What Did John S Rock Do For 5thhe Underground Railroad? (The answer is found)

He also provided care to members of an integrated abolitionist organization called the Boston Vigilance Committee, which aimed to aid and protect fugitive slaves targeted by the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850.

How did John Rock get famous?

  • For Rock, who had already won acclaim as a teacher, dentist, and doctor — all before turning 30 — it was merely the latest in a long list of accomplishments. Born in Salem, New Jersey on October 13, 1825, John Rock evinced remarkable talent and determination from an early age.

What did John S Rock do?

In 1861, he was one of the first African Americans admitted to the Massachusetts Bar; in September of that year, he was appointed a Justice of the Peace for Boston and Suffolk County, Massachusetts. By then the country was at war, and throughout the conflict Rock was a tireless advocate for abolition of slavery.

Why is John Rock important?

Rock. On February 1, 1865, the day after the House of Representatives passed the 13th amendment, John Swett Rock of Boston became the first African American ever admitted to practice before the Supreme Court of the United States. Many toil their entire lives to achieve such an honor.

Where was John Rock born?

At the age of 27, Rock, a teacher, doctor and dentist, moved to Boston, Massachusetts in 1852 to open a medical and dental office. He was commissioned by the Vigilance Committee, an organization of abolitionists, to treat fugitive slaves’ medical needs. During this period Dr.

What was John Rock’s Error?

First printed in The New Yorker, “John Rock’s Error” is the story of the devout Catholic scientist who helped invent the Pill and believed that his faith and his work were compatible.

When was the first African American judge?

Justice Thurgood Marshall: First African American Supreme Court Justice. On June 13, 1967, President Lyndon B. Johnson nominated distinguished civil rights lawyer Thurgood Marshall to be the first African American justice to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States.

John Rock (abolitionist) – Wikipedia

John Stewart Rock
Born John Stewart RockOctober 13, 1825Salem,New Jersey
Died December 3, 1866 (aged 41)Boston,Massachusetts
Nationality American
Other names John Sweatt Rock
Occupation teacher, doctor, dentist, lawyer, and abolitionist

John Stewart Rock (October 13, 1825 – December 3, 1866) was an American educator, doctor, dentist, lawyer, and abolitionist who is most known for coining the phrase “black is beautiful.” He was born in New York City and died in Chicago (thought to have originated from a speech he made in 1858, however historical records now indicate he never actually used the specific phrase on that day). Rock was one of the first African-Americans to receive a medical degree in the United States of America. Aside from that, he holds the distinction of becoming the first black person to be admitted to the bar of the United States Supreme Court.

Early life and education

John Stewart Rock was born on October 13, 1825, in Salem, New Jersey, to free African-American parents John and Maria (Willett) Rock. He was the son of John and Maria (Willett) Rock. At the time of Rock’s formative years, it was exceedingly uncommon for white children to complete elementary school, and even more so for black children. Rock’s parents, on the other hand, pushed their hardworking son to continue his studies and, despite having little financial means, made provisions for him to complete his official education.

  1. As a young teacher, he began his career at a one-room school in Salem, where he remained for nearly four years, gaining the notice and praise of more experienced colleagues.
  2. Shaw and Dr.
  3. Medical students of the period, like as Rock, were frequently placed in apprenticeships with existing physicians as a method of getting practical medical experience.
  4. John Rock subsequently chose to pursue a career in dentistry, and after completing an apprenticeship with Dr.
  5. One year later, he was awarded a silver medal for his outstanding work on a pair of silver dentures that he created and then showed in a public exhibition.
  6. He had already established himself as a gifted and well-respected teacher, dentist, and physician by the time he was 27 years old.
  7. It was in this city that he established his own dental and medical business.
  8. He also offered care to members of theBoston Vigilance Committee, an integrated abolitionist group that intended to help and defend fugitive slaves who were targeted by the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850.

Rock was the second black person to be accepted into the Massachusetts Medical Society, shortly after Dr. John De Grasse was inducted into the organization in 1854.


In addition to being an outspoken abolitionist and civil rights activist, Rock maintained a strong conviction in the dignity and rights of all Americans. The abolitionist John Rock, like other prominent figures in the movement, such as George T. Downing and Robert Purvis, rose to prominence as a public speaker and advocate for equal rights. With other well-known abolitionists like as Henry Highland Garnet, Frederick Douglass, and John Mercer Langston, he was a founding member of the National Equal Rights League (NERL).

  1. In 1855, Rock was a participant in the movement that resulted in the legal desegregation of Boston public schools, which was ultimately successful.
  2. Dred Scott was only one example of the movement’s rejection, as did the notorious Dred Scottdecision.
  3. Scott would not, in fact, be granted his release as a result of this determination.
  4. When Rock delivered a lecture in Faneuil Hall in March 1858, it is widely believed that he coined the expression “black is beautiful.” He was doing so as a response to the Western notion that the physical characteristics of African Americans were unappealing.
  5. of the negro.” Rock’s speeches are available online at the Black Abolitionist Digital Archive.


Rock, who was suffering from health issues, applied for a United States passport in order to travel to Europe for treatment. However, Secretary of StateLewis Cass refused to issue him one, citing the United States Supreme Court’s decision inDred Scott v. Sandfordthat a black man could not be a citizen of the United States. Although the Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts was prohibited by law from issuing passports to anyone other than U.S. citizens, Rock was issued a passport by the Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts that described him as a citizen of the commonwealth, and he traveled to Europe on the strength of this document.

  1. He returned to Boston in February 1859, and in 1860, as a result of his physicians’ demands that he reduce his workload, he gave up his medical and dental practices and enrolled in the University of Massachusetts Law School.
  2. K.
  3. Rock passed the test and was allowed to enter the Massachusetts Bar.
  4. The Anti-Slavery Society in Boston hosted him in 1862, and he used the opportunity to express his opposition to Abraham Lincoln’s proposal for so-called “black colonization” in Haiti, as well as his support for Frederick Douglass on various subjects.
  5. Also regrettably expressed by Rock is the fact that an educated black feels the tyranny far more intensely than an illiterate negro.
  6. After the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery on February 1, 1865, Charles Sumner submitted a motion that made Rock the first black attorney to be admitted to the bar of the United States Supreme Court.

Rock was subsequently appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States in 1866. Rock made history by being the first African-American to be welcomed into the floor of the United States House of Representatives. There was a great deal of excitement the day he arrived.


The Civil Rights Act of 1866, which put the 13th Amendment into effect, was signed into law on April 9, 1866. Rock was only a recipient of this accolade for a little more than a year. A common cold struck him down, further compromising his already precarious health and impairing his ability to commute effectively. He was hospitalized. John S. Rock, 41, died of TB in his mother’s house in Boston on December 3, 1866, when he was just 41 years old. In Everett’s Woodlawn Cemetery, he was put to rest with full Masonic honors, and his ashes were scattered.

See also:  Ch 14 How Did The Underground Railroad Work? (Professionals recommend)


  1. ‘O’Connor, Thomas H.’ is a pen name for Thomas Henry O’Connor (2014). Boston During the Civil War: Both Home Front and Battlefield Page 16
  2. ISBN 9781611685633
  3. Published by the University Press of New England. Snodgrass, Mary Ellen, and others, ed (2015). The Underground Railroad: An Encyclopedia of People, Places, and Operations is a comprehensive reference work on the Underground Railroad. p. 452, ISBN 9781317454168
  4. Jacobs, Donald M., ed., Routledge, p. 452, ISBN 9781317454168
  5. (1993). Courage and Conscience: Abolitionists of African and European descent in Boston Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997, pp.157–158, ISBN 0-253-20793-2
  6. Abcdefghijkl CG Contee is a CG Contee (May 1976). “John Sweat Rock, M.D., Esq., 1825-1866,” the inscription reads. Journal of the National Medical Association.68(3): 237–242, PMC2609666, PMID778394
  7. AbDavis, Arthur P
  8. Quarles, Benjamin. Journal of the National Medical Association.68(3): 237–242, PMC2609666, PMID778394
  9. (October 1969). “Black Abolitionists,” as they are known. The Journal of Negro History is a publication dedicated to the study of African-American history.
  10. Cottman, George Streiby
  11. Coleman, Christopher Bush
  12. Esarey, Logan
  13. Association for the Study of Negro Life and History.54(4): 405–406.doi: 10.2307/2716735.JSTOR2716735
  14. (1915). “Indiana Magazine of History”
  15. “Rock, John S. (1825-1866)”
  16. “Rock, John S. (1825-1866)”. Blackpast. ABA Division for Public Education: Black History Month 2001, Profile 1: John Rock”. Retrieved on August 31, 2017. ABA Division for Public Education: Black History Month 2001, Profile 1: John Rock. The American Bar Association published a report in 2001 titled The original version of this article was published on February 12, 2009. 15 November 2010
  17. Retrieved 15 November 2010
  18. Clarence G. Contee was the first African-American member of the Supreme Court Bar in 1975. The Supreme Court Historical Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to preserving the history of the Supreme Court. The original version of this article was published on November 20, 2008. Logan, Rayford W., and Winston, Michael R. (eds.) retrieved on 20 May 2008
  19. AbLogan, Rayford W. and Winston, Michael R. (1982). The Dictionary of American Negro Biography is a resource for those interested in the history of African-Americans in the United States. W.W. Norton & Company
  20. White, Deborah
  21. Bay, Mia
  22. Martin Jr., Waldo
  23. W.W. Norton & Company
  24. (2013). The book Freedom On My Mind (A History of African Americans) has a page number of 348. Rock, John S., et al (1858-03-12). “An Address at Faneuil Hall” (PDF). Document No. 19571 in the Black Abolitionist Archives. P. 6 from the University of Detroit Mercy website. Retrieved2016-02-16
  25. s^ Garraty, John A., and Sternstein, Jerome A., eds. The New York Times (1996). The second edition of the Encyclopedia of American Biography. ‘John Rock’ by Harper Collins, published by Northwestern California University School of Law in 2011. Obtainable on August 30, 2017

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related toJohn Rock.
  • John Rock’s speeches at the University of Detroit Mercy’s Black Abolitionist Archive
  • John S. Rock’s speeches at the Civil War Trust
  • And more. Preceding the 14th Amendment: John Rock and the Origins of Birthright Citizenship-Institute for Justice John Rock and the 14th Amendment are discussed in this podcast.
Boston African American community prior to the Civil War
  • Slavery in the colonial United States
  • The Boston African American National Historic Site
  • The Black Heritage Trail
  • And more.
  • John P. Coburn(abolitionist, soldier)
  • Ellen and William Craft(slave memoirists, abolitionists)
  • Rebecca Lee Crumpler(physician)
  • Lucy Lew Dalton(abolitionist)
  • Thomas Dalton(abolitionist)
  • Hosea Easton(abolitionist, minister)
  • Leonard Grimes(abolitionist, slave memoirist)
  • Crispus Attucks(killed duringBoston Massacre)
  • Macon Bolling Allen(lawyer
  • Movement for a return to Africa (see Paul Cuffe and William Gwinn)
  • The Supreme Court judgment in Dred Scott v. Sandford in 1857
  • The Freedom Suits of 1781 (see Elizabeth Freeman-Quock Walker)
  • The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 (see Anthony Burns-Shadrach Minkins-Thomas Sims)
  • And the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 (see Anthony Burns-Shadrach Minkins-Thomas Sims).
  • Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society (interracial)
  • Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society (interracial)
  • Massachusetts General Colored Association (abolitionism, equality)
  • Prince Hall Freemasonry
  • Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society (interracial)
  • Boston Female Anti-Sla
  • Primus Hall (1798-1806), African Meeting House (1806-1835), and Abiel Smith School (1835-?) were all built on this site.
  • African Meeting House
  • Charles Street African Methodist Episcopal Church
  • Rowe Street Baptist Church
  • Twelfth Baptist Church
  • African Meeting House
  • Bucks of America (Massachusetts Revolutionary War troops)
  • Prince Hall Freemasonry
  • And others.
  • Phillips School
  • African Meeting House and Museum
  • Black Beacon Hill (Joy Street and Southack Street (now Phillips))
  • Black Heritage Trail
  • Boston African American National Historic Site
  • Charles Street Meeting House
  • Lewis and Harriet Hayden House
  • George Middleton House
  • William C. Nell House
  • Phillips School
  • John J. Smith House
  • Abiel Smith School
  • African Meeting House and Museum
  • Black Beacon Hill (Joy Street and Southack Street (now Phillips))
  • Black Heritage Trail
  • Boston African American National Historic Site
  • Charles Street Meeting House
  • Lewis and Harriet Hayden House
  • George Middleton House
  • William C. Nell House
  • Phillips School
  • John J. Smith House

John S. Rock – Biographies – The Civil War in America

John S. Rock (1825–1866) was born in Salem, New Jersey, to free black parents and grew up to be an articulate African American activist and master of various trades. He died in Salem in 1866. Between 1844 and 1848, he worked as a grammar school teacher at the public schools where he received his education. Meanwhile, he was working as an assistant to two white physicians, which allowed him to continue his medical studies. After being refused entrance to medical school, Rock went on to study dentistry under Dr.

  1. Harbert in Salem, Massachusetts, and later founded a dental clinic in Philadelphia in 1850, which is still in operation today.
  2. He and his wife relocated to Boston the next year, following his marriage to Catherine Bowers, where Dr.
  3. An accomplished orator, he delivered speeches on support of the abolitionist cause, the right of free African Americans to vote, and the newly founded Republican Party, among other causes.
  4. The first African American admitted to the Massachusetts Bar in 1861, he was named a Justice of the Peace for Boston and Suffolk County, Massachusetts, in September of that year, making him one of the state’s first African Americans to hold that position.
  5. He, like Frederick Douglass, was an eager recruiter for the black volunteer battalions from Massachusetts during the American Revolutionary War era.

Rock the first African-American admitted to practice before the court. Rock’s deteriorating health prohibited him from properly utilizing this cherished privilege in its entirety. In December 1866, he passed away as a result of tuberculosis.

Related Items

It was on February 1, 1865, the day after the House of Representatives ratified the Thirteenth Amendment, that John Swett Rock of Boston achieved historic status as the first African-American to be admitted as a lawyer to practice law before the United States Supreme Court. Many people toil their entire lives in order to acquire such a distinction. The achievement was simply the latest in an impressive record of accomplishments for Rock, who had already achieved success as a teacher, dentist, and doctor – all before reaching the age of 30.

  1. While still a teenager — and having just recently completed his own schooling — he was approached about taking a position as a teacher at one of Salem’s public elementary schools.
  2. When not working to educate others, Rock spent his nights studying medicine in the hopes of being accepted into medical school.
  3. Upon finishing his study, he relocated to Philadelphia and established his own medical practice there in 1849.
  4. Because the majority of Rock’s patients were low-income African Americans, he had a tough time making a livelihood, which was unfortunate.
  5. His acceptance to the American Medical College in Philadelphia came after yet another spell as a schoolteacher.
  6. During this time period, Rock was also beginning to garner attention for his work on behalf of temperance and abolitionist causes.
  7. The following several years saw him rise to even higher heights, becoming as a leader in Boston’s free black society and earning national attention for his lectures on the subject of social change.

Rock’s health began to deteriorate in the late 1850s, most likely as a result of the beginnings of TB in his lungs.

His application for a passport, on the other hand, was turned down.

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in defiance of the Buchanan government, began issuing its own passports to African Americans in 1858, allowing Rock to travel to Paris in the spring of that year.

He was called to speak in the Massachusetts State House once more, this time to deliver a speech in which he cited the “character and writings of Madame de Stael,” one of Napoleon Bonaparte’s most vocal adversaries, to argue that women were “the intellectual equal” of males.

During the Civil War, Rock, who was still practicing law, dedicated his time and energy to recruiting African Americans into the Union Army, which resulted in the 54th and 55th Massachusetts Infantry Regiments being filled with African Americans.

It was the Boston Journal that proclaimed, “The slave power, which suffered its constitutional death-blow yesterday in Congress, writhes today in the wake of the admission of a colored lawyer, John S.

Rock of Boston, as a member of bar of the United States Supreme Court,” when he was admitted to the Supreme Court. Rock’s health, on the other hand, continued to deteriorate. When he died on December 3, 1866, he had accomplished more in 41 years than the majority of people do in a lifetime.

Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman is perhaps the most well-known of all the Underground Railroad’s “conductors.” During a ten-year span she made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom. And, as she once proudly pointed out to Frederick Douglass, in all of her journeys she “never lost a single passenger.” Tubman was born a slave in Maryland’s Dorchester County around 1820. At age five or six, she began to work as a house servant. Seven years later she was sent to work in the fields. While she was still in her early teens, she suffered an injury that would follow her for the rest of her life. Always ready to stand up for someone else, Tubman blocked a doorway to protect another field hand from an angry overseer. The overseer picked up and threw a two-pound weight at the field hand. It fell short, striking Tubman on the head. She never fully recovered from the blow, which subjected her to spells in which she would fall into a deep sleep.Around 1844 she married a free black named John Tubman and took his last name. (She was born Araminta Ross; she later changed her first name to Harriet, after her mother.) In 1849, in fear that she, along with the other slaves on the plantation, was to be sold, Tubman resolved to run away. She set out one night on foot. With some assistance from a friendly white woman, Tubman was on her way. She followed the North Star by night, making her way to Pennsylvania and soon after to Philadelphia, where she found work and saved her money. The following year she returned to Maryland and escorted her sister and her sister’s two children to freedom. She made the dangerous trip back to the South soon after to rescue her brother and two other men. On her third return, she went after her husband, only to find he had taken another wife. Undeterred, she found other slaves seeking freedom and escorted them to the North.Tubman returned to the South again and again. She devised clever techniques that helped make her “forays” successful, including using the master’s horse and buggy for the first leg of the journey; leaving on a Saturday night, since runaway notices couldn’t be placed in newspapers until Monday morning; turning about and heading south if she encountered possible slave hunters; and carrying a drug to use on a baby if its crying might put the fugitives in danger. Tubman even carried a gun which she used to threaten the fugitives if they became too tired or decided to turn back, telling them, “You’ll be free or die.”By 1856, Tubman’s capture would have brought a $40,000 reward from the South. On one occasion, she overheard some men reading her wanted poster, which stated that she was illiterate. She promptly pulled out a book and feigned reading it. The ploy was enough to fool the men.Tubman had made the perilous trip to slave country 19 times by 1860, including one especially challenging journey in which she rescued her 70-year-old parents. Of the famed heroine, who became known as “Moses,” Frederick Douglass said, “Excepting John Brown – of sacred memory – I know of no one who has willingly encountered more perils and hardships to serve our enslaved people than.” And John Brown, who conferred with “General Tubman” about his plans to raid Harpers Ferry, once said that she was “one of the bravest persons on this continent.”Becoming friends with the leading abolitionists of the day, Tubman took part in antislavery meetings. On the way to such a meeting in Boston in 1860, in an incident in Troy, New York, she helped a fugitive slave who had been captured.During the Civil War Harriet Tubman worked for the Union as a cook, a nurse, and even a spy. After the war she settled in Auburn, New York, where she would spend the rest of her long life. She died in 1913.Image Credit: Moorland-Spingarn Research Center

Black History NJ: John S. Rock

John Stewart Rock was born on October 13, 1825, in Salem, New Jersey, to parents who were both free black. Despite the fact that his parents urged him to finish his education, which was unusual even for white people at that time period, Rock had completed enough schooling to qualify him to work as a teacher by the age of 19. A one-room schoolhouse in Salem, Massachusetts, was where he spent four years, where he won the admiration of both his students and the older schoolteachers who worked with him.

During this time, Rock was also devoting eight hours each day to his studies of medicine under the supervision of Dr.

Gibson, two white physicians from the region.

From Rock Bottom to Graduation

Rock attempted to enroll in medical school in 1848, but was turned down because of his race. The fact that he was unable to continue in his previous career did not deter him from switching to dentistry and opening his own practice in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in January of 1850. The American Medical College of Philadelphia in Philadelphia, where Rock received his medical degree in 1852, was Rock’s last admission to medical school. He was one of the first African Americans in the country to graduate from medical school, becoming one of the country’s first African American doctors.

Through his stay at the hospital, he saw a plethora of patients, many of them were escaped slaves making their way across the country via the Underground Railroad.

John Rock was an enthusiastic abolitionist and civil rights pioneer who believed in the rights of all Americans.

Following the terrible Dred Scott decision, Rock became even more motivated to work for the eradication of slavery.

Laying Down the Law

In 1861, the native of New Jersey was admitted to the Massachusetts Bar and subsequently established his own private legal practice in order to more effectively advocate for the rights of African Americans. The Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery, was ratified by Congress on January 31, 1865. The next year, John Rock made history by being the first African-American to be welcomed on the floor of the United States House of Representatives. Rock’s health had been deteriorating for some time, and it had only deteriorated worse when he became ill with a common cold.

The career of John Rock, an abolitionist, lawyer, doctor, dentist, and teacher was unfathomable in its breadth and depth.

To continue reading more Black History NJ articles, please visit this page to view the entire series. a hero (Top) Images: Carly Weaver / Best of NJ (featured image) and Additional Image Courtesy:blackpast.org


It was an informal network of individuals and residences across the United States that assisted runaway slaves – slaves who had fled from plantations in the South – in their attempts to seek safety in the northern tier of the country, Canada, and to a lesser degree, Mexico and the Caribbean It was not a railroad in the traditional sense, but rather a network of roads that slaves used to go from one place to another.

  1. However, in line with the image of a railroad, the persons who assisted the escape slaves were referred to as “conductors” or “station masters,” and their residences were referred to as “stations” or “depots,” respectively.
  2. Although the escaped slave was occasionally escorted by a conductor, in most cases the station master merely handed the fugitive slave with directions to the next station.
  3. fugitives, slave hunters, and abolitionists are all represented.
  4. Before the American Revolution, when slavery was legal in all of the colonies, the majority of escaped slaves sought refuge in communities in marshes, forests, and mountains.
  5. Abolitionists in the South who crossed the Mississippi River to the North, notably in the cities of New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, could live as free men and women by the year 1810.
  6. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made it a federal criminal for any free person to aid a fugitive slave in his or her escape.
  7. However, several northern states enacted legislation that either overrode or undercut the federal legislation.

Juries in the Northern United States frequently found in favor of fleeing slaves regardless of the evidence, thereby awarding them emancipation.

By the 1830s, there was a burgeoning abolitionist movement in the northern United States.

While the majority of abolitionist organizations were based in the North, a small number of Southerners thought that slavery was immoral and created abolitionist groups in their own localities as well.

Despite the fact that many individuals opposed slavery, only a small number of people were committed enough to the cause to assist runaway slaves in escaping their owners.

Sectional tensions and the Fugitive Slave Act are two issues that need to be addressed.

Abolitionist organisations were illegal in the South, and their publications were prohibited.

Individuals who hide fugitives may be subject to fines or imprisonment.

It was a shock to thousands of African Americans who had been living in freedom in the North that they were now at risk of being seized and returned to slavery in the South.

The Fugitive Slave Act, on the other hand, had a negative impact on most of the northern states.

Northerners who had previously turned a blind eye to the reality of slavery were now witnessing them play out in their own backyards and neighborhoods.

People were becoming more ready to aid fleeing slaves and provide them safe passage to Canada, where they would be out of reach of federal marshals and slave hunters, despite the hazards.

No single individual was familiar with all of the participants; each station master was simply aware of the location of the next station, who lived there, and whether or not there were any more stations in the vicinity.

The Underground Railroad’s informal and private character has left much of its history unknown to historians, who have only recently discovered it.

Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by author Levi Coffin.

He and his wife Catherine claimed to have assisted around 3,000 men and women in their attempts to escape slavery.

His ancestors were members of the Society of Friends (Quakers), who were abolitionists against slavery.

Coffin was given the opportunity to aid escaped slaves when he was a young man.

Indiana was a free state, and Newport was home to a large number of Quakers as well as escaped slaves during the American Revolution.

The town’s strategic position, as well as the fact that it was populated by black and white people who were opposed to slavery, made it a popular destination for men and women fleeing enslavement.

In 1847, the Coffins relocated to Cincinnati, where he established a warehouse to enable him to sell items produced by free employees rather than slaves.

Following the Civil War, Coffin worked to gather funds in Europe and the United States’ northern states to assist African Americans in establishing businesses and farms following their freedom.

Levi Coffin was only one of many men and women who worked persistently to aid escaped slaves, and some historians believe that Levi Coffin inflated his achievements and that his celebrity was not wholly earned.

A free black man from New Jersey, William Still, acquired a similar title – “Father of the Underground Railroad” – and, in his own memoirs, commended the fortitude of the fugitives themselves, who took far more risks than the white abolitionists who assisted them.

A story of the Underground Railroad

Levi Coffin wrote about his experiences assisting escaped slaves in his memoirs, which was released after the Civil War. He also shared his story of how he initially became involved in assisting slaves in their escape to freedom.

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