The Underground Railroad Who Is Stevens? (Best solution)

Stevens was a medical student in Boston and worked the night shift at the school’s anatomy house. In this role, he collaborated with a team of grave robbers to supply his school with cadavers.

What awful activity does Dr Stevens engage in underground railroad?

Dr. Stevens is another doctor who examines Cora. Prior to his employment in South Carolina, he was a medical student in Boston, where he was involved with the “body trade” of stealing corpses for research.

What is Cora’s last name in the Underground Railroad?

The Underground Railroad’s visually captivating story of runaway slave Cora Randall spans a plethora of states — from Georgia to North Carolina to Indiana — over the course of months, with each new town bringing people who mean to both help and harm her into her proximity.

Who is Cora’s mother in the Underground Railroad?

Mabel Cora’s mother, who, when Cora was 10 or 11 years old, ran away, leaving her daughter behind. Mabel was never caught, making everyone think that perhaps she had successfully reached the North. In reality, however, she had a change of heart mere hours after leaving the plantation and tried to go back.

How old is Cora in the Underground Railroad?

Cora, who is 15 years old when the book begins, has a very difficult life on the plantation, in part because she has conflicts with the other slaves.

Who is Colson Whitehead’s wife?

Adapted from Colson Whitehead’s Pulitzer-award-winning novel, The Underground Railroad is based on harrowing true events. The ten-parter tells the story of escaped slave, Cora, who grew up on The Randall plantation in Georgia.

Who is John Valentine in the Underground Railroad?

John is the owner of Valentine farm and the husband of Gloria. He is light-skinned and passes for white, although he does not hide the fact that he is black among other black people.

Is Caesar really dead in the Underground Railroad?

While the show doesn’t show us what happens after their encounter, Caesar comes to Cora in a dream later, confirming to viewers that he was killed. In the novel, Caesar faces a similar fate of being killed following his capture, though instead of Ridgeway and Homer, he is killed by an angry mob.

What happened to Lovey in the Underground Railroad?

She secretly decides to join Cora and Caesar’s escape mission but she is captured early in the journey by hog hunters who return her to Randall, where she is killed by being impaled by a metal spike, her body left on display to discourage others who think of trying to escape.

What happened to Polly and the Twins in Underground Railroad?

But then she begins to call the babies her own and Mabel warns Moses and Connelly that Polly is not mentally stable. They ignore Mabel’s pleas and warnings and even slap her and then the worst happens. Polly murders the babies and then takes her own life.

What happened to Cora’s mother?

Cora is a slave on a plantation in Georgia and an outcast after her mother Mabel ran off without her. She resents Mabel for escaping, although it is later revealed that her mother tried to return to Cora but died from a snake bite and never reached her.

Why does Stevens rob graves?

According to his society, Stevens’ grave robbing is a crime but not the most serious of crimes. Stevens himself chooses to understand grave robbing as a noble calling in order to ease his own conscience.

How many children did Cora’s grandmother have?

Ajarry is Cora’s grandmother and Mabel’s mother. She was born in Africa before being kidnapped and enslaved slave in America, where she is sold so many times that she comes to believe she is “cursed.” She has three husbands and five children, of which Mabel is the only one to survive.

Was Valentine farm a real place?

The article uses the novel’s example of Valentine Farm, a fictional 1850s black settlement in Indiana where protagonist Cora lands after her rescue from a fugitive slave catcher by Royal, a freeborn black radical and railroad agent.

LitCharts

The Anatomy House of the Proctor Medical School in Boston is staffed by a guy namedAloysius Stevens, who works night shifts as a fellowship student. Stevens is approached by a man named Carpenter, who appears with an acquaintance around midnight and gives him a sample of booze. The story zooms out to convey that Carpenter is a grave thief, and that if he is apprehended, he will be hung and his body will be donated to medical research. Carpenter, on the other hand, does it because there has been a “body scarcity” since since the study of anatomy became popular.

Corpse snatchers are notorious for their excessive drinking and vicious behavior, and Carpenter is known for staging elaborate acts that allow him to sell the same body more than once.

Despite the fact that Stevens despises racism and, as a poor Irishman, genuinely feels a certain sympathy with black people, he recognizes that it is vital to exploit their bodies in order to develop medical knowledge in order to improve medical knowledge.

Throughout the chapter, it is stressed that black people in the United States are not recognized as human beings, but rather as commodities—objects from which white people might benefit financially.

These findings demonstrate that even well-intentioned white individuals are content to perceive black people as a means to an end, as a necessary sacrifice in the wider aim of advancing medical knowledge (or building the country).

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The Underground Railroad Chapter 5: Stevens Summary and Analysis

This chapter takes readers to Boston, where Aloysius Stevens works as a grave robber to help pay for his medical school tuition during the evenings and weekends. Carpenter and Cobb, the two body snatchers, arrive to apprehend him at the stroke of midnight. Cobb is not a fan of Stevens’, despite the fact that Stevens was not a wealthy student, in contrast to the bulk of the school’s students who were from wealthy Massachusetts families. Though dangerous employment, the city has begun to sentence grave thieves to the gallows as punishment for their actions.

  1. Cobb continues to warm up to Stevens, and even offers him a glass of rum at one point.
  2. Rich medical schools outbid poor medical schools for bodies, which was a problem because there was a limited amount of legal bodies available.
  3. After being relocated to a pricey metropolis far away from his mother’s home cooking in Maine, Stevens is in desperate need of the money he makes through corpse snatching.
  4. His gang is made up primarily of saloon regulars, and they are in a constant state of rivalry for bodies.
  5. His blatant deceptions, however, finally came back to haunt him.
  6. Because no one was looking after black bodies, Carpenter turned to the theft and sale of dead bodies.
  7. Racial prejudice exists among both Carpenter, an ignorant Irishman, and his more affluent classmates.
  8. The soldiers have arrived at their goal, which is a cemetery in the city of Concord.

In exchange for a fee, the custodian allows them in and they immediately begin digging for bodies: four adults and three infants. Stevens is posing as a body snatcher as he digs. He will return to his previous position as a medical school student the next morning.

Analysis

Cora is told through Cora’s perspective throughout The Underground Railroad, with occasional flashbacks telling the backstories of other characters interspersed throughout. The first and third chapters of the work, which describe the stories of Ajarry and Ridgeway, respectively, have already introduced the structure of the novel to the readership. Cora’s life is directly affected by both of those chapters. The tale of Dr. Stevens, on the other hand, appears to be isolated from Cora’s. His character featured in the previous chapter as the medical face of the government’s eugenics program, advising Cora to use birth control instead of sterilization.

  1. Whitehead included this seemingly inconsequential occurrence in the work because it gives a larger background for Cora’s experience, which is important to Whitehead.
  2. Several of Stevens’s classmates are virulently prejudiced, adhering to racist clichés relating to the relative IQ and features of black people, among other things.
  3. After all, it appears that Cora will not be able to attain true independence in the North.
  4. Additionally, this chapter presents additional proof of white complicity.
  5. Stevens is depicted as being critical of racial prejudice in this chapter, noting that there are more commonalities between poor, uneducated white and black males than there are between white men from different socioeconomic strata.
  6. The opinions revealed in this chapter stand in stark contrast to those voiced later in his career as a doctor.
  7. Stevens’s narrative also serves as an illustration of yet another moral dilemma that people in The Underground Railroad must contend with.
  8. The job of a slave catcher, like Ridgeway’s, is driven by a perverted moral calculus of his own making.

In addition to dealing with “morbid contradictions” on a daily basis, Stevens is also training to be a doctor, while concurrently collecting dead bodies to pay for his tuition and living expenses (136).

The Underground Railroad Stevens Summary

During his time in medical school, Aloysius Stevens (later, Dr. Stevens) supported himself by working evenings at the anatomy building. Because of the new technique of dissection, there was a scarcity of corpses. In order to provide medical institutions with new corpses at exorbitant costs, body snatchers dug up fresh bodies. Despite the fact that Stevens was not affluent, the obligation to provide his own specimens for two thorough dissections pushed him beyond his financial limitations. He resorted to collaborating with a tomb thief named Carpenter in order to survive.

Following public anger and panic in the white community as a result of body snatching white bodies, many body snatchers moved their attention to deceased African Americans, knowing that the concerns of family would go unheeded.

Carpenter pays a visit to the anatomy building one evening.

A bribed cemetery employee directs them to the newly erected tombs.

Analysis

Stevens is an example of a white guy who takes great satisfaction in the fact that he is not racist, but who is utterly unaware of his own condescending views and repressive acts against African Americans. Despite the fact that Stevens has witnessed firsthand how African American and white bodies are identical when dissected, his interactions with Cora years later demonstrate that he believes whites know better and have the authority to regulate African American procreation and, as Cora sees it, their future.

Stevens is, in this manner, a representation of the racial sentiments prevalent in the novel’s paternalistic state of South Carolina, which Stevens represents.

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Legacy of Thaddeus Stevens

Thaddeus Stevens was born on April 4, 1792, in Danville, Vermont, to Thaddeus Stevens and Elizabeth Stevens. He was the second of four sons born to Sarah and Joshua Stevens, who were also teachers. Joshua, Thaddeus’ older brother, was born with two clubfeet, which made it extremely difficult for him to walk at a young age. The presence of any physical abnormality was considered a sign from God that the family had committed a grievous sin in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. A malformation of this nature was referred to as “the mark of the devil,” and as a result, the family was mocked and ostracized.

See also:  Who Lives In The Hob (what Sorts Of People) Underground Railroad? (Question)

Joshua Stevens, Thaddeus’ father, was an alcoholic and a physically aggressive individual.

Thaddeus’ father had abandoned the family by the time he was 12 years old, and he was eventually slain during the War of 1812.

She was able to keep the family together by working around the clock.

Thaddeus adored his mother and remained dedicated to her for the rest of his days. Sarah came to the conclusion that education was the greatest chance for her two eldest kids. She cobbled together enough money to enroll children at the one-room Peacham School, which was conveniently located nearby.

Thaddeus was frail, raised in poverty, and lived with a challenging physical disability. Consequently, he was teased mercilessly by other children throughout his childhood. Extremely sensitive, he became very shy; however, he excelled in school. It became obvious that he possessed a great intellect and had a special aptitude for debating. Upon completion of his education at Peacham, Thaddeus was accepted at Dartmouth College. He was the least wealthy student at the College, never having enough money for books let alone money to socialize with his rich classmates. As a result, he was an outcast, just as he had been throughout his childhood. Even though he was more qualified than most of his peers, he was not nominated for Phi Beta Kappa, an honors fraternity. This insult left him hurt and bitter.Thaddeus Stevens graduated from Dartmouth and accepted a teaching position at a one-room school in York, Pennsylvania. He studied law in the evenings and passed the bar exam in a year. He set up practice in Gettysburg and later moved to Lancaster. He became an instant success. In his first year, he successfully argued nine out of ten cases before the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, an unprecedented feat. Word of his ability and success spread throughout the region, and he was inundated with clients. After five years, he owned a house and lot, several other properties, and was able to purchase for his mother a 250-acre farm with 14 cows. He said that buying her the farm was the “greatest satisfaction of his life.”

He was born on April 4, 1792, in the Vermont town of Danville. Thaddeus Stevens was the son of Thaddeus Stevens and Elizabeth Stevens. His parents, Sarah and Joshua Stevens, had four sons, the second of whom was him. Joshua, Thaddeus’ older brother, was born with clubfeet, which made it extremely difficult for him to walk when he was younger. The presence of any physical abnormality was considered a message from God that the family had committed a significant sin in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, respectively.

  1. Joshua Stevens, Thaddeus’ father, was an alcoholic who was also physically violent.
  2. After leaving the family when Thaddeus was 12 years old, his father was subsequently slain in the War of 1812, leaving Thaddeus without a parent.
  3. Sarah Stevens was a nice and energetic woman with a strong will and a deep belief in God.
  4. Besides farm work, she helped out her neighbors by cleaning and doing other household duties for a fee.
  5. After much consideration, Sarah concluded that education was the greatest hope for her two eldest kids.
“I know how large a portion of the community can scarcely feel any sympathy with, or understand the necessities of the poor; the rich appreciate the exquisite feelings which they enjoy, when they see their children receiving the boon of education, and rising in intellectual superiority above the clogs which hereditary poverty had cast upon them. When I reflect how apt hereditary wealth, hereditary influence, and perhaps as a consequence, hereditary pride, are to close the avenues and steel the heart against the wants and rights of the poor, I am induced to thank my Creator for having, from early life, bestowed upon me the blessing of poverty.”

He advised lawmakers to disregard the mistaken petitions and to lead their constituents as philosophers, with bravery and charity, rather than as politicians. After completing his speech, he hobbled back to his seat, to the delight of the whole audience. The House of Representatives suspended the rules and changed the Repeal Bill into a law that actually enhanced the original Free School Act, which was subsequently ratified by the whole chamber. The Senate followed suit almost quickly. As a result, Pennsylvania gained a statewide, free public education system a whole generation before New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and the entire southern United States.

  • Stevens’ use of his own past and expertise to condemn privilege based on anything other than merit is another another example of how he draws on his own background and experience to make his points.
  • Later, he stated that if education is affordable and noble, individuals with intelligence—regardless of their socioeconomic status—would take use of it to better themselves.
  • Throughout his life, he was unable to forget the poverty and discrimination that he experienced as a youngster without feeling immense sadness.
  • He couldn’t stand the thought of hearing or seeing misery, even if his money or legal assistance might alleviate it.
  • He did this without regard to color, religion, national origin, or political party, and he did it without hesitation.
  • He had established standing orders with his physician and cobbler, instructing them to treat any malformed or crippled infants who came under his care.
  • Among the indicators was the fact that he had more than $100,000 in notes from persons to whom he had given money, money that he had never received in return.

In his will, he bequeathed $50,000 to be used to create a school for the relief and shelter of homeless and impoverished orphans and their families. Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology was established as a result of this original endowment. His last will and testament states:

“They shall be carefully educated in the various branches of English education and all industrial trades and pursuits. No preference shall be shown on account of race or color in their admission or treatment. Neither poor Germans, Irish, or Mahometan, nor any others on account their race or religion of their parents, shall be excluded. They shall be fed at the same table.”
He defended and supported Native Americans, Seventh-day Adventists, Mormons, Jews, Chinese, and women. However, the defense of runaway or fugitive slaves gradually began to consume the greatest amount of his time, until the abolition of slavery became his primary political and personal focus. He was actively involved in the Underground Railroad, assisting runaway slaves to get to Canada, as many as 16 a week. Thaddeus Stevens was elected to the United States House of Representatives from 1849–1853 and from 1859 until his death in 1868. This was the period leading up to and including the Civil War and the beginning of Reconstruction. During this time, Stevens became the most powerful congressman in Washington. He chaired the House Ways and Means Committee and later the Appropriations Committee. He was responsible for funding the war effort and later Reconstruction.
His goals during this period were the following: (1) the abolition of slavery; (2) full legal rights regardless of race; (3) voting rights regardless of race; (4) and the result of Reconstruction to be the empowerment of African Americans by redistributing power and wealth in the South. Stevens’ legislative legacy is the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution, which serve as the basis for all civil rights legislation.

To avoid being distracted by foolish petitions, he exhorted lawmakers to lead their people in the manner of philosophers, with bravery and good will. The entire audience applauded him as he hobbled back into his seat after finishing. With the House suspending its norms, it rewrote the Repeal Bill into a piece of legislation that actually improved the original Free School Act, which was eventually enacted. It didn’t take long for the Senate to join in. As a result, Pennsylvania gained a statewide, free public education system a whole generation before New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and the rest of the southern states did so.

  • Using his own past and expertise to challenge privilege based on anything other than merit is another another example of Stevens pulling from his own background and experience.
  • The author later said that if education is affordable and honorable, anyone with intelligence—regardless of their socioeconomic status—would take use of it to better themselves.
  • The poverty and bigotry of his youth haunted him for the rest of his life, and the memories were excruciating.
  • If his money or legal assistance could alleviate some of the misery in the world, he simply could not stand to hear or witness it.
  • That he did was without regard to his race, his religion, his country background, or his political beliefs.
  • With his doctors and cobbler, he had established standing instructions that all malformed and crippled children be treated at his cost on an ongoing basis.
  • Among the indicators was the fact that he had more than $100,000 in notes from persons to whom he had given money, money that he had never received in repayment.
  • The Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology was established as a result of this original endowment.
“I repose in this quiet and secluded spot, not from any natural preference for solitude, but finding other cemeteries limited as to race, by charter rules, I have chosen this that I might illustrate in my death the principles which I advocated through a long life, equality of man before his Creator.”

A map of Wrightsville (York County) and Columbia from 1824 is shown on the left (Lancaster County, right). Travel to historic places in Lancaster County to learn about some of the early incidents of anti-slavery resistance in the United States of America. It was from these spontaneous uprisings against slavery that organized efforts, daring escapes, and legal challenges grew, culminating in the formation of an organization known as “The Underground Railroad.” In modern times, historians see the Underground Railroad as the first widespread campaign of civil disobedience in the United States since the Revolutionary War, as well as the country’s first racially integrated and spiritually motivated civil rights movement.

LancasterHistory has been designated as a Facility within the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom, a program of the National Park Service that recognizes sites, facilities, and programs that have a verifiable connection to the Underground Railroad.

LancasterHistory’s Research Center, in particular, is a treasure trove of primary and secondary source information regarding the Underground Railroad’s presence in Lancaster County.

The historic site on the junction of S. Queen and Vine Streets in Lancaster is also a Site on the Network to Freedom, according to the organization. SKIP TO THE NEXT SECTIONS Private Tours|About Your Tour Guide|Health Safety, Accessibility, and Technology|Private Tours|About Your Tour Guide

Private Tour Options

LancasterHistory is pleased to provide individual guided tours of the Origins of the Underground Railroad in Lancaster County (OUGRR) exhibit. We provide you and your group with personal one-on-one time with your tour guide during our private group trips. Private tours are planned on an individual basis at a mutually agreed-upon day and time, and are charged on a per-person basis. In terms of personalized tour experiences, we now offer two options: Please select a tour type from the drop-down menus below to learn more about it.

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A brief one-mile drive into downtown Lancaster City follows the orientation session, with mobile phone contact between up to two vehicles available during the tour.

The following are examples of sites:

  • We are pleased to provide individual guided tours of the Origins of the Underground Railroad in Lancaster County (OUGRR) in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. We provide you and your group with personal one-on-one time with your tour guide on our private group trips. Tours with a private guide are planned on an individual basis at a mutually agreed-upon day and time, and are charged on an individual basis. In terms of personalized tour experiences, we now provide two options: Detailed information on each tour type may be found by selecting it from the dropdown menus below. The event will begin with a quick introduction of the Underground Railroad, which will be illustrated with maps and posters, at LancasterHistory. A brief one-mile trip into downtown Lancaster City follows the orientation session, with mobile phone contact between up to two vehicles available during the journey. Attendees and the guide will park their cars and stroll around a three-square-block stretch of the historic downtown district of Lancaster. The following are examples of locations:

Tour LengthSize

Walking and driving tours are combined in this 90-minute to 2-hour trip, which lasts 90 minutes to 2 hours total. The trip is best suited for small groups of 5-10 participants. The reservation must be made by a party of at least 5 people. A conference call between up to two other vehicles will be set up by your tour guide during the driving portion of the tour. Vehicles and smartphones are required to be provided by participants, rather than LancasterHistory. To inquire about this tour option for groups bigger than 10 people that have access to a van, a moderate-sized motor coach, or a large motor coach, please contact Randy Harris.

HealthSafety and Accessibility

Please refer to the section below on the homepage for further information on these criteria or rules.

Pricing

Fill out our Group Tour Information Request form or send an email to [email protected] if you have any questions regarding pricing. If you want to schedule a private tour, you must give at least two weeks notice. A payment is necessary at the time of booking in order to reserve the day and time of a trip. The remaining payment is payable one week before the tour’s scheduled start date. More information may be found in our reservation contract.

Reservations

This tour option is only available for booking on Mondays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, and only with a 24-hour notice in advance. Reservations must be made at least two weeks in advance of the event. LancasterHistory’s availability and discretion may need less notice in some cases. Those interested in arranging this tour option can [email protected] or by phoning (717) 392-4633, ext. 131 at the Lancaster Historical Society.

How to Prepare For The Tour

Bookings for this tour option are only available on Mondays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, and they must be made at least 24 hours in advance.

At least two weeks prior to your arrival, reservations are necessary. LancasterHistory may be able to accommodate shorter notice if it is available. [email protected] or call (717) 392-4633, ext. 131 if you are interested in reserving this tour option for your group.

  • Dress in clothing and footwear that is both comfortable and appropriate for the weather
  • Bring a properly fitting face mask or covering (needed for people 2 years of age and older, regardless of immunization status)
  • Make sure you bring at least one cellphone
  • You should be prepared to pay for on-street parking
  • You should also bring a camera or notepad to take notes (at your leisure)
  • And you should dress comfortably.

The event will begin at the Mifflin House in Wrightsville, Pennsylvania (York County), where guests will be given a brief overview of the Underground Railroad, illustrated with maps and posters, before moving on to the Mifflin House. Following the orientation, the trip continues with visits to additional locations related with the Underground Railroad, with narration provided between cars via smartphone or public address system. The guide and guests will park their automobiles in the City of Lancaster and stroll around a three-square block section of the historic downtown region of the city.

  • Participants will get a brief introduction regarding the Underground Railroad, which will be depicted with maps and posters, at the Mifflin House in Wrightsville, Pennsylvania (York County). In addition to the orientation, the trip includes visits to various locations involved with the Underground Railroad, with narration provided between cars by smartphone or public address system. When the group arrives at the City of Lancaster, they will park their automobiles and stroll around a three-square block section of the historic downtown portion of the city. The following are examples of locations:

Other unique routes or beginning places are available upon request as well. Please contact me to discuss this further.

Tour LengthSize

This excursion, which lasts 3 – 4 hours, is a combination of walking and driving through the countryside. Suitable for parties of 5 to 10 people, the trip is a great option. The minimum number of people required to reserve a tour is five. A conference call between up to two other vehicles will be set up by your tour guide during the driving portion of the tour. Vehicles and smartphones are required to be provided by participants, rather than LancasterHistory. When traveling by bus or motor coach, the guide will join the bus and communicate over the on-board public address system.

He can discuss the various tour itineraries, price, and other amenities available for your party.

HealthSafety and Accessibility

Please refer to the section below on the homepage for further information on these criteria or rules.

Pricing

Fill out our Group Tour Information Request form or send an email to [email protected] if you have any questions regarding pricing. If you want to schedule a private tour, you must give at least two weeks notice. A payment is necessary at the time of booking in order to reserve the day and time of a trip. The remaining payment is payable one week before the tour’s scheduled start date. More information may be found in our reservation contract.

Reservations

This tour option is only available for booking on Mondays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, and only with a 24-hour notice in advance. Reservations must be made at least two weeks in advance of the event. LancasterHistory’s availability and discretion may need less notice in some cases. Those interested in arranging this tour option can [email protected] or by phoning (717) 392-4633, ext. 131 at the Lancaster Historical Society.

How to Prepare For The Tour

Attendees on the trip are encouraged to:

  • Dress in clothing and footwear that is both comfortable and appropriate for the weather
  • Bring a properly fitting face mask or covering (needed for people 2 years of age and older, regardless of immunization status)
  • Make sure you bring at least one cellphone
  • You should be prepared to pay for on-street parking
  • You should also bring a camera or notepad to take notes (at your leisure)
  • And you should dress comfortably.

You’re looking for additional information or are ready to schedule your private tour? Inquire about a Group Tour by completing the form below. If you have any questions, you may reach out to LancasterHistory at (717) 392-4633, extension 131, or via email at [email protected]

Please keep in mind that submitting a group tour request does not guarantee that your trip will be arranged. Please wait for a response from a member of the LancasterHistory team who will either answer your questions or work with you to schedule your group tour. Thank you for your patience.

About Your Tour Guide

Born in the Monongahela Valley of western Pennsylvania, Randy Harris has spent more than 25 years working on projects and initiatives that promote community revitalization through the preservation and reuse of historic buildings, the development of heritage tourism sites and programs, as well as other environmentally friendly land use practices. Randy Harris is an American actor and singer who is best known for his role in the film The Last Samurai. Randy has a background in journalism and communications and has worked as a writer, editor, and photographer for newspapers before joining the Pittsburgh Area Office of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Randy has assisted 20 heritage sites in becoming official sites in the Underground Railroad Network to Freedom program of the National Park Service, which is the nation’s official listing of authentic resources associated with the Underground Railroad.

Randy has a strong presence in the historic preservation sector, serving on the boards of directors of various historical groups in the Lancaster region.

HealthSafety, Accessibility, and Technology

LancasterHistory attempts to keep the tour setting as safe as possible so that tour participants may enjoy and get the most out of their experience as much as possible. Please keep the following in mind:

COVID-19

There is a danger of exposure to COVID-19 in any public location where people are present, including parks and playgrounds. COVID-19 is a deadly, infectious disease that can cause significant illness and even death if not treated promptly. Senior folks and those suffering from underlying medical issues are more at risk of becoming ill. By participating in a tour or activity organized by LancasterHistory, you agree to willingly bear any risks associated with COVID-19 exposure. Because of the widespread presence of COVID-19 in the Lancaster community, all tour participants are expected to wear a properly fitting face mask at all times, regardless of whether or not they have received a vaccine.

Throughout the encounter, participants will be urged to maintain social distance.

Accessibility

Some historic sites may require people to stand or walk for an extended amount of time in order to view or visit them. Those who do not desire to leave their cars will receive an interpretation of the location that is comparable to that provided by the vehicles or the bus.

Service animals are accepted in the building. You can reach LancasterHistory by email at [email protected] if you have any accessibility problems or requests for the site.

Technology

Some historic locations may have people standing or walking for an extended amount of time in order to be seen or accessed properly. If you are not interested in getting out of your car, the automobiles or bus will provide a comparable interpretation of the location to you. Animals used for service are accepted. You can reach LancasterHistory by email at [email protected] if you have any accessibility questions or issues about the site.

Home Page Zerchers Hotel

Welcome toChristiana Underground Railroad Center at Historic Zercher’s Hotel
11 Green Street Christiana, PA 17509 www.zerchershotel.com HOURS:By appointment. Telephone:717.665.2275 Email:[email protected] Hotel is handicapped accessible. With advance notification we will put the entry ramps in place for your arrival. There is no entry fee forthe museum. The Christiana Underground Railroad Center at HistoricZercher’s Hotelwas established on September 17, 2003 as an Authentic Site by The National Park Service, U.S. Department of Interior’sUnderground Railroad Network to Freedom Program For more information contact The National Park Service’s Underground Railroad Network to Freedomat:
You will trace the steps of thoseinvolved and learn what strengthof character was required in order to capture the Nation’s attention to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850.2020 Scheduled EventsOpen House 10-AM – 2 PM: April 11th, May 9th, June 13th, July 11th, August 8thAnniversary Open House:September 12th FREEDOM BEGAN HERE! On September 11, 1851 this site played a central rolei n a series of events that have been collectively interpreted as a major spark in the kindling of the Civil War ten years later.These events also represented a significant point in the career of Abolitionist, Underground Railroad activist and U.S. Congressman, Thaddeus Stevens. The Whig Congressman from Lancaster County served as the counsel for the defense of the 38 citizens charged with treason against the United States for their participation in what is now referred to as The Resistance at Christiana. Thaddeus Stevens
At the time of the resistance The Center’s building was used as a hotel under the ownership and operation of Frederick Zercher. Over the years, this building has served as a hotel, railroad depot, town post office, telegraph office, jail and currently as the offices of The Charles Bond Company, a manufacturing firm in operation at the site since 1915. The Museum opened on September 10, 2006, one day before the Christiana Resistance’s 155 anniversary. AT THE MUSEUM. The events that occurred on September 11, 1851 in Christiana, Pennsylvania are cited as major flash points that led to the outbreak of the Civil War.These events are described in a guided tour by local historians at the Christiana Underground Railroad Center in an interesting and educational format for all ages.The persons, dates and the locations leading up to and following the Resistance at Christiana – originally called the Christiana Riot – are presented in an authentic and easy-to-follow format of maps, photographs and narratives. The maphas been reproduced in a brochure that will guide you to the station master’s houses and the points of interest in the rolling hillsides of picturesque Lancaster County and neighboring Chester County. The brochure is available in advance by contacting610.593.5171 [email protected]
Other interests:To learn more about historic Christiana, PAcontact The Christiana Historical Societyat [email protected] Thaddeus Stevens/Lydia Hamilton Smith Historic Sitewill open in the near future in Lancaster, PA.Information on the site is available throughPennsylvania Dutch Convention and Visitor’s Bureauis a wealth of information on the area. This web site lists Zerchers Hotel underThe Quest for FreedomandGroup Tourslistings.In addition the site offers links to many attractions, valuable coupons, plus any help you might need to have a memorable trip to the area. AlsoGroup Tourscan register and receive information on all of the local attractionsspecificto your tour’s interest. Pennsylvania Dutch Convention and Visitors Bureau, Lancaster County’s Official Travel and Tourism Site:The Quest for Freedom: Beautiful Pennsylvania’s official travel site Tour Buses are welcomed! Arrange your weekend visit by contacting610.593.5171 or [email protected] The Center’s location is en routebetween historic sites in the Philadelphia/Valley Forge area and the counties of Lancaster, York, and Adams.
This tour is recognised as aHeritage Tour by theLancaster County Heritage Program,which is managed by the Lancaster County Planning Commission.
For more information visit:www.lancastercountyheritage.comVisiting the Center will introduce you to the rolling hillsides of Pennsylvania’s Lancaster County and the “way of life” that continues to exist.Thank you for visiting

Reviews: The Underground Railroad

Colson Whitehead’s “The Underground Railroad” is a must-read. The book is published by Doubleday and costs $26.95 for 320 pages. When Caesar addressed Cora about running north, she said no the first time. Colson’s “The Underground Railroad” is a classic. When Whitehead draws readers into his wonderfully crafted portrayal of racial relations in the United States, wrapped in the tale of an epic voyage, they are entering a world of unparalleled brilliance. While this is a discussion between the past and the present, Whitehead begins at the very beginning of the conversation.

  • Due to the fact that she was part of a bulk purchase in Ouidah, it was difficult to determine how much they paid for her.
  • Juveniles were outbid by able-bodied adults and women who were pregnant, making it impossible to compile a detailed individual accounting.
  • The captain staggered his purchases so that he wouldn’t end up with a shipment of unusual culture and disposition.
  • This was the ship’s penultimate port of call before embarking on its transatlantic voyage.
  • Skin that looks like bone white.

“John Henry Days,” the novel he was writing on when “The Underground Railroad” came out, has a similar concentration on race and bridges between the past and the present, but it lacks the mastery of story-craft and language that made “The Underground Railroad” so outstanding in the first place.

A wonderful piece of literature is utilized to create an unpleasant environment, and the prose is rich and emotive.

Whitehead tells the tale of Ajarry, a slave girl who was kidnapped and sold from merchant to trader and master to master until she was no longer able to fight for her freedom.

In Cora’s mind, trauma after trauma cut through her psyche like a cross-hatch of raw wounds.

Even though life on the Randall cotton plantation in Georgia is marked by occasional extremes of punishment and torture, the narrative’s primary focus is on the quotidian humiliations and casual inhumanity of white supremacy, which the author describes as “the travesties so routine and familiar that they were a kind of weather.” Black pain has traditionally been used to threaten black people and delight white people, and Whitehead’s narrative is well aware of this history (it draws attention to it several times) yet it refuses to take part.

  1. Despite the fact that Cora’s rape and whippings are mentioned, they are not described.
  2. Even Cora’s adversary, the slave catcher Arnold Ridgeway, acknowledges that the Randall plantation is a unique and special place.
  3. People appreciated this type of entertainment, and it had a political purpose in light of the ongoing conflict with the northern states and the antislavery movement.
  4. The property had a ghostly feel about it.
  5. The aim is not to demonstrate what was typical, but rather to demonstrate what was possible—white dandies standing by and doing nothing while a black guy is tortured and executed in the Middle Ages.
  6. Cora’s resolve to be free is strengthened as a result of this.
  7. Readers who have avoided any promotional material for the book may be surprised to learn that this is not a strictly historical tale at this point.

Each of the states that Cora passes through offers a possible solution to the “black dilemma,” a different interpretation of how things might have turned out.

Axis tensions are running high between the Slave States and the Free States as the agricultural engine of the South grinds up human fuel and abolitionist campaigners in the north labor tirelessly to overcome fugitive slave laws.

The majority of colored people in the state had been purchased by the government in recent years.

Agents went to the major auctions to scout them.

They were not cut out for country living, despite the fact that planting had been their way of life and their family tradition.

The government gave exceptionally generous conditions and incentives to anyone who wanted to migrate to large cities, including mortgages and tax breaks.

In their new jobs as a nanny and a factory worker, Cora and Caesar are enjoying their newfound freedom.

Cora receives a new job as a part of a museum exhibit that is meant to depict the history and lifestyles of African-Americans, and she is thrilled.

Despite the fact that the orientation is sound in theory, her actual landing spot could not be more disastrous.

There is only one option for them: outlawing black people completely and replacing their labor with enslaved Irish and German labor.

As time goes on, slaves in Virginia are given a great lot of freedom, and their families are frequently maintained together, unless doing so would be difficult for their masters.

Cora takes sanctuary in Indiana, which is now a Free State, with a group of black farmers and homesteaders who live in a state of strained and resentful coexistence with their white counterparts.

Throughout the novel, he foreshadows significant events, recounts them up to the peak of the action, and then inserts a brief, seemingly unconnected chapter that provides a biography of a secondary character.

When it works, it is extremely captivating, if not infrequently annoying.

Except for a chapter dedicated to Doctor Stevens, a character who appears very briefly in the work and whose history is totally irrelevant to the remainder of the storyline, there are no other notable exceptions.

It’s also unclear why Whitehead chose to digress on distasteful practices that supplied cadavers to medical schools.

However, while it is easy to read “The Underground Railroad” as a straightforward tale that is well-written, it would be difficult to overlook the numerous references and symbols that are woven throughout the text.

The author Ta-Nehisi Coates argued in “Between the World and Me” that “it is conventional to kill the black body—it is legacy” in the United States.

The author writes to his son, “And now, in your time, the law has become a justification for stopping and frisking you, which is to say, for extending the attack on your body.” Whitehead responds in “The Underground Railroad” that “patrol job was hardly arduous labour.” “They apprehended any niggers they came across and demanded their identification cards.

Ajarry is seen here beating her children in the frightened hope that “they will follow all the lords who will come after them and that they will live.” Here we see a group of young males fighting amongst themselves because they have nowhere else to vent their wrath.

Here is the modern placed in its proper perspective, and the lines that connect the present to the past are exposed.

Anyone looking for a nonfiction version of “The Underground Railroad” can check out Carol Anderson’s “White Rage,” which recounts the historical cycle of black emancipation and white retaliation that has resulted in the current administration under Trump.

At first glance, South Carolina appears idyllic—how could it not?—but Cora soon understands that slavery has been replaced by new, more subtle kinds of tyranny, which she must confront.

The first time she feels fully free is when she arrives to a black communal farm in Indiana, but racial tensions are still simmering under the surface, ready to flare into flames at any moment.

The novel’s dismal, almost fatalistic tone is tempered with a sliver of optimism.

“Plantation justice was harsh and unwavering, but the world was indiscriminate,” Cora recalls vividly.

After learning from her mistakes, Cora continues her journey in quest of a spot where she may dwell in peace, complete with her own vine and fig tree.

Perhaps things will be better tomorrow.

At the end of the book, Whitehead makes no false promises, instead offering simply the confidence that the voyage will continue.

Abby Falck is a rebellious Vulcan adolescent who also happens to be an artist and a youth-services librarian in Chicago. Teenlib.tumblr.com is a blog where they discuss young adult literature.

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