The Underground Railroad was a secret system developed to aid fugitive slaves on their escape to freedom. The free individuals who helped runaway slaves travel toward freedom were called conductors, and the fugitive slaves were referred to as cargo.
How was the Underground Railroad like a real railroad?
- Nope! Despite its name, the Underground Railroad wasn’t a railroad in the way Amtrak or commuter rail is. It wasn’t even a real railroad. It was a metaphoric one, where “conductors,” that is basically escaped slaves and intrepid abolitionists, would lead runaway slaves from one “station,” or save house to the next.
What did the Underground Railroad accomplish?
Ironically the Fugitive Slave Act increased Northern opposition to slavery and helped hasten the Civil War. The Underground Railroad gave freedom to thousands of enslaved women and men and hope to tens of thousands more.
What impact did the Underground Railroad have?
The work of the Underground Railroad resulted in freedom for many men, women, and children. It also helped undermine the institution of slavery, which was finally ended in the United States during the Civil War. Many slaveholders were so angry at the success of the Underground Railroad that they grew to hate the North.
What was the Underground Railroad and why was it created?
The Underground Railroad was established to aid enslaved people in their escape to freedom. The railroad was comprised of dozens of secret routes and safe houses originating in the slaveholding states and extending all the way to the Canadian border, the only area where fugitives could be assured of their freedom.
What was the main event of the Underground Railroad?
Established in the early 1800s and aided by people involved in the Abolitionist Movement, the underground railroad helped thousands of slaves escape bondage. By one estimate, 100,000 slaves escaped from bondage in the South between 1810 and 1850.
Why was the Underground Railroad important to slaves?
The Underground Railroad was a secret system developed to aid fugitive slaves on their escape to freedom. The free individuals who helped runaway slaves travel toward freedom were called conductors, and the fugitive slaves were referred to as cargo.
Why was the Underground Railroad important to the Civil War?
The Underground Railroad physically resisted the repressive laws that held slaves in bondage. By provoking fear and anger in the South, and prompting the enactment of harsh legislation that eroded the rights of white Americans, the Underground Railroad was a direct contributing cause of the Civil War.
What happened after the Underground Railroad?
After the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act as part of the Compromise of 1850 the Underground Railroad was rerouted to Canada as its final destination. Thousands of slaves settled in newly formed communities in Southern Ontario. Suddenly their job became more difficult and riskier.
How does Underground Railroad end?
In the end, Royal is killed and a grief-stricken Cora is caught again by Ridgeway. Ridgeway forces Cora to take him to an Underground Railroad station, but as they climb down the entrance’s rope ladder she pulls Ridgeway off and they fall to the ground.
How did the Underground Railroad help enslaved African Americans?
How did the Underground Railroad help enslaved African Americans? It provided a network of escape routes toward the North. In his pamphlet Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, on what did David Walker base his arguments against slavery? They feared that the abolition of slavery would destroy their economy.
Did the Underground Railroad use trains?
Nope! Despite its name, the Underground Railroad wasn’t a railroad in the way Amtrak or commuter rail is. It wasn’t even a real railroad. It was a metaphoric one, where “conductors,” that is basically escaped slaves and intrepid abolitionists, would lead runaway slaves from one “station,” or save house to the next.
Does the Underground Railroad still exist?
It includes four buildings, two of which were used by Harriet Tubman. Ashtabula County had over thirty known Underground Railroad stations, or safehouses, and many more conductors. Nearly two-thirds of those sites still stand today.
What was the purpose of the Underground Railroad quizlet?
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early-to-mid 19th century, and used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.
How many slaves did Harriet Tubman save?
Fact: According to Tubman’s own words, and extensive documentation on her rescue missions, we know that she rescued about 70 people —family and friends—during approximately 13 trips to Maryland.
6 Strategies Harriet Tubman and Others Used to Escape Along the Underground Railroad
Despite the horrors of slavery, the decision to run was not an easy one. Sometimes escaping meant leaving behind family and embarking on an adventure into the unknown, where harsh weather and a shortage of food may be on the horizon. Then there was the continual fear of being apprehended. On both sides of the Mason-Dixon line, so-called slave catchers and their dogs were on the prowl, apprehending runaways — and occasionally free Black people likeSolomon Northup — and transporting them back to the plantation where they would be whipped, beaten, branded, or killed.
In total, close to 100,000 Black individuals were able to flee slavery in the decades leading up to the Civil War.
The majority, on the other hand, chose to travel to the Northern free states or Canada.
1: Getting Help
Harriet Tubman, maybe around the 1860s. The Library of Congress is a federal government institution that collects and organizes information. No matter how brave or brilliant they were, few enslaved individuals were able to free themselves without the assistance of others. Even the smallest amount of assistance, such as hidden instructions on how to get away and who to trust, may make a significant difference. The most fortunate, on the other hand, were those who followed so-called “conductors,” like as Harriet Tubman, who, after escaping slavery in 1849, devoted her life to the Underground Railroad.
Tubman, like her other conductors, built a network of accomplices, including so-called “stationmasters,” who helped her hide her charges in barns and other safe havens along the road.
She was aware of which government officials were receptive to bribery.
Among other things, she would sing particular tunes or impersonate an owl to indicate when it was time to flee or when it was too hazardous to come out of hiding.
Photograph of Harriet Tubman taken around 1850. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) (also known as the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)) Few enslaved persons were able to free themselves without the assistance of others, no matter how brave or brilliant they were. Small acts of assistance, like whispered advice on how to get away and who to trust, can make a significant difference. Following so-called “conductors,” like as Harriet Tubman, who escaped slavery in 1849 and committed her life to the Underground Railroad, were those who were most successful.
Tubman, like her other conductors, developed a network of accomplices, including so-called “stationmasters,” who were responsible for storing her charges in barns and other safe homes along the route.
Which officials were receptive to bribery was something she was aware of.
It was her way of signaling when it was time to flee or when it was too hazardous to come out of hiding, for example, by singing particular tunes or imitating an owl. Besides that, she sent coded letters and messengers with her.
4: Codes, Secret Pathways
Circa 1887, Harriet Tubman (far left) is shown with her family and neighbors at her home in Auburn, New York. Photograph courtesy of MPI/Getty Images The Underground Railroad was almost non-existent in the Deep South, where only a small number of slaves were able to flee. While there was less pro-slavery attitude in the Border States, individuals who assisted enslaved persons there still faced the continual fear of being ratted out by their neighbors and punished by the law enforcement authorities.
In the case of an approaching fugitive, for example, the stationmaster may get a letter referring to them as “bundles of wood” or “parcels.” The terms “French leave” and “patter roller” denoted a quick departure, whilst “slave hunter” denoted a slave hunter.
5: Buying Freedom
The Underground Railroad, on the other hand, operated openly and brazenly for much of its duration, despite the passage of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act, which mandated harsh punishments for those found to have aided runaways. Stationmasters in the United States claimed to have sheltered thousands of escaped slaves, and their activities were well documented. A former enslaved man who became a stationmaster in Syracuse, New York, even referred to himself in writing as the “keeper of the Underground Railroad depot” in his hometown of Syracuse, New York.
At times, abolitionists would simply purchase the freedom of an enslaved individual, as they did in the case of Sojourner Truth.
Besides that, they worked to sway public opinion by funding talks by Truth and other former slaves to convey the miseries of bondage to public attention.
The Underground Railroad volunteers would occasionally band together in large crowds to violently rescue fleeing slaves from captivity and terrify slave catchers into going home empty-handed if all else failed. Perhaps unsurprisingly, John Brown was one among those who advocated for the use of brutal force. Abolitionist leader John Brown led a gang of armed abolitionists into Missouri before leading a failed uprising in Harpers Ferry, where they rescued 11 enslaved individuals and murdered an enslaver.
Brown was followed by pro-slavery troops throughout the voyage.
When describing a network of meeting spots, hidden routes, passages, and safehouses used by slaves in the United States to escape slave-holding states and seek refuge in northern states and Canada, the Underground Railroad was referred to as the Underground Railroad (UR). The underground railroad, which was established in the early 1800s and sponsored by persons active in the Abolitionist Movement, assisted thousands of slaves in their attempts to escape bondage. Between 1810 and 1850, it is estimated that 100,000 slaves escaped from bondage in the southern United States.
A network of safe houses and abolitionists dedicated to emancipating as many slaves as possible assisted them in their escape, despite the fact that such activities were in violation of state laws and the Constitution of the United States.
Facts, information and articles about the Underground Railroad
Aproximate year of birth: 1780
The beginnings of the American Civil War occurred around the year 1862.
The commencement of the American Civil War occurred around 1862.
Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. William Still is a well-known author and poet. Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by author Levi Coffin. John Fairfield is a well-known author.
The Story of How Canada Became the Final Station on the Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman’s Legacy as a Freedom Fighter and a Spion is well documented.
The Beginnings Of the Underground Railroad
Even before the nineteenth century, it appears that a mechanism to assist runaways existed. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with the assistance provided to one of his escaped slaves by “a organization of Quakers, founded for such purposes.” The Religious Society of Friends, or Quakers as they are more officially known, were among the first abolitionist organizations to emerge. Their influence may have played a role in Pennsylvania becoming the first state to abolish slavery, which was home to a large number of Quakers.
In recognition of his contributions, Levi is often referred to as the “president of the Underground Railroad.” In Fountain City, Ohio, on Ohio’s western border, the eight-room Indiana home they bought and used as a “station” before they came to Cincinnati has been preserved and is now a National Historic Landmark.
The Underground Railroad Gets Its Name
Owen Brown, the father of radical abolitionist John Brown, was a member of the Underground Railroad in the state of New York during the Civil War. An unconfirmed narrative suggests that “Mammy Sally” designated the house where Abraham Lincoln’s future wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, grew up and served as a safe house where fugitives could receive food, but the account is doubtful. Routes of the Underground Railroad It was not until the early 1830s that the phrase “Underground Railroad” was first used.
Fugitives going by water or on genuine trains were occasionally provided with clothing so that they wouldn’t give themselves away by wearing their worn-out job attire.
Many of them continued on to Canada, where they could not be lawfully reclaimed by their rightful owners.
The slave or slaves were forced to flee from their masters, which was frequently done at night. It was imperative that the runaways maintain their eyes on the North Star at all times; only by keeping that star in front of them could they be certain that they were on their trip north.
Conductors On The Railroad
Abolitionist John Brown’s father, Owen Brown, was involved in the Underground Railroad movement in New York State during the abolitionist movement. An unconfirmed narrative suggests that “Mammy Sally” designated the house where Abraham Lincoln’s future wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, grew up and served as a safe haven where fugitives could obtain food, but the account is untrustworthy. Railway routes that run beneath the surface of the land. It was in the early 1830s when the name “Underground Railroad” first appeared.
They were transported from one station to another by “conductors.” Money or products were donated to the Underground Railroad by its “stockholders.” Fugitives going by sea or on genuine trains were occasionally provided with clothing so that they wouldn’t be recognized if they were wearing their old job attire.
Many of them continued on to Canada, where they could not be lawfully reclaimed by their families.
To escape from their owners, the slave or slaves had to do it at night, which they did most of the time.
The Civil War On The Horizon
Events such as the Missouri Compromise and the Dred Scott decision compelled more anti-slavery activists to take an active part in the effort to liberate slaves in the United States. After Abraham Lincoln was elected president, Southern states began to secede in December 1860, putting an end to the Union’s hopes of achieving independence from the United States. Abolitionist newspapers and even some loud abolitionists warned against giving the remaining Southern states an excuse to separate. Lucia Bagbe (later known as Sara Lucy Bagby Johnson) is considered to be the final slave who was returned to bondage as a result of the Fugitive Slave Law.
Her owner hunted her down and arrested her in December 1860.
Even the Cleveland Leader, a Republican weekly that was traditionally anti-slavery and pro-the Fugitive Slave Legislation, warned its readers that allowing the law to run its course “may be oil thrown upon the seas of our nation’s difficulties,” according to the newspaper.
Following her capture, Lucy was carried back to Ohio County, Virginia, and punished, but she was released at some time when Union soldiers took control of the region. In her honor, a Grand Jubilee was celebrated on May 6, 1863, in the city of Cleveland.
The Reverse Underground Railroad
A “reverse Underground Railroad” arose in the northern states surrounding the Ohio River during the Civil War. The black men and women of those states, whether or not they had previously been slaves, were occasionally kidnapped and concealed in homes, barns, and other structures until they could be transported to the South and sold as slaves.
The Underground Railroad
|The Underground Railroad, a vast network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and to Canada, was not run by any single organization or person. Rather, it consisted of many individuals – many whites but predominently black – who knew only of the local efforts to aid fugitives and not of the overall operation. Still, it effectively moved hundreds of slaves northward each year – according to one estimate,the South lost 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850. An organized system to assist runaway slaves seems to have begun towards the end of the 18th century. In 1786 George Washington complained about how one of his runaway slaves was helped by a “society of Quakers, formed for such purposes.” The system grew, and around 1831 it was dubbed “The Underground Railroad,” after the then emerging steam railroads. The system even used terms used in railroading: the homes and businesses where fugitives would rest and eat were called “stations” and “depots” and were run by “stationmasters,” those who contributed money or goods were “stockholders,” and the “conductor” was responsible for moving fugitives from one station to the next.For the slave, running away to the North was anything but easy. The first step was to escape from the slaveholder. For many slaves, this meant relying on his or her own resources. Sometimes a “conductor,” posing as a slave, would enter a plantation and then guide the runaways northward. The fugitives would move at night. They would generally travel between 10 and 20 miles to the next station, where they would rest and eat, hiding in barns and other out-of-the-way places. While they waited, a message would be sent to the next station to alert its stationmaster.The fugitives would also travel by train and boat – conveyances that sometimes had to be paid for. Money was also needed to improve the appearance of the runaways – a black man, woman, or child in tattered clothes would invariably attract suspicious eyes. This money was donated by individuals and also raised by various groups, including vigilance committees.Vigilance committees sprang up in the larger towns and cities of the North, most prominently in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. In addition to soliciting money, the organizations provided food, lodging and money, and helped the fugitives settle into a community by helping them find jobs and providing letters of recommendation.The Underground Railroad had many notable participants, including John Fairfield in Ohio, the son of a slaveholding family, who made many daring rescues, Levi Coffin, a Quaker who assisted more than 3,000 slaves, and Harriet Tubman, who made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.|
OurStory : Activities : Slave Live and the Underground Railroad : More Information
The Underground Railroad’s historical context Harriet Tubman was a conductor on the Underground Railroad. The Library of Congress has provided permission to use this image. During the 1800s, nearly one hundred thousand slaves attempted to gain their freedom by fleeing their masters’ possessions. These courageous Black Americans walked north toward free states and Canada via hidden routes known as the Underground Railroad, or south into Mexico on routes known as the Underground Railroad. Through their assistance to the runaways, free Blacks, Whites, Native Americans, and former slaves served as “conductors.” The vast majority of those who contributed were everyday individuals, such as storekeepers, housewives, carpenters, clergy, farmers, and educators.
- Others, referred to as “agents,” sought to liberate the slaves by providing them with new clothing, collecting money for food and medication, training them to read and write, and giving lectures to persuade others that slavery was immoral.
- A slave grinding grain with a mortar and pestle.
- Smithsonian Institution |
- View a bigger version Passengers were the term used to refer to slaves who traveled on the Underground Railroad.
- A group of people called “agents” worked to free the slaves by providing them with new clothes, collecting money for food and medicine, teaching them to read and write, and giving speeches to persuade people that slavery was wrong.
- Everyone who took part in the Underground Railroad displayed incredible bravery.
- The people who assisted slaves were likewise in grave risk, yet they persisted in their efforts because they regarded slavery to be unconstitutional.
With Minty, a novel written by Alan Schroeder, you can learn more about Harriet Tubman when she was a little girl who dreamed of freedom. return to the Slave Life and the Underground Railroad page
Eastern Illinois University : Teaching with Primary Sources
The Underground Railroad’s historical background Her name is Harriet Tubman, and she was an Underground Railroad conductor. The Library of Congress has provided permission to use their images. A total of over one hundred thousand slaves sought freedom from their masters during the nineteenth century by fleeing from their plantation owners. In order to move north toward free states and Canada, or south toward Mexico, these courageous Black Americans used hidden pathways known as the Underground Railroad.
- Song, storytelling, and signals like as notches in trees were used to communicate secret messages to fugitives.
- Stations were temporary safe havens where fugitive slaves might stay for a few days before continuing their journey.
- Original artwork created by the Museum of American History in 2002 |
- see it in full size Passengers were the term used to describe slaves who traveled on the Underground Railroad.
- A group of people called “agents” worked to free the slaves by providing them with new clothes, collecting money for food and medicine, teaching them to read and write, and making speeches to persuade people that slavery was wrong.
- It took tremendous courage for anyone to take part in the Underground Railroad.
- Even though those who assisted slaves were subjected to severe danger, they persisted in their efforts because they felt slavery was unjust.
- With Minty, a novel created by Alan Schroeder, you may learn more about Harriet Tubman when she was a little girl with a desire of freedom.
A Dangerous Path to Freedom
Traveling through the Underground Railroad to seek their freedom was a lengthy and risky trek for escaped slaves. Runaway slaves were forced to travel long distances, often on foot, in a short amount of time in order to escape. They accomplished this while surviving on little or no food and with little protection from the slave hunters who were rushing after them in the night. Slave owners were not the only ones who sought for and apprehended fleeing slaves. For the purpose of encouraging people to aid in the capture of these slaves, their owners would post reward posters offering monetary compensation for assisting in the capture of their property.
- Numerous arrested fugitive slaves were beaten, branded, imprisoned, sold back into slavery, or sometimes killed once they were apprehended.
- They would have to fend off animals that wanted to kill and eat them while traveling for long periods of time in the wilderness, as well as cross treacherous terrain and endure extreme temperatures.
- The Fleeing Slave Law of 1850 permitted and promoted the arrest of fugitive slaves since they were regarded as stolen property rather than mistreated human beings under the law at the time.
- They would not be able to achieve safety and freedom until they crossed the border into Canada.
- Aside from that, there were Underground Railroad routes that ran south, on their way to Mexico and the Caribbean.
- He was kidnapped from his northern abode, arrested, and prosecuted in Boston, Massachusetts, under the provisions of this legislation.
- After the trial, Burns was returned to the harshness of the southern states, from which he had thought he had escaped.
American Memory and America’s Library are two names for the Library of Congress’ American Memory and America’s Library collections.
He did not escape on the Underground Railroad, but rather on a regular train.
Since he was a fugitive slave who did not have any “free papers,” he had to borrow a seaman’s protection certificate, which indicated that a seaman was a citizen of the United States, in order to prove that he was free.
Unfortunately, not all fugitive slaves were successful in their quest for freedom.
Harriet Tubman, Henry Bibb, Anthony Burns, Addison White, Josiah Henson, and John Parker were just a few of the people who managed to escape slavery through the Underground Railroad system.
He shipped himself from Richmond, Virginia, to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in a box that measured three feet long, two and a half feet deep, and two feet in diameter. When he was finally let out of the crate, he burst out singing.
Train conductors on the Underground Railroad were free persons who provided assistance to escaped slaves moving via the Underground Railroad system. Runaway slaves were assisted by conductors, who provided them with safe transportation to and from train stations. They were able to accomplish this under the cover of darkness, with slave hunters on their tails. Many of these stations would be in the comfort of their own homes or places of work, which was convenient. They were in severe danger as a result of their actions in hiding fleeing slaves; nonetheless, they continued because they believed in a cause bigger than themselves, which was the liberation thousands of oppressed human beings.
- They represented a diverse range of ethnicities, vocations, and socioeconomic backgrounds.
- Due to the widespread belief that slaves were considered property, the freeing of slaves was perceived as a theft of slave owners’ personal belongings.
- Captain Jonathan Walker was apprehended off the coast of Florida while attempting to convey slaves from the United States to freedom in the Bahamas.
- With the following words from one of his songs, abolitionist poet John Whittier paid respect to Walker’s valiant actions: “Take a step forward with your muscular right hand, brave ploughman of the sea!
- She never lost sight of any of them during the journey.
- He went on to write a novel.
- John Parker is yet another former slave who escaped and returned to slave states in order to aid in the emancipation of others.
Rankin’s neighbor and fellow conductor, Reverend John Rankin, was a collaborator in the Underground Railroad project.
The Underground Railroad’s conductors were unquestionably anti-slavery, and they were not alone in their views.
Individuals such as William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur and Lewis Tappan founded the American Anti-Slavery Society, which marked the beginning of the abolitionist movement.
The group published an annual almanac that featured poetry, paintings, essays, and other abolitionist material.
Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave who rose to prominence as an abolitionist after escaping from slavery.
His other abolitionist publications included the Frederick Douglass Paper, which he produced in addition to delivering public addresses on themes that were important to abolitionists.
Anthony was another well-known abolitionist who advocated for the abolition of slavery via her speeches and writings.
For the most part, she based her novel on the adventures of escaped slave Josiah Henson.
Efforts of Abolitionists Telling Their Story:Fugitive Slave Narratives
Henry Bibb was born into slavery in Kentucky in the year 1815, and he was the son of a slave owner. After several failed efforts to emancipate himself from slavery, he maintained the strength and persistence to continue his struggle for freedom despite being captured and imprisoned numerous times. His determination paid off when he was able to successfully escape to the northern states and then on to Canada with the assistance of the Underground Railroad, which had been highly anticipated. The following is an excerpt from his tale, in which he detailed one of his numerous escapes and the difficulties he faced as a result of his efforts.
- I began making preparations for the potentially lethal experiment of breading the shackles that tied me as a slave as soon as the clock struck twelve.
- On the twenty-fifth of December, 1837, the long-awaited day had finally arrived when I would put into effect my previous determination, which was to flee for Liberty or accept death as a slave, as I had previously stated.
- It took every ounce of moral strength I have to keep my emotions under control as I said goodbye to my small family.
- Despite the fact that every incentive was extended to me in order to flee if I want to be free, and the call of liberty was booming in my own spirit, ‘Be free, oh, man!
- I was up against a slew of hurdles that had gathered around my mind, attempting to bind my wounded soul, which was still imprisoned in the dark prison of mental degeneration.
- Furthermore, the danger of being killed or arrested and deported to the far South, where I would be forced to spend the rest of my days in hopeless bondage on a cotton or sugar plantation, all conspired to discourage me.
- The moment has come for me to follow through on my commitment.
- This marked the beginning of the construction of what was known as the underground rail route to Canada.
For nearly forty-eight hours, I pushed myself to complete my journey without food or rest, battling against external difficulties that no one who has never experienced them can comprehend: “not knowing when I might be captured while traveling among strangers, through cold and fear, braving the north winds while wearing only a thin layer of clothing, pelted by snow storms through the dark hours of the night, and not a single house in which I could enter to protect me from the storm.” This is merely one of several accounts penned by runaway slaves who were on the run from their masters.
Sojourner Truth was another former slave who became well-known for her work to bring slavery to an end.
Green and many others, including Josiah Henson, authored autobiographies in which they described their own personal experiences.
Perhaps a large number of escaped slaves opted to write down their experiences in order to assist people better comprehend their struggles and tribulations; or perhaps they did so in order to help folks learn from the mistakes of the past in order to create a better future for themselves.
The Constitution and the Underground Railroad: How a System of Government Dedicated to Liberty Protected Slavery (U.S. National Park Service)
A new clause for the draft constitution was proposed by Pierce Butler and Charles Pinckney, two South Carolina delegates to the Constitutional Convention that met on August 28, 1787 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It had been more than three months since the Convention had started considering the new structure of governance. Throughout the summer, there had been extensive and bitter disputes over the impact of slavery on the new form of government being established. Many safeguards to maintain the system of human bondage had been requested and achieved by Southerners throughout the years.
- Unknown artist created this piece.
- The Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-6088).
- The three-fifths provision of the new Constitution included slaves in the calculation of congressional representation, resulting in an increase in the power of slave states in both the House of Representatives and the electoral college as a result.
- Exports were exempt from taxation by Congress and the states, which safeguarded the tobacco and rice farmed by slaves from being taxed.
- The Constitution also stated that the national government would suppress “domestic violence” and “insurrections.” When “fugitive slaves and servants” escaped into neighboring states, Butler and Pinckney asked that they be “given up like criminals,” as they had done in the past.
- The next day, without any further debate or even a formal vote, the Convention passed the Fugitive Slave Clause, which became law in 1850.
- Although the word slave was avoided, it appeared that if a slave managed to flee to a free state, that state would be unable to free that person, and any runaway who was apprehended would be turned over to the person who had claimed ownership of the slave in the first place.
- As a result, the phrasing of the sentence, as well as its structural placement, suggested that this was something that the states would have to figure out amongst themselves.
- Northerners were completely unaware of its capacity to cause harm to their neighbors or to disturb their culture.
During a speech to the South Carolina state assembly, General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (whose younger cousin had submitted the clause) boasted, “We have acquired the right to recapture our slaves in wherever part of America they may seek sanctuary, which is a right we did not have before.” In a similar vein, Edmund Randolph used this phrase to demonstrate that slavery was protected by the Constitution in the Virginia convention.
The author stated that “everyone is aware that slaves are obligated to serve and labor.” Using the Constitution, he contended that “power is granted to slave owners to vindicate their property” since it permitted a Virginian citizen to travel to another state and “take his fugitive slave” and bring “him home.” At the Convention, no one seems to have considered the possibility that the new government might operate as an agent for slaveowners.
- However, only a few years after the Constitution was ratified, the subject of fugitive slaves and the extradition of felons was brought before Congress for consideration.
- However, Virginia’s governor rejected, claiming that the free black had in reality been captured and that thus no crime had been committed.
- As a result, a legislation was passed in 1793 that governed both the return of fugitive felons and the return of runaway slaves.
- Fugitive slave harborers may be fined up to $500 (a large sum of money at the time), and they could also be sued for the value of any slaves that were not recaptured.
- People who did not obey the regulations under these state laws were subject to severe penalties under the law.
- Pennsylvania, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that all of these statutes were unconstitutional because, according to the Court, Congress had the only authority to govern the return of fugitive slaves to their homelands.
- Many northern governments responded by passing legislation prohibiting the use of state property (including jails) for the repatriation of runaway slaves, as well as prohibiting state personnel from taking part in fugitive slave cases.
This landmark anti-slavery ruling mobilized the whole federal government in support of attempts to apprehend runaway slaves in the aftermath of the Civil War.
Fugitive slaves would be extremely difficult to repatriate if they did not have the help of the northern states.
Federal commissioners were appointed in every county around the country as part of the new national law enforcement system.
The commissioners were given the authority to utilize state militias, federal marshals, as well as the Army and Navy, to bring fugitive slaves back to their owners.
The punishment for anybody who assists a slave in fleeing might be six months in jail and a fine of up to a whopping thousand dollars.
It also interfered with the right of the northern states to defend their free black inhabitants from being claimed as fugitives by the federal government.
The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 had a variety of consequences.
Between 1850 and 1861, around 1,000 African-Americans would be deported to the South as a result of this statute.
In state legislatures, courtrooms, and on the streets, there was fierce opposition to the bill throughout the northern United States.
“The Oberlin rescuers at Cuyahoga County prison, c.1859,” says the artist.
The Oberlin-Wellington Rescue became renowned as a result of this incident.
During this time of year when we commemorate Constitution Day, it is important to remember that this document protected slavery and laid the groundwork for the federal government to hunt down and arrest people whose only crime was the color of their skin and their desire to enjoy “the Blessings of Liberty” that the Constitution claimed it was written to achieve.
In some areas, such as upstate New York and northern Ohio, the 1850 law was virtually unenforceable because the average, usually law-abiding citizens participated in the Underground Railroad, choosing to support human liberty and fundamental justice even when the laws of the United States and the Constitution itself criminalized such activities.
Paul Finkelman, Ph.D. He has written more than 50 books and hundreds of articles, and he is a prolific writer. His most recent book, Supreme Injustice: Slavery in the Nation’s Highest Court, was released by Harvard University Press in 2018 and is about slavery in the United States Supreme Court.
Gratz College, in collaboration with the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Program, hosted an online seminar wherein Dr. Paul Finkelman, the author of this paper, went into further depth on the ties between the Underground Railroad and the United States Constitution. To see a recording of the webinar, please visit the link provided below the video.
The Underground Railroad in Indiana
Mary Schons contributed to this article. The 20th of June, 2019 is a Thursday. For 30 years before to the American Civil War, enslaved African Americans utilized the Underground Railroad to gain their freedom, a network known as the Underground Railroad (1861-1865). The “railroad” employed a variety of routes to transport people from slave-supporting states in the South to “free” states in the North and Canada. Sometimes abolitionists, or persons who were opposed to slavery, were responsible for organizing routes for the Underground Railroad.
- There was a great deal of activity on the Underground Railroad in the states that bordered the Ohio River, which served as a boundary between slave and free states.
- Not everyone in Indiana supported the emancipation of enslaved people.
- Because Indiana was a part of the Underground Railroad, its narrative is the tale of all states that had a role in it.
- However, while some people did have secret chambers in their homes or carriages, the great bulk of the Underground Railroad consisted of individuals surreptitiously assisting slaves who were attempting to flee slavery in whatever manner they were able to.
- The persons that were enslaved were referred to as “passengers.” “Stations” were private residences or commercial establishments where passengers and conductors seeking freedom might take refuge.
- If a new owner supported slavery, or if the residence was revealed to be a station on the Underground Railroad, passengers and conductors were obliged to locate a new station or move on somewhere.
- Only a small number of people kept records of this hidden activity in order to protect homeowners and others seeking freedom who required assistance.
People who were found assisting those who had fled slavery faced arrest and imprisonment.
No one knows exactly how the Underground Railroad received its name, nor does anybody care.
Another version of the story assigns the name to a freedom-seeker who was apprehended in Washington, D.C., in the year 1839.
A third narrative connects the name to an enslaved man called Tice Davids, who made the decision to pursue his freedom in 1831, according to the legend.
Unfortunately, there was no boat available to take us over the river.
His enslaver returned to Kentucky without him, claiming that Davids had vanished while traveling on a “underground railroad.” To put it another way, the name “Underground Railroad” had been widely accepted by the mid-1840s.
According to Article 6 of the Northwest Ordinance, slavery was prohibited north of the Ohio River; however, the rule did not apply to enslaved persons who were already residing in the region.
Slavery was a common feature of life in the Northwest Territories at the time.
Indiana was established as a territory in 1800, with future United States PresidentWilliam Henry Harrison serving as the area’s first territorial governor.
Harrison and his followers also believed that permitting slavery in Indiana would increase the state’s population.
Their petition was refused by Congress.
The “contract holder” has the authority to determine how long the victim must be held in slavery.
When Indiana became a state in 1816, its stateConstitutioncontained wording that was comparable to Article 6 of the Northwest Ordinance—new enslaved persons were not permitted, but existing enslaved people were allowed to continue in their current state of enslavement.
The term “slave” was still used to describe some Hoosiers as late as the 1820 census.
(White people were exempt from this requirement.) Indiana’s 1851 Constitution prohibited blacks from voting, serving in the military, or testifying in any trial in which a white person was accused of a crime.
All three pathways eventually went to Michigan and subsequently to Canada, although they took different routes.
Lewis Harding said in a 1915 history of Decatur County, Indiana, that the county was a spot where three roads came together after crossing the Ohio River at separate points in the county.
assisted the escaped slaves in every way imaginable,” he adds, using the injunction as an example.
As Harding says, “the sympathies of the majority of the residents of this nation were with the escaped slave and his rescuer.” Historians now feel that the path to independence resembled a spider’s web rather than three independent pathways to freedom.
While traveling, they had to avoid organized networks of patrolmen who grabbed freedom-seekers and held them hostage for ransom money.
Known as the “President of the Underground Railroad,” Coffin is credited for bringing slavery to Indiana in 1826.
In his memoir, Reminiscences, Coffin tells the story of two girls who escaped Tennessee and sought refuge with their grandparents in the Indiana county of Randolph.
They were not, however, destined to live in safety.
When the alarm went off, it attracted the majority of the settlement’s black people together in a single location.
Unknown to them, an uncle of the two girls rode up on his horse at the same time the enslaver was being held at bay by the grandmother’scorn knife.
They were not given any authorization to enter the premises or search for items, according to him.” The uncle remained at the doorway for as long as he could to continue the dispute with the enslaver.
According to the account, the girls were disguised as guys and sneaked past the crowd to where two horses were waiting for them.
The girls were able to make it to Coffin’s residence without incident.
Eliza Harris’s Indefatigable Escape Indiana is the scene of one of the most famous slave escapes in history, which took place in the state of Indiana.
Harris made the snap decision to flee to Canada with her infant son in tow.
There were no bridges, and there was no way for a raft to get through the thick ice.
Moving from one ice floe to another while carrying her child, she eventually made it to the other end.
Eliza, in fact, is the name of the character who travels across the frigid Ohio.
In order to recover from their ordeal, Harris and her child traveled to Levi Coffin’s Fountain City residence.
In 1854, Levi and Catherine Coffin were on a visit to Canada with their daughter when a woman approached Catherine and introduced herself.
God’s blessings on you!” It was Eliza Harris, who had safely migrated to Chatham, Ontario, Canada, when the call came through.
Illustration provided courtesy of The Library of Congress is a federal government institution that collects and organizes information.
Examine the list of locations to determine if any are in your immediate vicinity.
But it was carried out according to a completely other set of rules.
Levi Coffin’s Reminiscences, published in 1880abet Help is a verb that refers to assisting in the committing of a crime.
abolitionist A person who is opposed to slavery as a noun.
authority Making choices is the responsibility of a nounperson or organization.
The payment of a fine or the performance of a contract under the terms of an agreement constitutes a bond, which is an unenforceable agreement.
cattle Andoxen are nouncows.
The American Civil War The American Civil War was fought between the Union (north) and the Confederacy between 1860 and 1865.
conductor A person who escorted slaves to safety and freedom on the Underground Railroad was known as a guide.
The House of Representatives and the Senate are the two chambers of the United States Congress.
convictVerb to find someone guilty of committing a criminal offense.
Municipality is a type of political entity that is smaller than a state or province, but often larger than a city, town, or other municipality.
defendantNounperson or entity who has been accused of committing a crime or engaging in other misconduct.
economy The production, distribution, and consumption of commodities and services are all referred to as a system.
enslave acquainted with the verbto completely control Adjectivewell-known.
forbidVerb to ban or prohibit something.
fugitive a noun or an adjective that has gotten away from the law or another limitation a system or order established by a country, a state, or any other political body; government Harriet Beecher Stowe was an American writer and abolitionist activist who lived from 1811 to 1896.
Nouna huge, flat sheet of ice that is floating on the surface of a body of water.
labor is a noun that refers to work or employment.
Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the term negronoun was frequently used to refer to persons of African descent.
During the American Civil War, the North was comprised of states that backed the United States (Union).
A portion of the modern-day states of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota belonged to the Northwest Territory at the time of its creation.
The Ohio River is the greatest tributary of the Mississippi River, with a length of 1,580 kilometers (981 miles).
passenger A fugitive slave seeking freedom on the Underground Railroad is referred to as a noun.
Requests are made verbally, and are frequently accompanied by a document signed by the respondents.
prominentAdjectivethat is significant or stands out.
recover from an accident or strenuous activityVerb to recover from an injury or rigorous activity repeal a verb that means to reverse or reject anything that was previously guaranteed rouse a verb that means to awaken or make active.
Slavery is a noun that refers to the act of owning another human being or being owned by another human being (also known as servitude).
South During the American Civil War, the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) was backed or sympathized with by a huge number of states.
Supreme CourtNounin the United States, the highest judicial authority on questions of national or constitutional significance.
terminology A noungroup of words that are employed in a particular topic area.
Nounland that is protected against invaders by an animal, a person, or the government.
the southern hemisphere Geographic and political territory in the south-eastern and south-central sections of the United States that includes all of the states that sided with the Confederacy during the American Civil War.
unconstitutional Adjective that refers to a violation of the laws of the United States Constitution.
9th President of the United States of America, William Henry HarrisonNoun (1773-1841). (1841). word-of-mouth Informal communication, sometimes known as rumor or rumor mill. NounA official order issued by a government or other authoritative body.
Mary Schons contributed to this report. on the 20th of June in the year of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ When enslaved African Americans attempted to gain their freedom in the 30 years preceding the American Civil War, they turned to the Underground Railroad for assistance (1861-1865). Slavery-supporting states in the South were served by a network of “railroads” that connected them to “free” states in the North and Canada. Sometimes abolitionists, people who were opposed to slavery, organized paths for the Underground Railroad.
- There was a great deal of activity on the Underground Railroad in the states that bordered the Ohio River, which served as a boundary between slave and free states.
- Despite widespread support for emancipation, not all Hoosiers were on board with it.
- Because Indiana was a part of the Underground Railroad, its history is the tale of all states that participated in it.
- To the dismay of many, the Underground Railroad did not consist of a network of underground passageways.
- Persons who traveled south to discover enslaved people who were looking for freedom were referred to as “pilots” in railroad jargon.
- “Passengers” were the term used to describe the slaves.
- With each change in ownership of the house, additional or fewer stations were added to the Underground Railroad network.
It was done in a discreet manner, by word of mouth, that the stations were being established.
Liberation aspirants would be compelled to return to servitude if they were apprehended and brought to justice.
Slavery was backed by both states that supported slavery and free states, and this extended to both groups.
According to one account, the term was coined by failed Pennsylvania patrolmen who attempted to abduct freedom seekers.
He said that he collaborated with others to flee to the North, where “the railroad went underground all the way to Boston,” after being tortured by his captors.
Eventually, Davids managed to get away from his Kentucky enslaver and make it to the Ohio River in time.
When Davids realized he was about to be captured, he swam over the river to the other side and slid out of sight.
To put it another way, the phrase “Underground Railroad” had become widely used by the mid-1840s.
When the new United States government formed the Northwest Territory in 1787, it included the area that would eventually become Indiana as part of that territory.
Even though no one else was permitted to be enslaved in 1787, people who were enslaved in 1787 remained such.
Vincennes and FloydCountyin the south, and as far north as La Porte, are two places where evidence of slavery has been found.
Because Harrison believed that slavery would help the economy flourish, he advocated its use.
For a period of ten years, the politicians and business leaders of Indiana petitioned Congress to remove Article 6.
Indiana Territory House of Representatives established a new legislation in 1805 that allowed persons to keep enslaved people who had been bought in the United States after they were brought to the country.
Property was extended to the enslaved person’s offspring, as well.
Indiana was a free state by 1816, yet it was not a welcoming environment for African-Americans.
) (This was not required of white folks.
Indiana’s Underground Railroad (also known as the Indiana Underground Railroad System) There were three primary lines of the Underground Railroad in Indiana, according to popular belief at the time of the discovery.
The slavery trade in Canada was prohibited in 1833.
Decatur County, Indiana, was described by Lewis Harding in his history of the county published in 1915 as a spot where three roads came together after crossing the Ohio River at various points.
assisted the escaped slaves in every way imaginable,” he adds, using the injunction as his source.
As Harding says, “the sympathies of the vast majority of the residents of this nation were with the escaped slave and his aid.” Rather than three different roads to independence, historians today believe the journey to freedom resembled a spider’s web.
While traveling, they had to avoid organized networks of patrolmen who grabbed freedom-seekers and held them hostage in exchange for ransom payments.
Levi Coffin of Newport, Indiana, was the most well-known Underground Railroad “station master” in the state (now called Fountain City).
The couple claimed to have hosted about 2,000 individuals over the course of two decades, spreading bedrolls on their kitchen floor to accommodate as many people as they could fit in.
“It was there that the girls stayed after their long and risky voyage of relishing their newly won independence and hoped that their master would never find out where they had gone.” They had no intention of remaining in safety, though.
Their captor, as well as a gang of men from Richmond and Winchester, were awakened by this event.
Around the grandparents’ hut, more than 200 people gathered to encircle and protect them from harm.
“He wanted to see the writ, which was provided to him by the officer,” Levi explains.
He denied that they were given any clearance to enter the residence and search for goods.” The uncle remained at the doorway as long as he could to continue the dispute with the enslaver.
According to the account, the girls were disguised as guys and sneaked past the throng to a location where two horses waiting for them.
To Coffin’s residence, the girls were able to make it without incident.
One of Eliza Harris’ children was sold for money in the winter of 1830, according to her enslaver, who she overheard that he was planning to sell another of her children for money.
Eventually, she managed to get free and flee to the Ohio River.
Harris leaped onto a slab of ice floating in the river after hearing her enslaver’s horse approaching.
It was in Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a book by Harriet Beecher Stowe, that Harris’ heroic escape was recounted.
It went on to become one of the most important novels in history, inspiring many Americans to sympathize with enslaved people and abolitionists as a result of reading it.
They then apparently spent some time in the adjacent town of Pennville, Indiana, before continuing their journey northwards.
“How are you, Aunt Katie?” the woman shouted as she snatched Catherine’s hand in her own.
God bless you!” It was Eliza Harris, who had successfully migrated to Chatham, Ontario, Canada, from her previous residence in the United Kingdom.
Thank you for using this illustration National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) (also known as the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)) The Underground Railroad Has Arrived.
Analyze the list of locations to determine whether any are in your immediate vicinity.
A completely new approach was taken in its execution.
1880abet, Levi Coffin wrote his reminiscences.
abolish is a verb that means to eliminate or eliminate something.
accommodate Provide or fulfill is a verb.
presumptive or presumptiveAdjectives that are asserted Roughly Adjective that refers to a figure that is either generic or close to accurate.
baffle verb to be perplexed and annoyed The payment of a fine or the performance of a contract under the terms of an agreement is referred to as a bond.
cattle ‘Nouncows’ are a kind of adverb.
In the American Civil War (also known as the American Revolutionary War), The American struggle between the Union (north) and the Confederacy between 1860 and 1865 is referred to as the American Civil War (south).
Both the House of Representatives and the Senate comprise the United States Congress.
Someone is found guilty of an illegal conduct when they are found guilty by a jury.
An administrative unit that is smaller than a state or province but often larger than a city, town, or other municipality.
DefendantNounperson or entity who has been accused of engaging in criminal activity or another type of misconduct dwell To reside in a certain location is the verb to reside.
encourage Verb to motivate or encourage someone or something.
forbidVerb to forbid or prohibit something from happening.
fugitive a noun or an adjective that has gotten away from a law or other constraint a system or order established by a country, a state, or any other political body Noun Abolitionist leader and author Harriet Beecher StoweNoun(1811-1896) was an American writer and activist who was active in the abolitionist movement.
- ice floe influential Important in terms of having the power to influence the thoughts or attitudes of others; influential in terms of being influential in terms of being influential.
- Nounwork or employment is defined as: labor.
- A network is a collection of interconnected linkages that allows for movement and communication.
- a region of the United States that stretched between the Mississippi River and Pennsylvania’s western border, and north of the Ohio River (from 1787 to 1803).
- novelNounA fictitious narrative or tale that is told in a fictional manner.
- ostensibly It is a noun that means to feign or show up.
pilot Person who traveled to slave states in search of slaves desiring freedom and willing to sacrifice their lives in order to obtain it was known as an informer on the Underground Railroad.
adjective significant or distinguishing itself from the rest of the crowd ransom Property release or return fees are referred to as nounfees.
repeal Something that was once assured is being overturned or rejected.
slave hunter Uncountable person who goes in search of fugitive slaves with the intention of forcing them back into servitude.
smuggle Take something secretly or steal it is the definition of the word “steal.” South An ill-defined geographic territory mostly consisted of states that either backed or were sympathetic to the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) during the American Civil War.
Those who identify with the Supreme CourtNounthe highest judicial authority in the United States on questions of national or constitutional significance To comprehend or share a feeling or emotion is to use the verb understand.
terrain Topographic features of a particular area are denoted by the noun.
a region in the southeastern United States a geological and political region in the south-eastern and south-central regions of the United States that includes all of the states that backed the Confederacy during the American civil war In Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote an anti-slavery novel in 1852, which became known as the Uncle Tom’s Cabin Noun.
9th President of the United States, William Henry HarrisonNoun (1773-1841). (1841). word-of-mouth Informal communication, often known as rumor, NounA official order issued by a government or other authoritative authority.
Submitted by Mary Schons The 20th of June, 2019, is a Thursday. The Underground Railroad was the network that enslaved African Americans utilized to gain their freedom in the 30 years leading up to the American Civil War (Civil War) (1861-1865). The “railroad” used a variety of routes to transport slaves from slave-supporting states in the South to “free” states in the North and Canada. Routes of the Underground Railroad were occasionally established by abolitionists, or persons who were opposed to slavery.
- A great deal of activity on the Underground Railroad took place in the states that bordered the Ohio River, which divided slave states from free states at the time of its construction.
- Not all Hoosiers supported the emancipation of enslaved people.
- The tale of Indiana is the story of all of the states that had a role in the Underground Railroad system, including the United States.
- While some people did have secret chambers in their homes or carriages, the great bulk of the Underground Railroad consisted people surreptitiously assisting those who were attempting to flee slavery in whatever manner they could.
- The enslaved persons were referred to as “passengers.” “Stations” were private residences or commercial establishments where passengers and conductors seeking asylum might securely hide.
- If a new owner supported slavery or if the residence was revealed to be a station on the Underground Railroad, passengers and conductors were obliged to locate a new stop.
- The fact that so few individuals kept records regarding this hidden activity served to safeguard homeowners and others seeking freedom who needed assistance.
People who were found assisting those who were fleeing slavery faced arrest and imprisonment.
The origin of the moniker “Underground Railroad” is a mystery to this day.
Another version of the narrative relates the name to a freedom-seeker who was arrested in Washington, D.C., in 1839 and imprisoned there.
A third version attributes the name to Tice Davids, an enslaved man who made the decision to pursue his freedom in 1831.
Unfortunately, there was no boat available to take us over.
Davids’ enslaver returned to Kentucky without him, claiming that he had vanished while traveling on a “underground railroad.” However, by the mid-1840s, the name “Underground Railroad” had become widely accepted.
According to Article 6 of the Northwest Ordinance, slavery was prohibited north of the Ohio River; however, the ordinance did not apply to enslaved persons who were already residing in the area.
Slavery was a common feature of everyday life in the Northwest Territory.
Indiana was established as a territory in 1800, with future United States PresidentWilliam Henry Harrison serving as the area’s first governor.
Harrison and his followers also believed that permitting slavery would increase the population of Indiana.
Their plea was refused by the Congress.
The “contract holder” has the authority to determine how long the individual must be enslaved.
When Indiana became a state in 1816, its stateConstitutioncontained wording that was comparable to Article 6 of the Northwest Ordinance—new enslaved persons were not permitted, but existing enslaved people were allowed to stay so.
Until the 1820 census, some Hoosiers were still classified as “slaves.” In 1831, the state Legislature passed legislation requiring blacks to register with the county and deposit a bond pledging that they would not cause disturbance in the community.
Indiana’s Underground Railroad (also known as the Underground Railroad of Indiana) Originally, it was believed that Indiana was home to three major Underground Railroad lines.
(Slavery in Canada was abolished in 1833.) With several stops in between, the routes in Indiana went from Posey to South Bend, from Corydon and Porter, and from Madison to DeKalb County, among other places.
According to the decree, “prominent farmers.
As Harding says, “the sympathies of the majority of the residents of this nation were with the escaped slave and his aid.” Scholars now assume that the path to freedom resembled a spider’s web rather than three independent pathways.
While traveling, they had to avoid organized networks of patrolmen who grabbed freedom-seekers and held them hostage in exchange for ransom money.
President of the Underground Railroad, Coffin was born in Indiana in 1826 and moved to the state as a refugee in 1826.
In his memoirs, Coffin tells the account of two girls who escaped Tennessee and sought refuge with their grandparents in Randolph County, Indiana.
However, they were not meant to live in peace.
When the alarm went off, the majority of the settlement’s black people gathered in one place.
During the time when the enslaver was being held at bay by the grandmother’scorn knife, an uncle of the two daughters showed up on his horse.
He went through it several times, looking for errors.
An escape strategy for the two females was being devised within the house.
Even though the would-be kidnappers were given permission to enter the residence, they were extremely perplexed when they discovered that the girls could not be found.
“We held the girls for a few weeks before sending them to Canada, where they would be secure,” he adds.
Eliza Harris, a Kentucky woman who was enslaved at the time, overheard her enslaver indicate he intended to sell one of her children for money during the winter of 1830.
She slipped away and dashed to the Ohio River for safety.
When Harris heard the sound of her enslaver’s horse approaching, she leaped onto a lump of ice that was drifting in the river.
It was in Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a book by Harriet Beecher Stowe, that Harris’ heroic escape was repeated.
Uncle Tom’s Cabinwent on to become one of the most important novels in history, inspiring many Americans to sympathize with enslaved people and abolitionists.
After there, they apparently stopped in the adjacent town of Pennville, Indiana, before continuing their journey north.
“How are you, Aunt Katie?” the woman said as she grabbed Catherine’s hand.
Eliza Harris escaped slavery in Kentucky by finding her way through the raging ice floes of the Ohio River, which was flowing with water.
The Underground Railroad is open to anyone.
Examine the list of locations to determine whether any are in your immediate vicinity.
But it was performed according to a completely other set of rules.
Levi Coffin’s Recollections, published in 1880abet To assist in the committing of a crime is to use the verb assist.
abolitionist Slavery is opposed by a nounperson.
acquitVerbto relieve a person of obligation or legal liability.
authority The person or entity in charge of making choices is a noun.
A bond is an unenforceable promise to pay a fine or to fulfill a contract if the conditions of the agreement are not satisfied.
cattle Nouncows andoxen, or nouncows andoxen.
Civil War is a period of time in which a country is divided.
conductor A person who escorted slaves to safety and freedom through the Underground Railroad.
The United States Congress is divided into two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate.
convictVerb to find someone guilty of committing a criminal offense Knife for corn (corn knife) Nouna broad straight or curved blade that is used to chop tall stalks of maize into smaller pieces.
debate To dispute or disagree in a formal environment is the definition of the verb.
dwell to be a resident of a specific location economy Production, distribution, and consumption of commodities and services are all referred to as a system.
forbidVerb to forbid, disallow, or prohibit anything.
a system or order established by a country, a state, or another political body Harriet Beecher StoweNoun(1811-1896) American author and abolitionist leader who lived from 1811 to 1896.
ice floeNouna big, flat sheet of ice that floats on the surface of a body of water influential Important in that it has the power to influence the thoughts or attitudes of others.
Labor is a noun that refers to labour or employment.
to navigateVerbto plan and steer the route of a voyage Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the term negronoun was frequently used to refer to persons with African descent.
During the American Civil War, the North was comprised of states that backed the United States of America (Union).
A portion of the modern-day states of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota belonged to the Northwest Territory at the time of its founding.
The Ohio River is the greatest tributary of the Mississippi River, measuring 1,580 kilometers (981 miles) in length.
passenger In the Underground Railroad, a runaway slave in search of freedom is known as a noun.
A verbto request, which is frequently accompanied by a form signed by the respondents.
prominentAdjectivethat is important or that stands out.
recover from an injury or strenuous activityVerb to recover from an injury or strenuous activity.
rouse a verb that means to awaken or make active slave hunter A person who goes in search of fugitive slaves with the intent of bringing them back to servitude.
smuggle steal or take away secretly is a verb.
station The Underground Railroad was a safe haven where escaped slaves might take refuge.
affinity To comprehend or share a feeling or emotion is to use the verb.
terrain Topographic features of a location are denoted by the noun.
testify In order to testify in court, the verb must be used.
Uncle Tom’s CabinNoun(1852), an anti-slavery book by Harriet Beecher Stowe, was published in 1852.
Between 1800 and 1865, abolitionists employed a nounsystem to assist enslaved African Americans in escaping to free states.
9th President of the United States of America (William Henry Harrison, 1773-1841). (1841). word-of-mouth Informal communication, sometimes known as rumor, is defined as follows: NounA official order issued by the government or another authority.
Kara West, Emdash Editing, Jeannie Evers, Emdash Editing
Kara West, Emdash Editing, Jeannie Evers, and Emdash Publishing
Kara West, Emdash Editing, Jeannie Evers
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