanding (Pierre is also excellent).
- Those principles have remained constant.
- The project’s success is dependent on the collaboration of Jenkins with his usual composerNicholas Britell and cinematographerJames Laxton, both of whom are integral to the success of this project, which also has one of the finest sound designs in the history of television.
- And yet, those realistic sounds are offset by a beautiful score by Britell that adds emotional texture to the veracity of the production.
- And Jenkins employs music from artists as disparate as Outkast and “Clair De Lune,” both of which made me gasp when they trickled into the room in the first place.
- For Jenkins, the human face has always been a source of fascination, and his camera has been able to capture its complexity and beauty in ways that few other directors can equal.
This line from “The Underground Railroad” comes early in the film, and it struck me as fitting because it seemed to sum up so many works that have dealt with the atrocities of slavery throughout this time period: “We can escape slavery, but its wounds will remain forever.” However, Jenkins is not only examining the violence that caused the scars, but he is also asking us how we should go in the face of the awareness that their mark will never be erased from this land.
- In the process, a history of suppression is transformed into an artistic endeavor that is ultimately about expression.
- Listening to what I’m saying is now your responsibility Note: Earlier this week, Barry Jenkins created a companion work titled “The Gaze,” which may be viewed in the video player above.
- “What is flowing here is non-narrative,” Jenkins says.
- This was one of several instances over the course of the project where we paused our filming.
- There were moments when, when standing in the places where our ancestors had stood, we got the sensation of seeing them, actually seeing them, and it was our goal to record and share that sight with you.
To be considered for evaluation, the entire series was viewed. Right now, you can get it on Amazon Prime.
The Underground Railroad (2021)
NR600 minutes is a rating. around 3 hours ago around 5 hours ago around 9 hours ago around 10 hours ago
Did The Underground Railroad Actually Have Trains?
NR600 minutes is a rating of excellence. recently (within 3 hours) recently (within the last 5 hours the previous 9 hours in the last ten hours
The Underground Railroadon Amazon: Did the Real Underground Railroad Actually Have Trains?
Nope! Despite its name, the Underground Railroad was not a railroad in the traditional sense, such as Amtrak or commuter rail is today. It wasn’t even a true railroad in the traditional sense. Essentially, it was a metaphorical one, in which “conductors,” who were simply freed slaves and daring freedmen, would guide fugitive slaves from one “station,” or safe home, to another. It was only a loose network of safe homes and top-secret passageways to places where slavery was prohibited that was known as the Underground Railroad in historical times.
- Who is the most well-known conductor in the service?
- That is to say, everything in The Underground Railroad regarding the “actual” Underground Railroad is a fabrication.
- In addition to falling inside the period of America’s own Civil War, this occurs in a country that is an ocean away from Cora.
- And what else is a fabrication?
- Image courtesy of Amazon
Why Did Amazon’sThe Underground RailroadLie About Trains in the Real Underground Railroad?
Is it technically a “lying” if the show is a fictional production? Okay, bear with me as I explain that both Colson Whitehead’s novel and Barry Jenkins’ limited series begin with the historical tragedy of slavery as their foundation. Whitehead, on the other hand, envisioned what would have happened if the Underground Railroad had actually existed. A literary device known as magical realism was employed by him to create a world that was eerily similar to our own, but with sharp, metaphorical distinctions.
- In a city that existed decades before skyscrapers were built, there is a community dedicated to “uplifting” Black brains.
- The tests are reminiscent of the Tuskegee experiments conducted in the 1940s.
- In and of itself, this is a sort of racism.
- In the same way, the concept of a North Carolina that prohibits Black people from entering and regards hunting them down as some sort of pseudo-religious event is absurd.
- Like the other stories that the program borrows — such as Homer’s The Odyssey and Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels — it shows something fundamentally true about human nature by transporting spectators on an imaginary trip across invented cultures.
He brings this magnificent Underground Railroad to life and makes it feel genuine. The Underground Railroad, on the other hand, is not a work of historical fiction, but rather a work of fiction. Where to watch The Underground Railroad on Netflix
The Underground Railroad – Stories of the Underground Railroad
After all, if the show is a work of fiction, can it be considered a “lie”? To be clear, both Colson Whitehead’s novel and Barry Jenkins’ limited series begin with the historical tragedy of slavery as their starting point. But Whitehead speculated on what would have happened if the Underground Railroad had actually existed at the time. A literary device known as magical realism was employed by him to create a world that was eerily similar to our own, but with sharp, metaphorical contrasts between the two.
- In a neighborhood that aspires to “uplift” Black brains, there is a skyscraper that was built decades before the first one.
- In some ways, these tests are reminiscent of the Tuskegee experiments conducted in the 1940s.
- Even in its own right, this is racism.
- And so is North Carolina’s prohibition on Black people and its treatment of hunting them as some sort of pseudo-religious rite.
- By immersing fans in a fictitious voyage to invented nations, the program, like the other stories it recalls — such as Homer’s The Odyssey and Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels — shows something intrinsically true about human nature.
- The amazing Underground Railroad comes to life thanks to his efforts.
- Where to watch The Underground Railroad on the internet.
The Underground Railroad review: 10 steps to freedom
Is it technically a “lying” if the show is a fictional creation? Allow me to explain: both Colson Whitehead’s novel and Barry Jenkins’ limited series begin with the historical tragedy of slavery as their foundation. Whitehead, on the other hand, speculated on what would have happened if the Underground Railroad had actually existed. He employed a literary device known as magical realism to create a world that was eerily similar to our own, but with significant, metaphorical distinctions. Upon their arrival in South Carolina, Cora and Caesar (Aaron Pierre) are met by what looks to be an abolitionist utopia.
- However, it quickly becomes evident that the white people of South Carolina are truly attempting to eliminate Black culture by sterilizing the women and conducting covert medical examinations on the males.
- Is there a general desire to have Black people behave “more whitely”?
- In the same way that the concept of a true Underground Railroad is speculative, the plot of the episode is as well.
- The Underground Railroadis a seminal work of science fiction and fantasy.
- The fact that Jenkins is a director who bases his storytelling on reality, though, makes Amazon’s The Underground Railroad a bit puzzling.
He brings this magnificent Underground Railroad to life and makes it feel like it really exists. The Underground Railroad, on the other hand, is not a work of historical fiction, but rather a work of speculation. Where to watch The Underground Railroad online
Sight and Sound November 2021
The untold stories behind A Clockwork Orange, as seen through the relationship between author Anthony Burgess and director Stanley Kubrick+ Edgar Wright on Last Night in Soho, Jeymes Samuel on The Harder They Fall, Magorzata Szumowska on Never Gonna Snow Again, Todd Haynes’ The Velvet Underground, the best of Venice, and much more. Learn more and obtain a copy of the book.
‘The Underground Railroad’: Everything You Need to Know About Barry Jenkins’ Amazon Series
There is still a long way to go until we see ” The Underground Railroad,” the first television series from famous filmmakerBarry Jenkins (“Moonlight”) is released, but fresh information about the highly-anticipated project is beginning to emerge. In addition to being an adaptation of Colson Whitehead’s 2017 Pulitzer Prize-winning novel of the same name, “The Underground Railroad” will also debut on Amazon Prime Video in the near future. Whitehead’s novel was set in an alternate timeline in which the Underground Train of the nineteenth century was an actual railroad that American slaves used to abandon the South and find freedom in the North.
Following Cora’s escape from her Georgia farm in search of the supposed Underground Railroad, she learns that it is more than a metaphor; it is a real railroad complete with engineers and conductors and a secret network of lines and tunnels beneath the Southern soil.” Mbedu (“Is’thunzi”) co-stars in the series with Chase W.
- The premiere of “The Underground Railroad” will take place on May 14.
- According to an April interview with IndieWire, Jenkins stated that working on the series was one of the most difficult undertakings of his career.
- Aside from the show’s announcement in 2016, Jenkins has been teasing parts of the project throughout the previous few months, however few specifics have been revealed about it in the years since then.
- Amazon confirmed the show’s launch date on February 25 with the release of a teaser trailer, which can be watched below.
- The show’s director tweeted a link to a new teaser trailer, which, while without any fresh story elements, more than makes up for what is lacking with a slew of dramatic images and musical accompaniment.
- As Sojourner Truth said,’speak upon the ashes,’ it feels like a good time to tell a little bit about ourselves.
- Jenkins spoke with IndieWire about the aesthetic of the film, which unfolds entirely in reverse motion, in another teaser that was published in January.
- Britell was able to accomplish his desires, and he sat with the piece for almost two months before having an epiphany about it.
- ‘Here’s a song,’ I remarked to Daniel Morfesis, who had edited this piece, as I was practically walking out of the office on a Friday.
And the catch is that those images must narratively convey the same amount of information in backward as they do in forward motion.’ As a result, it was born out of my personal emotional reaction to producing the program.” You can see the trailer here: On May 7, the music website IndieWire premiered a tune from composer Nicholas Britell’s score for the film.
In our eyes, the orchestra was transformed into a tool for creating a specific tone.
We recorded it at AIR Studios in London, which was a great experience.
If and when further information regarding the project becomes available, it will be added to this site.
Tambay Obenson contributed to this story with additional reporting and analysis. Sign up here: Keep up with the most recent breaking film and television news! Subscribe to our email newsletters by filling out this form.
Eastern Illinois University : Teaching with Primary Sources
However, many of the intriguing and lesser known elements of the Underground Railroad are not included in many textbooks, despite the fact that it is an essential part of our nation’s history. It is intended that this booklet will serve as a window into the past by presenting a number of original documents pertaining to the Underground Railroad. Broadsides, prize posters, newspaper clippings, historical records, sheet music, pictures, and memoirs connected to the Underground Railroad are among the primary sources included in this collection.
- The Underground Railroad was a covert structure established to assist fugitive slaves on their journey to freedom in the United States.
- As a result, secret codes were developed to aid in the protection of themselves and their purpose.
- Runaway slaves were referred to as cargo, and the free persons who assisted them on their journey to freedom were referred to as conductors.
- These stations would be identified by a lantern that was lighted and hung outside.
A Dangerous Path to Freedom
Traveling through the Underground Railroad to seek their freedom was a lengthy and risky trek for escaped slaves. Runaway slaves were forced to travel long distances, sometimes on foot, in a short amount of time in order to escape. They accomplished this while surviving on little or no food and with little protection from the slave hunters who were rushing after them in the night. Slave owners were not the only ones who sought for and apprehended fleeing slaves. For the purpose of encouraging people to aid in the capture of these slaves, their owners would post reward posters offering monetary compensation for assisting in the capture of their property.
- Numerous arrested fugitive slaves were beaten, branded, imprisoned, sold back into slavery, or sometimes killed once they were apprehended.
- They would have to fend off creatures that wanted to kill and devour them while trekking for lengthy periods of time in the wilderness, as well as cross dangerous terrain and endure extreme temperatures.
- The Fleeing Slave Law of 1850 permitted and promoted the arrest of fugitive slaves since they were regarded as stolen property rather than mistreated human beings under the law at the time.
- They would not be able to achieve safety and freedom until they crossed the border into Canada.
- Aside from that, there were Underground Railroad routes that ran south, on their way to Mexico and the Caribbean.
- He was kidnapped from his northern abode, arrested, and prosecuted in Boston, Massachusetts, under the provisions of this legislation.
- After the trial, Burns was returned to the harshness of the southern states, from which he had thought he had fled.
American Memory and America’s Library are two names for the Library of Congress’ American Memory and America’s Library collections.
He did not escape via the Underground Railroad, but rather on a regular railroad.
Since he was a fugitive slave who did not have any “free papers,” he had to borrow a seaman’s protection certificate, which indicated that a seaman was a citizen of the United States, in order to prove that he was free.
Unfortunately, not all fugitive slaves were successful in their quest for freedom.
Harriet Tubman, Henry Bibb, Anthony Burns, Addison White, Josiah Henson, and John Parker were just a few of the people who managed to escape slavery using the Underground Railroad system.
He shipped himself from Richmond, Virginia, to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in a box that measured three feet long, two and a half feet deep, and two feet in diameter. When he was finally let out of the crate, he burst out singing.
Train conductors on the Underground Railroad were free persons who provided assistance to escaped slaves moving via the Underground Railroad system. Runaway slaves were assisted by conductors, who provided them with safe transportation to and from train stations. They were able to accomplish this under the cover of darkness, with slave hunters on their tails. Many of these stations would be in the comfort of their own homes or places of work, which was convenient. They were in severe danger as a result of their actions in hiding fleeing slaves; nonetheless, they continued because they believed in a cause bigger than themselves, which was the liberation thousands of oppressed human beings.
- They represented a diverse range of ethnicities, vocations, and socioeconomic backgrounds.
- Due to the widespread belief that slaves were considered property, the freeing of slaves was perceived as a theft of slave owners’ personal belongings.
- Captain Jonathan Walker was apprehended off the coast of Florida while attempting to convey slaves from the United States to freedom in the Bahamas.
- With the following words from one of his songs, abolitionist poet John Whittier paid respect to Walker’s valiant actions: “Take a step forward with your muscular right hand, brave ploughman of the sea!
- She never lost sight of any of them during the journey.
- He went on to write a novel.
- John Parker is yet another former slave who escaped and returned to slave states in order to aid in the emancipation of others.
Rankin’s neighbor and fellow conductor, Reverend John Rankin, was a collaborator in the Underground Railroad project.
The Underground Railroad’s conductors were unquestionably anti-slavery, and they were not alone in their views.
Individuals such as William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur and Lewis Tappan founded the American Anti-Slavery Society, which marked the beginning of the abolitionist movement.
The group published an annual almanac that featured poetry, paintings, essays, and other abolitionist material.
Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave who rose to prominence as an abolitionist after escaping from slavery.
His other abolitionist publications included the Frederick Douglass Paper, which he produced in addition to delivering public addresses on themes that were important to abolitionists.
Anthony was another well-known abolitionist who advocated for the abolition of slavery via her speeches and writings.
For the most part, she based her novel on the adventures of escaped slave Josiah Henson.
Efforts of Abolitionists Telling Their Story:Fugitive Slave Narratives
Henry Bibb was born into slavery in Kentucky in the year 1815, and he was the son of a slave owner. After several failed efforts to emancipate himself from slavery, he maintained the strength and persistence to continue his struggle for freedom despite being captured and imprisoned numerous times. His determination paid off when he was able to successfully escape to the northern states and then on to Canada with the assistance of the Underground Railroad, which had been highly anticipated. The following is an excerpt from his tale, in which he detailed one of his numerous escapes and the difficulties he faced as a result of his efforts.
- I began making preparations for the potentially lethal experiment of breading the shackles that tied me as a slave as soon as the clock struck twelve.
- On the twenty-fifth of December, 1837, the long-awaited day had finally arrived when I would put into effect my previous determination, which was to flee for Liberty or accept death as a slave, as I had previously stated.
- It took every ounce of moral strength I have to keep my emotions under control as I said goodbye to my small family.
- Despite the fact that every incentive was extended to me in order to flee if I want to be free, and the call of liberty was booming in my own spirit, ‘Be free, oh, man!
- I was up against a slew of hurdles that had gathered around my mind, attempting to bind my wounded soul, which was still imprisoned in the dark prison of mental degeneration.
- Furthermore, the danger of being killed or arrested and deported to the far South, where I would be forced to spend the rest of my days in hopeless bondage on a cotton or sugar plantation, all conspired to discourage me.
- The moment has come for me to follow through on my commitment.
- This marked the beginning of the construction of what was known as the underground rail route to Canada.
For nearly forty-eight hours, I pushed myself to complete my journey without food or rest, battling against external difficulties that no one who has never experienced them can comprehend: “not knowing when I might be captured while traveling among strangers, through cold and fear, braving the north winds while wearing only a thin layer of clothing, pelted by snow storms through the dark hours of the night, and not a single house in which I could enter to protect me from the storm.” This is merely one of several accounts penned by runaway slaves who were on the run from their masters.
Sojourner Truth was another former slave who became well-known for her work to bring slavery to an end.
Green and many others, including Josiah Henson, authored autobiographies in which they described their own personal experiences.
Perhaps a large number of escaped slaves opted to write down their experiences in order to assist people better comprehend their struggles and tribulations; or perhaps they did so in order to help folks learn from the mistakes of the past in order to create a better future for themselves.
African American Spirituals
Harriet Tubman is seen in a full-length picture, her hands resting on the back of a chair. A reproduction of this image is available from the Prints and Photographs Division under the Reproduction Number LC-USZ62-7816. She said that she used spirituals such as “Go Down Moses” to alert slaves that she was in the area and would assist those who wished to escape. Tubman was a former slave who worked as a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad during the American Civil War. When it comes to religious folk music, aspiritual is most strongly connected with the slavery of African Americans in the American South during the 19th century.
- The African American spiritual (also known as the Negro Spiritual) is one of the most prominent and widespread kinds of American folk music, accounting for almost a quarter of all American folk song.
- Another is ” Deep down in my heart.” According to the King James Bible translation ofEphesians 5:19, “Speaking to yourself in psalms and hymns and spiritual melodies, singing and making music in your heart to the Lord,” the term “spiritual” is derived.
- Participants in the gatherings would sing, chant, dance, and even enter euphoric trances during the sessions.
- ” Jesus Leads Me All the Way,” performed by Reverend Goodwin and the Zion MethodistChurch congregation in 1970 and recorded by Henrietta Yurchenco, is an example of a spiritual sung in this way.
- Music had long been a key part of people’s lives throughout Africa, with music-making permeating both big life events and everyday activities.
- The gatherings were thus frequently prohibited and had to be held in secret.
- It took a long time for the religion to gain widespread acceptance at initially.
Spirituals were increasingly important as Africanized Christianity gained traction among the slave population, serving as a means of expressing the community’s newfound faith, as well as its sufferings and hopes.
The vocal style was characterized by a plethora of freeform slides, twists, and rhythms, which made it difficult for early spiritual publishers to adequately capture.
The difficulties of slaves are described in songs such as “Sometimes I feel like a motherlesschild,” and “Nobody knows de sorrow I’ve seen,” which identify the suffering of Jesus Christ.
They are referred to as “jubilees” or “camp meetingsongs” because they are rapid, rhythmic, and frequently syncopated.
Spirituals are also frequently referred to as formalized protest songs, with songs such as ” Steal away to Jesus,” created by Wallis Willis, being interpreted as calls to emancipation from slavery by some critics and historians.
Because aiding slaves in their quest for freedom was against the law, hard proof is difficult to come across.
As Frederick Douglass, abolitionist author and former slave in the nineteenth century, wrote in his bookMy Bondage and My Freedom(1855) about his experiences singing spirituals while he was held in bondage: “If someone had been paying attention, they might have noticed something more than a desire to reach heaven in our repeated singing of ‘O Canaan, sweet Canaan, I am bound for the land of Canaan.’ We wanted to get to the North, and the North was Canaan, the land of Israel.” Featured image courtesy of Fisk University’s Prints and Photographs Division, Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-11008 and the Jubilee Singers of Nashville, Tenn.
- The Fisk University Jubilee Singers, under the leadership of JohnW.
- Between 1870 and 1880, a photograph was taken.
- The formation of the Jubilee Singers, a chorus comprised of freed slaves from Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, in the 1870s ignited a worldwide interest in the musical style, which has continued to this day.
- While some African Americans at the time connected the spiritual tradition with slavery and were uninterested in its continuation, the concerts of the Fisk Universitysingers persuaded many that it should be perpetuated.
- The Hampton Singers of Hampton Institute (now Hampton University) in Hampton, Virginia, were one of the first groups to challenge the Jubilee Singers in terms of quality and quantity.
- Nathaniel Dett.
- As noted composers Moses Hogan, Roland Carter, Jester Hairston, Brazeal Dennard and Wendell Whalum have arranged spirituals for choruses, the musical form has evolved beyond its traditional folk song roots in the twentieth century.
A significant contribution to the development of spirituals on the concert hall stage has been the work of composers such as Henry T.
Follow the link to get the sheet music for ” A Balm inGiliad,” a spiritual prepared by Burleigh that is an example of his work.
In Burleigh’s footsteps were many more composers who followed in his footsteps.
The practice has persisted into more modern times, with classical performers like as Kathleen Battle and Jessye Norman regularly include spirituals in their concerts and recording sessions.
A great number of spirituals have been retained in the Gospel heritage, but their musical forms have altered considerably as harmonies have been added and the songs have been rearranged to fit new performing styles.
The classic spiritual, despite these modifications, is still alive and well in some conservative churches in the South that are either more insulated from modern influences, or that just choose to keep the older tunes alive for historical reasons.
There are some real hidden gems in this collection, including “Run old Jeremiah,” a ring shout from Jennings, Alabama, recorded by J.
Brown and A.
Simon’s Island, Georgia, in 1959.
This audio contains a conversation between folklorist Stephen Winick and a curator about the song “Kumbaya.” Even though it is significantly less widely known than its “negrospiritual” cousin, the “white spiritual” genre contains the folk song, the religious ballad, and the camp-meeting spiritual, among other things.
This field recording was produced in 1943 by Willis James of the Lincoln Park Singers playing “I’ll fly away,” a song written by Albert E.
This field recording seeks to demonstrate the connection that exists between black and white spirituals in general.
A series of studies began with this book, which revealed the existence of white spirituals in both their oral and published forms, with the latter being found in the shape-note tune books of rural communities.
In black spiritual performances, differences include the use of microtonally flattened notes, syncopation, and counter-rhythms denoted by handclapping, among other things.
Throughout the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, spirituals have played a key role as vehicles for social protest at various moments throughout history.
A live performance of both of these songs was captured on camera by the ensemble Reverb at a concert at the Library of Congress in 2007.
While creating new protest songs, several of today’s most well-known pop singers continue to draw on the spirituals legacy as inspiration. A few of examples include Bob Marley’s “RedemptionSong,” as well as Billy Bragg’s “Sing their souls back home.”
- With hands on the back of a chair, Harriet Tubman poses for a full-length photograph. It is reproduced under the following number: LC-USZ62-7816 in the Prints and Photographs Division: She said that she used spirituals such as “Go Down Moses” to alert slaves that she was in the area and would assist those who wished to escape. Tubman was a former slave and “conductor” on the Underground Railroad. When it comes to religious folk music, aspiritual is most strongly connected with the slavery of African Americans in the American South throughout the nineteenth century. Songs about slavery became more popular in the latter few decades of the eighteenth century, leading up to the abolition of legalized slavery in the 1860s. In the United States, the African American spiritual (also known as the Negro Spiritual) is one of the most influential and widespread types of folk music. ” Swinglow, lovely chariot,” created by Wallis Willis, is one of the most well-known spirituals. Another is ” Deep down in my heart,” composed by a Wallis Willis. According to the King James Bible translation ofEphesians 5:19, “Speaking to yourself in psalms and hymns and spiritual melodies, singing and making music in your hearts to the Lord,” the term “spiritual” is derived. “Brusharbor meetings,” “bush meetings,” and “camp meetings” were informal gatherings of African slaves that took place in “praise homes” and outdoor meetings known as “brusharbor meetings,” “bush meetings,” and “camp meetings” in the eighteenth century, according to some historians. Participants would sing, chant and dance during the gatherings, and they would occasionally get into blissful trances. Singing spirituals have also been traced back to the “ring scream,” which was a shuffling circular dance to chanting and handclapping that was popular among early plantation slaves. “Jesus Leads Me All the Way,” performed by Reverend Goodwin and the Zion MethodistChurch congregation in 1970 and recorded by Henrietta Yurchenco, is an example of a spiritual sung in this fashion. Africans have always placed a high value on music, which permeates key life events as well as their daily routine. The white colonists of North America, on the other hand, were disturbed and disapproved of the slaves’ African-infused mode of worship, which they thought to be beidolatrous and untamed. As a result, the meetings were frequently prohibited and had to be held in secret. Beginning in the seventeenth century, the African population in the American colonies was first exposed to Christian beliefs. At initially, there was a gradual uptake of the religious beliefs. The slave population, on the other hand, was attracted by Biblical stories that had similarities to their own experiences, and they composed spirituals that repeated storylines about Biblical heroes such as Moses and Daniel. During the period in which Africanized Christianity took root among the slave population, spirituals were used to represent the newfound religion of the community, along with the community’s grief and optimism. As a call and answer song, spirituals are performed in a call and response format, with one or more singers giving an unbroken refrain while a chorus of vocalists provides a steady chorus of support. There were many freeform slides, twists, and rhythms in the vocal style of early spirituals, which made it difficult for early spiritual publishers to adequately transcribe them. Many spirituals, sometimes known as “sorrow songs,” are deep, sluggish, and melancholy in their delivery and content. The difficulties of slaves are described in songs such as “Sometimes I feel like a motherlesschild,” and “Nobody knows de sorrow I’ve seen,” which identify the suffering of JesusChrist. Other spirituals, on the other hand, are happier. “Jubilees” or “camp meetingsongs” are quick, rhythmic songs with a lot of syncopation that are popular among campers. ” Rocky mysoul,” ” Fare Ye Well,” and other songs are examples of this type. Musical spirituals are also occasionally referred to as formalized protest songs, with songs such as ” Steal Away to Jesus,” created byWallis Willis, being seen as calls to emancipation from slavery by certain critics. Because the Underground Railroad of the mid-nineteenth century employed terms from railways as a secret language for guiding slaves reach freedom, it is sometimes claimed that songs like “I got myticket” may have served as a code for emancipation during the American Civil War. Because it was unlawful to aid slaves achieve their release, it is difficult to obtain solid proof. In fact, Harriet Tubman used the spiritual “Go down, Moses,” in order to identify herself to slaves who may want to flee north, to identify herself to slaves who could want to flee west. During his years in bondage, Frederick Douglass, an abolitionist author and former slave from the nineteenth century, wrote in his bookMy Bondage and My Freedom(1855) about his experience of singing spirituals: “If someone had paid attention, they might have noticed something more than a hope of reaching heaven in our repeated singing of ‘O Canaan, sweet Canaan, I am bound for the land of Canaan.’ Ultimately, we desired to reach the North, and the North represented our Canaan.” Photograph courtesy of the Fisk University Prints and Photographs Division, Nashville, Tenn. Reproduction number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-10108. Detail from the Jubilee Singers at Fisk University in Nashville, Tenn. Concerts and recordings by the Fisk University Jubilee Singers, under the supervision of JohnW. Work, Jr., the first African-American to collect and publish spirituals, served to promote awareness of African-American spirituals in the community. Between 1870 and 1880, a photographer captured this image. Beginning in the 1860s, when spiritual compilations were published, spirituals became more well known and popular. The formation of the Jubilee Singers, a chorus comprised of freed slaves from Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, in the 1870s spurred a worldwide interest in the musical style, which continued into the twentieth century. Their lengthy traveling schedule in the United States and Europe featured concert performances of spirituals, which were extremely well received by the audiences that attended their shows. While some African Americans at the time connected the spiritual tradition with slavery and were uninterested in seeing it continue, the performances of the Fisk Universitysingers persuaded many that it should be kept alive. Ensembles from all across the country began to imitate the Jubilee singers, resulting in the establishment of a concert hall tradition of singing this music that has survived to the present day. The Hampton Singers of Hampton Institute (now Hampton University) in Hampton, Virginia, were one of the first vocal ensembles to challenge the Jubilee Singers in terms of quality and quantity of performances. R. Nathaniel Dett, the group’s long-time leader, led the ensemble to international acclaim in the early and mid-twentieth centuries after it was founded in 1873. Non-stop arrangements of spirituals as well as original compositions based on spirituals made Dett a household name, not only for his visionary leading talents but also for his impassioneddarrangements. As noted composers Moses Hogan, Roland Carter, Jester Hairston, Brazeal Dennard and Wendell Whalum have arranged spirituals for choruses, the musical form has evolved beyond its traditional folk song roots in the twentieth century. Moses Hogan’s a cappella arrangements of spirituals for choruses have been performed by choirs around the world. It was the efforts of composers such as Henry T. Burleigh, who made extensively performed piano-voice arrangements of spirituals for solo classical vocalists in the early twentieth century, that helped to further enhance the appearance of spirituals on the concert hall stage in the twentieth century. The sheet music for ” A Balm inGiliad,” an example of a spiritual prepared by Burleigh, can be accessed by clicking on the link provided. From an arrangement to Burleigh, Marian Anderson’s 1924 performance of “Go DownMoses” was culled (select the link to listen tothis recording). In Burleigh’s footsteps were many more composers who came after him. When it came to spirituals in the 1920s and 1930s, well-known classically educated performers like as Marian Anderson, Roland Hayes, and Paul Robeson made them a focal point of their performances. The practice has persisted into more modern times, with classical performers like as Kathleen Battle and Jessye Norman regularly include spirituals in their recitals and performances. Spirituals continue to be present in the concert hall, but their importance in African American churches has diminished in the twentieth century as Gospel music has gained in popularity and become more mainstream. A great number of spirituals have been retained in the Gospel heritage, but the musical forms have altered considerably as harmonies have been added and the songs have been rearranged to fit new performance styles. Listen to this tape of the Golden Jubilee Quartet playing “Oh, Jonah!” for an example of the Gospel Quartet style that developed in the 1940s. Despite these developments, classic spirituals continue to be practiced in some conservative churches in the South that are either more insulated from contemporary influences or that just choose to keep the ancient melodies alive. See the page African American Gospel for additional information on this topic. In the American Folklife Center archives at the Library of Congress are several recordings of these country spirituals, which were recorded between 1933 and 1942. There are some real hidden gems in this collection, including “Run old Jeremiah,” a ring shout from Jennings, Alabama, recorded by J. W. Brown and A. Coleman in 1934, which has a trance-like accompaniment of stamping feet, and “Eli you can’t stand,” a spiritual underpinned by handclapping and featuring lead singing by Willis Proctor, recorded on St. Simon’s Island, Georgia, in 1959. Many field recordings of spirituals are accessible online in this presentation, including the oldest known recording of “Come by here,” or as it is often known today, “Kumbaya,”sung by H. Wylie and captured on a wax cylinder by folklorist Robert Winslow Gordon in 1926. (the middle of this recording is inaudible, probably due todeterioration of the cylinder). On this audio, folklorist Stephen Winick gives a discussion about “Kumbaya,” which is a curator talk about the song. The folk hymn, the religious ballad, and the camp-meeting spiritual are all examples of the “white spiritual” genre, which is significantly less well-known than its “negrospiritual” cousin. With African American spirituals, white spirituals share symbolism, certain melodic characteristics, and a degree of similar origin. This field recording was recorded in 1943 by Willis James of the Lincoln Park Singers playing “I’ll fly away,” a song written by white composer Albert E. Brumley. This field recording attempts to demonstrate the connection that exists between black and white spirituals in the world. During the 1930s, George Pullen Jackson, a professor of German at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, wrote the book White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands, which brought the genre of white spirituals to public attention for the first time (1933). the first of a series of investigations that revealed the presence of white spirituals in both oral and written versions, the latter of which could be found in local rural folk song collections (such as shape-note tune books). It is possible to tell the difference between black and white spirituals in a number of ways. Microtonal flattening notes, syncopation, and counter-rhythms denoted by handclapping are all used in black spiritual performances, which distinguishes them from white spiritual performances. The distinctive vocal timbre of black spiritual singing, which includes yelling, exclamations of the phrase “Glory!” and scratchy and harsh falsetto tones, distinguishes it from other types of music. Throughout the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, spirituals have played a key role as vehicles for social protest at various moments. During the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s, spirituals and gospel music were used to support the efforts of civil rights activists and to raise awareness about their rights. “Oh, Liberation! “, and “Eyes on the Prize” were only a couple of examples of “freedom songs” that were modified from old spirituals during that time period. A live performance of both of these songs was captured on camera by the band Reverb at a concert at the Library of Congress in 2007. The torch song of the movement, “We Shall Overcome,” was a fusion of the gospel hymn “I’ll Overcome Someday” and the spiritual “I’ll Be All Right.” In many other nations throughout the world, including as Russia, Eastern Europe, China, and South Africa, freedom songs based on spirituals have also played a role in defining democratic movements. While writing new protest songs, several of today’s most well-known pop musicians continue to take inspiration from the spirituals heritage of the past. Bob Marley’s “RedemptionSong” and Billy Bragg’s “Sing their souls back home” are just a couple of examples.
- ” African American Song,” (Songs of America)
- ” African American Gospel,” (Songs of America)
- ” African American Song,” (Songs of America)
- University of Denver’s SweetChariot: The Story of the Spirituals is a must-read. Hansonia Caldwell, Hansonia Caldwell African American Music: Spirituals (third edition, Culver City, California: IkoroCommunications, Inc. 2003)
- Ellen Koskoff, ed. African American Music: Spirituals (third edition, Culver City, California: IkoroCommunications, Inc. 2003)
- The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Volume 3: The United States and Canada (New York and London: Garland Publishing, 2001) pp 624-629
- Also pp523-524, pp68-69
- Hitchcock, H. Wiley, and Stanley Sadie, The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Volume 3: The United States and Canada (New York and London: Garland Publishing, 2001). The New GroveDictionary of Music and Musicians (London: Macmillan, 1986), pages. 284-290
- The New GroveDictionary of Music and Musicians (London: Macmillan, 1986), pp. 284-290
- Many examples of digital recordings and sheet music of spirituals may be found on the Library of Congress online portal’s Performing Arts Encyclopedia. The Performing Arts Encyclopedia also contains a special digitized American choralmusic collection, which includes arrangements of spirituals by composers such as Henry T Burleigh and R Nathaniel Dett
- ” Songs of the African American Civil Rights Movement,” (Songs of America)
- ” Songs Related to the Abolition of Slavery,” (Songs of America)
- And ” Songs of the African American Civil Rights Movement,”