Harriet Tubman is perhaps the most well-known of all the Underground Railroad’s “conductors.” During a ten-year span she made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom. And, as she once proudly pointed out to Frederick Douglass, in all of her journeys she “never lost a single passenger.”
What are 5 facts about Harriet Tubman?
8 amazing facts about Harriet Tubman
- Tubman’s codename was “Moses,” and she was illiterate her entire life.
- She suffered from narcolepsy.
- Her work as “Moses” was serious business.
- She never lost a slave.
- Tubman was a Union scout during the Civil War.
- She cured dysentery.
- She was the first woman to lead a combat assault.
How long did Harriet Tubman run the Underground Railroad?
Between 1850 and 1860, Tubman made 19 trips from the South to the North following the network known as the Underground Railroad. She guided more than 300 people, including her parents and several siblings, from slavery to freedom, earning the nickname “Moses” for her leadership.
Did Harriet Tubman marry a white man?
Tubman’s owners, the Brodess family, “loaned” her out to work for others while she was still a child, under what were often miserable, dangerous conditions. Sometime around 1844, she married John Tubman, a free Black man.
When was the last time Harriet Tubman traveled the Underground Railroad?
December 1860: Tubman makes her last trip on the Underground Railroad. 1862: Following the start of the Civil War, Tubman joins Union troops in South Carolina.
Is Gertie Davis died?
Despite working tirelessly to establish a new nation founded upon principles of freedom and egalitarianism, Jefferson owned over 600 enslaved people during his lifetime, the most of any U.S. president.
How old would Harriet Tubman be today?
Harriet Tubman’s exact age would be 201 years 10 months 28 days old if alive. Total 73,747 days. Harriet Tubman was a social life and political activist known for her difficult life and plenty of work directed on promoting the ideas of slavery abolishment.
Did Harriet Tubman have epilepsy?
Her mission was getting as many men, women and children out of bondage into freedom. When Tubman was a teenager, she acquired a traumatic brain injury when a slave owner struck her in the head. This resulted in her developing epileptic seizures and hypersomnia.
Did Harriet Tubman really jump off a bridge?
Cornered by armed slave catchers on a bridge over a raging river, Harriet Tubman knew she had two choices – give herself up, or choose freedom and risk her life by jumping into the rapids. “I’m going to be free or die!” she shouted as she leapt over the side.
How long did Harriet Tubman free slaves?
Harriet Tubman is perhaps the most well-known of all the Underground Railroad’s “conductors.” During a ten-year span she made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.
What happened Harriet Tubman 1850?
Abolitionist and suffragist Harriet Tubman, perhaps the most famous conductor for the Underground Railroad, engineered her first rescue mission in December of 1850. The exact date is unknown. Tubman, who had escaped slavery on the Eastern Shore of Maryland in Sept.
What age did Harriet Tubman get married?
At the age of 12 Harriet Ross was seriously injured by a blow to the head, inflicted by a white overseer for refusing to assist in tying up a man who had attempted escape. 1844 Marriage. In 1844 at the age of 25, she married John Tubman, a free African American who did not share her dream.
The Underground Railroad
|The Underground Railroad, a vast network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and to Canada, was not run by any single organization or person. Rather, it consisted of many individuals – many whites but predominently black – who knew only of the local efforts to aid fugitives and not of the overall operation. Still, it effectively moved hundreds of slaves northward each year – according to one estimate,the South lost 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850. An organized system to assist runaway slaves seems to have begun towards the end of the 18th century. In 1786 George Washington complained about how one of his runaway slaves was helped by a “society of Quakers, formed for such purposes.” The system grew, and around 1831 it was dubbed “The Underground Railroad,” after the then emerging steam railroads. The system even used terms used in railroading: the homes and businesses where fugitives would rest and eat were called “stations” and “depots” and were run by “stationmasters,” those who contributed money or goods were “stockholders,” and the “conductor” was responsible for moving fugitives from one station to the next.For the slave, running away to the North was anything but easy. The first step was to escape from the slaveholder. For many slaves, this meant relying on his or her own resources. Sometimes a “conductor,” posing as a slave, would enter a plantation and then guide the runaways northward. The fugitives would move at night. They would generally travel between 10 and 20 miles to the next station, where they would rest and eat, hiding in barns and other out-of-the-way places. While they waited, a message would be sent to the next station to alert its stationmaster.The fugitives would also travel by train and boat – conveyances that sometimes had to be paid for. Money was also needed to improve the appearance of the runaways – a black man, woman, or child in tattered clothes would invariably attract suspicious eyes. This money was donated by individuals and also raised by various groups, including vigilance committees.Vigilance committees sprang up in the larger towns and cities of the North, most prominently in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. In addition to soliciting money, the organizations provided food, lodging and money, and helped the fugitives settle into a community by helping them find jobs and providing letters of recommendation.The Underground Railroad had many notable participants, including John Fairfield in Ohio, the son of a slaveholding family, who made many daring rescues, Levi Coffin, a Quaker who assisted more than 3,000 slaves, and Harriet Tubman, who made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.|
Aboard the Underground Railroad- Harriet Tubman Home for the Aged
|Images of the Harriet Tubman Home for theAged, Harriet TubmanNationalHistoric Landmarks photographs|
Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad: how one woman saved hundreds from hell
She had managed to get away from hell. Slavery in the United States was a hellish experience characterised by bondage, racist treatment, terrorism, degrading conditions, backbreaking labor, beatings, and whippings. Harriet Tubman escaped from her Maryland farm and walked over 90 miles by herself to reach the free state of Pennsylvania, where she died in 1865. In order to make the perilous voyage, she had to go at night through woods and through streams, with little food, and dreading anybody who would gladly give her back to her masters in order to receive a reward.
Her 1849 escape from slavery was described as follows: “When I realized I had crossed the border, I glanced at my hands to check if I was the same person.” “There was such a radiance in everything.” I had the feeling that I was in heaven as the sun filtered through the trees and over the meadows.” Tubman was transferred to a region where she could live somewhat free of bondage thanks to the Underground Railroad; but, while others endured cruelty and misery, she would risk her life as the network’s most renowned conductor.
Tubman made it out of hell just to turn around and walk right back into it.
When and where was Harriet Tubman born?
Araminta Ross, Tubman’s given name, would have been put to work on her family’s plantation in Dorchester County, Maryland, practically as soon as she began to walk, according to family legend. It was the same terrible initiation to slavery that she and her eight siblings endured when they were born into it. Her rigorous outdoor job, along with long hours of domestic employment as a maid and then as a cook, resulted in her being underweight and unwell at times. The little Minty, like millions of other slaves in America, became all-too familiar with the awful physical and mental torture she suffered at the hands of her owners.
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Minty’s harsh upbringing resulted in a fervent Christian faith, which she developed as a result of hearing Bible tales read to her by her mother, as well as extraordinary strength, courage, and a desire to put herself in danger in order to save others. These characteristics helped her so effectively in the Underground Railroad, yet they almost resulted in her death when she was a little girl. Once, as Minty was on her way to get supplies from a dry goods store, she found herself stuck between an overseer who was looking for a slave who had fled his property without permission and the slave’s pursuing master.
What was the Underground Railroad?
The term does not allude to genuine trains that went up and down the length of America in tunnels (at least not in the early nineteenth century), but rather to a system of clandestine routes that were designed to assist runaway slaves in reaching the free states of the North or Canada. In order to escape discovery, guides guided them down the circuitous routes, which frequently required trudging into the woods, crossing rivers, and climbing mountains to reach their destination. Although it was not always the case, a route may have involved conveyance, such as boats or carts.
- It was all done in secret, thus the term “underground,” and it made use of jargon from the booming railway industry.
- It was common for those participating – which included everyone from runaway slaves to rich white abolitionists and church officials – to congregate in small groups.
- ‘vigilance committees’ formed established in the bigger cities of the North, such as New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, to support the railroad.
- It struck Minty in the head, knocking her out cold and leaving her in a pool of blood.
- These remained constant throughout her life (although she claimed them to be premonitions from God).
- There was no reprieve from the horrendous conditions as the years passed, yet all of Minty’s hours of hard labor had given her a surprising amount of strength for her small five-foot body.
Despite the fact that she became Harriet Tubman in approximately 1844 – after marrying a free black man called John Tubman and choosing to use her mother’s first name – it would be another five years before she made her first steps toward freedom.
How did Harriet Tubman escape from slavery?
There were no genuine trains running up and down the length of America in tunnels (at least not in the early nineteenth century), but rather a network of secret passageways designed to assist runaway slaves in reaching the free states of the North or Canada. In order to escape discovery, guides guided them down the circuitous paths, which frequently required trudging through the woods, crossing rivers, and climbing mountains to reach their location. Occasionally, though, a route includes conveyance, such as boats or wagons, in addition to the route itself.
- Because it was being kept under wraps, it was referred to as “underground,” and it made use of jargon from the expanding railway industry.
- It was common for those engaged — who varied from runaway slaves to rich white abolitionists and church officials – to congregate in smaller groups.
- Vigilance committees sprung formed in the bigger northern cities, such as New York City, Boston, and Philadelphia, to assist the railroad’s efforts.
- Not only did she deny instructions to assist in restraining the runaway, but she also stood in the way of the white guy, leading him to hurl a large weight out of rage at her.
- Minty suffered from seizures, abrupt sleeping periods comparable to narcolepsy, and strong religious visions as a result of the lack of medical care available to a harmed slave.
- Through her whole life, she exhibited these characteristics: (although she claimed them to be premonitions from God).
- There was no reprieve from the horrendous conditions as the years passed, however all of Minty’s hours of hard work had made her unusually powerful for her little five-foot stature.
Despite the fact that she became Harriet Tubman in approximately 1844 – after marrying a free black man called John Tubman and deciding to use her mother’s maiden name – it was another five years before she made her first steps toward freedom.
An advertising for the ‘Liberty Line’ in 1844, which was a thinly veiled allusion to the Underground Railroad, and which promised “seats free, regardless of race,” is seen below. (Image courtesy of the Chicago History Museum/Getty Images.) ) Due to the fact that being a conductor required Tubman to go across slavery zone where she could be seized by armed slave hunters, she knowingly and intentionally put her life in danger on a regular basis. It only grew more perilous after the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act, which made it possible for runaway slaves to be apprehended in the North and returned to their original owners.
As a result, Tubman had to find a way to get to Canada, which was under British control.
When Tubman was a conductor, her colleague William Still remarked, “Great anxieties were expressed for her safety, yet she appeared to be completely devoid of personal dread.” With her success in exploiting and growing the network to transport escaped slaves to safety, abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison dubbed Tubman the ‘Moses of her people’ for her efforts.
- She would frequently travel during the winter, when the nights were longer, and would leave with her ‘passengers’ on a Saturday evening – since runaway notices would not appear in newspapers until the following Monday – in order to avoid being discovered.
- “Either you’ll be free or you’ll die,” she declared emphatically.
- ‘General Tubman’ was contacted before to his failed 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry in the hopes of igniting a slave insurrection, and it is said that he wanted her to take part in the attack as a member of the armed forces.
- Seward was so impressed with Tubman’s work that she purchased a small plot of land near Auburn, New York – where she lived with her elderly parents, whom she had rescued during one of her final journeys – from her friend and admirer.
- In connection with the Underground Railroad, there is a widespread idea that songs had hidden messages in the lyrics that either assisted slaves in finding their path to freedom or served as a warning.
- “Go Down Moses” and “Bound for the Promised Land” are two songs that Harriet Tubman is said to have used on the Underground Railroad, according to Sarah Hopkins Bradford’s biography of the pioneering abolitionist.
- Some historians, on the other hand, are skeptical of the notion that songs included codes, claiming that there is no concrete proof from the historical period and that the myth really dates back to the twentieth century rather than the nineteenth.
- The reality has remained a mystery, which is exacerbated by the fact that comprehensive records of slaves’ lives in America are extremely few.
They gave people hope when there seemed to be none, and they gave them a sense of belonging when everyone sang together.
Harriet Tubman and the American Civil War
Although the Underground Railroad came to a close with the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, it did not mark the end of Tubman’s heroic efforts on the Underground Railroad. She worked in the Union Army as a cook, laundress, and nurse, caring for wounded troops and escaped slaves, who were referred to as ‘contrabands,’ without regard for her own well-being. Tubman led a troop of scouts into Confederate territory after Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, laying the groundwork for the abolition of slavery.
Because of the intelligence she acquired, Colonel James Montgomery was able to launch a deadly attack on enemy fortifications, making her the first woman to command an armed assault in the United States history.
More than 750 slaves were liberated during the uprising.
What were Harriet Tubman’s actions during the American Civil War?
Sophie Beale, a journalist, investigates. The first bullets of the American Civil War were fired on April 12, 1861, in the state of Virginia. Tubman had a large number of abolitionist admirers by this time, and Massachusetts governor John Andrew funded her to travel to Port Royal, South Carolina, which had recently been liberated from the Confederates by Union forces. Her first assignment after the onset of war was as a volunteer with Union troops stationed near Fort Munroe in Virginia. Harriet worked wherever she was needed: nursing those suffering from disease, which was common in the hot climate; coordinating the distribution of charitable aid to the thousands of ex-slaves who lived behind union lines; and supervising the construction of a laundry house, where she taught women how to earn money by washing clothes for others.
Hunter delegated power to Tubman to assemble a group of scouts who would enter and survey the interior of the country.
This persuaded Union leaders of the value of guerrilla operations, which led to the infamous Combahee River Raid, in which Tubman served as scout and adviser to Colonel Montgomery, commander of the second South Carolina volunteers, one of the new black infantry regiments, during the American Civil War.
- In order to avoid rebel underwater explosives, Tubman escorted them to certain locations along the beach.
- Others seized thousands of dollars’ worth of crops and animals, destroying whatever that was left behind as they did so.
- As soon as everyone had boarded the steamers, they began their journey back up the river, transporting the 756 freshly freed slaves to Port Royal.
- Using the exact people the Confederates wished to keep subdued and enslaved, this well-coordinated invasion had dealt a devastating blow to the Confederates’ cause.
- She received such low salary that she was forced to sustain herself by selling handmade pies, ginger bread, and root beer, and she received no remuneration at all for more than three decades.
- A renowned icon of the anti-slavery movement today, she was the subject of two biographies (written in 1869 and 1866) with the revenues going entirely to assist her pay her debts to the institution of slavery.
- As a result of her lectures in favour of women’s suffrage, she was invited to be the keynote speaker at the first conference of the National Association of Colored Women, which took place in 1896.
- (When she was a conductor, she had returned to save John Tubman, but he had remarried by the time she returned.) Tubman and Davis became the parents of a newborn girl named Gertie, whom they adopted as a couple.
She died of pneumonia on March 10, 1913, in the presence of her family and close friends. Her dying words, spoken as a fervent Christian till the end, were, “I am going to prepare a place for you.”
- When it comes to slavery, Lincoln said, “If I could save the union without liberating a single slave, I would.”
If her deeds and accomplishments aren’t enough of a testament, these final remarks eloquently depict a lady who has dedicated her life to others while seeking no recognition or glory for herself. A lady who rose to prominence in the United States while remaining anonymous. A lady who was able to escape the misery of being a slave and went on to assist others in doing the same has been honored. “Most of what I have done and suffered in the service of our cause has been done and suffered in public, and I have received much encouragement at every step of the way,” Frederick Douglass, Tubman’s friend and revered abolitionist, wrote to Tubman about her time as a conductor on the Underground Railroad.
“I have worked throughout the day; you have worked during the night.”
Jonny Wilkes is a freelance writer specialising in history
This article was first published in History Revealed in January 2017 and has since been updated.
As an escaped enslaved woman, Harriet Tubman worked as a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad, guiding enslaved individuals to freedom before the Civil War, all while a bounty was placed on her head. But she was also a nurse, a spy for the Union, and a proponent of women’s rights. Tubman is one of the most well-known figures in American history, and her legacy has inspired countless individuals of all races and ethnicities around the world.
When Was Harriet Tubman Born?
Harriet Tubman was born in 1820 on a plantation in Dorchester County, Maryland, and became well-known as a pioneer. Her parents, Harriet (“Rit”) Green and Benjamin Ross, gave her the name Araminta Ross and referred to her as “Minty” as a nickname. Rit worked as a chef in the plantation’s “large house,” while Benjamin was a wood worker on the plantation’s “little house.” As a tribute to her mother, Araminta changed her given name to Harriet later in life. However, the reality of slavery pulled many of Harriet’s siblings and sisters apart, despite Rit’s attempts to keep the family united.
Harriet was hired as a muskrat trap setter by a planter when she was seven years old, and she was later hired as a field laborer by the same planter.
A Good Deed Gone Bad
On a plantation in Dorchester County, Maryland, Harriet Tubman was born some time before 1820. Harriet (“Rit”) Green and Benjamin Ross gave her the name Araminta Ross and affectionately referred to her as “Minty” as a child. Rit worked as a chef in the plantation’s “large house,” while Benjamin was a wood worker on the plantation’s “little house.” As a tribute to her mother, Araminta subsequently changed her given name to Harriet. The realities of slavery finally pulled many of Harriet’s siblings apart, despite Rit’s efforts to keep the family together.
During her early adolescence, Harriet was hired as a muskrat trap setter by a planter, and then as a field laborer by another planter. The plantation job, rather than the inside household tasks, she subsequently stated that she enjoyed.
Escape from Slavery
Harriet’s father was freed in 1840, and Harriet later discovered that Rit’s owner’s final will and testament had freed Rit and her children, including Harriet, from slavery. Despite this, Rit’s new owner refused to accept the will and instead held Rit, Harriett, and the rest of her children in bondage for the remainder of their lives. Harriet married John Tubman, a free Black man, in 1844, and changed her last name from Ross to Tubman in honor of her new husband. Harriet’s marriage was in shambles, and the idea that two of her brothers—Ben and Henry—were going to be sold prompted her to devise a plan to flee.
Harriet Tubman: Underground Railroad
On September 17, 1849, Harriet, Ben, and Henry managed to flee their Maryland farm and reach the United States. The brothers, on the other hand, changed their minds and returned. Harriet persisted, and with the assistance of the Underground Railroad, she was able to journey 90 miles north to Pennsylvania and freedom. Tubman got employment as a housekeeper in Philadelphia, but she wasn’t content with simply being free on her own; she desired freedom for her family and friends, as well as for herself.
She attempted to relocate her husband John to the north at one time, but he had remarried and preferred to remain in Maryland with his new wife.
Fugitive Slave Act
Harriet, Ben, and Henry were able to flee their Maryland plantation on September 17, 1849. Although they had originally planned to stay in town, the brothers decided to return. Harriet was able to persist because to the assistance of the Underground Railroad, which took her 90 miles north to Pennsylvania and freedom. Even though Tubman found work as a housekeeper in Philadelphia, she wasn’t content with simply being free on her own; she desired freedom for her family and friends, as well. In a short time, she returned to the south, where she assisted her niece and her niece’s children in escaping to Philadelphia through the Underground Railroad system.
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Harriet Tubman’s Civil War Service
In 1861, as the American Civil War broke out, Harriet discovered new methods of combating slavery. She was lured to Fort Monroe to provide assistance to runaway enslaved persons, where she served as a nurse, chef, and laundress. In order to assist sick troops and runaway enslaved people, Harriet employed her expertise of herbal medicines. She rose to the position of director of an intelligence and reconnaissance network for the Union Army in 1863. In addition to providing Union commanders with critical data regarding Confederate Army supply routes and personnel, she assisted in the liberation of enslaved persons who went on to join Black Union battalions.
Despite being at just over five feet tall, she was a force to be reckoned with, despite the fact that it took more than three decades for the government to recognize her military accomplishments and provide her with financial compensation.
Harriet Tubman’s Later Years
Following the Civil War, Harriet moved to Auburn, New York, where she lived with her family and friends on land she owned. After her husband John died in 1867, she married Nelson Davis, a former enslaved man and Civil War soldier, in 1869. A few years later, they adopted a tiny girl named Gertie, who became their daughter. Harriet maintained an open-door policy for anyone who was in need of assistance. In order to sustain her philanthropic endeavors, she sold her homegrown fruit, raised pigs, accepted gifts, and borrowed money from family and friends.
- She also collaborated with famed suffrage activist Susan B.
- Harriet Tubman acquired land close to her home in 1896 and built the Harriet Tubman Home for Aged and Indigent Colored People, which opened in 1897.
- However, her health continued to deteriorate, and she was finally compelled to relocate to the rest home that bears her name in 1911.
- Schools and museums carry her name, and her life story has been told in novels, films, and documentaries, among other mediums.
Harriet Tubman: 20 Dollar Bill
The SS Harriet Tubman, which was named for Tubman during World War I, is a memorial to her legacy. In 2016, the United States Treasury announced that Harriet Tubman’s portrait will be used on the twenty-dollar note, replacing the image of former President and slaveowner Andrew Jackson. Later, Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin (who previously worked under President Trump) indicated that the new plan will be postponed until at least 2026 at the earliest. President Biden’s administration stated in January 2021 that it will expedite the design phase of the project.
In fact, the SS Harriet Tubman was named for Tubman and served in World War IILiberty. Andrew Jackson’s picture on the twenty-dollar bill will be replaced with Harriet Tubman’s image on the twenty-dollar bill in 2016, according to the United States Treasury Department. President Trump’s former Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin indicated later that the new legislation will be postponed until at least 2026. As of January 2021, the government of President Biden declared that the design process will be accelerated.
Fact check: Harriet Tubman helped free slaves for the Underground Railroad, but not 300
A statement made by musician Kanye West about renowned abolitionist and political activist Harriet Tubman has caused widespread discussion on social media about the historical figure. In his first political campaign event, held at the Exquis Event Center in North Charleston, South Carolina, on Sunday, West, who declared his presidential run on July 4 through Twitter, received a standing ovation. In his lengthy address, West touched on a wide range of themes ranging from abortion to religion to international commerce and licensing deals, but he inexplicably deviated from the topic by going on a diatribe about Tubman.
She just sent the slaves to work for other white people, and that was that “Westsaid, et al.
One post portrays a meme that glorifies Tubman’s anti-slavery achievements and implies that the former slave was the subject of a substantial bounty on her head, according to the post.
A $40,000 ($1.2 million in 2020) reward was placed on her head at one point.
The Instagram user who posted the meme has not yet responded to USA TODAY’s request for comment. More:Kanye West breaks down while speaking against abortion at a political event
Tubman freed slaves just not that many
Dorchester County, Maryland, was the setting for the birth of Harriet Tubman, whose given name was Raminta “Minty” Ross, who was born in the early 1820s. She was raised as a house slave from an early age, and at the age of thirteen, she began working in the field collecting flax. Tubman sustained a traumatic brain injury early in his life when an overseer hurled a large weight at him, intending to hit another slave, but instead injuring Tubman. She did not receive adequate medical treatment, and she would go on to have “sleeping fits,” which were most likely seizures, for the rest of her life.
Existing documents, as well as Tubman’s own remarks, indicate that she would travel to Maryland roughly 13 times, rather than the 19 times claimed by the meme.
This was before her very final trip, which took place in December 1860 and saw her transporting seven individuals.” Abolitionist Harriet Tubman was a contemporary of Sarah Hopkins Bradford, a writer and historian who is well known for her herbiographies of the abolitionist.
“Bradford never said that Tubman provided her with such figures, but rather that Bradford calculated the inflated figure that Tubman provided.
In agreement with this was Kate Clifford Larson, author of “Bound for the Promised Land: Harriet Tubman, Portrait of an American Hero.” As she wrote in a 2016 opinion article for the Washington Post, “My investigation has validated that estimate, showing that she took away around 70 individuals in approximately 13 trips and supplied instructions to another approximately 70 people who found their way to freedom on their own.” Checking the facts: Nancy Green, the Aunt Jemima model, did not invent the brand.
A bounty too steep
Dorchester County, Maryland, was the setting for the birth of Harriet Tubman, whose given name was Raminta “Minty” Ross. When she was 13, she began working in the field gathering flax, having been a house slave since a young age. When an overseer hurled a large weight at Tubman, intending to hit another slave but hitting him instead, Tubman suffered a traumatic brain injury. Despite receiving adequate medical attention, she continued to suffer from “sleeping fits,” which were most certainly seizures, for several years.
Based on available data and Tubman’s own remarks, it appears that she would travel to Maryland roughly 13 times, less than the 19 times claimed by the viral video meme.
Before her very final expedition, which took place in December 1860 and saw her transport seven passengers, she had already accomplished this feat.” Abolitionist Harriet Tubman was a contemporary of Sarah Hopkins Bradford, a writer and historian who is well known for her herbiographies of the abolitionist.
“Bradford never stated that Tubman provided her with those figures, but rather that Bradford approximated the inflated figure from the available information.
As she wrote in a 2016 opinion article for the Washington Post, “My investigation has validated that estimate, showing that she took away around 70 individuals in roughly 13 trips and supplied instructions to another 70 who found their way to freedom on their own.” Checking the facts is important.
Nancy Green, the Aunt Jemima model, did not invent the company.
Our ruling: Partly false
We assess the claim that Harriet Tubman conducted 19 journeys for the Underground Railroad during which she freed over 300 slaves as PARTLY FALSE because some of it is not supported by our research. She also claimed to have a $40,000 bounty on her head and to have carried a weapon throughout her excursions. While it is true that Tubman did free slaves – an estimated 70 throughout her 13 voyages — and that she carried a tiny handgun for her personal security and to deter anybody from coming back, historians and scholars say that the other historical claims contained in the meme are exaggerations.
Our fact-check sources:
- The Washington Post published an article titled “5 Myths About Harriet Tubman” in which Kanye West claims that Tubman never “freed the slaves,” and the Los Angeles Times published an article titled “Rapper Kanye West criticizes Harriet Tubman at a South Carolina rally.” Other articles include Smithsonian Magazine’s “The True Story Behind the Harriet Tubman Movie”
- Journal of Neurosurgery’s “Head Injury in Heroes of the Civil
- Thank you for your interest in and support of our journalism. You can subscribe to our print edition, ad-free app, or electronic version of the newspaper by visiting this link. Our fact-checking efforts are made possible in part by a grant from Facebook.
Harriet Tubman: Timeline of Her Life, Underground Rail Service and Activism
After fleeing slavery on her own in 1849, Harriet Tubman became a savior for others who were attempting to travel on the Underground Railroad. Between 1850 and 1860, she is reported to have undertaken 13 voyages and freed around 70 enslaved persons, many of them were members of her own family. She also shared information with others in order for them to find their way to freedom in the north. Tubman assisted so many people in escape slavery that she was given the nickname “Moses.” Tubman collaborated with abolitionists in order to put an end to slavery, which she hoped would be accomplished.
Affirming the right of women to vote and speaking out against discrimination were among the many things she did despite her continual financial difficulties in the battle for equality and justice.
c. 1822: Tubman is born as Araminta “Minty” Ross in Maryland’s Dorchester County
Since her parents, Ben Ross and Harriet “Rit” Green, are both enslaved, Ross was born into the same condition as her parents. Despite the fact that her birthdate is frequently given as about 1820, a document from March 1822 indicates that a midwife had been paid for caring for Green, suggesting that she was born in February or March of that year. When Tubman is around five or six years old, her enslavers rent her out to care for a newborn, which takes place around the year 1828. She gets flogged for any perceived errors on her part.
- Her responsibilities include checking muskrat traps in damp wetlands, which she does on foot.
- An overseer tosses a two-pound weight at another slave, but the weight strikes Tubman in the head.
- 1834-1836: She only just manages to survive the traumatic injury and will continue to suffer from headaches for the rest of her life.
- Tubman works as a field laborer, which she prefers over inside jobs, around the year 1835.
- In 1840, Tubman’s father is released from the bonds of servitude.
- When she marries, Tubman takes on the last name of her mother, Harriet.
Tubman’s owner passes away on March 7, 1849, causing her to dread that she may be sold. Tubman and two of her brothers leave for the north on September 17, 1849, in an attempt to escape slavery. The guys, on the other hand, feel anxious and persuade their sister to return.
October 1849: Tubman runs away
She was born into a family of enslaved people since her parents, Ben Ross and Harriet “Rit” Green, are both enslaved. Despite the fact that her birthdate has typically been given as approximately 1820, a document from March 1822 indicates that a midwife had been paid for caring for Green, indicating that she was born in February or March of that year instead. When Tubman is around five or six years old, her enslavers engage her to care for a newborn. This takes place around the year 1828. If she is found to have made any mistakes, she will be lashed.
- Walks into damp marshes to check on the muskrat traps are part of her responsibilities.
- An overseer tosses a two-pound weight at another slave, but the weight strikes Tubman in the head.
- 1834-1836 As a result of her traumatic injury, she will continue to suffer from headaches for the rest of her life.
- Tubman is employed as a field laborer, a position she prefers over that of an insider.
- It is the year 1840, and Tubman’s father has been released from slavery.
- She takes on her mother’s maiden name, Harriet, once she marries John Tubman.
- Tubman and two of her brothers set off for the north on September 17, 1849, in an attempt to escape slavery in the South.
June 1857: Tubman brings her parents from Maryland to Canada
Due to his involvement with the Underground Railroad, her father is in risk of being killed. April 1858: In Canada, Tubman encounters abolitionist John Brown, who encourages him to continue his work. Her knowledge of her husband’s ambitions to instigate a slave insurrection in the United States leads her to agree to help him recruit supporters for the cause. It takes place on October 16, 1859, when Brown launches his raid on the government arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia).
The antislavery politician William H.
Her parents decide to relocate to the United States after being dissatisfied in Canada.
Featured image courtesy of Afro American Newspapers/Gado/Getty Images Tubman assists former slave Charles Nalle in evading the United States marshals who are attempting to return him to his enslaver on April 27, 1860, in Troy, New York.
December 1860: Tubman makes her last trip on the Underground Railroad
Tubman joins Union forces in South Carolina in 1862, following the outbreak of the American Civil War.
She decides to become a nurse while simultaneously operating a laundry and works as a chef to supplement her income.
c. 1863: Tubman serves as a spy for the Union
She collaborates with former slaves from the surrounding region in order to gain intelligence on the opposing Confederate army. READ MORE: Harriet Tubman’s Activist Service as a Union Spy (in English) Tubman conducts an armed attack along the Combahee River in South Carolina on the first and second of June, 1863. The expedition damages Confederate supplies and results in the liberation of more than 700 enslaved individuals. Tubman holds the distinction of becoming the first woman to command a military mission in the United States.
- Tubman is allowed a vacation in June 1864, and she travels to Auburn to see her parents for the first time.
- After the Civil War is over, she travels to Washington, D.C., where she notifies the surgeon general that Black troops are being treated in terrible conditions in military hospitals during the reconstruction period.
- After the Underground Railroad, there was a flurry of activity.
- She is unsuccessful, in part because of the turbulence surrounding President Abraham Lincoln’s assassination, and in part because of Seward’s protracted recuperation from stab wounds sustained during an assassination attempt on Lincoln’s life.
- She protects her rights, but she is forcibly taken from the situation.
- (though the official publication date is listed as 1869).
- Harriet Tubman in her early twenties, around 1868 Image courtesy of the Library of Congress/Getty Images On March 18, 1869, Tubman marries Nelson Davis, a 25-year-old freed slave and Civil War veteran who was a former slave himself.
- It is the year 1873.
June 1886: Tubman buys 25 acres of land next to her home in Auburn to create a nursing home for Black Americans.
The rewritten biography of Harriet Tubman, Harriet, the Moses of Her People, is released in October 1886. Tubman’s husband, who had been suffering from TB, died on October 18, 1888. Tubman becomes increasingly interested in the fight for women’s suffrage in the 1890s. Tubman asks for a pension as a widow of a Civil War veteran in June 1890. On October 16, 1895, Tubman is authorized for a war widow pension of $8 per month, which will be paid for the rest of her life. The National Association of Colored Women’s inaugural meeting was held in July 1896, and Tubman delivered the keynote address.
- Anthony during a suffrage conference in Rochester, New York, in November 1896.
- Tubman is also invited to visit England to commemorate the queen’s birthday, but Tubman’s financial difficulties make this an impossible for the time being.
- Photo courtesy of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, courtesy of Charles L.
- Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
- In 1899, the United States Congress increases Tubman’s pension to $20 per month, although the increase is for her nursing services rather than for her military efforts.
It will be run by the AME Zion Church, which has taken over the rights to the site and will be operating it. The Harriet Tubman Home receives a new resident on May 19, 1911, when an unwell Tubman is admitted. Supporters are raising money to help pay for her medical expenses.
March 10, 1913: Tubman dies following a battle with pneumonia
Tubman is laid to rest with military honors on March 13, 1913.
Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad
Taking a look at Harriet Tubman, who is considered the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, our Headlines and Heroes blog. Tubman and those she assisted in their emancipation from slavery traveled north to freedom, occasionally crossing the Canadian border. While we’re thinking about the Texas origins of Juneteenth, let’s not forget about a lesser-known Underground Railroad that ran south from Texas to Mexico. In “Harriet Tubman,” The Sun (New York, NY), June 7, 1896, p. 5, there is a description of her life.
- Prints Photographs Division is a division of the Department of Photographs.
- She then returned to the area several times over the following decade, risking her life in order to assist others in their quest for freedom as a renowned conductor of the Underground Railroad (also known as the Underground Railroad).
- Prior to the Civil War, media coverage of her successful missions was sparse, but what is available serves to demonstrate the extent of her accomplishments in arranging these escapes and is worth reading for that reason.
- Her earliest attempted escape occurred with two of her brothers, Harry and Ben, according to an October 1849 “runaway slave” ad in which she is referred to by her early nickname, Minty, which she still uses today.
- Photograph courtesy of the Bucktown Village Foundation in Cambridge, Maryland.
- Her first name, Harriet, had already been chosen for her, despite the fact that the advertisement does not mention it.
She had also married and used her husband’s surname, John Tubman, as her own.
Slaves from the Cambridge, Maryland region managed to evade capture in two separate groups in October 1857.
In what the newspapers referred to as “a vast stampede of slaves,” forty-four men, women, and children managed to flee the situation.
Tubman and the majority of her family had been held in bondage by the Pattison family.
While speaking at antislavery and women’s rights conferences in the late 1800s, Tubman used her platform to convey her own story of slavery, escape, and efforts to save others.
There are few articles regarding her lectures during this time period since she was frequently presented using a pseudonym to avoid being apprehended and returned to slavery under the rules of the Federal Fugitive Slave Act.
“Harriet Tribbman,” in “Grand A.
Convention at Auburn, New York,” Anti-Slavery Bugle (Salem, Ohio), January 21, 1860, p.
Convention in Auburn, New York,” Anti-Slavery Bugle (Salem, Ohio), January 21, 1860, p.
A description of Harriett Tupman may be found in “A Female Conductor of the Underground Railroad,” published in The Daily Dispatch (Richmond, VA) on June 6, 1860, page 1.
In addition, when Tubman’s remarks were mentioned in the press, they were only quickly summarized and paraphrased, rather than being printed in their whole, as other abolitionists’ speeches were occasionally done.
With the rescue of Charles Nalle, who had escaped slavery in Culpeper, Virginia, but had been apprehended in Troy, New York, where Tubman was on a visit, Tubman’s rescue attempts shifted from Maryland to New York on April 27, 1860, and continued until the end of the year.
At the Woman’s Rights Convention in Boston in early June 1860, when Tubman spoke about these events, the Chicago Press and Tribunereporter responded with racist outrage at the audience’s positive reaction to Tubman’s story of Nalle’s rescue as well as her recounting of her trips back to the South to bring others to freedom.
- Later media coverage of Tubman’s accomplishments was frequently laudatory and theatrical in nature.
- On September 29, 1907, p.
- This and several other later articles are included in the book Harriet Tubman: Topics in Chronicling America, which recounts her early days on the Underground Railroad, her impressive Civil War service as a nurse, scout, and spy in the Union Army, and her post-war efforts.
- In keeping with contemporary biographies such asScenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman(1869) and Harriet, the Moses of her People(1886), both written by Sarah H.
- Taylor, financial secretary at Tuskegee Institute, certain content in these profiles may have been embellished from time to time.
This request was made in an essay written by Taylor shortly before to the release of his book, “The Troubles of a Heroine,” in which he requested that money be delivered directly to Tubman in order to pay off the mortgage on her property so that she may convert it into a “Old Folks’ Home.” On March 10, 1913, Tubman passed away in the Harriet Tubman Home for Aged Negroes in Auburn, New York, where she had lived for the previous twelve years.
While these newspaper stories provide us with crucial views into Harriet Tubman’s amazing heroics, they also serve as excellent examples of the variety of original materials available inChronicling America. More information may be found at:
- Harriet Tubman, the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, is the subject of our Headlines and Heroes column. Tubman and those she assisted in their emancipation from slavery traveled north, occasionally crossing the border into Canada. Allow me to draw your attention to a lesser-known Underground Railroad that ran south from Texas to Mexico, in honor of the Texas origins of Juneteenth: On the 7th of June, 1896, The Sun (New York, NY) published a story on Harriet Tubman on page 5. Photojournalist and photographer Powelson Prints Division of Photographs The Library of Congress and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History each have collections of African American artifacts. Culture. On Maryland’s Eastern Shore in 1849, Harriet Tubman managed to elude enslavement. In the next decade, she returned to the same location several times in order to assist others in their quest for freedom as a well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad. As a result of her proficiency in navigating routes, as well as her knowledge of safe homes and trustworthy persons who assisted others fleeing slavery and achieving freedom, she was nicknamed “Moses.” Even while media coverage of her successful missions was sparse prior to the Civil War, the limited coverage that did exist serves to demonstrate the scope of her accomplishments in arranging these escapes during that period. Araminta Ross was born in the year 1822, and became known as Harriet Tubman later on. An October 1849 “runaway slave” ad in which she is referred to by her early nickname, Minty, reveals that her first attempt at emancipation was with two of her brothers, Harry and Ben. A reward of three hundred dollars was offered in the Cambridge Democrat (Cambridge, Maryland) in the month of October 1849. Bucktown Village Foundation, Cambridge, Maryland, provided the image. Even though her initial effort failed, Tubman was able to escape on her own shortly after. It is possible that she had already adopted the first name Harriet before to appearing in this advertisement, maybe in honor of her mother, Harriet Green Ross, despite the fact that the advertisement does not indicate this. Aside from that, she had married and adopted the last name of her husband, John Tubman. According to Kate Clifford Larson’s bookBound for the Promised Land: Harriet Tubman, Portrait of an American Hero, she returned to Maryland roughly 13 times between December 1850 and 1860, guiding 60-70 family members and other enslaved folks to freedom. Slaves from the Cambridge, Maryland region managed to evade capture in two separate groups during the month of October 1857. It is believed that Tubman did not personally assist them, but that she did it in an indirect manner by providing specific instructions. In what was characterized in the newspapers as “a vast stampede of slaves,” forty-four men, women, and children managed to flee. There was a massive rush of slaves.” November 7, 1857, p. 3 of The Anti-Slavery Bugle (Salem, Ohio), in the Anti-Slavery Bugle (Salem, Ohio). It was reported in several papers regarding these escapes that fifteen people had managed to get away from Samuel Pattison’s custody. Tubman and the majority of her family had been held captive by the Pattison family. It was Tubman who had the strongest ties to the area. While speaking at antislavery and women’s rights conferences in the late 1800s, Tubman used her platform to convey her own story of slavery, escape, and efforts to save others. She also stressed the importance of continuing to struggle for freedom and equal rights now, as she did then. This period is particularly challenging to research since she was frequently presented under a pseudonym in order to avoid being apprehended by law enforcement and deported back to slavery in accordance with the requirements of the Fugitive Slave Act. A description of Harriet Garrison may be found in “The New England Convention,” The Weekly Anglo-African (New York, NY), August 6, 1859, on page 3. Anti-Slavery Bugle (Salem, Ohio), January 21, 1860, p. 2: “Grand A. S. Convention in Auburn, New York,” “Grand A. S. Convention in Auburn, New York,” Anti-Slavery Bugle (Salem, Ohio), January 21, 1860, p. 2: “Harriet Tribbman” On June 6, 1860, The Daily Dispatch (Richmond, VA) published an article titled “A Female Conductor of the Underground Railroad,” which featured Harriett Tupman (perhaps just a misspelling). Tubman’s talks were also only briefly summarized and paraphrased when they were published in newspapers, rather than being printed in their whole, as other abolitionists’ speeches were occasionally done. Because she was illiterate, she did not appear to have any written copies of her remarks. With the rescue of Charles Nalle, who had escaped slavery in Culpeper, Virginia, but had been apprehended in Troy, New York, where Tubman was on a visit, Tubman’s rescue activities shifted from Maryland to New York on April 27th, 1860. Nalle was released twice by a huge, primarily African-American crowd, and Tubman is credited with taking the initiative in his rescue in some versions. At the Woman’s Rights Convention in Boston in early June 1860, when Tubman spoke about these events, the Chicago Press and Tribunereporter responded with racist outrage at the audience’s positive reaction to Tubman’s story of Nalle’s rescue as well as her recounting of her trips back to the South to bring other slaves to liberty. Despite the fact that antislavery media celebrated Nalle’s rescue, they did not reveal Tubman’s identity at the time of the rescue. Following Tubman’s death, his contribution in the Civil War was frequently praised and dramatized. On June 8, 1860, The Press and Tribune (Chicago, IL) published “Our Boston Letter,” which appeared on page 2 of the paper. On September 29, 1907, p. 14, The San Francisco Call (San Francisco, CA) reported that “Another Trying to Down Her, She Choked into Half Unconsciousness,” and that “Another Trying to Down Her, She Choked into Half Unconsciousness,” Tubman’s lifetime devotion to achieving black freedom and equality was the subject of a lengthy 1907 story that appeared alongside the artwork in The San Francisco Call. This and several other later articles are included in the book Harriet Tubman: Topics in Chronicling America, which recounts her early days on the Underground Railroad, her impressive Civil War service as a nurse, scout, and spy in the Union Army, and her post-war efforts. Harriet Tubman: Topics in Chronicling America is available for purchase online. In keeping with contemporary biographies such asScenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman(1869) and Harriet, the Moses of her People(1886), both written by Sarah H. Bradford, and Harriet Tubman, the Heroine in Ebony(1901) by Robert W. Taylor, financial secretary at Tuskegee Institute, certain content in these profiles may have been embellished at times. Tubman was on the verge of becoming bankrupt when he came upon these books. This request was made in an essay written by Taylor shortly prior to the release of his book, “The Troubles of a Heroine,” in which he urged that money be delivered directly to Tubman in order to pay off the mortgage on her home so that she may convert it into a “Old Folks Home.” The Harriet Tubman Home for Aged Negroes in Auburn, New York, was where Tubman died 12 years later, on March 10, 1913. While these newspaper stories provide us with crucial views into the amazing heroics of Harriet Tubman, they also serve as excellent illustrations for the plethora of original materials accessible inChronicling America. Learn more by visiting the following link:
This online collection of historic newspapers, produced by the National Digital Newspaper Program and jointly supported by the Library of Congress and the National Endowment for the Humanities, is referred to as “Chronicling America.”