Names Of People Who Helped Organize The Underground Railroad? (Suits you)

The Underground Railroad had many notable participants, including John Fairfield in Ohio, the son of a slaveholding family, who made many daring rescues, Levi Coffin, a Quaker who assisted more than 3,000 slaves, and Harriet Tubman, who made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.

Who are some people who helped with the Underground Railroad?

These eight abolitionists helped enslaved people escape to freedom.

  • Isaac Hopper. Abolitionist Isaac Hopper.
  • John Brown. Abolitionist John Brown, c.
  • Harriet Tubman.
  • Thomas Garrett.
  • 5 Myths About Slavery.
  • William Still.
  • Levi Coffin.
  • Elijah Anderson.

Who helped the most in the Underground Railroad?

Harriet Tubman is perhaps the best-known figure related to the underground railroad. She made by some accounts 19 or more rescue trips to the south and helped more than 300 people escape slavery.

Who helped Harriet Tubman with the Underground Railroad?

Fugitive Slave Act She often drugged babies and young children to prevent slave catchers from hearing their cries. Over the next ten years, Harriet befriended other abolitionists such as Frederick Douglass, Thomas Garrett and Martha Coffin Wright, and established her own Underground Railroad network.

Who was the most famous guide of the Underground Railroad?

Harriet Tubman: A Captivating Guide to an American Abolitionist Who Became the Most Famous Conductor of the Underground Railroad.

Who were the pilots of the Underground Railroad?

Using the terminology of the railroad, those who went south to find enslaved people seeking freedom were called “pilots.” Those who guided enslaved people to safety and freedom were “conductors.” The enslaved people were “passengers.” People’s homes or businesses, where fugitive passengers and conductors could safely

What did Levi Coffin do?

Levi Coffin, (born October 28, 1798, New Garden [now in Greensboro], North Carolina, U.S.—died September 16, 1877, Cincinnati, Ohio), American abolitionist, called the “President of the Underground Railroad,” who assisted thousands of runaway slaves on their flight to freedom.

What was William Still’s role in the Underground Railroad?

He became an active agent on the Underground Railroad, assisting fugitive Africans who came to Philadelphia. With the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, Still was appointed chairman of the society’s revived Vigilance Committee that aided and supported fugitive Africans.

Was William Lloyd Garrison involved in the Underground Railroad?

Aboard the Underground Railroad– Harriet Beecher Stowe House–Maine. This National Historic Landmark was the home of William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879), one of the most articulate and influential advocates of the abolitionist movement in the United States, from 1864 until his death.

Who was the father of the Underground Railroad?

William Still (1821-1902), known as “the Father of the Underground Railroad,” assisted nearly 1,000 freedom seekers as they fled enslavement along the eastern branch of the Underground Railroad. Inspired by his own family’s story, he kept detailed, written records about the people who passed through the PASS offices.

What’s Harriet Tubman’s real name?

The person we know as “Harriet Tubman” endured decades in bondage before becoming Harriet Tubman. Tubman was born under the name Araminta Ross sometime around 1820 (the exact date is unknown); her mother nicknamed her Minty.

8 Key Contributors to the Underground Railroad

Isaac Hopper, an abolitionist, is shown in this image from the Kean Collection/Getty Images. As early as 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with a “organization of Quakers, founded for such reasons,” which had sought to free a neighbor’s slave. Quakers were instrumental in the establishment of the Underground Railroad. Slavery was opposed in especially in Philadelphia, where Isaac Hopper, a Quaker who converted to Christianity, created what has been described as “the first working cell of the abolitionist underground.” Hopper not only protected escaped slave hunters in his own house, but he also constructed a network of safe havens and recruited a web of spies in order to get insight into their plans.

Hopper, a friend of Joseph Bonaparte, the exiled brother of the former French emperor, went to New York City in 1829 and established himself as a successful businessman.

READ MORE: The Underground Railroad and Its Operation

2. John Brown

John Brown, an abolitionist, about 1846 GraphicaArtis/Getty Images courtesy of Similar to his father, John Brown actively participated in the Underground Railroad by hosting runaways at his home and warehouse and organizing an anti-slave catcher militia following the adoption of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, which he inherited from his father. The next year, he joined several of his sons in the so-called “Bleeding Kansas” war, leading one attack that resulted in the deaths of five pro-slavery settlers in 1856.

Brown’s radicalization continued to grow, and his ultimate act occurred in October 1859, when he and 21 supporters seized the government arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia), in an effort to incite a large-scale slave uprising.

3. Harriet Tubman

John Brown, an abolitionist, about 1846. Image via Getty Images courtesy of GraphicaArtis Following the adoption of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, John Brown, like his father before him, actively participated in the Underground Railroad, sheltering runaways at his home and warehouse and forming an anti-slave catcher militia. The next year, he and many of his sons took part in the so-called “Bleeding Kansas” war, leading one raid that ended in the death of five pro-slavery settlers. The next month, in December 1858, Brown raided three Missouri plantations, freeing 11 enslaved individuals, after which he and his fugitive companions embarked on a roughly 1,500-mile trip across the continent to Canada.

The next December, Brown was apprehended and convicted, and he was executed.

4. Thomas Garrett

‘Thomas Garrett’ is a fictional character created by author Thomas Garrett. The New York Public Library is a public library in New York City. The Quaker “stationmaster” Thomas Garrett, who claimed to have assisted over 2,750 escaped slaves before the commencement of the Civil War, lived in Wilmington, Delaware, and Tubman frequently stopped there on her route up north. Garret not only gave his guests with a place to stay but also with money, clothing & food. He even personally led them to a more secure area on occasion, arm in arm.

Despite this, he persisted in his efforts.

He also stated that “if any of you know of any poor slave who needs assistance, please send him to me, as I now publicly pledge myself to double my diligence and never miss an opportunity to assist a slave to obtain freedom.”

5. William Still

William Still is a well-known author and poet. Photograph courtesy of the Hulton Archive/Getty Images Many runaways traveled from Wilmington, the final Underground Railroad station in the slave state of Delaware, to the office of William Still in adjacent Philadelphia, which was the last stop on their journey. The Vigilance Committee of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, which provided food and clothing, coordinated escapes, raised funds, and otherwise served as a one-stop social services shop for hundreds of fugitive slaves each year, was chaired by Still, who was a free-born African American.

Still ultimately produced a book in which he chronicled the personal histories of his guests, which offered valuable insight into the operation of the Underground Railroad as a whole.

His assistance to Osborne Anderson, the only African-American member of John Brown’s company to survive the Harpers Ferry raid, was another occasion when he was called upon.

6. Levi Coffin

Charles T. Webber’s painting The Underground Railroad depicts fleeing slaves Levi Coffin, his wife Catherine, and Hannah Haydock providing assistance to the group of fugitive slaves. Getty Images/Bettina Archive/Getty Images Levi Coffin, often known as the “president of the Underground Railroad,” is said to have been an abolitionist when he was seven years old after witnessing a column of chained slaves people being taken to an auction house. Following a humble beginning delivering food to fugitives holed up on his family’s North Carolina plantation, he rose through the ranks to become a successful trader and prolific “stationmaster,” first in Newport (now Fountain City), Indiana, and subsequently in Cincinnati, Kentucky.

In addition to hosting anti-slavery lectures and abolitionist sewing club meetings, Coffin, like his fellow Quaker Thomas Garrett, stood steadfast when hauled before a court of law.

His writings state that “the dictates of humanity came in direct conflict with the law of the land,” and that “we rejected the law.”

7. Elijah Anderson

The Ohio River, which formed the border between slave and free states, was referred to as the River Jordan in abolitionist circles because it represented the border between slave and free states. Madison, Indiana, was an especially appealing crossing point for enslaved persons on the run, because to an Underground Railroad cell established there by blacksmith Elijah Anderson and several other members of the town’s Black middle class in the 1850s. With his fair skin, Anderson might have passed for a white slave owner on his repeated travels into Kentucky, where would purportedly pick up 20 to 30 enslaved persons at a time and whisk them away to freedom, sometimes accompanying them as far as the Coffins’ mansion in Newport.

An anti-slavery mob devastated Madison in 1846, almost drowning an agent of the Underground Railroad, prompting Anderson to flee upriver to Lawrenceburg, Indiana, where he eventually settled.

8. Thaddeus Stevens

Mr. Thaddeus Stevens is an American lawyer and senator. Bettmann Archive courtesy of Getty Images; Matthew Brady/Bettmann Archive Thaddeus Stevens, a representative from Pennsylvania, was outspoken in his opposition to slavery. The 14th and 15th amendments, which guaranteed African-American citizens equal protection under the law and the right to vote, respectively, were among his many accomplishments, and he also advocated for a radical reconstruction of the South, which included the redistribution of land from white plantation owners to former enslaved people.

Despite this, it wasn’t until 2002 that his Underground Railroad activities were brought to light, when archeologists uncovered a hidden hiding hole in the courtyard of his Lancaster house.

Seward, also served as Underground Railroad “stationmasters” during the era.

Key People

Between 1830 and 1850, Stephen Myers rose to prominence as the most significant leader of a local underground railroad organization that spanned the United States and the world. Other notable persons came and left during this time period, but Myers remained in Albany the entire time. Stephen Myers is without a doubt responsible for assisting thousands of people to travel via Albany on the subterranean railroad to locations west, north, and east. First, in the early 1840s, he relied on his personal resources and those of the Northern Star Association, which he chaired and was responsible for publishing the publication of his journal.

  1. Some people considered the Albany branch of the underground railroad to be the best-run section of the railroad in the entire state when it was under his direction.
  2. Throughout his life, he worked as a grocer and a steamboat steward, but it was in 1842 that he began his journalistic career.
  3. He was a strong advocate for anti-slavery activism as well as for the rights of African Americans in the United States.
  4. He writes on temperance, the rights of African Americans, the necessity of abolishing slavery, and a variety of other topics in its pages.
  5. It is from Garland Penn’s book The Afro-American Press and Its Editors that the photograph of Stephen Meyers that is used to accompany this text was taken.
  6. Several pieces of information on him may also be found in the notes offered to one of the essays made by him that was published in The Black Abolitionist Papers, volume 3, edited by C.
  7. The Albany Evening Times published an article on Monday, February 14, 1870, in the evening.
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This man, who was the oldest and most renowned of our colored inhabitants, passed away in the early hours of yesterday morning, at the age of eighty-one.

Myers has been eventful, since he has lived through the majority of the most important epochs in the history of our country.

He also worked as a steward on certain North River steamboats for a period of time during the early part of the twentieth century, which was a very significant role in those days.

He was a well-known figure among his race, having worked as an agent for the “Underground Railroad” before the war.

Years ago, he was THE representation of them in their dealings with the leaders of this state.

Mr.

Mr.

Mr. Myers was a devout Christian who died as a witness to the religion that he had lived. Wednesday afternoon’s burial will take place at the A M. E. Church on Hamilton Street.

The Underground Railroad

The Underground Railroad, a vast network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and to Canada, was not run by any single organization or person. Rather, it consisted of many individuals – many whites but predominently black – who knew only of the local efforts to aid fugitives and not of the overall operation. Still, it effectively moved hundreds of slaves northward each year – according to one estimate,the South lost 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850. An organized system to assist runaway slaves seems to have begun towards the end of the 18th century. In 1786 George Washington complained about how one of his runaway slaves was helped by a “society of Quakers, formed for such purposes.” The system grew, and around 1831 it was dubbed “The Underground Railroad,” after the then emerging steam railroads. The system even used terms used in railroading: the homes and businesses where fugitives would rest and eat were called “stations” and “depots” and were run by “stationmasters,” those who contributed money or goods were “stockholders,” and the “conductor” was responsible for moving fugitives from one station to the next.For the slave, running away to the North was anything but easy. The first step was to escape from the slaveholder. For many slaves, this meant relying on his or her own resources. Sometimes a “conductor,” posing as a slave, would enter a plantation and then guide the runaways northward. The fugitives would move at night. They would generally travel between 10 and 20 miles to the next station, where they would rest and eat, hiding in barns and other out-of-the-way places. While they waited, a message would be sent to the next station to alert its stationmaster.The fugitives would also travel by train and boat – conveyances that sometimes had to be paid for. Money was also needed to improve the appearance of the runaways – a black man, woman, or child in tattered clothes would invariably attract suspicious eyes. This money was donated by individuals and also raised by various groups, including vigilance committees.Vigilance committees sprang up in the larger towns and cities of the North, most prominently in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. In addition to soliciting money, the organizations provided food, lodging and money, and helped the fugitives settle into a community by helping them find jobs and providing letters of recommendation.The Underground Railroad had many notable participants, including John Fairfield in Ohio, the son of a slaveholding family, who made many daring rescues, Levi Coffin, a Quaker who assisted more than 3,000 slaves, and Harriet Tubman, who made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.

Eastern Illinois University : Teaching with Primary Sources

However, many of the intriguing and lesser known elements of the Underground Railroad are not included in many textbooks, despite the fact that it is an essential part of our nation’s history. It is intended that this booklet will serve as a window into the past by presenting a number of original documents pertaining to the Underground Railroad. Broadsides, prize posters, newspaper clippings, historical records, sheet music, pictures, and memoirs connected to the Underground Railroad are among the primary sources included in this collection.

  1. The Underground Railroad was a covert structure established to assist fugitive slaves on their journey to freedom in the United States.
  2. As a result, secret codes were developed to aid in the protection of themselves and their purpose.
  3. Runaway slaves were referred to as cargo, and the free persons who assisted them on their journey to freedom were referred to as conductors.
  4. These stations would be identified by a lantern that was lighted and hung outside.

A Dangerous Path to Freedom

Traveling through the Underground Railroad to seek their freedom was a lengthy and risky trek for escaped slaves. Runaway slaves were forced to travel long distances, sometimes on foot, in a short amount of time in order to escape. They accomplished this while surviving on little or no food and with little protection from the slave hunters who were rushing after them in the night. Slave owners were not the only ones who sought for and apprehended fleeing slaves. For the purpose of encouraging people to aid in the capture of these slaves, their owners would post reward posters offering monetary compensation for assisting in the capture of their property.

  • Numerous arrested fugitive slaves were beaten, branded, imprisoned, sold back into slavery, or sometimes killed once they were apprehended.
  • They would have to fend off creatures that wanted to kill and devour them while trekking for lengthy periods of time in the wilderness, as well as cross dangerous terrain and endure extreme temperatures.
  • The Fleeing Slave Law of 1850 permitted and promoted the arrest of fugitive slaves since they were regarded as stolen property rather than mistreated human beings under the law at the time.
  • They would not be able to achieve safety and freedom until they crossed the border into Canada.
  • Aside from that, there were Underground Railroad routes that ran south, on their way to Mexico and the Caribbean.
  • He was kidnapped from his northern abode, arrested, and prosecuted in Boston, Massachusetts, under the provisions of this legislation.
  • After the trial, Burns was returned to the harshness of the southern states, from which he had thought he had fled.

American Memory and America’s Library are two names for the Library of Congress’ American Memory and America’s Library collections.

He did not escape via the Underground Railroad, but rather on a regular railroad.

Since he was a fugitive slave who did not have any “free papers,” he had to borrow a seaman’s protection certificate, which indicated that a seaman was a citizen of the United States, in order to prove that he was free.

Unfortunately, not all fugitive slaves were successful in their quest for freedom.

Harriet Tubman, Henry Bibb, Anthony Burns, Addison White, Josiah Henson, and John Parker were just a few of the people who managed to escape slavery using the Underground Railroad system.

He shipped himself from Richmond, Virginia, to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in a box that measured three feet long, two and a half feet deep, and two feet in diameter. When he was finally let out of the crate, he burst out singing.

ConductorsAbolitionists

Train conductors on the Underground Railroad were free persons who provided assistance to escaped slaves moving via the Underground Railroad system. Runaway slaves were assisted by conductors, who provided them with safe transportation to and from train stations. They were able to accomplish this under the cover of darkness, with slave hunters on their tails. Many of these stations would be in the comfort of their own homes or places of work, which was convenient. They were in severe danger as a result of their actions in hiding fleeing slaves; nonetheless, they continued because they believed in a cause bigger than themselves, which was the liberation thousands of oppressed human beings.

  1. They represented a diverse range of ethnicities, vocations, and socioeconomic backgrounds.
  2. Due to the widespread belief that slaves were considered property, the freeing of slaves was perceived as a theft of slave owners’ personal belongings.
  3. Captain Jonathan Walker was apprehended off the coast of Florida while attempting to convey slaves from the United States to freedom in the Bahamas.
  4. With the following words from one of his songs, abolitionist poet John Whittier paid respect to Walker’s valiant actions: “Take a step forward with your muscular right hand, brave ploughman of the sea!
  5. She never lost sight of any of them during the journey.
  6. He went on to write a novel.
  7. John Parker is yet another former slave who escaped and returned to slave states in order to aid in the emancipation of others.

Rankin’s neighbor and fellow conductor, Reverend John Rankin, was a collaborator in the Underground Railroad project.

The Underground Railroad’s conductors were unquestionably anti-slavery, and they were not alone in their views.

Individuals such as William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur and Lewis Tappan founded the American Anti-Slavery Society, which marked the beginning of the abolitionist movement.

The group published an annual almanac that featured poetry, paintings, essays, and other abolitionist material.

Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave who rose to prominence as an abolitionist after escaping from slavery.

His other abolitionist publications included the Frederick Douglass Paper, which he produced in addition to delivering public addresses on themes that were important to abolitionists.

Anthony was another well-known abolitionist who advocated for the abolition of slavery via her speeches and writings.

For the most part, she based her novel on the adventures of escaped slave Josiah Henson.

Efforts of Abolitionists Telling Their Story:Fugitive Slave Narratives

Henry Bibb was born into slavery in Kentucky in the year 1815, and he was the son of a slave owner. After several failed efforts to emancipate himself from slavery, he maintained the strength and persistence to continue his struggle for freedom despite being captured and imprisoned numerous times. His determination paid off when he was able to successfully escape to the northern states and then on to Canada with the assistance of the Underground Railroad, which had been highly anticipated. The following is an excerpt from his tale, in which he detailed one of his numerous escapes and the difficulties he faced as a result of his efforts.

  • I began making preparations for the potentially lethal experiment of breading the shackles that tied me as a slave as soon as the clock struck twelve.
  • On the twenty-fifth of December, 1837, the long-awaited day had finally arrived when I would put into effect my previous determination, which was to flee for Liberty or accept death as a slave, as I had previously stated.
  • It took every ounce of moral strength I have to keep my emotions under control as I said goodbye to my small family.
  • Despite the fact that every incentive was extended to me in order to flee if I want to be free, and the call of liberty was booming in my own spirit, ‘Be free, oh, man!
  • I was up against a slew of hurdles that had gathered around my mind, attempting to bind my wounded soul, which was still imprisoned in the dark prison of mental degeneration.
  • Furthermore, the danger of being killed or arrested and deported to the far South, where I would be forced to spend the rest of my days in hopeless bondage on a cotton or sugar plantation, all conspired to discourage me.
  • The moment has come for me to follow through on my commitment.
  • This marked the beginning of the construction of what was known as the underground rail route to Canada.
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For nearly forty-eight hours, I pushed myself to complete my journey without food or rest, battling against external difficulties that no one who has never experienced them can comprehend: “not knowing when I might be captured while traveling among strangers, through cold and fear, braving the north winds while wearing only a thin layer of clothing, pelted by snow storms through the dark hours of the night, and not a single house in which I could enter to protect me from the storm.” This is merely one of several accounts penned by runaway slaves who were on the run from their masters.

Sojourner Truth was another former slave who became well-known for her work to bring slavery to an end.

Green and many others, including Josiah Henson, authored autobiographies in which they described their own personal experiences.

Perhaps a large number of escaped slaves opted to write down their experiences in order to assist people better comprehend their struggles and tribulations; or perhaps they did so in order to help folks learn from the mistakes of the past in order to create a better future for themselves.

The Secret History of the Underground Railroad

He was born into slavery in Kentucky in the year 1815, and he was the son of a slave owner named Henry Bibb. After several failed efforts to emancipate himself from slavery, he maintained the strength and persistence to continue his struggle for freedom despite being captured and imprisoned multiple times. It was only through his determination that he was able to successfully escape to the northern states and then to Canada with the help of the Underground Railroad, a feat that had been highly anticipated.

  • For my own personal liberty, I made a decision somewhere during the autumn or winter of 1837 that I would try to flee to Canada if at all feasible.” Immediately after, I began preparing for the potentially lethal experiment of breading the chains that kept me a prisoner in my own home.
  • I also purchased a suit that I had never worn or been seen in before, in order to escape discovery.
  • It was the twenty-fifth of December, 1837.
  • My moral bravery was tested to the limit when I left my small family and tried to keep my emotions under wraps at all times.
  • No matter how many opportunities were presented to me to flee if I wanted to be free, and the call of liberty was booming in my own spirit, ‘Be free!
  • A thousand barriers had formed around my mind, attempting to bind my wounded spirit, which was still imprisoned in the dark dungeon of mental degradation.
  • It was difficult to break free from my deep bonds to friends and relatives, as well as the love of home and birthplace that is so natural among the human family, which were entwined around my heart and made it difficult to go forward.
  • But I’d calculated the cost and was completely prepared to make the sacrifice before I started the process.

If I don’t want to be a slave, I’ll have to abandon friends and neighbors, along with my wife and child.” I was given something to eat by these gracious folks, who then set me on my way to Canada on the advise of a buddy who had met me along the road.” This marked the beginning of the construction of what was referred to be the underground rail track from the United States to the Canadian continent.

In the morning, I walked with bold courage, trusting in the arm of Omnipotence; by night, I was guided by the unchangeable North Star, and inspired by the elevated thought that I was fleeing from a land of slavery and oppression, waving goodbye to handcuffs, whips, thumb-screws, and chains, and that I was on my way to freedom.

I continued my journey vigorously for nearly forty-eight hours without food or rest, battling against external difficulties that no one who has never experienced them can comprehend: not knowing when I might be captured while traveling among strangers, through cold and fear, braving the north winds while wearing only a thin layer of clothing, being pelted by snow storms through the dark hours of the night, and not being able to find a house in which to take shelter from the storm.” Among the countless accounts recorded by escaped slaves is this one, which is only one example.

Sojourner Truth, a former slave who became well-known for her efforts to bring slavery to an end, was another person who came from a slave background.

Green and many others, including Josiah Henson, authored autobiographies in which they described their own personal journeys.

The writing down of one’s experiences by so many escaped slaves may have been done in order to assist people better comprehend their struggles and tribulations; or it may have been done in order to help individuals learn from their mistakes in the aim of building a brighter future.

The Underground Railroad Effect on Slaves – Free Essay Example

It was the Underground Railroad, often known as the Path to Freedom, that provided slaves with the means to flee and, if successful, gain their freedom. However, contrary to what its name implies, the Underground Train was not a physical railroad, but rather a hidden, coordinated network of safe homes comprised of both White and African American individuals who welcomed escaped slaves, comforted them, and assisted them on their travels to freedom. Although its origins are unclear because the slaves’ paths to freedom had started out with people willing to provide the fugitives with shelter, aid, and safety, the Underground Railroad quickly grew in popularity as a greater number of people made it out safely and assisted others in doing the same, eventually becoming known as the Underground Railroad.

  • So the Underground Railroad was an important contributor to the Abolitionist movement because of its assistance in weakening slavery.
  • Although the Civil War ended in 1865, the Underground Railroad was supposed to have been founded somewhere between the late 18th century and early 17th century and to have come to an end in the late 1800s (“Underground”).
  • In fact, in 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with the way Quakers had assisted one of his slaves in escaping (Editors).
  • Typically, when people think of the Underground Railroad, they think of an organization or a huge number of people working together, rather than a succession of individuals, both white and black, who were ready to assist slaves in their attempts to escape and find their way out of slavery.
  • Carriage drivers were free persons who provided safe transit to and from stations for escaped slaves traveling over the Underground Railroad.
  • Harriet Tubman, a former slave herself, was one of the most well-known conductors of the Underground Railroad and is considered to be one of its most important figures.
  • While fleeing slavery herself, she was assisted by another legendary Underground Railroad conductor, William Still, as she made her way via the Underground Railroad (Eastern).
  • In order to avoid being apprehended, she devised a variety of ways for emancipating slaves over the course of several years.

She also preferred to travel at night for the sake of concealment and in the fall when the days were shorter, and she preferred to utilize “back roads, canals, mountains, and marshes” to avoid being captured by slave catchers (“Harriet.” To add to her already impressive list of accomplishments, Harriet Tubman was one of the very few conductors who had never lost a slave on their journey to freedom.

  • Tubman would constantly urge the slaves to continue their journey, and if any of them were disheartened and decided to return because they were terrified of being captured, Tubman would pull out a rifle and declare, “”You’ll either be free or die a slave!” “” (Library No.
  • With the help of persons such as William Still in Philadelphia, Frederick Douglass in Rochester, New York, and Thomas Garrett in Wilmington, Delaware (“Harriet”), Harriet Tubman was able to establish her own network of Underground Railroad conductors and routes after a few years.
  • Still was just a youngster when he assisted in the first slave emancipation.
  • Upon his return to the United States in 1844, Still obtained employment with the Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery, where he “got a work as a clerk and janitor” (William).
  • His ultimate objective was to assist them all in making their way to Canada, which was known as “Freedom’s Land” since it was a country that granted asylum for fugitive slaves during the American Civil War.
  • Still was also well-known for keeping meticulous records of all the slaves who passed through the Philadelphia station.
  • A book on his experiences with the Underground Railroad and the escaped slaves that he assisted was written after World War II, thanks to the persistence of his children.

Frederick Douglass, another Conductor who was well-known as an abolitionist leader, was also a member of the company.

Douglass had attempted several times to elude slavery while growing up as a little boy.

Then he journeyed via Delaware, another slave state, before reaching in New York, where he sought refuge at the home of abolitionist David Ruggles” (Editors).

He related his experiences as a slave and how he was able to escape, and he went on to become a motivational speaker and abolitionist leader.

Douglass began writing books, and he then released the first of his five autobiographies, which was the first of his five autobiographies.

“” (PBS).

It demonstrated the importance of collaboration in the past, as well as how they worked together. It was vital in the abolition of slavery, and it was one of the most important factors in the process.” Did you find this example to be useful?

Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia

When slaves were able to escape and, if they were successful, become free, they used the Underground Railroad (also known as the Path to Freedom). Contrary to what its name implies, the Underground Train was not a physical railroad, but rather a hidden, coordinated network of safe houses comprised of both White and African American individuals who welcomed fleeing slaves, comforted them, and assisted them on their travels to freedom. Even though it is unclear how the Underground Railroad got started because the slaves’ paths to freedom had started out with people willing to provide the fugitive slaves with shelter, aid, and safety, the Railroad quickly grew as a greater number of people made it out safely and assisted others in doing so.

  1. In this way, the Underground Railroad made significant contributions to the abolitionist struggle by assisting in the demise of slavery, and “according to one estimate, the South lost about 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850” as a result of its efforts (Mitchell).
  2. The Quakers were the first organized group to aid slaves in their escape, despite the fact that there had been individuals who assisted them.
  3. (Editors).
  4. When most people think of the Underground Railroad, they imagine a massive organization or a large number of people working together, rather than a succession of individuals, both white and black, who were ready to assist slaves in their attempts to escape and find their way to freedom.
  5. Underground Railroad conductors were free persons who aided escaped slaves traveling via the Underground Railroad by providing them with a safe route to and from various locations.
  6. She was a former slave herself, and she was one of the most well-known Underground Railroad abolitionists in history.
  7. Harriet Tubman put herself in enormous danger when she decided to assist escaped slaves, as she endangered her own life and freedom on several occasions (Clinton 209).
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Escapes should be attempted on Saturdays, she explained, because Sunday was a day off for the owners, who would not be aware of the escape until the following Monday, and escape notices would not be issued until then.

Tubman would constantly urge the slaves to continue their journey, and if any of them were disheartened and chose to return because they were terrified of being captured, Tubman would pull out a rifle and declare, “”You’ll either be free or die a slave!”” Second Library (Library 2).

With the help of persons such as William Still in Philadelphia, Frederick Douglass in Rochester, New York, and Thomas Garrett in Wilmington, Delaware (“Harriet”), Harriet Tubman was able to establish her own network of Underground Railroad conductors and routes.

Still was only a youngster when he assisted the first slave escape.

Still relocated to Pennsylvania in 1844, where he “found work as a secretary and janitor for the Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery,” according to William.

Aim: He wanted to assist them all in making their way to Canada, which was dubbed “Freedom’s Land” because it had historically served as a safe haven for runaway slaves.

Also noted for maintaining meticulous records of all the slaves that traveled through his Philadelphia station, Still was also infamous for burning many of his papers relating to fugitive slaves just before the Civil War for fear that they would be used against him in a criminal prosecution.

“William” describes how that book has come to be recognized as one of the most important sources of information about the Underground Railroad and the people who utilized it to gain freedom.

Also born into slavery, Frederick Douglass’ given name was Frederick Bailey at the time of his capture, and he only adopted the name Frederick Douglass after escaping (Editors).

Glass ultimately departed in 1838, first boarding a train to Havre de Grace, Maryland then boarding another train to Washington, D.C.” Then he journeyed via Delaware, another slave state, before arriving in New York, where he sought refuge at the home of abolitionist David Ruggles (Editors).

He recounted his experiences as a slave and his escape from slavery, after which he went on to become a public speaker and abolitionist activist.

The first of Douglass’ five autobiographies was released after he began writing them.

His abolitionist newspaper “The North Star” was the first to be published, and it was “used to not only denounce slavery, but also to fight for the emancipation of women and other oppressed groups, and its motto was “”Right is of No Sex – Truth is of No Color – God is the Father of us all, and we are all brethren.

Finally, the Underground Railroad has had a significant impact on the lives of African Americans, as well as Slaves in general, throughout history.

It demonstrated the importance of teamwork in the past, as well as how they worked together effectively and cooperatively now. Slavery was abolished in 1865, and it played a significant part in that process.” What did you think of this illustration?

Tense Borders

The “riot” in Christiana took place at the home of William Parker, a free black man who had assisted in the formation of a mutual defense group for the black people of the region. Upon arriving to Parker’s house, Edward Gorsuch and his men were greeted by a group of at least fifty men who had come to defend the fugitive slaves from capture. History of Pennsylvania (Historical Society of Pennsylvania). Interstate relations were heated as a result of this activity between border South states such as Maryland and border North states such as Pennsylvania and New Jersey.

  1. Armed resistance was mounted against slaveholders’ attempts to recapture slaves, with abolitionists in many cases liberating the accused from courtrooms and jailhouses as a result.
  2. However, although the rescuers in New Jersey were successful in freeing a black family from a professional slave catcher from Philadelphia, their counterparts in Carlisle were less successful, and the scenario ultimately resulted in the conviction of eleven rescues.
  3. In spite of the increasing violence along the North/South border, escapes were still common during the 1850s.
  4. The Vigilance Committee, led by notable black abolitionists like Robert Purvis(1810-98) in its early years and subsequently by William Still, provided further help to new immigrants in Philadelphia (1821-1902).
  5. William Still (1821-1902), a New Jersey native, was a prominent member of the Vigilance Committee during the Civil War.
  6. His wife, Letitia (George) Still (1821-1906), played a vital role in the operation by lending the Still family a place to stay and by utilizing her sewing abilities to create the garments and earn money to assist with the project’s funding.
  7. Also at the Anti-Slavery Society office at 105 N.
  8. 1816-97), who had been brought there from the South, and Still’s own brother Peter (1801-68).
  9. According to his notebook, which is now housed at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, he assisted 485 fugitives in Philadelphia between 1852 and 1857, according to the journal.

Still’s labor and records demonstrate unequivocally the significance of the free black community to the functioning and success of the Underground Railroad, and they are well worth studying.

Philadelphia’s Aid Network

Even yet, the legacy of free black volunteers assisting fugitives was still being built upon. In Philadelphia, he joined the largest and wealthiest northern free black community, one that was home to a slew of churches, clubs, and mutual assistance groups, among them the Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, which he attended as a young boy. These institutions contributed to the development of a strong leadership class among African-Americans, who had already contributed to the establishment of Philadelphia as an epicenter of American abolition even before the American Revolution.

  1. The Pennsylvania Abolition Society and the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society were established to fight against bondage and provide assistance to liberate black people in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
  2. In the 1850s, Pennsylvanians were occasionally hauled before the courts for assisting and hiding fugitives from slavery, and alleged fugitives were subjected to trials that may result in their being returned to slavery.
  3. Because it compelled federal officials to seek runaway slaves and bystanders to engage in their apprehension when called upon, the 1850 legislation made it impossible to provide assistance to fugitives, particularly in the South.
  4. The tale of the Underground Railroad serves as a powerful example of inter-racial cooperation in the struggle for social justice, which began in the colonial era and continues now in the United States.
  5. Citizens from various walks of life who worked as guides and conductors along the train had come to see that the United States’ racial caste system was harmful to all Americans, and they took nonviolent direct action to combat the injustice they witnessed.

She is the author of Pennsylvania Hall: A “Legal Lynching” in the Shadow of the Liberty Bell (Oxford University Press, 2013) and Colonization and Its Discontents: Emancipation, Emigration, and Antislavery in Antebellum Pennsylvania (Colonization and Its Discontents: Emancipation, Emigration, and Antislavery in Antebellum Pennsylvania) (NYU Press, 2011).

She currently serves as an associate professor of history and assistant provost at the University of Houston-Victoria.

the State University of New Jersey (Rutgers University) Nat and Yanna Brandt are the authors of this work.

The University of South Carolina Press, in Columbia, South Carolina, published a book in 2007 titled The Slave Catchers: Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law, 1850-1860, by Stanley Campbell.

The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, published this book in 1970.

Pennsylvania History28 (1961): 33-44.

In Gigantino, James J.

Stanley Harrold is a fictional character created by Stanley Harrold.

The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, published a book in 2010 titled McCurdy, Linda McCabe, and others.

Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1995.

The names Okur and Nilgun are derived from the Turkish words for “beautiful” and “nilgun.” Anadolu.

Journal of Black Studies, Volume 25, Number 5, May 1995, pages 537-557.

Siebert’s The Underground Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom is a must-read.

Smedley, R.C., “History of the Underground Railroad in Chester and the Neighboring Counties of Pennsylvania,” in Smedley, R.C., History of the Underground Railroad in Chester and the Neighboring Counties of Pennsylvania.

Smith, David G., et al.

Fordham University Press published a book in 2013 titled Nonetheless, William.

narrating the hardships, hair-breadth escapes, and death struggles of the slaves in their efforts to achieve freedom, as related by themselves and others or witnessed by the author; and sketches of some of the largest stockholders and most liberal aiders and advisers of the road.

The article “”Beautiful Providences”: William Still, the Vigilance Committee, and Abolitionists in the Age of Sectionalism” by Elizabeth Varon is available online.

In Richard Newman and James Mueller, eds., Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, 2011, pages 229-45.

The William Still Journals and the Pennsylvania Abolition Society Records are housed in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1300 Locust Street in Philadelphia, and are open to the public.

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