Following the opening of the Ohio Erie Canal, Cleveland became a major player in the Underground Railroad. The city was codenamed “Hope,” and it was an important destination for escaped slaves on their way to Canada. Today, some of the city’s most notable stops on the Underground Railroad still stand.
Where was the Underground Railroad in Ohio?
The main entry point to Ohio was along the Ohio River and most notably was a small community called Ripley where John Rankin and a small group assisted 1000s of escaping slaves and started them on their journey on the Underground Railroad.
How was Ohio an important part of the Underground Railroad?
Ohio played a major role in leading escaped slaves from lives of captivity to their dreams of freedom. Canal systems, such as the Miami and Erie Canal completed in 1845, as well as motorized rail systems and freight trains gave slaves and their conductors options for escape.
What cities played a major role in the Underground Railroad?
The cities of Buffalo, Rochester and their surrounding areas helped to play a leading role in the Underground Railroad movement.
Where was the Underground Railroad in northwest Ohio?
This Underground Railroad work was done in the heart of the Great Black Swamp of northern Ohio where travel was difficult and dangerous.
Where did slaves cross the Ohio River?
The Ross-Gowdy House in New Richmond is one of several Underground Railroad sites in Clermont County. For many enslaved people the Ohio River was more than a body of water. Crossing it was a huge step on the path to freedom.
How many Underground Railroad stops in Ohio?
According to research done by the Friends of Freedom Society, there are well over 20 documented Underground Railroad sites in Columbus, but since many of those are private homes, the addresses have not been made public.
Was Ohio always a free state?
It is true that Ohio was a free state, a state that prohibited slavery. Not until 1841 did Ohio enact a law so that any slave brought into the state automatically became free. Before then, Southern slave owners regularly visited Ohio and especially Cincinnati accompanied by slaves.
Was there any slavery in Ohio?
Although slavery was illegal in Ohio, a number of people still opposed the ending of slavery. Many of these people also were opposed to the Underground Railroad. Some people attacked conductors on the Underground Railroad or returned fugitives from slavery to their owners in hopes of collecting rewards.
How Ohio was an important part of the anti slavery movement in the United States?
Not all Ohioans were abolitionists. However, local antislavery newspapers made Ohio an important center of the anti- slavery movement. The Ohio Anti- Slavery Society hired people to give speeches across the state to convince Ohioans to join the abolitionist movement.
What states was the Underground Railroad in?
These were called “stations,” “safe houses,” and “depots.” The people operating them were called “stationmasters.” There were many well-used routes stretching west through Ohio to Indiana and Iowa. Others headed north through Pennsylvania and into New England or through Detroit on their way to Canada.
Where did the Underground Railroad have safe houses?
In the years leading up to the Civil War, the black abolitionist William Still offered shelter to hundreds of freedom seekers as they journeyed northward.
Where is the Underground Railroad Fallout 4?
The Old North Church is the last spot on Fallout 4’s Freedom Trail, with the Railroad residing within. You’ll have to clear the place of some Feral Ghouls, then head to the basement, which can be found to the back right upon entering the church.
Were there slaves in Toledo Ohio?
Sandusky, Grand Rapids, and Oberlin, Ohio, were other important locations. Within the city of Toledo there was a slave master who held a slave in the old Indiana House on Summit Street. Irish abolitionist James Conlisk and Toledo’s 14th mayor, Mavor Brigham, cut the slave’s chains and drove him to Blissfield.
Did the Underground Railroad go through Akron Ohio?
The Underground Railroad passed through Akron where slaves were assisted in their flights to Canada.
What was the nickname given to the Ohio route on the Underground Railroad?
Northeast Ohio was home to two ‘stations’ along the Underground Railroad, and ‘Station Hope ‘ was, for many escaped slaves, the last stop before reaching freedom. The conductors guided the slaves. The routes offered less than ideal conditions. Many of them led north, led to Ohio.
Underground Railroad – Ohio History Central
According to Ohio History Central This snapshot depicts the “Freedom Stairway,” which consists of one hundred stairs going from the Ohio River to the John Rankin House in Ripley, which served as a station on the Underground Railroad during the Civil War. Presbyterian clergyman and educator John Rankin (1793-1886) spent most of his time working for the abolitionist anti-slavery struggle. The home features various secret rooms, some of which were used to hide freedom fighters. An illuminated sign was erected in front of the home to signal that it was safe for anyone seeking freedom to approach it.
An underground railroad system of safe homes and hiding places that assisted freedom seekers on their journeys to freedom in Canada, Mexico, and other countries outside of the United States was known as the Underground Railroad (UR).
Although it is unknown when the Underground Railroad had its start, members of the Society of Friends, often known as the Quakers, were actively supporting freedom seekers as early as the 1780s, according to historical records.
As early as the late 1700s, slavery was outlawed in the vast majority of Northern states.
- African Americans were forced to flee the United States in order to genuinely achieve their freedom.
- Despite the fact that slavery was outlawed in Ohio, some individuals were still opposed to the abolition of the institution.
- Many of these individuals were adamantly opposed to the Underground Railroad.
- Other people attempted to return freedom seekers to their rightful owners in the hope of receiving rewards for their efforts.
- Over three thousand slaves were rescued from their masters and granted freedom in Canada thanks to the efforts of Levi Coffin, a Cincinnati resident who lived in the late 1840s and early 1850s.
- His house was perched atop a three hundred-foot-high hill with a panoramic view of the Ohio River.
- He provided the freedom seekers with shelter and kept them hidden until it was safe for them to travel further north in their quest for freedom.
These men, as well as a large number of others, put their lives in danger to aid African Americans in their flight to freedom.
They typically chose to live in neighborhoods where there were other African Americans.
A total of eight cities along the Lake Erie shoreline served as embarkation points for the freedom seekers’ journey to Canada, including Ashtabula, Painesville, Cleveland, Sandusky, Toledo, Huron, Lorain, Conneaut, and Conneaut.
It is still unclear exactly how the Underground Railroad came to be known by that name.
In 1831, a freedom seeker named Tice Davids fled from his slave holder in Kentucky, where he had been held since birth.
Davids had arrived at the shore just a few minutes before him. Following the landing of his boat, the holder was unable to locate Davids and concluded that he “must have gone off on an underground road.”
- According to the Ohio History Central website. Photo of the “Freedom Stairway,” which consists of one hundred stairs that go from the Ohio River to the John Rankin House in Ripley, which served as a stop on the Underground Railroad. John Rankin (1793-1886) was a Presbyterian preacher and educator who spent a significant portion of his life to the antislavery cause. The mansion features multiple secret rooms, some of which were used to hide freedom fighters during the American Revolution. An illuminated sign was set in front of the home to signal that it was safe for anyone seeking freedom to enter the building. As a museum, the John Rankin House is a component of the Ohio History Connection’s state-wide network of historic sites, which includes the John Rankin House. Known as the Underground Railroad, it was a network of safe homes and hiding places that assisted freedom seekers on their journeys to freedom in areas such as Canada, Mexico, and other countries other than the United States. Freedom seekers were guided from place to place by white and African-American “conductors,” who were both white and black. Despite the fact that it is unknown when the Underground Railroad had its start, members of the Society of Friends, popularly known as the Quakers, were actively aiding slaves as early as the 1780s. By the 1810s, a small number of citizens in Ohio were assisting freedom fighters. As early as the late 1700s, slavery was outlawed in the vast majority of northern states. But even if freedom seekers relocated to a free state, the United States Constitution as well as the Freedom Seeker Law of 1793 and the Freedom Seeker Law of 1850 allowed slave owners to recover their property from them. Afro-Americans had to leave the United States in order to genuinely achieve their independence. Some Underground Railroad stations developed as a consequence, and these could be found across Ohio and other free states, providing freedom seekers with safe havens while on their trip to Canada. Some people in Ohio resisted the abolition of slavery despite the fact that slavery was illegal in the state. People in this community thought former slaves would relocate to the state, steal employment away from the white population, and demand similar rights as whites. There were a lot of people that were against the Underground Railroad. Conductors came under attack from a number of passengers. Other people attempted to restore freedom seekers to their rightful owners in the aim of receiving rewards for their actions. Ohio was home to a number of renowned abolitionists who played an important part in the Underground Railroad network. Over three thousand slaves were rescued from their captors and granted freedom in Canada because to the efforts of Levi Coffin, a Cincinnati citizen who lived in the late 1840s. Abolitionists dubbed Coffin the “president of the Underground Railroad” as a result of his efforts on their behalf. African Americans seeking freedom were accommodated at the home of John Rankin, a Presbyterian preacher serving in Ripley as a conductor. A three-hundred-foot-high hill overlooking the Ohio River served as the setting for his mansion. He used a lamp to indicate freedom seekers in Kentucky when it was safe to cross the Ohio River, and he would tell them when it was not. He offered sanctuary for the freedom searchers and kept them hidden until it was safe for them to proceed farther north. When John Parker, Rankin’s next-door neighbor, took a boat across the Ohio River, he transported hundreds of slave fugitives. In order to aid African Americans in their journey to freedom, these men and a large number of others endangered their lives. A number of the freedom seekers chose to remain in Ohio when they arrived there. In most cases, they chose to live in communities with other African Americans. Many of the freedom seekers carried on to Canada after their initial stop in the country. A total of eight communities along the Lake Erie shoreline served as embarkation locations for the freedom seekers’ journey to Canada, including Ashtabula, Painesville, Cleveland, Sandusky, Toledo, Huron, Lorain, and Conneaut. Wilbur Siebert, a historian, estimated that Ohio had around three thousand miles of Underground Railroad pathways. Uncertainty persists as to how the Underground Railroad came to be known by its current name. A story involving Ohio is one such example of this. When Tice Davids fled from his slave owners in Kentucky in 1831, he became known as the “Freedom Seeker.” A boat chased after Davids as he swam across the Ohio River. His holder was close behind him. Just a few minutes before him, Davids arrived at the shoreline. When Davids failed to appear after landing his boat, the holder concluded that he “must have used a subterranean path.”
The Underground Railroad in Ohio
Nancy Dravenstott, Austin Kaufman, and Tami Sprang collaborated on this project.
Using primary and secondary sources to answer questions about Ohio history, History/Historical ThinkingSkills2: History/Heritage7: Following the War of 1812, the United States was divided along sectarian lines. Ohio had a significant role in these problems, notably in the anti-slavery campaign and the Underground Railroad, which both originated in the state.
Primary Sources Used:
Ohio History/Historical ThinkingSkills2: Respond to questions about Ohio history using primary and secondary sources. Seventh, history/heritage: After the War of 1812, the United States was divided along sectarian lines. With the anti-slavery campaign and the Underground Railroad, Ohio played a crucial role in these concerns, notably in the 19th century.
Powerpoint: Underground Railroad (available at the Ohio State University’s Harvey Goldberg Center for Excellence in Teaching’s Slideshare.net website)
It is believed that Ohio acted as the northern “tunnel line” of the Underground Railroad, a system of hidden pathways used by free persons in the NorthSouth to assist slaves in their escape to freedom during the American Civil War. Escape routes were established throughout Ohio, with safe homes serving as hiding places for slaves throughout the daytime. Homes that were formerly utilized by fleeing slaves on their way north via the Underground Railroad may still be found in several communities in Ohio today.
Instructional Steps to Implement the Lesson:
Beginning with the Underground Railroad power point presentation, students will study photographs of common hiding spots located in a safe house and react to questions that have been prepared for them. (preassessment) Guided Lesson: Students will continue to study the power point presentation about the Underground Railroad. Stops on the Underground Railroad will be marked on each student’s Ohio map, and they will be easy to find. Closing: Think-Pair-Share Strategy: Discuss the significance of the Underground Railroad in Ohio with a partner first, then with the full class.
Post-Assessment and Scoring Guideline:
Student responses will be written responses to the following question: “Explain the role Ohio played as a component of the Underground Railroad.” The teacher’s expectations are used to determine the final grade.
Materials Needed by Teacher:
The monument shown above, which was erected by Cameron Armstrong on the campus of OberlinCollege and represents the beginnings of the Underground Railroad in Ohio, may be seen above. A critical crossroads on the Underground Railroad, Oberlin connected five separate paths that fleeing slaves may have traveled in order to escape. During the Civil War, no fugitive who lived in Oberlin was ever returned to bondage, and the town has been dubbed “The Town that Started the Civil War.” When Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance in 1787, one of the stipulations prohibited slavery in any future state admitted to the Union that was located north of the Ohio River.
- Later, Congress amended the legislation to include a provision making it a federal criminal to help or hide fugitive slaves, which might result in harsh penalties or even imprisonment if the act was committed.
- Even in a free state like Ohio, living was made incredibly difficult as a result of this.
- This would be especially true in the lower half of the state, where inhabitants were more likely to have been previous residents of Virginia or Kentucky, or to have descended from ancestors who had lived in these states at some point in their lives.
- While speaking at local gatherings, anti-slavery activists may frequently transform them into a confrontational confrontation.
- In reality, most of the people on the network were only familiar with a few of the other users, which helped to keep everyone’s identities safe.
- Ohio, with around 3000 miles of pathways used by fleeing runaways, had the most active network of any other state, despite the fact that there were Underground Railroad networks throughout the country, including the Southern states.
- First and foremost, Ohio shared a border with two slave states: Virginia and Kentucky.
- Among all the states participating in these subterranean networks, Ohio was the one that was closest to Canada, with a distance of just roughly 250 miles or less between any point along the Ohio River and Lake Erie, where freedom might be found.
While the Pennsylvania Quakers were largely responsible for the inception of the abolitionist movement, the Ohio Quakers appeared to have been more directly involved in transporting escaping slaves on their way north and toward freedom, particularly those fleeing slaves from the Virginia plantations.
Prior to it, there was a scarcity of knowledge regarding railways in general.
There was no railroad, and there was no underground railroad with the Underground Railroad, of course.
The term railroad was utilized because the persons participating in the activities used phrases that were frequently associated with railways to describe different parts of their operations, leading to the name railroad being used.
- Slaves were referred to as “cargo” or “passengers.” Stations were used to refer to hiding locations or safe homes. Conductors were the guides who escorted the runaway slaves to freedom. Those who assisted slaves in their escape but did not guide them were referred to as agents. People who contributed financial resources to these endeavors were referred to as shareholders.
The use of the same terminology associated with railroads to describe the activities associated with the Underground Railroad became more widespread as physical railroads became more common. This allowed those actively involved in the Underground Railroad to communicate openly without fear of being turned over to the authorities by someone overhearing their conversation. At the time, these code phrases were not known outside of the network, which is understandable given their importance. The title “liberation train” or “the gospel train” was used in certain parts of the country, and in others it was referred to as “the freedom train.” By the 1850s, the name “Underground Railroad” had become the most often used in the state of Ohio.
A fugitive slave could not be assisted under state or federal law, and this was a criminal offense.
It was the plantation owner’s responsibility to apply further punishment to captured slaves when they were returned to the plantation and fields from where they had escaped.
Ohio Anti-Slavery Society
An organization known as the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society was founded by a group of people who shared a strong opposition to slavery. The Ohio Anti-Slavery Society was created in Zanesville, Ohio, in 1835, and was modeled after the framework of the American Anti-Slavery Society, which was founded in 1833 in New York City. When the society was founded, its members committed to work for the abolition of slavery and the adoption of legislation to safeguard African-Americans when they were released from the bonds of slavery.
People who opposed the abolitionists’ ideals were motivated mostly by fear, which was frequently shown in mob attacks on the abolitionists’ homes and workplaces.
When the conference was held in a barn outside of Granville, a mob erupted and attacked the abolitionists who had gathered in the barn.
In addition to bigotry, and because they were unable to accept that racism, they argued that runaway slaves from the southern states would take their employment here in Ohio.
Freedom Center in Cincinnati
When a group of people who were united in their opposition to slavery came together, they created the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society. The Ohio Anti-Slavery Society was created in Zanesville, Ohio, in 1835, and was modeled after the framework of the American Anti-Slavery Society, which was established in 1833. The members of the group promised to work for the abolition of slavery as well as the adoption of legislation to safeguard African-Americans when they were released from the bonds of the slave trade.
People who opposed the abolitionists’ ideals were motivated mostly by fear, which was frequently manifested in mob attacks on the abolitionists’ homes and offices.
When the conference was held in a barn outside of Granville, a mob erupted and attacked the abolitionists who had gathered in the building.
It was a mixture of prejudice and, because they were unable to accept that bigotry, they believed that escaped slaves from the southern states would steal their positions in Ohio instead.
Ohio was divided on the question of slavery, and only a few localities could provide complete protection. Oberlin was one of the locations where fugitive slaves may feel safe while trying to flee. Oberlin, which is located in north central Ohio, became one of the primary staging areas for fugitive slaves fleeing to Canada. More villages in the south, including Columbus and Zanesville to the east,Mechanicsburg and Urbana to the west, came together to help, as did a number of other cities. For runaway slaves, there were even more little settlements in southern Ohio, which provided them with sanctuary in an incredibly perilous region.
The major entry point into Ohio was along the Ohio River, with the most notable location being a little town known as Ripley.
In search of a safe refuge where they could live with their families without the fear of being shackled in captivity, escaping slaves came across the United States of America. The only certain location was Canada (and, to a lesser extent, Mexico), although getting to these locations was far from straightforward. As soon as an escaped slave arrived on the borders of Canada, they discovered that living there was incredibly harsh, with little job and strict segregation. After escaping slaves made it to Canada, they would frequently return to Ohio, where they might join tiny enclaves of freed slaves that had already been established in remote places, where they could try to stay as inconspicuous as they possibly could.
ABOVE: The narrative of a slave was recounted at the New Boston Fair.
African-Americans helped make the Underground Railroad work
The fact that escaping slaves made the Underground Railroad feasible was the most significant component of the Underground Railroad’s history. If it hadn’t been for their daring, tenacity, and innovation, the railroad would have been nothing more than a footnote in the history of our nation’s development. It was necessary for the majority of runaway slaves not only to get away from their owner’s estate, but also from all of the areas between them and the Ohio River, as well as from all of the other entrance points between the slave and free states.
- Aside from avoiding their previous masters, they also had to dodge the slave-catchers who prowled the countryside in pursuit of fugitives.
- The runaway slaves had a tough voyage since they had to hide in the woods during the day and travel only at night.
- As soon as they passed over the Ohio River, they had to make contact with someone they had never met before, and they had to hope that they would be able to give them with refuge and assistance on their long voyage ahead of them.
- That occurred at a period when the Ohio River frequently froze over, making it possible for the runaways to cross the river without the need of a boat.
- The ice was frequently more like giant pieces of floating ice, which needed cautious footwork to make it safely across the river at night, just by looking at the river itself and not taking into consideration the extremely low temperatures.
Slaves who had already completed the trek to freedom would frequently return to assist others, putting their own safety and freedom at tremendous risk.
Paying the Price:
A fugitive slave from a Kentucky farm owned by John Bacon who was 17 years old at the time of his capture on September 13, 1858, by two slave hunters and two federal marshals in Oberlin, Ohio, was residing in Oberlin at the time of his arrest. Realizing that attempting to apprehend the young black man in the town of Oberlin would be difficult due to the well-known anti-slavery attitudes held by the town’s residents, they devised a plan to lure John Price away from the protection of Oberlin. On the pretext of digging potatoes for money, they persuaded Shakespeare Boynton, the son of a prominent Oberlin landowner, to accompany John Price to a farm west of Oberlin where he would be paid for his efforts.
- The ruse was successful.
- Anti-slavery activists in Oberlin were angry as soon as they saw what had happened and rallied together to try to save the slaves.
- By late afternoon, more than 200 people from Oberlin and Wellington had gathered outside the Wadsworth Hotel, where Price was being kept captive.
- There was a window with a little balcony that overlooked the town square in that room.
- The sheriff wanted to make sure that all of the paperwork was in order.
- Then, from the outside, someone set up a ladder near the room’s window, and a group of Oberlin locals climbed in via the window while another group entered through the door.
- Price went on the Underground Railroad to Canada a few days later, but was never seen or heard from again after that.
In lieu of posting bond, they were sent to the Cuyahoga County Jail for almost one month, where they remain today.
The Oberlin-Wellington Rescue Case had a significant impact on the public’s opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act, which was one of the reasons that contributed to the American Civil War.
Smith, Richard Winsor, Simeon Bushnell, David Watson, William E.
Scott, Ansel W.
Peck, and James M.
Smith. Ralph Plumb, James Bartlett, John Watson, and Henry Evans are seated at the table. A technicality in their indictments caused two of the men, Jacob B. Shipherd and Orindatus S.B. Wall, to be released sooner than the others. As a result, they are not featured.
Additional information aboutthe Underground Railroad
On September 13, 1858, two slave hunters and two federal marshals apprehended John Price, a 17-year-old fugitive slave from a Kentucky farm owned by John Bacon, who was residing in Oberlin at the time of his capture. Realizing that attempting to apprehend the young black man in the town of Oberlin would be difficult due to the well-known anti-slavery attitudes held by the town’s residents, they devised a plan to lure John Price out of the protection of the town. On the pretext of digging potatoes for money, they persuaded Shakespeare Boynton, the son of a rich Oberlin landowner, to accompany John Price out to a property located west of Oberlin.
- Everything went smoothly with the con game.
- Anti-slavery activists in Oberlin were angry as soon as they saw what had happened and rallied together to try to save the slaves.
- By late afternoon, more than 200 people from Oberlin and Wellington had gathered outside the Wadsworth Hotel, where Price was being kept captive.
- With a window and a tiny balcony facing the town square, it room provided spectacular views.
- This was done by the sheriff to make sure that all of the paperwork was in proper order.
- From the outside, someone erected a ladder next to the room’s window, and a group of Oberlin locals climbed in through the window, while another group entered through the front door.
- He was then placed into a wagon and transported back to the Oberlin house of Professor James Fairchild.
Thirty-seven of the 200 people who had converged on Wellington and assisted in the rescue of Price were charged in Federal Court for their roles in the incident, and another twenty-one of them were detained by police.
Upon being charged with abduction, the slave catchers and marshals reached an agreement to dismiss the charges.
The following items are depicted in the photo above: (standing from left to right) Sheriff David Wightman, jailer John B.
Lincoln, Charles Langston, Wilson Bruce Evans, John H.
Lyman, Henry E.
Fitch are among those who have served as deputies under Sheriff David Wightman and jailer John B.
Smith. Ralph Plumb, James Bartlett, John Watson, and Henry Evans are seated in the front row of the audience. A technicality in their indictments caused two of the men, Jacob B. Shipherd and Orindatus S.B. Wall, to be released sooner than the others. As a result, they are not shown in the photo.
Underground Railroad Sites: Wayne County
Wayne County, in Eastern Indiana, is named after Revolutionary War General “Mad” Anthony Wayne. It is located near the Ohio border and was established in 1819. In 1810, the county was established, and Salisbury was chosen as the county seat since Richmond was seen to be too far away from the county center. Wayne County was a thriving farming community, and its commercial success expanded significantly with the completion of the Whitewater Canal project, which connected Lawrenceburg to the National Road in the north by 1845, and the establishment of the National Road in the south.
Levi Coffin was a conductor for the Underground Railroad, and it is believed that he assisted nearly 3,000 slaves in their escape to freedom in the north.
Perry-Castaeda Map Collection – UT Library Online is a digital collection of maps created by UT librarians.
Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by author Levi Coffin. Catharine Coffin is a woman who lives in the United Kingdom. Levi Coffin, arguably the most well-known of the UGRR’s conductors, dedicated his life to assisting fugitives on their journey to freedom. In the 1820s, he and his wife Catharine relocated to Wayne County, Pennsylvania. The brick residence, which is in the Federal style, was constructed in 1839. A National Historic Landmark, the home is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and it is part of the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom.
When the Coffins first arrived in Wayne County, there was already an active Underground Railroad enterprise in action at the time.
During their 20-year residence in Newport, the Coffins were responsible for assisting more than 2,000 slaves to find safety.
The Escape of Peter
Samuel Todd of Kentucky filed a lawsuit against William Bulla and Andrew Hoover, both of whom lived in Wayne County, Indiana, seeking $500.00 in damages for property loss. Todd accused the guys of assisting his slave Peter in his escape from the plantation. In August of 1821, Peter departed Kentucky and made his way to Indiana. While Peter had departed in 1821, it is unclear how long he had been residing in Wayne County at the time of his departure. The name George Stellow had been altered by the time he was apprehended just north of Richmond, where he was discovered.
- Millekin then went to the Justice of the Peace and asked him to authorise Peter’s deportation back to Kentucky, which the justice granted.
- Peter was no longer there after the breakout.
- The only certainty is that Todd was victorious in both instances, despite the fact that no witness testimony or evidence has survived.
- Peter, the protagonist of this narrative, is a character who is somewhat unknown.
- While the majority of Peter’s tale will remain unknown, we do get a small glimpse into his life as a result of the trial.
With confused feelings about slavery and the right of African Americans to dwell in Indiana, Peter found himself in a situation where he might receive both assistance and treachery from the people around him.
See how abolitionists in the United States, like as Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass, and Thomas Garrett, assisted enslaved people in their attempts to escape to freedom. Learn about the abolitionist movement in the United States, as well as the importance of the Underground Railroad in this historical period. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. is a publishing company that publishes encyclopedias. View all of the videos related to this topic. When escaped slaves from the South were secretly assisted by sympathetic Northerners, in defiance of the Fugitive Slave Acts, to reach safe havens in the North or Canada, this was referred to as the Underground Railroad in the United States.
Even though it was neither underground nor a railroad, it was given this name because its actions had to be carried out in secret, either via the use of darkness or disguise, and because railroad words were employed in relation to the system’s operation.
In all directions, the network of channels stretched over 14 northern states and into “the promised land” of Canada, where fugitive-slave hunters were unable to track them down or capture them.
Harriet Beecher Stowe, best known for her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, obtained firsthand experience of escaped slaves via her association with the Underground Railroad in Cincinnati, Ohio, where she lived for a time during the Civil War.
The existence of the Underground Railroad, despite the fact that it was only a small minority of Northerners who took part in it, did much to arouse Northern sympathy for the plight of slaves during the antebellum period, while also convincing many Southerners that the North as a whole would never peacefully allow the institution of slavery to remain unchallenged.
When was the first time a sitting president of the United States appeared on television?
Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.
The Underground Railroad
At the time of slavery, the Underground Railroad was a network of routes, locations, and individuals that assisted enslaved persons in the American South in their attempts to flee to freedom in the northern states.
Subjects History of the United States, Social StudiesImage
Home of Levi Coffin
Levi Coffin’s residence in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he lived as an American Quaker and abolitionist. This was a station on the Underground Railroad, a network of routes, locations, and individuals that assisted enslaved persons in escaping to the North during the Civil War. Cincinnati Museum Center provided the photography. “> During the age of slavery, the Underground Railroad was a network of routes, locations, and individuals that assisted enslaved persons in the American South in escaping to the North, according to the Underground Railroad Museum.
Although it was not a real railroad, it fulfilled the same function as one: it carried passengers across large distances.
The people who worked for the Underground Railroad were driven by a passion for justice and a desire to see slavery abolished—a drive that was so strong that they risked their lives and jeopardized their own freedom in order to assist enslaved people in escaping from bondage and staying safe while traveling the Underground Railroad.
- As the network expanded, the railroad metaphor became more prevalent.
- In recent years, academic research has revealed that the vast majority of persons who engaged in the Underground Railroad did it on their own, rather than as part of a larger organization.
- According to historical tales of the railroad, conductors frequently pretended to be enslaved persons in order to smuggle runaways out of plantation prisons and train stations.
- Often, the conductors and passengers traveled 16–19 kilometers (10–20 miles) between each safehouse stop, which was a long distance in this day and age.
- Patrols on the lookout for enslaved persons were usually on their tails, chasing them down.
- Historians who study the railroad, on the other hand, find it difficult to distinguish between fact and fiction.
- Eric Foner is one of the historians that belongs to this group.
- Despite this, the Underground Railroad was at the center of the abolitionist struggle during the nineteenth century.
- Levi Coffin’s residence in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he lived as an American Quaker and abolitionist.
- Cincinnati Museum Center provided the photography.
- Person who is owned by another person or group of people is referred to as an enslaved person.
Slavery is a noun that refers to the act of owning another human being or being owned by another human being (also known as servitude). Abolitionists utilized this nounsystem between 1800 and 1865 to aid enslaved African Americans in their attempts to flee to free states.
With the exception of promotional graphics, which normally link to another page that carries the media credit, all audio, artwork, photos, and videos are attributed beneath the media asset they are associated with. In the case of media, the Rights Holder is the individual or group that gets credited.
Tyson Brown is a member of the National Geographic Society.
The National Geographic Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the exploration of the world’s natural wonders.
The National Geographic Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to preserving and promoting the world’s natural and cultural resources.
According to National Geographic Society’s Sarah Appleton, Margot Willis is a National Geographic Society photographer.
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Enslaved African-Americans used the Underground Railroad to escape into free states and Canada, assisted by abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. The Underground Railroad was established in the United States during the early-to-mid nineteenth century, and it was used by them to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. Citizens in Clermont County, Ohio, were significant benefactors to the Underground Railroad campaign throughout the nineteenth century.
The Freedom Trail Guide is published by the Clermont County Convention and Visitors Bureau.
The Underground Railroad in Clermont County
The Underground Railroad has a strong presence in the southern side of Clermont County, which is home to several historical monuments. Several of these areas are described in detail by Greg Roberts in this video. Mr. Roberts serves as the Ohio River National Freedom Corridor’s Director for the State of Ohio, as well as the Director of the Ohio River National Freedom Corridor. He also serves as a trustee for the Clermont County Historical Society and the Historic New Richmond Foundation.
From our collection
These two pieces from our collection can provide you with further information regarding the Underground Railroad in Clermont County. Freedom’s Struggle is a novel written by Gary L. Knepp.
Freedom’s Struggle: A Response to Slavery from the Ohio Borderlands
Clermont County’s role in the Underground Railroad was described as a “hole in the map” by a newspaper reporter. In other words, the narrative was well unknown at the time. Gary Knepp’s book, Freedom’s Struggle: A Response to Slavery from the Ohio Borderlands, fills in the gaps left by slavery in the Midwest. It piques the interest of readers who desire to explore the Clermont County Freedom Trail.
Gary Knepp was the project director for the Clermont County Underground Railroad Research Project, which was established in 1989. In 2005, he participated as a guest historian on the PBS television program History Detectives, in which he shared his expertise. By Candlelight in the Evening (DVD)
Candlelight by Night
Clermont County, Ohio, was one of the most important stops on the Underground Railroad, and it was home to a number of notable figures. This movement was also associated with the Abolitionists. With nineteen places on the Network to Freedom, the county holds the record for having the most locations on the network. Approximately one-third of the slaves who fled on the Underground Railroad passed through Clermont County, according to historical records. Among the cast members of Candle by Night are actors Richard Cooper and Richard Crawford, as well as Gary Knepp and Carl Westmooreland.
Get out and explore
It is impossible to visit Clermont County and the surrounding area without coming across a location having a historical connection to the Underground Railroad. When you visit them, you will have a fantastic opportunity to learn more about the local history. Here are a few resources to help you started on your journey.
Clermont County, Ohio Freedom Trail
In total, 33 locations are on theClermont County Ohio Freedom Trail, 19 of which have been certified by the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom (NURN). The Clermont Freedom Trail is now home to the biggest Network to Freedom program in the US, which is located in Clermont, Florida. This self-guided trip takes you through Clermont’s gorgeous rolling hills and along the Ohio River to see the sights. The Clermont County Convention and Visitors Bureau put up the exhibit. Nancy Stearns Theiss takes us on a tour of the Underground Railroad as it travels down the Ohio River.
A Tour on the Underground Railroad Along the Ohio River
The Ohio River, which runs 664 miles along Kentucky’s southern border, gave a great opportunity for enslaved people to flee to free territory in Indiana and Ohio during the American Civil War. A ship pulled up beside the Mississippi River in Madison, Indiana, beckoning runaway slave Henry Bibb upon a journey to Cincinnati, where he found the Underground Railroad. A lantern signal high on a hill near the Rankin House in Ripley, Ohio, visible from a distance of more than 100 miles away in Cincinnati prompted others to run for their lives in search of freedom.
The work was hailed as a source of inspiration for human resistance.
National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom
Use this interactiveNational Underground Railroad Network to Freedommap to find and explore more Underground Railroad locations around the country, in addition to those featured on the local Freedom Trail. This map is part of the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedommap project.
Read about the Underground Railroad
Use this interactive National Underground Railroad Network to Freedommap to find and explore more Underground Railroad locations around the country, in addition to those featured on the local Freedom Trail.
This map is part of the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedommap project.
The Little-Known History of the Underground Railroad in New York
Cyrus Gates House, located in Broome County, New York, was formerly a major station on the Underground Railroad’s route through the country. Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons There was a time when New York City wasn’t the liberal Yankee bastion that it is now. When it came to abolitionists and abolitionist politics in the decades preceding up to the Civil War, the city was everything but an epicenter of abolitionism. Banking and shipping interests in the city were tightly related to the cotton and sugar businesses, both of which relied on slave labor to produce their products.
However, even at that time, the Underground Railroad, a network of hidden safe houses and escape routes used by fugitive slaves seeking freedom in the North, passed through the city and into the surrounding countryside.
In New York, however, the full extent of the Underground Railroad’s reach has remained largely unknown, owing to the city’s anti-abolitionist passion.
“This was a community that was strongly pro-Southern, and the Underground Railroad was working in much greater secrecy here than in many other parts of the North, so it was much more difficult to track down the Underground Railroad.”
Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad
runaway slaves and antislavery campaigners who disobeyed the law to aid them in their quest for freedom are the subjects of this gripping documentary. Eric Foner, more than any other researcher, has had a significant impact on our knowledge of American history. The Pulitzer Prize–winning historian has reconfigured the national tale of American slavery and liberation once more, this time with the help of astounding material that has come to light through his research. Foner’s latest book, Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad, describes how New York was a vital way station on the Underground Railroad’s journey from the Upper South to Pennsylvania and on to upstate New York, the New England states and Canada.
- Their narrative represents a phase in the history of resistance to slavery that has gotten only sporadic attention from historians up to this point.
- The existence of the Record of Fugitives, which was collected by abolitionist newspaperman Sydney Howard Gay in New York City, was unknown to researchers until a student informed Foner of its existence.
- A runaway long forgotten, James Jones of Alexandria, according to Gay’s account, “had not been treated cruelly but was bored of being a slave,” according to the records.
- Foner reports that many fugitives ran away because they were being physically abused as much as they did out of a yearning for freedom, using terms such as “huge violence,” “badly treated,” “rough times,” and “hard master” to describe their experiences.
- During the late 1840s, he had risen to the position of the city’s foremost lawyer in runaway slave cases, frequently donating his services without charge, “at tremendous peril to his social and professional status,” according to Gay.
- Agent,” a title that would become synonymous with the Underground Railroad.
- He was an illiterate African-American.
- A number of letters and writs of habeas corpus bearing his name appear later on, as well as some of the most important court cases emerging from the disputed Fugitive Slave Law of 1850.
- “He was the important person on the streets of New York, bringing in fugitives, combing the docks, looking for individuals at the train station,” Foner said.
that he had ever been the liberator of 3,000 individuals from bondage.” The author, who used theRecordas a jumping off point to delve deeper into New York’s fugitive slave network, also traces the origins of the New York Vigilance Committee, a small group of white abolitionists and free blacks who formed in 1835 and would go on to form the core of the city’s underground network until the eve of the Civil War.
The New York Vigilance Committee was a small group of white abolitionists and For the duration of its existence, Foner writes, “it drove runaway slaves to the forefront of abolitionist awareness in New York and earned sympathy from many people beyond the movement’s ranks.” It brought the intertwined concerns of kidnapping and fugitive slaves into the wider public consciousness.” The publication of Gateway to Freedom takes the total number of volumes authored by Foner on antebellum, Civil War, and Reconstruction America to two dozen.
His previous book, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery, was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize and was published in 2012.
What was the inspiration for this book?
Everything started with one document, the Record of Fugitives, which was accidentally pointed up to me by a Columbia University student who was writing a senior thesis on Sydney Howard Gay and his journalistic career and happened to mention it to me.
She was in the manuscript library at Columbia when she mentioned it.
It was essentially unknown due to the fact that it had not been catalogued in any manner.
What was the atmosphere like in New York at the time?
As a result of their tight relationships with cotton plantation owners, this city’s merchants effectively controlled the cotton trade in the region.
The shipbuilding industry, insurance firms, and banks all had a role in the financialization of slavery.
They came to conduct business, but they also came to enjoy themselves.
The free black community and the very tiny band of abolitionists did exist, but it was a challenging setting in which to do their important job.
Routes were available in Ohio and Kentucky.
It was part of a larger network that provided assistance to a large number of fugitives.
It is incorrect to think of the Underground Railroad as a fixed collection of paths.
It wasn’t as if there were a succession of stations and people could just go from one to the next.
It was even more unorganized – or at least less organized – than before.
And after they moved farther north, to Albany and Syracuse, they were in the heart of anti-slavery area, and the terrain became much more amenable to their way of life.
People advertised in the newspaper about assisting escaped slaves, which was a radically different milieu from that of New York City at the time.
The phrase “Underground Railroad” should be interpreted relatively literally, at least toward the conclusion of the book.
Frederick Douglas had just recently boarded a train in Baltimore and traveled to New York.
Ship captains demanded money from slaves in exchange for hiding them and transporting them to the North.
The book also looks at the broader influence that escaped slaves had on national politics in the nineteenth century.
The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 was a particularly severe piece of legislation that drew a great deal of controversy in the northern states.
So that’s something else I wanted to emphasize: not only the story of these individuals, but also the way in which their acts had a significant impact on national politics and the outbreak of the Civil War. Activism History of African Americans Videos about American History that are recommended