Brown failed at several business ventures before declaring bankruptcy in 1842. Still, he was able to support the abolitionist cause by becoming a conductor on the Underground Railroad and by establishing the League of Gileadites, an organization established to help runaway slaves escape to Canada.
What did John Brown have to do with the Underground Railroad?
- Abolitionist John Brown In The Underground Railroad. Often seeking the company of blacks, he even lived in a freedman’s community in North Elba, New York, for two years. He became a conductor in the Underground Railroad and organized a self-protection league for freemen of color and fugitive slaves.
Why is John Brown important?
John Brown was a leading figure in the abolitionist movement in the pre-Civil War United States. Unlike many anti-slavery activists, he was not a pacifist and believed in aggressive action against slaveholders and any government officials who enabled them.
What did John Brown do to help end slavery?
In December, Brown moved beyond talk and plans. He led a daring raid from Kansas across the border into Missouri, where he killed one slave owner and freed 11 slaves. In the spring of 1859, Brown traveled east to complete his plan for a large slave revolt.
What impact did John Brown have on the Civil War?
“Because Brown helped to disrupt the party system, Lincoln was carried to victory, which in turn led 11 states to secede from the Union. This in turn led to the Civil War.”
What was John Brown’s plan?
John Brown’s plan seemed fairly straightforward: he and his men would establish a base in the Blue Ridge Mountains from which they would assist runaway slaves and launch attacks on slaveholders. At least that was the plan that the militant abolitionist had described to potential funders in 1857.
Did John Brown help start the Civil War?
The Harpers Ferry ‘Rising’ That Hastened Civil War On the evening Oct. 16, 1859, abolitionist John Brown led a raid he hoped would ignite a nationwide uprising against slavery. Tony Horwitz tells the story of how Brown’s defeat helped spark the Civil War, in Midnight Rising.
What were the results of John Brown’s raid?
The Aftermath Sixteen people were killed in the raid, including ten of Brown’s men. John Brown, Aaron Stevens, Edwin Coppoc, Shields Green, and John Copeland were taken to jail in Charles Town, Virginia, on October 19. Albert Hazlett and John Cook were subsequently captured and jailed with the others.
What was one effect of John Brown’s actions at Harpers Ferry?
Although the raid failed, it inflamed sectional tensions and raised the stakes for the 1860 presidential election. Brown’s raid helped make any further accommodation between North and South nearly impossible and thus became an important impetus of the Civil War.
How did John Brown get captured?
However, this sanctuary from the fire storm did not last long, when in the late afternoon US Marines under Colonel Robert E. Lee arrived and stormed the engine house, killing many of the raiders and capturing Brown. Brown was sentenced to death for his crimes and hanged on December 2, 1859.
Aboard the Underground Railroad- John Brown Farm and Gravesite
|The John Brown Farm HouseJohn Brown StatueNHL-NPS Photos|
|John Brown was a man of action – a man who would not be deterred from his mission of abolishing slavery. On October 16, 1859, he led 21 men on a raid of the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. His plan to arm slaves with the weapons he and his men seized from the arsenal was thwarted, however, by local farmers, militiamen, and Marines led by Robert E. Lee. Within 36 hours of the attack, most of Brown’s men had been killed or captured. John Brown was born into a deeply religious family in Torrington, Connecticut, in 1800. Led by a father who was vehemently opposed to slavery, the family moved to northern Ohio when John was five, to a district that would become known for its antislavery views.During his first fifty years, Brown moved about the country, settling in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New York, and taking along his ever-growing family. (He would father twenty children.)Working at various times as a farmer, wool merchant, tanner, and land speculator, he never was finacially successful – he even filed for bankruptcy when in his forties. His lack of funds, however, did not keep him from supporting causes he believed in. He helped finance the publication of David Walker’s Appeal and Henry Highland’s “Call to Rebellion” speech. He gave land to fugitive slaves. He and his wife agreed to raise a black youth as one of their own. He also participated in the Underground Railroad and, in 1851, helped establish the League of Gileadites, an organization that worked to protect escaped slaves from slave catchers.In 1847 Frederick Douglass met Brown for the first time in Springfield, Massachusetts. Of the meeting Douglass stated that, “though a white gentleman,is in sympathy a black man, and as deeply interested in our cause, as though his own soul had been pierced with the iron of slavery.” It was at this meeting that Brown first outlined his plan to Douglass to lead a war to free slaves.Brown moved to the black community of North Elba, New York, in 1849. The community had been established thanks to the philanthropy of Gerrit Smith, who donated tracts of at least 50 acres to black families willing to clear and farm the land. Brown, knowing that many of the families were finding life in this isolated area difficult, offered to establish his own farm there as well, in order to lead the blacks by his example and to act as a “kind father to them.”Despite his contributions to the antislavery cause, Brown did not emerge as a figure of major significance until 1855 after he followed five of his sons to the Kansas territory. There, he became the leader of antislavery guerillas and fought a proslavery attack against the antislavery town of Lawrence. The following year, in retribution for another attack, Brown went to a proslavery town and brutally killed five of its settlers. Brown and his sons would continue to fight in the territory and in Missouri for the rest of the year.Brown returned to the east and began to think more seriously about his plan for a war in Virginia against slavery. He sought money to fund an “army” he would lead. On October 16, 1859, he set his plan to action when he and 21 other men – 5 blacks and 16 whites – raided the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry.Brown was wounded and quickly captured, and moved to Charlestown, Virginia, where he was tried and convicted of treason,Before hearing his sentence, Brown was allowed make an address to the court. I believe to have interfered as I have done,. in behalf of His despised poor, was not wrong, but right. Now, if it be deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children, and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I submit: so let it be done.”Although initially shocked by Brown’s exploits, many Northerners began to speak favorably of the militant abolitionist. “He did not recognize unjust human laws, but resisted them as he was bid.,” said Henry David Thoreau in an address to the citizens of Concord, Massachusetts. “No man in America has ever stood up so persistently and effectively for the dignity of human nature.”John Brown was hanged on December 2, 1859.|
John Brown and the Underground Railroad
On October 16, 1859, John Brown and his small band of abolitionists took control of the government armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, and declared a state of emergency. This was his strategy: equip his gang of raiders and enlist as many slaves and sympathizers as he possibly could in order to bring slavery to an end forcibly in the United States. When gunshots attracted surrounding authorities, he was unsuccessful, and the majority of his company was either dead or caught. Reports reaching Iowa from Harpers Ferry in November 1859 stated that the excitement in the area was thought to be building on a daily basis at the time.
- Whether or not this was the case, the raid was widely seen as a contributing factor to the outbreak of the Civil War.
- The Traveler’s Rest, a Quaker-run inn on the outskirts of West Branch, was the destination for Brown on an October morning in 1856.
- Brown was already becoming well-known as the man who led the border conflicts between Kansas and Missouri in favour of the abolition of slavery, which he led from Kansas to Missouri.
- From the beginning, Townsend showed him great hospitality.
- Brown had only been in the country for a few days when he returned in December 1857.
- Brown had also received a new “prairie schooner” wagon from the club, which he had customized for use in his passenger service.
- As recounted in “The Annals of Iowa,” Pedee was characterized as “the Quaker colony of Cedar County, with its center in the tranquil little hamlet of Springdale” as well as other places.
Escaped slaves were transported by wagon from the slave area in Missouri to Pedee, where they were conveyed by train to Chicago in the middle of the night.
Despite the fact that Iowa was a free state, the federal fugitive slave statute was still in effect.
Brown personally accompanied several of the fugitives through the grasslands and into the safety of the railroad trains.
Brown left his soldiers in place for the winter and traveled to the east coast in order to raise some further financial support.
Also in the basement, they engraved their names into the stone foundations and plotted their attack on the armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
Upon arrival at West Liberty, the new wagon was filled with the firearms that Brown’s men would use at Harpers Ferry.
Six Iowans were among the mercenaries that accompanied Brown on his Harpers Ferry raid: Steward Taylor, Jeremiah Anderson, John Brown, and others.
Taylor and Anderson were slain at the arsenal, although Gill and Moffat were not involved in the attack.
He worked his way back to his home in Springdale in stealth, but the state of Virginia had placed a big bounty on his head, preventing him from returning.
Camp landed at Iowa City with requisition documents after traveling from Richmond, only to discover that the state capital had recently been relocated to Des Moines.
All he needed was the signature of Governor Samuel Kirkwood on the paperwork.
Kirkwood, a native of Iowa City, had been one of two men in the city who had served as contacts for slaves traveling on the Underground Railroad during the Civil War.
In his response to Camp, Kirkwood stated that he would thoroughly review all of the documents and asked that the agent return in a few hours.
When the governor identified a legal difference, he realized he had a glimpse of hope.
Camp was enraged and expressed himself to the governor in a loud way, drawing the attention of other anti-slave authorities who were around to the agent’s goal in meeting with the governor.
However, when Camp returned to Iowa City, the requisition papers were nowhere to be found.
It was in ruins by 1950 when the Maxson home, where the Harpers Ferry raid was planned, was demolished.
Observers continued to deconstruct the structure, removing bits of walnut trim from the walls to save as mementos.
l For comments, please contact Diane Langton at (319) 398-8338 or [email protected]
William Maxson’s full name is William Maxson.
The State Historical Society of Iowa’s Iowa City Collections are housed at the State Historical Society of Iowa.
The State Historical Society of Iowa’s Iowa City Collections are housed at the State Historical Society of Iowa.
During abolitionist John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, in 1859, Barclay Coppock, of Springdale, Iowa, was among those who took part in the raid.
Abolitionist John Brown was born on this day in 1776.
John Brown and his army slept at William Maxson’s house in Springdale, Arkansas, during the winter of 1857-58, when they were fighting for abolition.
Harpers Ferry, Virginia, served as a training ground for the raid. Despite the fact that six guys from Iowa took part in the attack, only one of them survived. The basement of Maxson’s house served as a station on the Underground Railroad.
Frequently Asked Questions
Why is John Brown significant?
(born May 9, 1800, in Torrington, Connecticut; died December 2, 1859, in Charles Town, Virginia), militant American abolitionist who, in 1859, launched a raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now in West Virginia), earning him the title “Martyr of the Antislavery Cause” and playing a role in escalating sectarian tensions, which ultimately resulted in the American Civil War (1861–65).
When Brown was not bouncing about from Ohio to Pennsylvania to Massachusetts to New York to support his big family in one of the many industries he attempted, such as tanning, sheep driving, wool merchanting, farming, and property speculation, he was unable to make a living at any one of them.
- Brown, a long-time opponent of slavery, got preoccupied with the concept of taking overt action to aid in the victory of justice for oppressed Black people.
- Brown arrived at Osawatomie with a wagonload of rifles and ammunition, and he quickly rose to the position of head of the anti-slavery guerrillas in the region.
- John Brown, an oil on canvas painting by John Steuart Curry, completed in 1939.
- The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, acquired the painting in 1950 from the Arthur Hoppock Hearn Fund (accession no.
- In retaliation for the invasion on Pottawatomie Creek, he organized a nocturnal revenge raid on a proslavery hamlet in which five men were dragged out of their huts and hacked to death.
- John Brown is a fictional character created by author John Brown.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NACRA) is a federal agency that preserves and makes available historical records (Photo Number: 531116) Brown called a conference of Black and white supporters in Chatham, Ontario, Canada, in the spring of 1858, during which he declared his desire to construct a stronghold for runaway slaves in the mountains of Maryland and Virginia.
- During this time, he garnered the moral and financial backing of Gerrit Smith and numerous notable Boston abolitionists, and he was appointed as commander in chief of this fake government.
- Stearns, and clergymen Thomas Wentworth Higginson and Theodore Parker, among others.
- Brown established his headquarters at a leased farmhouse in Maryland, across the Potomac River from Harpers Ferry, the site of a government armoury, in the summer of 1859 with an armed gang of 16 white and 5 Black abolitionists, including John Brown.
- When Brown took this risky step, he was hoping that escaped slaves would join him in his revolt and establish a “army of liberation” with which to liberate their fellow slaves from slavery.
- Robert E.
- Brown was injured, and ten of his supporters (including two sons) were slain, including Brown himself.
- Despite the fact that Brown was unsuccessful in his attempt to incite a broad slave uprising, the high moral tone of his argument contributed to his immortalization and the hastening of the conflict that would bring about freedom.
- A song known as “John Brown’s Body” was sung by Union soldiers as they marched into combat during the American Civil War.
- It is on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, where it was a gift from Mr.
and Mrs. Carl Stoeckel in 1897 (accession number. 97.5). He was browndied so that slaves would be free, but his soul continues to march on. Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Adam Augustyn was the author of the most recent revision and update to this article.
Underground Railroad was a network of people, both black and white, who helped escaped enslaved persons from the southern United States by providing them with refuge and assistance. It came forth as a result of the convergence of numerous separate covert initiatives. Although the exact dates of its inception are unknown, it was active from the late 18th century until the Civil War, after which its attempts to weaken the Confederacy were carried out in a less-secretive manner until the Civil War ended.
The Society of Friends (Quakers) is often regarded as the first organized group to actively assist escaped enslaved persons. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with Quakers for attempting to “liberate” one of his enslaved servants. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved persons who were on the run from slavery. Abolitionist organisations founded by Quakers in North Carolina lay the basis for escape routes and safe havens for fugitive slaves during the same time period.
What Was the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad was first mentioned in 1831, when an enslaved man named Tice Davids managed to escape from Kentucky into Ohio and his master blamed a “underground railroad” for assisting Davids in his liberation. When a fugitive slave called Jim was apprehended in 1839 in Washington, the press said that the guy confessed his plan to travel north along a “underground railroad to Boston” while under torture. The Vigilance Committees, which were established in New York in 1835 and Philadelphia in 1838 to safeguard escaped enslaved persons from bounty hunters, rapidly expanded their duties to include guiding enslaved individuals on the run.
MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman and her fellow fugitives used the following strategies to escape through the Underground Railroad:
How the Underground Railroad Worked
The majority of enslaved persons aided by the Underground Railroad were able to flee to neighboring states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made catching fugitive enslaved persons a lucrative industry in the deep South, and there were fewer hiding places for them as a result of the Act. The majority of fugitive enslaved people were on their own until they reached specific places farther north. The escaping enslaved people were escorted by individuals known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were also used as hiding places throughout the war.
The personnel in charge of running them were referred to as “stationmasters.” There were several well-traveled roads that ran west through Ohio and into Indiana and Iowa.
While some traveled north via Pennsylvania and into New England, or through Detroit on their route to Canada, others chose to travel south. The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.
Fugitive Slave Acts
The Fugitive Slave Acts were a major cause for many fugitive slaves to flee to Canada. This legislation, which was passed in 1793, authorized local governments to catch and extradite fugitive enslaved individuals from inside the borders of free states back to their places of origin, as well as to penalize anybody who assisted the fleeing enslaved people. Personal Liberty Laws were introduced in certain northern states to fight this, but they were overturned by the Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was intended to reinforce the preceding legislation, which was perceived by southern states to be insufficiently enforced at the time of passage.
The northern states were still considered a danger zone for fugitives who had managed to flee.
Some Underground Railroad operators chose to station themselves in Canada and sought to assist fugitives who were arriving to settle in the country.
Harriet Tubman was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad during its heyday. When she and two of her brothers fled from a farm in Maryland in 1849, she was given the name Harriet (her married name was Tubman). She was born Araminta Ross, and she was raised as Harriet Tubman. They returned a couple of weeks later, but Tubman fled on her own again shortly after, this time making her way to the state of Pennsylvania. In following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and other individuals.
Tubman was distraught until she had a vision of God, which led her to join the Underground Railroad and begin escorting other fugitive slaves to the Maryland state capital.
In his house in Rochester, New York, former enslaved person and celebrated author Frederick Douglasshid fugitives who were assisting 400 escapees in their journey to freedom in Canada. Reverend Jermain Loguen, a former fugitive who lived in the adjacent city of Syracuse, assisted 1,500 escapees on their journey north. The Vigilance Committee was established in Philadelphia in 1838 by Robert Purvis, an escaped enslaved person who later became a trader. Josiah Henson, a former enslaved person and railroad operator, founded the Dawn Institute in Ontario in 1842 to assist fugitive slaves who made their way to Canada in learning the necessary skills to find work.
Agent,” according to the document.
John Parker was a free Black man living in Ohio who worked as a foundry owner and who used his rowboat to ferry fugitives over the Ohio River.
William Still was a notable Philadelphia citizen who was born in New Jersey to runaway slaves parents who fled to Philadelphia as children.
Who Ran the Underground Railroad?
The vast majority of Underground Railroad operators were regular individuals, including farmers and business owners, as well as preachers and religious leaders. Some affluent individuals were active, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who stood for president on two separate occasions. Smith acquired a full family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841 and freed them from their captivity. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, is credited with being one of the first recorded individuals to assist escaped enslaved persons.
Coffin stated that he had discovered their hiding spots and had sought them out in order to assist them in moving forward.
Coffin eventually relocated to Indiana and then Ohio, where he continued to assist fugitive enslaved individuals no matter where he was.
Abolitionist John Brown worked as a conductor on the Underground Railroad, and it was at this time that he founded the League of Gileadites, which was dedicated to assisting fleeing enslaved individuals in their journey to Canada. Abolitionist John Brown would go on to play a variety of roles during his life. His most well-known duty was conducting an assault on Harper’s Ferry in order to raise an armed army that would march into the deep south and free enslaved people at gunpoint. Ultimately, Brown’s forces were beaten, and he was executed for treason in 1859.
- The year 1844, he formed a partnership with Vermont schoolteacher Delia Webster, and the two were jailed for assisting an escaped enslaved lady and her young daughter.
- Charles Torrey was sentenced to six years in jail in Maryland for assisting an enslaved family in their attempt to flee through Virginia.
- After being apprehended in 1844 while transporting a boatload of freed slaves from the Caribbean to the United States, Massachusetts sea captain Jonathan Walker was sentenced to prison for life.
- John Fairfield of Virginia turned down the opportunity to assist in the rescue of enslaved individuals who had been left behind by their families as they made their way north.
- He managed to elude capture twice.
End of the Line
Operation of the Underground Railroad came to an end in 1863, during the American Civil War. In actuality, its work was shifted aboveground as part of the Union’s overall campaign against the Confederate States of America. Once again, Harriet Tubman made a crucial contribution by organizing intelligence operations and serving as a commanding officer in Union Army efforts to rescue the liberated enslaved people who had been freed.
MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman led a daring Civil War raid after the Underground Railroad was shut down.
Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad is a book about the Underground Railroad. Fergus Bordewich is a Scottish actor. A Biography of Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom Catherine Clinton is the first lady of the United States. Who Exactly Was in Charge of the Underground Railroad? ‘Henry Louis Gates’ is a pseudonym for Henry Louis Gates. The Underground Railroad’s History in New York is a little known fact. The Smithsonian Institution’s magazine. The Underground Railroad’s Dangerous Allure is well documented.
John Brown was a fierce abolitionist who rose to prominence in the 19th century with his attack on Harpers Ferry in 1859.
Who Was John Brown?
John Brown was born into a Calvinist family and would go on to create a big extended family of his own as a result of this. Even though he struggled with financial difficulties throughout his life, he was an outspoken abolitionist who collaborated with organizations such as the Underground Railroad and the League of Gileadites, among other organizations. He believed in the use of violent measures to bring about the abolition of slavery and, in an attempt to spark a slave uprising, he finally led a failed attack on the Harpers Ferry federal arsenal.
Ruth Mills and Owen Brown were the parents of John Brown, who was born on May 9, 1800, in Torrington, Connecticut. Owen, a Calvinist who worked as a tanner, was adamant about his belief that slavery was evil. Brown observed the beating of an enslaved African American kid while traveling through Michigan as a 12-year-old lad, an experience that tormented him for years and served as inspiration for his own abolitionism. Despite the fact that the younger Brown first trained to become a minister, he ultimately chose to follow in his father’s footsteps.
Brown and Dianthe were married in 1820 and had several children before her death.
Ruta Mills and Owen Brown welcomed their son, John Brown, into this world on May 9, 1800, in Torrington, Connecticut. A Calvinist who worked as a tanner, Owen was adamant in his belief that slavery was immoral. Brown observed the beating of an enslaved African American kid while traveling through Michigan as a 12-year-old boy, an experience that troubled him for years and influenced his own abolitionism later in life. After originally pursuing a career in the church, the younger Brown opted to follow in his father’s footsteps and became a blacksmith instead.
The couple had numerous children until Dianthe Lusk’s death in the early 1830s. Brown and Dianthe were married in 1820 and had several children together. Upon his second marriage, which took place in 1833, he and his second wife, Mary Ann Day, would go on to produce several children.
Harpers Ferry Attack
Ruth Mills and Owen Brown welcomed John Brown into the world on May 9, 1800, in Torrington, Connecticut. Owen, a Calvinist who worked as a tanner, was adamant in his belief that slavery was evil. Brown observed the beating of an enslaved African American kid while traveling through Michigan as a 12-year-old lad, an experience that tormented him for years and influenced his own abolitionism. After originally pursuing a career in the clergy, the younger Brown opted to follow in his father’s footsteps and became a carpenter.
Brown and Dianthe were married in 1820 and had several children.
John Brown – Ohio History Central
According to Ohio History Central Photographic copy of a photograph of abolitionist John Brown, who led a raid on the government armory at Harper’s Ferry, West Virginia, with the intent of igniting a slave insurrection, ca. 1855-1859, in the collection of the American Historical Society. John Brown was born on May 9, 1800, in the Connecticut town of Torrington. He grew up in the state of Ohio for the most of his life. The War of 1812 brought him into contact with General William Hull, and after the war he worked as an assistant at his father’s tannery after the war’s conclusion.
- Brown’s marriage took place in 1820, and his family followed him to Pennsylvania, where he established his own tannery in 1825.
- He urged his son to accept the Bible as the word of God and claimed that God was opposed to slave trade.
- Brown was a conductor on the Underground Railroad during the American Civil War.
- There was a lot of worry among African Americans living in the North that their former slave masters would travel to the North and claim them as fugitive property.
- It might also safeguard African Americans from attacks by individuals who want to force them from their homes.
- He felt that God sanctioned the use of violence to put an end to slavery in the United States.
- They hoped to contribute to the establishment of Kansas as a free state.
Brown was the leader of the expedition.
This heinous deed was only one of several that contributed to the territory’s being dubbed “Bleeding Kansas.” Brown was quickly renowned for his passionate resistance to slavery, and he came to be feared and disliked by a large number of people.
On October 16, Brown led a party of twenty-one men on a raid into the Virginia town of Harper’s Ferry (modern-day West Virginia).
He wanted to use the firearms and ammo to distribute to slaves in the surrounding area after that.
Despite the fact that Brown and his men were successful in taking the armory, local citizens encircled the buildings and trapped the abolitionists within.
treason by the state of Virginia, according to the state’s charges.
Brown was found guilty and condemned to death by the legal system.
For many Northerners, he was seen as a martyr.
Many Southerners began to believe that all abolitionists held the same sentiments as Brown and were prepared to use violence to achieve their goals.
It was also one of the events that contributed to the eventual breakup of the United States and the subsequent civil war.
Slavery was outlawed in Ohio by the mid-1850s, and the Republican Party ran on a platform of restricting the institution.
Many non-Republicans were under the impression that Republicans were seeking the abolition of slavery in its entirety. Ohio Democrats exploited Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry to paint the Republicans as fanatics, a charge that the Republicans denied.
- Fire from the Midst of You: A Religious Life of John Brown is a book written by Louis A. DeCaro, Jr. Ohio’s War: The Civil War in Documents (New York: New York University Press, 2002)
- Dee, Christine, ed., “Ohio’s War: The Civil War in Documents.” Hes Soul Goes Marching On: Responses to John Brown and the Harper’s Ferry Raid, edited by Paul Finkelman (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2007)
- Finkelman, Paul, ed. University Press of Virginia, 1995
- Oates, Stephen B., To Purge This Land with Blood: A Biography of John Brown, University Press of Virginia, 1995. John Brown: The Legend Revisited (New York, NY: HarperRow, 1970)
- Peterson, Merrill D. John Brown: The Legend Revisited (New York, NY: HarperRow, 1970). Quarles, Benjamin, ed., Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2002
- University Press of Virginia. Blacks and John Brown were allies in the fight for freedom. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1974
- Roseboom, Eugene H. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1974
- The period from 1850 to 1873 is known as the Civil War Era. The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society published The Secret Six: John Brown and the Abolitionist Movement in 1944. Scott, Otto J. The Secret Six: John Brown and the Abolitionist Movement in 1944. The Times Books, New York, New York, 1979
- Villard, Oswald Garrison. A Biography of John Brown, 1800-1859, published fifty years after his death. A.A. Knopf, New York, New York, 1943
John Brown Desk – Kansapedia
This desk was used by renowned abolitionist John Brown when he was drafting an important political statement on the difficulties in the Kansas Territory. People fought over whether Kansas would become a slave or a free state in 1850s, and the territory became the focus of national attention as a result of the debate. People from all sides of the slavery debate came to this location, willing to put their lives and fortunes on the line. Abolitionists were among them, those who felt slavery was immoral and wanted it eliminated because of this belief.
A Fervent Abolitionist
Wattles, who was born in Connecticut, came to Ohio, where he preached on abolition and founded a school for African American children in the Cincinnati suburb of Cincinnati. He was also involved in the Underground Railroad, a clandestine structure that assisted slaves in their escape to freedom. Wattles and his family moved to Kansas in 1854 as a result of their continued interest in the abolitionist cause. It was in Lawrence that they initially settled, where Augustus worked as an assistant editor of theHerald of Freedomnewspaper, among other things.
After some time, he became acquainted with John Brown, another abolitionist with a strong personality.
Brown launched a foray into Missouri in December 1858, during which he liberated 11 slaves. The raid resulted in the death of one slave owner. Consequently, the Missouri authorities, including the governor, demanded that Brown be imprisoned and that the slaves be brought back. Wattles supplied Brown with temporary shelter in his Moneka residence at this period. Wattles did not agree with Brown’s tactics, despite the fact that they remained friends. Wattles, like many other abolitionists, advocated for the liberation of slaves via peaceful means; Brown, on the other hand, thought that it could only be accomplished through force.
While visiting at the Wattles residence, Brown penned a letter to the Lawrence Republican that became known as “John Brown’s Parallels,” which was published in the newspaper. It is said that one of the Wattles youngsters sat above the desk, looking down at Brown through a break in the floor, while he was working on his novel. Brown stated that the letter was written in Trading Post rather than Moneka, in order to avoid disclosing his whereabouts and to protect his buddy Wattles. A parallel between Brown’s Missouri raid and the Marais des Cygnes Massacre, in which five free-state men were slaughtered, was drawn in the “Parallels.” He resented the fact that he was being hunted by the same authorities who had done little to apprehend the perpetrators of the Marais des Cygnes attack.
- “The Parallels,” Brown’s original handwritten document, is available online.
- On the 16th of October, he and his troops carried out a raid on the United States Arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
- In the Wattles family until it was purchased from Kia Flesher, a great-great-granddaughter of Augustus Wattles, the desk remained on display in the museum.
- John Brown Desk is the point of entry.
- Detailed information about the author: The Kansas Historical Society is an independent state institution tasked with actively preserving and promoting the state’s heritage.
Date of creation: January 4, 2004 Date of last modification: December 2014 Unless otherwise stated, the author of this article is entirely responsible for the content of this article.
Constitutional Rights Foundation
The Assassination of John Brown’s Secret Plan John Brown was the only person who harbored a more intense moral aversion to slavery. He had grown up on the Ohio frontier, the son of a strict father who felt that slavery was a sin against God and that he should be punished accordingly. As he grew older, John became into an activeabolitionist – someone who actively works to abolish slavery – by assisting escaped slaves in their escape. He married and, in 1849, relocated his family to North Elba, New York, where they joined a farming community of ex-slaves and free blacks who were attempting to establish themselves.
- Because of several heated confrontations over slavery, the Kansas territory had earned the nickname “Bleeding Kansas.” Kansas was to become a free state because to the efforts of small homesteaders.
- Brown’s elder sons had already relocated to Kansas, and he accompanied them to assist in the defense of the free-soil homesteaders.
- As part of his response, Brown ordered the execution of five pro-slavery settlers, who were all killed with swords by Brown and his men.
- After that, Brown fought numerous more fights in Kansas, primarily in defense of free-soil villages, and led guerrilla incursions into Missouri.
- When he came to Boston in 1857 and again in 1858, he did it in order to solicit weaponry and money from affluent abolitionists.
- His reputation as a violent abolitionist deterred many potential abolitionists.
- A covert anti-slavery congress was conducted in Canada in May 1858, with Brown as the only participant.
Brown took a step forward in December, moving beyond discussion and planning.
Brown proceeded to the eastern United States in the spring of 1859 to execute his plan for a major slave uprising.
At a conference of the New England Anti-Slavery Society, he expressed his displeasure with the interminable debates that many abolitionists engaged in.
“That will never result in the emancipation of slaves.
It was a long distance away from the huge estates along the Atlantic coast, where the majority of the slaves worked.
On July 3, 1859, Brown and a small group of followers rented an ancient farmhouse at Harper’s Ferry for the duration of the campaign.
Wagonloads of weaponry arrived on the scene.
The raiders were all under the age of thirty, idealistic, and ardent opponents of slavery.
Brown felt that when he obtained control of the arsenal, a large number of slaves would rebel against their masters and join the rebellion.
He did not, however, do anything to disseminate the information among the slaves in the area.
He had made only rudimentary preparations for what would take place the next day.
In the midst of the chaos and darkness, one of the raiders opened fire on the baggage master at the railroad station, killing him.
Several of Brown’s raiders were dispatched into the countryside in an attempt to spread the insurrection.
Because Brown had failed to provide any prior notice, the slaves were just as astonished and perplexed as their owners.
Armed civilians and militia forces retaliated in force.
Brown seemed to be perplexed and unsure of what he needed to do next.
More than 2,000 fans gathered outside the Marine Corps base to see the final assault.
The Marines then made their way to the engine room.
Brown was injured by one of the Marine officers with his saber, and he then used the hilt of the sword to knock him senseless.
Three white civilians and one Marine were also slain in addition to the African-American baggage handler by the intruders.
Brown and four other people were apprehended alive.
Brown regained consciousness only a few hours after being apprehended.
When they questioned him about why he did it, Brown said simply: “We came to free the slaves, and that is all we came to do.” Putting John Brown on TrialTroops took Brown and the rest of his raiders to the county courtroom in Charleston, South Carolina.
Brown and four of his raiders, two of whom were black and two of whom were white, were taken to court under tight escort one week after the attack.
The next day, the grand jury’s indictment was read in court.
Brown was acquitted of all charges.
In the afternoon, John Brown, who was still suffering from his wounds, was wheeled into court on a cot in order to begin the proceedings.
The ultimate jury consisted of 12 men, some of whom were slave owners, who deliberated on the case.
He read a telegram from an Ohio citizen who said that some of Brown’s immediate relatives were suffering from insanity at the time of the murder.
He wished for the trial to serve as a platform for criticizing the institution of slavery.
The trial was ordered to proceed by the court.
In the course of cross-examination, the hostages admitted that Brown had treated them nicely and that he had instructed his troops not to fire unless they were being fired at.
Hoyt to assist in Brown’s defense.
He was well aware that if he escaped, he would lose his forum.
Brown’s anti-slavery constitution, letters from his supporters, and other papers discovered at the farmhouse were all put into evidence by the prosecution.
He requested a postponement since further legal assistance was on its way from the North.
Following that, Samuel Chilton of Washington, D.C., and Henry Griswold of Cleveland, Ohio, joined Brown’s defense the following morning.
All of the other defense witnesses were cross-examined, but Brown did not appear in court.
They claimed that the state had failed to establish the charges against them.
Brown was uninterested in putting up a fight in this situation.
After less than an hour of deliberation, the jury found John Brown guilty of all charges against him and sentenced him to death.
Brown was able to find his voice at the sentencing hearing.
Brown shrugged aside any concerns about treason or other legal complications that could arise.
He was adamant that fighting against slavery was the correct thing to do at the time.
At the age of 59, a haggard but courageous John Brown made his way to the gallows.
On this final walk, he had one more opportunity to express his point of view. A horrific prognosis was made by him: “I John Brown am now very persuaded that the misdeeds of this guilty land will never be wiped away, save by the blood of the innocent.” For the purpose of discussion and writing
- Do you think it was ethical for John Brown to cross the border into Missouri and kill slave owners in order to liberate slaves from slavery? Do you believe John Brown was given a fair trial and received a just sentence? Explain your reasoning. Because, as John Brown remarked, “I am inconceivably more valuable tohangthan I am to any other purpose.” Why or why not? What exactly did he intend by that?
In his quest to free slaves, did John Brown have the right to cross the Missouri border and kill slave owners? Do you believe John Brown was given a fair trial and received a just sentence? Explain your reasoning for your response. Because, as John Brown stated, “I am inconceivably more valuable tohangthan I am to any other purpose.” Why or why not? Exactly what was he referring to;
- Do you think it was ethical for John Brown to cross the border into Missouri and kill slave owners in order to liberate slaves from their chains? Do you believe John Brown was given a fair trial and a just sentence? Explain your reasoning. Because, as John Brown stated, “I am inconceivably more valuable tohangthan I am for any other reason.” What exactly did he intend by it
Questions to ask during the debriefing session:
- Suppose individuals only followed the laws that they agreed with
- What would happen to society? Is it possible to express opposition to a law without infringing it? What if all other avenues have been exhausted before violating the law? Describe the situation: If you truly feel that a law is incorrect, should you breach the law and attempt to get away with it, or should you break the law and face the consequences. Why