How Many People Did Hariet Tubman Help In The Underground Railroad? (Professionals recommend)

Harriet Tubman is perhaps the most well-known of all the Underground Railroad’s “conductors.” During a ten-year span she made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom. And, as she once proudly pointed out to Frederick Douglass, in all of her journeys she “never lost a single passenger.”

What are three facts about Harriet Tubman?

  • Facts about Harriet Tubman. Fact 3: Harriet had many strong visions and dreams. She was a devout Christian, and she attributed these visions as being revelations from God. Fact 4: During the Civil War, Harriet worked as a cook, a nurse and as a scout bearing arms. Later she worked as a spy.

How many slaves did the Underground Railroad help?

According to some estimates, between 1810 and 1850, the Underground Railroad helped to guide one hundred thousand enslaved people to freedom. As the network grew, the railroad metaphor stuck. “Conductors” guided runaway enslaved people from place to place along the routes.

How many people were rescued on the Underground Railroad?

Estimates vary widely, but at least 30,000 slaves, and potentially more than 100,000, escaped to Canada via the Underground Railroad.

How many people did Harriet Tubman save on her first mission?

Fact: According to Tubman’s own words, and extensive documentation on her rescue missions, we know that she rescued about 70 people —family and friends—during approximately 13 trips to Maryland.

Did Harriet Tubman marry a white man?

Tubman’s owners, the Brodess family, “loaned” her out to work for others while she was still a child, under what were often miserable, dangerous conditions. Sometime around 1844, she married John Tubman, a free Black man.

Did Harriet Tubman create the Underground Railroad?

Contrary to legend, Tubman did not create the Underground Railroad; it was established in the late eighteenth century by black and white abolitionists. Tubman likely benefitted from this network of escape routes and safe houses in 1849, when she and two brothers escaped north.

When did Harriet Tubman start the Underground Railroad?

The Underground Railroad and Siblings Tubman first encountered the Underground Railroad when she used it to escape slavery herself in 1849. Following a bout of illness and the death of her owner, Tubman decided to escape slavery in Maryland for Philadelphia.

How many slaves did Harriet Tubman save in total?

Harriet Tubman is perhaps the most well-known of all the Underground Railroad’s “conductors.” During a ten-year span she made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom. And, as she once proudly pointed out to Frederick Douglass, in all of her journeys she “never lost a single passenger.”

Did Harriet Tubman really jump off a bridge?

Cornered by armed slave catchers on a bridge over a raging river, Harriet Tubman knew she had two choices – give herself up, or choose freedom and risk her life by jumping into the rapids. “I’m going to be free or die!” she shouted as she leapt over the side.

Does Harriet Tubman get caught?

Despite the efforts of the slaveholders, Tubman and the fugitives she assisted were never captured. Years later, she told an audience: “I was conductor of the Underground Railroad for eight years, and I can say what most conductors can’t say – I never ran my train off the track and I never lost a passenger.”

Is Gertie Davis died?

Tubman must have been between 88 and 98 years old when she died. She claimed in her pension application that she was born in 1825, her death certificate said she was born in 1815 and to add to the confusion, her gravestone indicated that she was born in 1820.

How many slaves did Jefferson own?

Despite working tirelessly to establish a new nation founded upon principles of freedom and egalitarianism, Jefferson owned over 600 enslaved people during his lifetime, the most of any U.S. president.

Did Harriet Tubman have epilepsy?

Her mission was getting as many men, women and children out of bondage into freedom. When Tubman was a teenager, she acquired a traumatic brain injury when a slave owner struck her in the head. This resulted in her developing epileptic seizures and hypersomnia.

Harriet Tubman

Frequently Asked Questions

Who was Harriet Tubman?

In the United States, Harriet Tubman, née Araminta Ross, (born c. 1820 in Dorchester County, Maryland, U.S.—died March 10, 1913 in Auburn, New York) was an abolitionist who managed to escape from slavery in the South and rise to prominence before the American Civil War. As part of the Underground Railroad, which was an extensive covert network of safe homes built specifically for this reason, she was responsible for guiding scores of enslaved persons to freedom in the North. Araminta Ross was born into slavery and eventually assumed her mother’s maiden name, Harriet, as her own.

When she was approximately 12 years old, she reportedly refused to assist an overseer in punishing another enslaved person; as a result, he hurled an iron weight that accidently struck her, causing her to suffer a terrible brain injury, which she would endure for the rest of her life.

  • Tubman went to Philadelphia in 1849, allegedly on the basis of rumors that she was due to be sold.
  • In December 1850, she made her way to Baltimore, Maryland, where she was reunited with her sister and two children who had joined her in exile.
  • A long-held belief that Tubman made around 19 excursions into Maryland and assisted upwards of 300 individuals out of servitude was based on inflated estimates in Sara Bradford’s 1868 biography of Tubman.
  • If anyone opted to turn back, putting the operation in jeopardy, she reportedly threatened them with a revolver and stated, “You’ll either be free or die,” according to reports.
  • One such example was evading capture on Saturday evenings since the story would not emerge in the newspapers until the following Monday.
  • It has been stated that she never lost sight of a runaway she was escorting to safety.
  • Abolitionists, on the other hand, praised her for her bravery.

Her parents (whom she had brought from Maryland in June 1857) and herself moved to a tiny farm outside Auburn, New York, about 1858, and remained there for the rest of her life.

Tubman spied on Confederate territory while serving with the Second Carolina Volunteers, who were under the leadership of Col.

Montgomery’s forces were able to launch well-coordinated attacks once she returned with intelligence regarding the locations of munitions stockpiles and other strategic assets.

Immediately following the Civil War, Tubman relocated to Auburn, where she began caring for orphans and the elderly, a practice that culminated in the establishment of the Harriet Tubman Home for IndigentAged Negroes in 1892.

Aside from suffrage, Tubman became interested in a variety of other issues, including the abolition of slavery.

A private measure providing for a $20 monthly stipend was enacted by Congress some 30 years after her contribution was recognized. Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Jeff Wallenfeldt was the author of the most recent revision and update to this article.

Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman is perhaps the most well-known of all the Underground Railroad’s “conductors.” During a ten-year span she made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom. And, as she once proudly pointed out to Frederick Douglass, in all of her journeys she “never lost a single passenger.” Tubman was born a slave in Maryland’s Dorchester County around 1820. At age five or six, she began to work as a house servant. Seven years later she was sent to work in the fields. While she was still in her early teens, she suffered an injury that would follow her for the rest of her life. Always ready to stand up for someone else, Tubman blocked a doorway to protect another field hand from an angry overseer. The overseer picked up and threw a two-pound weight at the field hand. It fell short, striking Tubman on the head. She never fully recovered from the blow, which subjected her to spells in which she would fall into a deep sleep.Around 1844 she married a free black named John Tubman and took his last name. (She was born Araminta Ross; she later changed her first name to Harriet, after her mother.) In 1849, in fear that she, along with the other slaves on the plantation, was to be sold, Tubman resolved to run away. She set out one night on foot. With some assistance from a friendly white woman, Tubman was on her way. She followed the North Star by night, making her way to Pennsylvania and soon after to Philadelphia, where she found work and saved her money. The following year she returned to Maryland and escorted her sister and her sister’s two children to freedom. She made the dangerous trip back to the South soon after to rescue her brother and two other men. On her third return, she went after her husband, only to find he had taken another wife. Undeterred, she found other slaves seeking freedom and escorted them to the North.Tubman returned to the South again and again. She devised clever techniques that helped make her “forays” successful, including using the master’s horse and buggy for the first leg of the journey; leaving on a Saturday night, since runaway notices couldn’t be placed in newspapers until Monday morning; turning about and heading south if she encountered possible slave hunters; and carrying a drug to use on a baby if its crying might put the fugitives in danger. Tubman even carried a gun which she used to threaten the fugitives if they became too tired or decided to turn back, telling them, “You’ll be free or die.”By 1856, Tubman’s capture would have brought a $40,000 reward from the South. On one occasion, she overheard some men reading her wanted poster, which stated that she was illiterate. She promptly pulled out a book and feigned reading it. The ploy was enough to fool the men.Tubman had made the perilous trip to slave country 19 times by 1860, including one especially challenging journey in which she rescued her 70-year-old parents. Of the famed heroine, who became known as “Moses,” Frederick Douglass said, “Excepting John Brown – of sacred memory – I know of no one who has willingly encountered more perils and hardships to serve our enslaved people than.” And John Brown, who conferred with “General Tubman” about his plans to raid Harpers Ferry, once said that she was “one of the bravest persons on this continent.”Becoming friends with the leading abolitionists of the day, Tubman took part in antislavery meetings. On the way to such a meeting in Boston in 1860, in an incident in Troy, New York, she helped a fugitive slave who had been captured.During the Civil War Harriet Tubman worked for the Union as a cook, a nurse, and even a spy. After the war she settled in Auburn, New York, where she would spend the rest of her long life. She died in 1913.Image Credit: Moorland-Spingarn Research Center

Harriet Tubman

As an escaped enslaved woman, Harriet Tubman worked as a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad, guiding enslaved individuals to freedom before the Civil War, all while a bounty was placed on her head. But she was also a nurse, a spy for the Union, and a proponent of women’s rights. Tubman is one of the most well-known figures in American history, and her legacy has inspired countless individuals of all races and ethnicities around the world.

When Was Harriet Tubman Born?

Harriet Tubman was born in 1820 on a plantation in Dorchester County, Maryland, and became well-known as a pioneer. Her parents, Harriet (“Rit”) Green and Benjamin Ross, gave her the name Araminta Ross and referred to her as “Minty” as a nickname. Rit worked as a chef in the plantation’s “large house,” while Benjamin was a wood worker on the plantation’s “little house.” As a tribute to her mother, Araminta changed her given name to Harriet later in life. However, the reality of slavery pulled many of Harriet’s siblings and sisters apart, despite Rit’s attempts to keep the family united.

Harriet was hired as a muskrat trap setter by a planter when she was seven years old, and she was later hired as a field laborer by the same planter.

See also:  What Were Station Masters Of The Underground Railroad? (Suits you)

A Good Deed Gone Bad

Harriet’s yearning for justice first manifested itself when she was 12 years old and witnessed an overseer prepare to hurl a heavy weight at a runaway. Harriet took a step between the enslaved person and the overseer, and the weight of the person smacked her in the head. Afterwards, she described the occurrence as follows: “The weight cracked my head. They had to carry me to the home because I was bleeding and fainting. Because I was without a bed or any place to lie down at all, they threw me on the loom’s seat, where I stayed for the rest of the day and the following day.” As a result of her good act, Harriet has suffered from migraines and narcolepsy for the remainder of her life, forcing her to go into a deep slumber at any time of day.

She was undesirable to potential slave purchasers and renters because of her physical disability.

Escape from Slavery

A fugitive was going to be hit by a big weight when Harriet, then 12 years old, saw and intervened. She was inspired to pursue justice. A heavy weight fell on Harriet’s head as she stood between an enslaved individual and an overseer. “The weight fractured my head,” she subsequently explained of the incident. Helicopters transported me to the home as I was writhing in pain. Because I was without a bed or any other place to rest at all, they threw me on the loom’s seat, where I remained for the rest of the day and the next.

She also began to have intense dreams and hallucinations, which she said were holy experiences, which she described in detail (she was a staunch Christian). Potential slave purchasers and tenants were turned off by her physical disability.

Harriet Tubman: Underground Railroad

On September 17, 1849, Harriet, Ben, and Henry managed to flee their Maryland farm and reach the United States. The brothers, on the other hand, changed their minds and returned. Harriet persisted, and with the assistance of the Underground Railroad, she was able to journey 90 miles north to Pennsylvania and freedom. Tubman got employment as a housekeeper in Philadelphia, but she wasn’t content with simply being free on her own; she desired freedom for her family and friends, as well as for herself.

She attempted to relocate her husband John to the north at one time, but he had remarried and preferred to remain in Maryland with his new wife.

Fugitive Slave Act

The Runaway Slave Act of 1850 authorized the apprehension and enslavement of fugitive and released laborers in the northern United States. Consequently, Harriet’s task as an Underground Railroad guide became much more difficult, and she was obliged to take enslaved people even farther north into Canada by leading them through the night, generally during the spring or fall when the days were shorter. She carried a revolver for her personal security as well as to “encourage” any of her charges who might be having second thoughts about following her orders.

Within 10 years, Harriet became acquainted with other abolitionists like as Frederick Douglass, Thomas Garrett, and Martha Coffin Wright, and she built her own Underground Railroad network of her own.

Despite this, it is thought that Harriet personally guided at least 70 enslaved persons to freedom, including her elderly parents, and that she educated scores of others on how to escape on their own in the years following the Civil War.

More information may be found at The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.

Harriet Tubman’s Civil War Service

In 1861, as the American Civil War broke out, Harriet discovered new methods of combating slavery. She was lured to Fort Monroe to provide assistance to runaway enslaved persons, where she served as a nurse, chef, and laundress. In order to assist sick troops and runaway enslaved people, Harriet employed her expertise of herbal medicines. She rose to the position of director of an intelligence and reconnaissance network for the Union Army in 1863. In addition to providing Union commanders with critical data regarding Confederate Army supply routes and personnel, she assisted in the liberation of enslaved persons who went on to join Black Union battalions.

Despite being at just over five feet tall, she was a force to be reckoned with, despite the fact that it took more than three decades for the government to recognize her military accomplishments and provide her with financial compensation.

Harriet Tubman’s Later Years

Following the Civil War, Harriet moved to Auburn, New York, where she lived with her family and friends on land she owned. After her husband John died in 1867, she married Nelson Davis, a former enslaved man and Civil War soldier, in 1869. A few years later, they adopted a tiny girl named Gertie, who became their daughter. Harriet maintained an open-door policy for anyone who was in need of assistance. In order to sustain her philanthropic endeavors, she sold her homegrown fruit, raised pigs, accepted gifts, and borrowed money from family and friends.

  1. She also collaborated with famed suffrage activist Susan B.
  2. Harriet Tubman acquired land close to her home in 1896 and built the Harriet Tubman Home for Aged and Indigent Colored People, which opened in 1897.
  3. However, her health continued to deteriorate, and she was finally compelled to relocate to the rest home that bears her name in 1911.
  4. Schools and museums carry her name, and her life story has been told in novels, films, and documentaries, among other mediums.

Harriet Tubman: 20 Dollar Bill

The SS Harriet Tubman, which was named for Tubman during World War I, is a memorial to her legacy. In 2016, the United States Treasury announced that Harriet Tubman’s portrait will be used on the twenty-dollar note, replacing the image of former President and slaveowner Andrew Jackson. Later, Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin (who previously worked under President Trump) indicated that the new plan will be postponed until at least 2026 at the earliest. President Biden’s administration stated in January 2021 that it will expedite the design phase of the project.

Sources

Early years of one’s life. The Harriet Tubman Historical Society was founded in 1908. General Tubman was a female abolitionist who also served as a secret military weapon during the Civil War. Military Times is a publication that publishes news on the military. Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. Biography. Biography. Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. Thompson AME Zion Church, Thompson Home for the Aged, and Thompson Residence are all located in Thompson. The National Park Service is a federal agency.

  1. Myths against facts.
  2. Kate Clifford Larson, Ph.D.
  3. Harriet Tubman is a historical figure.
  4. National Women’s History Museum exhibit about Harriet Tubman.

Harriet Tubman, “The Moses of Her People,” is a fictional character created by author Harriet Tubman. The Harriet Tubman Historical Society was founded in 1908. Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. The Underground Railroad (Urban Railroad). The National Park Service is a federal agency.

Harriet Tubman—facts and information

In history, she is regarded as one of the most famous Americans of all time, a woman who was so brave that she sought her own liberation from slavery twice, and who was so resolute that she encouraged a large number of other enslaved people to do the same. “Moses,” “General,” and other honorific titles bestowed upon her by some of her era’s most powerful thinkers, she inspired generations of Americans, both enslaved and free, to pursue their dreams. The person in question was Harriet Tubman, and her life was filled with both shocking cruelty and surprising achievement.

  • She was the daughter of Araminta “Minty” Ross.
  • The incident occurred when she was 13 and an overseer attempted to force an enslaved man to return to work by throwing a metal weight at him.
  • She began to have vivid dreams and symptoms that were similar to those associated with temporal lobe epilepsy; she regarded her visions as holy symbolism and became passionately religious as a result of her experiences.
  • John was free, but his freedom was insufficient to prevent his new wife, now known as Harriet, from being unjustly sold by the authorities.
  • Following his death, it appeared as though she might be isolated from her other family members.
  • When her brothers returned to the Brodess family, the endeavor was deemed a failure.
  • Discover the Underground Railroad’s “great central depot” in New York by taking a tour of the city.

Once there, she endeavored to assist other members of her family in escaping enslavement.

Along the way, she provided information to other enslaved persons that they may use to aid their own escape.

Despite the fact that she was illiterate and had received no formal education, she exploited her own experiences with captivity to further the abolitionist cause.

As the most well-known “conductor” of the Underground Railroad, she received the moniker Moses, which refers to the biblical hero who led his people out from slavery in the New World.

In 1863, she conducted an armed expedition into Confederate territory, which was unsuccessful.

Despite the fact that she was penniless and in terrible health in her final years, she never ceased advocating for women’s rights.

She passed away in the city in 1913.

At one point, she was even set to appear on United States money as part of a proposed makeover that would have replaced Andrew Jackson’s visage on the $20 bill with her own.

Those plans have been put on hold as a result of a change in management as well as reported technological difficulties. Even if Harriet Tubman never receives that symbolic nod, she will forever be remembered as one of the most well-known characters in American history.

FSU experts available to discuss life of Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman was born into slavery and dedicated her life to abolitionist causes. Once she had escaped to freedom in Philadelphia, she returned multiple times to the southern United States to assist other slaves in escaping, transporting them to safety via the Underground Railroad. Experts from Florida State University are ready to speak with you about Harriet Tubman’s life in advance of the upcoming film “Harriet.” Growing up on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, Tubman was hired as a domestic worker by a family that had rented her out when she was a little child.

  1. She was struck in the head by a heavy object, and she will suffer from terrible headaches for the rest of her life.
  2. Jones is a history professor at Florida State University who specializes in women’s history.
  3. From there, she began plotting covert operations to release others who were imprisoned.
  4. Jones, Professor of History [email protected] Maxine D.

According to Jones, the most well-known aspect of Tubman’s life is that she assisted enslaved people in escaping their lives as property in the South, an accomplishment that earned her the moniker “Moses.” The fact that she also worked as a spy and scout for the Union Army during the Civil War is a little known fact among historians.

  1. This is an occurrence that appears to be depicted in the film’s trailer.
  2. She needed to be entirely devoted to the cause if she was going to walk into a place where her freedom and life were on the line with each voyage.
  3. “It was said that she was prepared to quiet — and even kill — that individual if necessary.” Her advocacy for freedom continued later in her life when she spoke in favour of the Women’s Suffrage Association.
  4. A teaching assistant professor at Florida State University, Meghan Martinez has a bachelor’s degree in psychology.
  5. Martinez described Tubman as “a symbol of black agency and sovereignty.” “People like Abraham Lincoln are frequently credited for ‘freeing the slaves,’ and this is understandable.

‘However, Harriet Tubman is a shining example of the various ways in which black people struggled to liberate themselves from slavery — both physically, as Tubman did in the Underground Railroad and during the Civil War, and also via political engagement.’ Slavery abolitionists like Harriet Tubman were active in anti-slavery groups in the North, where they educated white Northerners about the horrors and crimes of slavery.

In order to elicit empathy from white supporters and to convince them to become abolitionists themselves, they put their own trauma on the line.”

The Underground Railroad in Indiana

Mary Schons contributed to this article. The 20th of June, 2019 is a Thursday. For 30 years before to the American Civil War, enslaved African Americans utilized the Underground Railroad to gain their freedom, a network known as the Underground Railroad (1861-1865). The “railroad” employed a variety of routes to transport people from slave-supporting states in the South to “free” states in the North and Canada. Sometimes abolitionists, or persons who were opposed to slavery, were responsible for organizing routes for the Underground Railroad.

  • There was a great deal of activity on the Underground Railroad in the states that bordered the Ohio River, which served as a boundary between slave and free states.
  • Not everyone in Indiana supported the emancipation of enslaved people.
  • Because Indiana was a part of the Underground Railroad, its narrative is the tale of all states that had a role in it.
  • However, while some people did have secret chambers in their homes or carriages, the great bulk of the Underground Railroad consisted of individuals surreptitiously assisting slaves who were attempting to flee slavery in whatever manner they were able to.
  • The persons that were enslaved were referred to as “passengers.” “Stations” were private residences or commercial establishments where passengers and conductors seeking freedom might take refuge.
  • If a new owner supported slavery, or if the residence was revealed to be a station on the Underground Railroad, passengers and conductors were obliged to locate a new station or move on somewhere.
  • Only a small number of people kept records of this hidden activity in order to protect homeowners and others seeking freedom who required assistance.
See also:  What Was The Conductor Of The Underground Railroad? (Suits you)

People who were found assisting those who had fled slavery faced arrest and imprisonment.

No one knows exactly how the Underground Railroad received its name, nor does anybody care.

Another version of the story assigns the name to a freedom-seeker who was apprehended in Washington, D.C., in the year 1839.

A third narrative connects the name to an enslaved man called Tice Davids, who made the decision to pursue his freedom in 1831, according to the legend.

Unfortunately, there was no boat available to take us over the river.

His enslaver returned to Kentucky without him, claiming that Davids had vanished while traveling on a “underground railroad.” To put it another way, the name “Underground Railroad” had been widely accepted by the mid-1840s.

According to Article 6 of the Northwest Ordinance, slavery was prohibited north of the Ohio River; however, the rule did not apply to enslaved persons who were already residing in the region.

Slavery was a common feature of life in the Northwest Territories at the time.

Indiana was established as a territory in 1800, with future United States PresidentWilliam Henry Harrison serving as the area’s first territorial governor.

Harrison and his followers also believed that permitting slavery in Indiana would increase the state’s population.

Their petition was refused by Congress.

The “contract holder” has the authority to determine how long the victim must be held in slavery.

When Indiana became a state in 1816, its stateConstitutioncontained wording that was comparable to Article 6 of the Northwest Ordinance—new enslaved persons were not permitted, but existing enslaved people were allowed to continue in their current state of enslavement.

The term “slave” was still used to describe some Hoosiers as late as the 1820 census.

(White people were exempt from this requirement.) Indiana’s 1851 Constitution prohibited blacks from voting, serving in the military, or testifying in any trial in which a white person was accused of a crime.

All three pathways eventually went to Michigan and subsequently to Canada, although they took different routes.

Lewis Harding said in a 1915 history of Decatur County, Indiana, that the county was a spot where three roads came together after crossing the Ohio River at separate points in the county.

assisted the escaped slaves in every way imaginable,” he adds, using the injunction as an example.

As Harding says, “the sympathies of the majority of the residents of this nation were with the escaped slave and his rescuer.” Historians now feel that the path to independence resembled a spider’s web rather than three independent pathways to freedom.

While traveling, they had to avoid organized networks of patrolmen who grabbed freedom-seekers and held them hostage for ransom money.

Known as the “President of the Underground Railroad,” Coffin is credited for bringing slavery to Indiana in 1826.

In his memoir, Reminiscences, Coffin tells the story of two girls who escaped Tennessee and sought refuge with their grandparents in the Indiana county of Randolph.

They were not, however, destined to live in safety.

When the alarm went off, it attracted the majority of the settlement’s black people together in a single location.

Unknown to them, an uncle of the two girls rode up on his horse at the same time the enslaver was being held at bay by the grandmother’scorn knife.

They were not given any authorization to enter the premises or search for items, according to him.” The uncle remained at the doorway for as long as he could to continue the dispute with the enslaver.

According to the account, the girls were disguised as guys and sneaked past the crowd to where two horses were waiting for them.

The girls were able to make it to Coffin’s residence without incident.

Eliza Harris’s Indefatigable Escape Indiana is the scene of one of the most famous slave escapes in history, which took place in the state of Indiana.

Harris made the snap decision to flee to Canada with her infant son in tow.

There were no bridges, and there was no way for a raft to get through the thick ice.

Moving from one ice floe to another while carrying her child, she eventually made it to the other end.

Eliza, in fact, is the name of the character who travels across the frigid Ohio.

In order to recover from their ordeal, Harris and her child traveled to Levi Coffin’s Fountain City residence.

In 1854, Levi and Catherine Coffin were on a visit to Canada with their daughter when a woman approached Catherine and introduced herself.

God’s blessings on you!” It was Eliza Harris, who had safely migrated to Chatham, Ontario, Canada, when the call came through.

Illustration provided courtesy of The Library of Congress is a federal government institution that collects and organizes information.

Examine the list of locations to determine if any are in your immediate vicinity.

But it was carried out according to a completely other set of rules.

.

Levi Coffin’s Reminiscences, published in 1880abet Help is a verb that refers to assisting in the committing of a crime.

abolitionist A person who is opposed to slavery as a noun.

authority Making choices is the responsibility of a nounperson or organization.

The payment of a fine or the performance of a contract under the terms of an agreement constitutes a bond, which is an unenforceable agreement.

cattle Andoxen are nouncows.

The American Civil War The American Civil War was fought between the Union (north) and the Confederacy between 1860 and 1865.

conductor A person who escorted slaves to safety and freedom on the Underground Railroad was known as a guide.

The House of Representatives and the Senate are the two chambers of the United States Congress.

convictVerb to find someone guilty of committing a criminal offense.

Municipality is a type of political entity that is smaller than a state or province, but often larger than a city, town, or other municipality.

defendantNounperson or entity who has been accused of committing a crime or engaging in other misconduct.

economy The production, distribution, and consumption of commodities and services are all referred to as a system.

enslave acquainted with the verbto completely control Adjectivewell-known.

forbidVerb to ban or prohibit something.

fugitive a noun or an adjective that has gotten away from the law or another limitation a system or order established by a country, a state, or any other political body; government Harriet Beecher Stowe was an American writer and abolitionist activist who lived from 1811 to 1896.

Nouna huge, flat sheet of ice that is floating on the surface of a body of water.

labor is a noun that refers to work or employment.

Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the term negronoun was frequently used to refer to persons of African descent.

During the American Civil War, the North was comprised of states that backed the United States (Union).

A portion of the modern-day states of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota belonged to the Northwest Territory at the time of its creation.

The Ohio River is the greatest tributary of the Mississippi River, with a length of 1,580 kilometers (981 miles).

passenger A fugitive slave seeking freedom on the Underground Railroad is referred to as a noun.

Requests are made verbally, and are frequently accompanied by a document signed by the respondents.

prominentAdjectivethat is significant or stands out.

recover from an accident or strenuous activityVerb to recover from an injury or rigorous activity repeal a verb that means to reverse or reject anything that was previously guaranteed rouse a verb that means to awaken or make active.

Slavery is a noun that refers to the act of owning another human being or being owned by another human being (also known as servitude).

South During the American Civil War, the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) was backed or sympathized with by a huge number of states.

Supreme CourtNounin the United States, the highest judicial authority on questions of national or constitutional significance.

terminology A noungroup of words that are employed in a particular topic area.

Nounland that is protected against invaders by an animal, a person, or the government.

the southern hemisphere Geographic and political territory in the south-eastern and south-central sections of the United States that includes all of the states that sided with the Confederacy during the American Civil War.

unconstitutional Adjective that refers to a violation of the laws of the United States Constitution.

9th President of the United States of America, William Henry HarrisonNoun (1773-1841). (1841). word-of-mouth Informal communication, sometimes known as rumor or rumor mill. NounA official order issued by a government or other authoritative body.

Media Credits

With the exception of promotional graphics, which normally link to another page that carries the media credit, all audio, artwork, photos, and videos are attributed beneath the media asset they are associated with. In the case of media, the Rights Holder is the individual or group that gets credited.

Writer

Mary Schons is a writer who lives in New York City.

Editors

Kara West, Emdash Editing, Jeannie Evers, Emdash Editing

Producer

Kara West, Emdash Editing, Jeannie Evers, and Emdash Publishing

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Underground Railroad Bibliography

Herbert Aptheker is the author of this work. Ideology of Abolitionism, Revolutionary Political Movement G.K. Hall & Company, Boston, 1989. Lerone Bennett is a fictional character created by author Lerone Bennett. Before the Mayflower: A Brief History of Black America is a collection of essays about the history of black people in America before the Mayflower. Johnson Publishing Company, Chicago, Illinois, 1982. Ira Berlin is a fictional character created by author Ira Berlin. Hundreds of Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America.

  1. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press published the book in 1998 in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  2. The Hippocrene Guide to the Underground Railroad is a guide to the Underground Railroad written by Hippocrene.
  3. Charles Blockson is the author of this work.
  4. Prentice Hall Publishing Company, New York, 1987.
  5. The Underground Railroad: Dramatic First-Hand Accounts of Daring Escapes to Freedom is a collection of dramatic first-person accounts of daring escapes to freedom.
  6. 1987.
  7. Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California, 1971.
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Harriet Tubman, “The Moses of Her People,” was published in 1869.

Frederick Douglass was a famous American author.

Knopf Publishing Group, New York, 1994.

Frederick Douglass’s Thoughts and Feelings are explored in this book.

Cromwell & Company, New York, 1968.

Slavery as Seen from the North Side.

Ericson, David F., “The Debate Over Slavery: Antislavery and Proslavery Liberalism in Antebellum America,” in The Debate Over Slavery: Antislavery and Proslavery Liberalism in Antebellum America, edited by David F.

The New York University Press published a book in 2000 titled Paul Finkelman, ed., Slavery and the Law.

Madison, WI: Madison House Publishers, 1997.

Larry Gara is the author of this work.

The University Press of Kentucky published this book in 1996.

Between Slavery and Freedom: The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1925 Vintage Books, a division of Random House, published the book in 1976 in New York.

1831-1861: The Abolitionists and the Southern Confederacy The University Press of Kentucky published this book in 1995.

is a member of the Hornsby family.

From 1619 until the present, significant events and people have occurred.

Harriet Jacobs is a writer who lives in New York City.

Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1987.

In the United States, there are several underground railroad resources.

The National Park Service is a federal agency.

The United States Department of the Interior published this publication in 1998 in Washington, D.C.

The Department of the Interior of the United States of America published this publication in 1995.

The Department of the Interior of the United States of America published this book in 1996 in Washington, D.C.

His Promised Land: The Autobiography of John P.

Parker, a former slave and conductor on the Underground Railroad.

Norton & Company, New York, 1996.

Facts about the Underground Railroad, as well as authentic narratives, letters, and other materials PorterCoates Publishing Company, Philadelphia, 1872.

“Hidden in Plain View: A Secret Story of Quilts and the UGRR,” by Jacqueline Tobin and Raymond G. Dobard, is available online. Doubleday Publishing Company, New York, 1999.

Indiana Resources

Ronald Baker is the author of this work. Homeless, friendless, and penniless: The WPA conducts interviews with former slaves who are now residents of Indiana. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, 2000. Maxine Brown is the author of this work. A Study of Free Blacks’ Participation in the Underground Railroad Activities of Central Indiana The DNR-DHPA published a report in 2001 titled COL. WILLIAM Cockrum’s obituary. The Anti-Slavery League’s investigation into the Underground Railroad’s history was published in the book The History of the Underground Railroad.

  1. Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by author Levi Coffin.
  2. Mark Coomer is the author of this work.
  3. Indianapolis.
  4. The DNR-DHPA published a report in 2001 titled Xenia, you have a cord.
  5. The Indiana Historical Society published this book in 1993.
  6. Bury me in a Free Land: The Abolitionist Movement in Indiana, 1816-1865, is a book on the Abolitionist Movement in Indiana, 1816-1865.
  7. Slavery and the Law, edited by Paul Finkelman, is available online.

Madison, WI: Madison House Publishers, 1997.

Associated with the Underground Railroad in the Indianapolis Area: Interpretive Narratives The DNR-DHPA published a report in 2001 titled Furlong, Patrick J., ed., The South Bed Fugitive Slave Case (The South Bed Fugitive Slave Case).

Goodall, Hurley C.

Goodall Publishing Company, Muncie, Indiana, 2000.

Underground Railroad: The Invisible Road to Freedom Through Indiana is a project of the Works Progress Administration’s Writers Project.

The Anti-Slavery Movement in Henry County, Indiana: A Study of the Local Abolitionists is a study of the anti-slavery movement in Henry County, Indiana.

Marlene Lu is the author of this article.

The DNR-DHPA published a report in 2001 titled George Olshausen is a writer who lives in New York City.

Pamela R.

Originally published by McFarlandCompany, Inc.

The Underground Railroad and the Antislavery Movement in Fort Wayne and Allen County, Indiana, by Angela M.

Fort Wayne, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000.

The Indiana Negro Registers, 1852-1865 are available online.

Emma Lou Thornbrough’s Indiana in the Civil War Era 1850-1880 is available online.

Emma Lou Thornbrough is a fictional character created by author Emma Lou Thornbrough. Before 1900, there were a lot of black people in Indiana. The Indiana Historical Bureau published this book in 1957 in Indianapolis.

Websites

In their entirety, the original slave tales docsouth.unc.edu This project, Documenting the American South (DAS), brings together historical, literary, and cultural materials on the Southern United States from the colonial period through the early decades of the twentieth century. Throughout the nineteenth, twentieth, and early twentieth centuries, DAS chronicles the individual and communal stories of African Americans who fought for freedom and human rights in the United States. Slave Narratives: Excerpts from the Book It includes passages from early European voyage accounts to Africa, as well as passages from slave narratives.

  1. Those who survived slavery share their experiences in the documentary Remembering Slavery.
  2. Many of the interviews were recorded on paper, but other interviewers were able to capture the voices of the former slaves on tape.
  3. Interactive for PBS Online entitled “Africans in America: America’s Journey through Slavery.” The history of slavery in America is given in four sections, each of which includes a historical narrative, a resource book, and a teacher’s guide.
  4. Provide a history of the home, an overview of Coffin’s work, as well as a comprehensive connections page.
  5. With a range of presentation techniques and depths of coverage, the site is unique in its capacity to make the experience of the Underground Railroad accessible to students in elementary, middle, and early high school.
  6. Students in the upper grades can study “Routes to Freedom,” which includes a map that can be magnified, and “Timeline,” which provides accurate facts.
  7. In the “For Kids” section, young detectives may investigate some of the greatest and most imaginative hiding places utilized by tourists.
  8. The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting freedom from slavery and other forms of oppression.
  9. Among the resources available are an introduction, a map of the routes, a list of railroad sites organized by state, and a links page with a comprehensive bibliography.
  10. These pages provide a brief history of the home, farm, or church that is being featured, as well as a photo and information about whether or not the property is accessible to the general public.

It is concerned with more than simply the history of the Underground Railroad. Frederick Douglass was an American civil rights leader. Douglass, his life, and his mansion are all covered in detail. His abolitionist activities are described in detail.

Youth

Patricia Beatty is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom. Who is it that is bringing the cannons? Originally published in 1992 by Morrow Junior Books in New York. Judith Bentley is a writer and editor who lives in New York City. The Underground Railroad was a collaboration between Thomas Garrett and William Still, who were friends for years. Cobblehill Books published the book in 1997 in New York. Raymond Bial is a writer who lives in New York City. Life in the Slave Quarters is a testament to the strength of these arms.

  • Raymond Bial is a writer who lives in New York City.
  • Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1997.
  • Allen Jay and the Underground Railroad are two of the most well-known characters in American history.
  • Sylviane A.
  • Growing up in Slavery is a difficult experience.
  • Brookfield, Conn.: Brookfield Publishing Company, 2001.
  • I’m going to make something out of this Nettle.

Fradin, Dennis Brindell, and others.

Peter Still’s Biography is a fictionalized account of his life.

New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2001.

Get aboard the bus.

Harriet Jacob is a fictional character created by author Harriet Jacob.

1987.

A Slave Family is defined as follows: Crabtree Publishing Company, New York, 2002.

True North: A Novel of the UGRR is a novel about the Underground Railroad of the Great Plains.

Frank Latham is a writer who lives in New York City.

Franklin Watts, Inc.

Ellen Levine is a writer who lives in New York City.

Scholastic Publishing Company, 1988.

The Herald Press, Scottdale, Pennsylvania, published this book in 1975.

Harriet Tubman: The Runaway Slave is a biography of Harriet Tubman.

Meyer, Linda D., et al.

The Parenting Press published this book in 1988.

The Last Days of Slavery, written by Frederick Douglass.

“The Drinking Gourd,” says Monjo in his book F.N.

Kay Moore is the author of this work.

Scholastic Publishing Company, 1994.

Freedom River is a river in the United States of America.

Anita Riggio is a writer living in New York City.

Boyds Mills Press published this book in 1997.

Athenaeum Books for Young Readers published the book in 1997 in New York.

Minty: A Story of Young Harriet Tubman is a fictionalized account of Harriet Tubman’s childhood.

R.

The Underground Railroad: A Historical Account The Children’s Press of Chicago published this book in 1981.

North to Liberty: The Story of the Underground Railroad is a book on the Underground Railroad.

The World Book Encyclopedia is a collection of books published by the World Book Company.

“The Underground Railroad,” as it is known. The World Book Encyclopedia was published in 1997. Sharon Dennis Wyeth is the author of this work. Freedom’s Wings: A Diary of Corey’s Adventures. Scholastic, Inc. (New York, 2001) published the book.

For Teachers

Linda Jacobs and Altman, Linda Slavery and Abolition in the History of the United States Enslow Publishers, Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, 1999. Judith Bentley is a writer and editor who lives in New York City. Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. Franklin Watts Publishing Company, New York, 1990. Charles Charlers and Blockson “The Underground Railroad,” as they say in the United States. National Geographic magazine published an article in July 1984 titled Budda Records is a record label based in New York City.

  1. Buddha Records released the album in 2001.
  2. Fiery Vision: The Life and Death of John Brown is a book about the life and death of John Brown.
  3. Dennis B.
  4. Clarion Books, New York, published in 2000.
  5. North Star to Freedom: The Story of the Underground Railroad is a book on the Underground Railroad.
  6. It is a partnership between Kim and Reggie Harris.
  7. Ascension Records released the album in 1984 in Philadelphia.

The Underground Railroad was a dangerous place to be.

Patricia McKissack and Frederick McKissack are the authors of this work.

Scholastic Books, New York, 1996.

Roots.

Stowe, Harriet Beecher.

Video

According to ABC News. Taking a Journey to Africa: A Return to the Slave Pens of Ghana Films for the Humanities and Sciences, a division of Films for the Humanities and Sciences, was founded in 2002 in Princeton, New Jersey. Orlando Bagwell is a fictional character created by the author of the novel The Hunger Games. Roots of Resistance: A Story of the Underground Railroad is a book on the Underground Railroad. Raja Productions is a production company based in India. In 1990, a film on the American experience was made.

Africans in America: America’s Journey Into the Heart of Africa Boston, Massachusetts, 1998.

Roots.

Susan Michaels is the author of this work.

Triage, Inc.

A E Network/The History Channel published a book in New York in 1999. Scott Paddor is the author of this work. Frederick Douglass was an American civil rights leader. Greystone Communications, Inc. is a communications company based in the United States. A E Home Video, New York, New York, 1999.

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