What Events Led Up To The Underground Railroad? (Solution)

What led to the opening of the Underground Railroad?

  • The high demand for slaves, especially in the rice, cotton, and sugar plantations of the Deep South, led to the creation of the Reverse Underground Railroad, which operated until the end of the American Civil War.

What led up to the Underground Railroad?

The Underground Railroad (1820 – 1861) The success of the Underground Railroad rested on the cooperation of former runaway slaves, free-born blacks, Native Americans, and white and black abolitionists who helped guide runaway slaves along the routes and provided their homes as safe havens.

What are some key events in the Underground Railroad?

Significant Events of the Underground Railroad

  • 1501—African Slaves in the New World.
  • 1619 –Slaves in Virginia.
  • 1700—First Antislavery Publication.
  • 1705—Slaves as Property.
  • 1775—Abolitionist Society.
  • 1776—Declaration of Independence.
  • 1793—Fugitive Slave Act.
  • 1808—United States Bans Slave Trade.

What is the timeline for the Underground Railroad?

Timeline Description: The Underground Railroad ( 1790s to 1860s ) was a linked network of individuals willing and able to help fugitive slaves escape to safety. They hid individuals in cellars, basements and barns, provided food and supplies, and helped to move escaped slaves from place to place.

Where did the Underground Railroad lead to?

Underground Railroad routes went north to free states and Canada, to the Caribbean, into United States western territories, and Indian territories. Some freedom seekers (escaped slaves) travelled South into Mexico for their freedom.

How did Underground Railroad lead to civil war?

The Underground Railroad physically resisted the repressive laws that held slaves in bondage. By provoking fear and anger in the South, and prompting the enactment of harsh legislation that eroded the rights of white Americans, the Underground Railroad was a direct contributing cause of the Civil War.

Is the Underground Railroad based on true events?

Adapted from Colson Whitehead’s Pulitzer-award-winning novel, The Underground Railroad is based on harrowing true events. Directed by Barry Jenkins, the new Amazon Prime series is a loyal adaptation of Colson Whitehead’s novel of the same name.

How many slaves did Harriet Tubman save?

Fact: According to Tubman’s own words, and extensive documentation on her rescue missions, we know that she rescued about 70 people —family and friends—during approximately 13 trips to Maryland.

What year did the Underground Railroad begin and end?

system used by abolitionists between 1800-1865 to help enslaved African Americans escape to free states.

How many slaves were freed from the Underground Railroad?

The total number of runaways who used the Underground Railroad to escape to freedom is not known, but some estimates exceed 100,000 freed slaves during the antebellum period. Those involved in the Underground Railroad used code words to maintain anonymity.

How does Underground Railroad end?

In the end, Royal is killed and a grief-stricken Cora is caught again by Ridgeway. Ridgeway forces Cora to take him to an Underground Railroad station, but as they climb down the entrance’s rope ladder she pulls Ridgeway off and they fall to the ground.

How did the Underground Railroad lead to the Civil War quizlet?

How did the Underground Railroad cause the Civil War? *The Underground Railroad was a escape route for fugitive slaves in America. *Slaves would be helped by Northerners or “Quakers” who help slaves escape to Canada. *The Underground Railroad made the South mad because this was beneficial to slaves.

What happened to Cesar in the Underground Railroad?

While the show doesn’t show us what happens after their encounter, Caesar comes to Cora in a dream later, confirming to viewers that he was killed. In the novel, Caesar faces a similar fate of being killed following his capture, though instead of Ridgeway and Homer, he is killed by an angry mob.

How many seasons was the Underground Railroad?

The series was billed as a limited series. That should mean there is only one season of the series. After all, it does tell the full story for the books, even if there are a few questions at the very end. Being billed as a limited series doesn’t mean a series remains that way.

Underground Railroad

Underground Railroad was a network of people, both black and white, who helped escaped enslaved persons from the southern United States by providing them with refuge and assistance. It came forth as a result of the convergence of numerous separate covert initiatives. Although the exact dates of its inception are unknown, it was active from the late 18th century until the Civil War, after which its attempts to weaken the Confederacy were carried out in a less-secretive manner until the Civil War ended.

Quaker Abolitionists

The Society of Friends (Quakers) is often regarded as the first organized group to actively assist escaped enslaved persons. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with Quakers for attempting to “liberate” one of his enslaved servants. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved persons who were on the run from slavery. Abolitionist organisations founded by Quakers in North Carolina lay the basis for escape routes and safe havens for fugitive slaves during the same time period.

What Was the Underground Railroad?

The Underground Railroad was first mentioned in 1831, when an enslaved man named Tice Davids managed to escape from Kentucky into Ohio and his master blamed a “underground railroad” for assisting Davids in his liberation. When a fugitive slave called Jim was apprehended in 1839 in Washington, the press said that the guy confessed his plan to travel north along a “underground railroad to Boston” while under torture. The Vigilance Committees, which were established in New York in 1835 and Philadelphia in 1838 to safeguard escaped enslaved persons from bounty hunters, rapidly expanded their duties to include guiding enslaved individuals on the run.

MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman and her fellow fugitives used the following strategies to escape through the Underground Railroad:

How the Underground Railroad Worked

The majority of enslaved persons aided by the Underground Railroad were able to flee to neighboring states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made catching fugitive enslaved persons a lucrative industry in the deep South, and there were fewer hiding places for them as a result of the Act. The majority of fugitive enslaved people were on their own until they reached specific places farther north. The escaping enslaved people were escorted by individuals known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were also used as hiding places throughout the war.

The personnel in charge of running them were referred to as “stationmasters.” There were several well-traveled roads that ran west through Ohio and into Indiana and Iowa.

While some traveled north via Pennsylvania and into New England, or through Detroit on their route to Canada, others chose to travel south. The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.

Fugitive Slave Acts

The Fugitive Slave Acts were a major cause for many fugitive slaves to flee to Canada. This legislation, which was passed in 1793, authorized local governments to catch and extradite fugitive enslaved individuals from inside the borders of free states back to their places of origin, as well as to penalize anybody who assisted the fleeing enslaved people. Personal Liberty Laws were introduced in certain northern states to fight this, but they were overturned by the Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was intended to reinforce the preceding legislation, which was perceived by southern states to be insufficiently enforced at the time of passage.

The northern states were still considered a danger zone for fugitives who had managed to flee.

Some Underground Railroad operators chose to station themselves in Canada and sought to assist fugitives who were arriving to settle in the country.

Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad during its heyday. When she and two of her brothers fled from a farm in Maryland in 1849, she was given the name Harriet (her married name was Tubman). She was born Araminta Ross, and she was raised as Harriet Tubman. They returned a couple of weeks later, but Tubman fled on her own again shortly after, this time making her way to the state of Pennsylvania. In following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and other individuals.

Tubman was distraught until she had a vision of God, which led her to join the Underground Railroad and begin escorting other fugitive slaves to the Maryland state capital.

Frederick Douglass

In his house in Rochester, New York, former enslaved person and celebrated author Frederick Douglasshid fugitives who were assisting 400 escapees in their journey to freedom in Canada. Reverend Jermain Loguen, a former fugitive who lived in the adjacent city of Syracuse, assisted 1,500 escapees on their journey north. The Vigilance Committee was established in Philadelphia in 1838 by Robert Purvis, an escaped enslaved person who later became a trader. Josiah Henson, a former enslaved person and railroad operator, founded the Dawn Institute in Ontario in 1842 to assist fugitive slaves who made their way to Canada in learning the necessary skills to find work.

Agent,” according to the document.

John Parker was a free Black man living in Ohio who worked as a foundry owner and who used his rowboat to ferry fugitives over the Ohio River.

William Still was a notable Philadelphia citizen who was born in New Jersey to runaway slaves parents who fled to Philadelphia as children.

Who Ran the Underground Railroad?

The vast majority of Underground Railroad operators were regular individuals, including farmers and business owners, as well as preachers and religious leaders. Some affluent individuals were active, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who stood for president on two separate occasions. Smith acquired a full family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841 and freed them from their captivity. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, is credited with being one of the first recorded individuals to assist escaped enslaved persons.

Coffin stated that he had discovered their hiding spots and had sought them out in order to assist them in moving forward.

Coffin eventually relocated to Indiana and then Ohio, where he continued to assist fugitive enslaved individuals no matter where he was.

John Brown

Abolitionist John Brown worked as a conductor on the Underground Railroad, and it was at this time that he founded the League of Gileadites, which was dedicated to assisting fleeing enslaved individuals in their journey to Canada. Abolitionist John Brown would go on to play a variety of roles during his life. His most well-known duty was conducting an assault on Harper’s Ferry in order to raise an armed army that would march into the deep south and free enslaved people at gunpoint. Ultimately, Brown’s forces were beaten, and he was executed for treason in 1859.

  1. The year 1844, he formed a partnership with Vermont schoolteacher Delia Webster, and the two were jailed for assisting an escaped enslaved lady and her young daughter.
  2. Charles Torrey was sentenced to six years in jail in Maryland for assisting an enslaved family in their attempt to flee through Virginia.
  3. After being apprehended in 1844 while transporting a boatload of freed slaves from the Caribbean to the United States, Massachusetts sea captain Jonathan Walker was sentenced to prison for life.
  4. John Fairfield of Virginia turned down the opportunity to assist in the rescue of enslaved individuals who had been left behind by their families as they made their way north.
  5. He managed to elude capture twice.

End of the Line

Abolitionist He was a conductor on the Underground Railroad, and it was during this time that he founded the League of Gileadites, an organization dedicated to aiding fleeing slaves in their journey to Canada. With the abolitionist movement, Brown would play a variety of roles, most notably leading an assault on Harper’s Ferry to raise an armed army that would march into the deep south and free enslaved people under threat of death. Eventually, Brown’s forces were defeated, and he was executed for treason in 1859.

  • The year 1844, he formed a partnership with Vermont schoolteacher Delia Webster, and the two of them were jailed for aiding an escaped enslaved woman and her child escape.
  • When Charles Torrey assisted an enslaved family fleeing through Virginia, he was sentenced to six years in jail in Maryland.
  • was his base of operations; earlier, he had served as an abolitionist newspaper editor in Albany, New York.
  • In addition to being fined and imprisoned for a year, Walker had the letters “SS” for Slave Stealer tattooed on his right hand.

As a slave trader, Fairfield’s strategy was to travel across the southern states. Twice he managed to escape from prison. Tennessee’s arebellion claimed his life in 1860, and he was buried there.

Sources

Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad is a book about the Underground Railroad. Fergus Bordewich is a Scottish actor. A Biography of Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom Catherine Clinton is the first lady of the United States. Who Exactly Was in Charge of the Underground Railroad? ‘Henry Louis Gates’ is a pseudonym for Henry Louis Gates. The Underground Railroad’s History in New York is a little known fact. The Smithsonian Institution’s magazine. The Underground Railroad’s Dangerous Allure is well documented.

See also:  In The Underground Railroad What Happened? (TOP 5 Tips)

Civil War and Underground Railroad Timeline and Resources from American historian Fergus Bordewich

  • The Quaker Isaac T. Hopper and his African-American accomplices started assisting fleeing slaves in Philadelphia in the late 1790’s. The Underground Railroad was established as a result of their collaboration. fugitive slaves are transported overland with Quaker emigrants from North Carolina to Indiana in 1820, establishing the first long-distance route of the Underground Railroad
  • In 1826, Levi Coffin relocates to Newport (now Fountain City), Indiana, establishing the first permanent stop on the Underground Railroad. There, he creates one of the most efficient clandestine operations in the trans-Appalachian west, which he calls “The Underground Railroad.” Fugitives are occasionally transported in false-bottomed wagons or secreted in secret compartments
  • In 1831, William Lloyd Garrison established the Liberator in Boston, which is still in operation today. It is the first journal to demand for the abolition of slavery on an urgent basis. Garrison’s zealous activism will have an impact on the hearts and minds of numerous people around the country. Abolitionists gather in Philadelphia in 1833 to form the American Anti-Slavery Society, which would become the first national organization of abolitionists in American history. Many members of the group will go on to become participants in the Underground Railroad
  • Late 1830s:David Ruggles establishes the African-American underground in New York City, which will become known as the Underground Railroad. More than one thousand fleeing slaves will benefit from his assistance. A close associate of his is Isaac Hopper
  • 1840: The World’s Anti-Slavery Convention is held in London, England, and is attended by thousands of people. Lucretia Mott, an underground campaigner and longtime abolitionist, is one of the American attendees to the conference. The meeting is presided over by her husband, James
  • Fugitive slaves are fleeing in increasing numbers over the Ohio River in the 1840s. Ripley, Ohio was transformed into one of the most active hubs of underground activity thanks to the efforts of Rev. John Rankin’s family
  • 1841: Fugitive slave Josiah Henson founded the Dawn Institute in the vicinity of Dresden, Ontario. It is one of several model communities that have been built in Canada with the objective of educating escaped slaves in useful skills and assisting them in adjusting to life in a democratic society. It also serves as a destination for the Underground Railroad
  • In 1844, an abolitionist newspaper in Illinois, the Western Citizen, published the earliest depiction of the Underground Railroad as a real train. During the expansion of iron rails across North America, the jargon of railroading— “stations,” “station masters,” “cars,” and “passengers” —became the coded language of the underground
  • 1844:Jonathan Walker undertakes one of the most daring slave rescues ever attempted in the United States. He embarks on a tiny boat from Pensacola, Florida, with six other fugitives, destined for the British territory of the Bahamas. They are apprehended just one day’s sailing away from their intended destination. Walker is marked with the initials “SS,” which stand for “slave thief.” Later, he boasts with pride that they are the “slave rescuer” movement.
  • 1847: The Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery hires William Still to work as a clerk. He quickly rises to the position of network coordinator for one of the most major underground networks in the country, which connects activists from Norfolk, Virginia, to New York, and throughout southern Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. The year is 1848, and Henry “Box” Brown successfully completes one of the most dramatic runaway slave escapes in history. Still is on standby to assist Brown in opening the box. The Underground Railroad’s most significant station master, Thomas Garrett, is placed on trial in Wilmington, Delaware for aiding the emancipation of six runaway slaves. Brown had himself sent from Richmond, Virginia to Philadelphia in a box. He is bold in his declaration that he will add another storey to his home in order to accommodate additional fugitives following his acquittal. In Seneca Falls, New York, the first national convention on women’s rights is being held. Women have been involved in the underground for a long time. 1849: Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery in Maryland and becomes a symbol of injustice for African-Americans as a result. She will return to Maryland at least thirteen times in order to rescue slaves and guide them to safety in the North, eventually becoming the most well-known “conductor” on the underground railroad system in the United States. She will work closely with Thomas Garrett and William Still, two of her closest collaborators. The Fugitive Slave Act is passed by Congress in 1850. The legislation mandates all residents, regardless of their religious or political convictions, to work with governmental officials in order to apprehend and restore runaway slaves to their respective owners. Protests against the law erupt throughout the northern hemisphere. In 1851, abolitionists face up against federal officials and slave hunters in a wave of violent resistance to the Fugitive Slave Act. During the Battle of Christiana, Pennsylvania, African-American underground activists killed slave owner Edward Gorsuch
  • In 1852, Isaac T. Hopper, the “father of the Underground Railroad,” died in New York
  • And in 1853, the Underground Railroad has become increasingly open in many parts of the North, as Northerners refuse to cooperate with Federal officials. Underground activists in Detroit, Michigan, Albany, New York, and other cities publicly publicize their work with fugitives
  • 1850s: Fugitive slaves in Canada number more than 20,000, according to official figures. Communities mature and flourish as a result of their efforts. Henry Bibb, a runaway slave, underground activist, and journalist, founds theVoice of the Fugitive, which publishes information about fugitives’ landing in Canada. His adversary, Mary Ann Shadd, the daughter of an underground station master, becomes the first black woman to establish a newspaper in North America
  • 1859: John Brown takes the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia, and becomes the first black president of the United States. Shields Green, a fugitive slave from South Carolina, is among his band of followers. He has a vision of extending the Underground Railroad into the Deep South by setting up a network of military stations in the Appalachian Mountains to protect the route. Brown and his associates are apprehended and executed
  • 1861: Troops from South Carolina open fire on Fort Sumter, which is located in Charleston harbor. The American Civil War begins. The Civil War takes precedence over the Underground Railroad between 1861 and 1865. Slave populations flee to the shelter of Union forces wherever they march
  • 1870: The Fifteenth Amendment grants African-Americans the right to vote. Levi Coffin, a veteran of the underground movement, declares that the underground has achieved its symbolic conclusion. “We’ve completed our task,” he proclaims.

Underground Railroad Timeline

Harriet Tubman was a freed slave who escaped from slavery in Maryland. In the following years, she would return at least 15 times to assist her fellow slaves in their escape to the North. Harriet rose to prominence as one of the world’s most well-known “conductors.” The Liberator newspaper was founded in Boston by William Lloyd Garrison. It was the first publication to express support for anti-slavery activists. Many individuals were persuaded to resist slavery as a result of this journal. Eli Whitney developed a mechanism for extracting cotton seeds from the plant.

This development resulted in a significant increase in the need for slave labor.

Beginning of the Railroad Terminology

1844 The Western Citizen, an abolitionist newspaper published in Illinois, published the first depiction of the Underground Railroad as a real train. As iron rails developed over the northern hemisphere, railroading words such as “stations,” “station masters,” “cars,” and “passengers” came to be understood as the underground’s secret language.

First Route of the Underground Railroad

1844 The Western Citizen, an abolitionist newspaper in Illinois, published the first depiction of the Underground Railroad as a real train. “Station,” “station master,” “car,” and “passenger” were all railroading terminology that established the underground’s secret language as iron rails extended over the northern hemisphere.

Slavery DispleasureIn South Carolina

1844 The Western Citizen, an abolitionist newspaper in Illinois, published the first depiction of the Underground Railroad as an actual train. As iron railroads proliferated across the northern hemisphere, railroading words such as “stations,” “station masters,” “cars,” and “passengers” became the underground’s code language.

Beginning of the Underground Operations

Levi Coffin began assisting slaves in their attempts to elude capture in 1826, transporting them in false-bottomed carts or concealing them in secret compartments.

Underground Railroad in New York

David Ruggles was the founder of the African-American underground in New York City in the year 1839. He was able to assist around one thousand escaped slaves. A guy by the name of Isaac Hopper was one of his closest associates.

The American Anti-Slavery Society

It was in Philadelphia in 1833 that the American Anti-Slavery Society was established, and it was also there that the first national convention of abolitionists in American history was convened.

A large number of members of the group went on to become participants in the Underground Railroad movement. A large number of fugitive slaves managed to escape over the Ohio River. Ohio has risen to become one of the most active hotbeds of criminal activity on the underground level.

Mexican-American War

From 1846 to 1848 Mexico was defeated in the battle and was forced to cede vast swaths of its territory. Americans were faced with a difficult choice: should slavery be permitted in the newly acquired territories? Missouri acknowledged to being a slave state when it became a member of the Union. Slavery was made illegal in all regions located north of latitude 36°30′ (north of the equator).

The Railroad’s Symbolic Ending

1870 African-American slaves were granted the right to vote by the Fifteenth Amendment. Levi Coffin, a conductor on the Underground Railroad, claims that the railroad has reached its symbolic conclusion.

Green Hopes to Extend the Railroad

1870 After African-American slavery was abolished, the Fifteenth Amendment granted them the right to vote. Levi Coffin, a conductor on the Underground Railroad, claims that the railroad has reached its symbolic end.

United States Banned Slave Trade

Despite the fact that slave trafficking was banned in 1808, many people continued to smuggle slaves.

Underground Railroad Timeline

Date Event
1790 Isaac T. Hopper Began Helping Fugitive Slaves(1790s) During the 1790s, Isaac T. Hopper began the process of organizing the Underground Railroad, creating a network of safe spaces for fugitive slaves.
1820 Route from North Carolina to Indiana Established(1820s) As early as the 1820s, the first long-distance route, with multiple stops, was established. This route could successfully transport slaves all the way from North Carolina to Indiana.
1826 Indiana Quakers Created Secret Rooms By 1826, Quakers in Indiana were building hidden, secret rooms in their homes, and false bottoms in their wagons. This enabled them to safely transport and hide fugitive slaves.
1833 American Anti-Slavery Society Founded With growing abolitionist sentiments in the North, the American Anti-Slavery Society was founded in 1833; Americans had been exposed to progressively more criticism of slavery in preceding years.
1830 David Ruggles and Isaac Hopper Created NYC Underground Railroad(1830s) David Ruggles, with assistance from Isaac Hopper, created the New York City network of the Underground Railroad. During his lifetime, David Ruggles provided direct assistance to more than 6000 fugitive slaves, including Frederick Douglass.
1841 Establishment of the Dawn Institute Josiah Henson established the Dawn Institute. The Dawn Institute helped former slaves adapt to their new lives, teaching trades and essential skills.
1844 Adopted Language of the Railroad As the railways spread across America, the Underground Railroad, for the first time, took on the language of the railroad. Individuals working the Underground Railroad were called conductors, and safe places, stations.
1848 Thomas Garrett Tried and Acquitted In 1848, Thomas Garrett, a key figure on the Underground Railroad, was tried for his involvement in assisting fugitive slaves and acquitted.
1850 Fugitive Slave Act Passed The Fugitive Slave Act was passed in 1848. This required all individuals, including those in free states, to help in the capture and return of fugitive slaves.
1850 Harriet Tubman Escaped Harriet Tubman escaped slavery in 1850. She went onto become one of the most important conductors on the Underground Railroad, not only assisting individuals, but also going into the South to bring fugitive slaves to the North.
1853 Support for Underground Railroad Grew By 1853, support for the Underground Railroad grew rapidly. More people were willing to offer assistance to fugitive slaves, regardless of the law.
1861 Civil War Began The Civil War began with the attack on Fort Sumter in 1861. While the North fought to preserve the Union, slavery soon fell.
1861 Emancipation(1861 to 1865) The violence of the Civil War provided opportunities for freedom and escape, even before the Emancipation Proclamation in 1864.
See also:  How Did Southern Whites React To The Underground Railroad? (Question)

The Underground Railroad (1820-1861) •

The smuggling of fugitives during the winter season Charles T. Webber’s novel The Underground Railroad was published in 1893. Images that are in the public domain Underground Railroad was developed to assist oppressed persons in their journey from slavery to liberty. The railroad network was made up of dozens of hidden routes and safe houses that began in slaveholding states and extended all the way to the Canadian border, which was the only place where fugitives could be certain of their freedom.

  • As part of the Underground Railroad, slaves were smuggled onto ships that transported them to ports in the northern United States or to countries outside of the United States.
  • Though the number of persons who fled through the Underground Railroad between 1820 and 1861 varies greatly depending on who you ask, the most commonly accepted figure is roughly 100,000.
  • The railroad employed conductors, among them William Still of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, who was likely the most well-known of the group.
  • Slave-hiding spots were called stations, and stationmasters were individuals who hid slaves in their houses.
  • The Underground Railroad functioned as a number of interconnected networks.
  • Those responsible for leading the fugitive slaves north did so in stages.
  • The “freight” would be transferred on to the next conductor once it reached another stop, and so on until the full journey had been completed.

When the Underground Railroad was successful, it engendered a great deal of hostility among slaveholders and their friends.

The law was misused to a tremendous extent.

Due to the fact that African Americans were not permitted to testify or have a jury present during a trial, they were frequently unable to defend themselves.

However, the Fugitive Slave Act had the opposite effect, increasing Northern opposition to slavery and hastening the Civil War.

A large number of those who escaped became human witnesses to the slave system, with many of them traveling on the lecture circuit to explain to Northerners what life was like as a slave in the slave system.

It was the success of the Underground Railroad in both situations that contributed to the abolition of slavery.

A simple payment would go a long way toward ensuring that this service is available to everyone.

BlackPast.org is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with the federal identification number 26-1625373. Your contribution is completely deductible for federal income tax purposes.

Cite this article in APA format:

Waggoner, C., and Waggoner, C. (2007, December 03). The Underground Railroad is a term used to describe a system of transportation that allows people to flee their homes (1820-1861). BlackPast.org.

Source of the author’s information:

“The Underground Railroad,” by William Still (Chicago, Johnson Publishing Company, 1970) Passages to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in History and Memory (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books in association with the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, 2004); J. Blaine Hudson, Encyclopedia of the Underground Railroad (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, 2006); David W. Blight, Passages to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in History and Memory (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books in association with the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center,

Post navigation

The Underground Railroad, a vast network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and to Canada, was not run by any single organization or person. Rather, it consisted of many individuals – many whites but predominently black – who knew only of the local efforts to aid fugitives and not of the overall operation. Still, it effectively moved hundreds of slaves northward each year – according to one estimate,the South lost 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850. An organized system to assist runaway slaves seems to have begun towards the end of the 18th century. In 1786 George Washington complained about how one of his runaway slaves was helped by a “society of Quakers, formed for such purposes.” The system grew, and around 1831 it was dubbed “The Underground Railroad,” after the then emerging steam railroads. The system even used terms used in railroading: the homes and businesses where fugitives would rest and eat were called “stations” and “depots” and were run by “stationmasters,” those who contributed money or goods were “stockholders,” and the “conductor” was responsible for moving fugitives from one station to the next.For the slave, running away to the North was anything but easy. The first step was to escape from the slaveholder. For many slaves, this meant relying on his or her own resources. Sometimes a “conductor,” posing as a slave, would enter a plantation and then guide the runaways northward. The fugitives would move at night. They would generally travel between 10 and 20 miles to the next station, where they would rest and eat, hiding in barns and other out-of-the-way places. While they waited, a message would be sent to the next station to alert its stationmaster.The fugitives would also travel by train and boat – conveyances that sometimes had to be paid for. Money was also needed to improve the appearance of the runaways – a black man, woman, or child in tattered clothes would invariably attract suspicious eyes. This money was donated by individuals and also raised by various groups, including vigilance committees.Vigilance committees sprang up in the larger towns and cities of the North, most prominently in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. In addition to soliciting money, the organizations provided food, lodging and money, and helped the fugitives settle into a community by helping them find jobs and providing letters of recommendation.The Underground Railroad had many notable participants, including John Fairfield in Ohio, the son of a slaveholding family, who made many daring rescues, Levi Coffin, a Quaker who assisted more than 3,000 slaves, and Harriet Tubman, who made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.

Underground Railroad

See how abolitionists in the United States, like as Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass, and Thomas Garrett, assisted enslaved people in their attempts to escape to freedom. Learn about the abolitionist movement in the United States, as well as the importance of the Underground Railroad in this historical period. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. is a publishing company that publishes encyclopedias. View all of the videos related to this topic. When escaped slaves from the South were secretly assisted by sympathetic Northerners, in defiance of the Fugitive Slave Acts, to reach safe havens in the North or Canada, this was referred to as the Underground Railroad in the United States.

Even though it was neither underground nor a railroad, it was given this name because its actions had to be carried out in secret, either via the use of darkness or disguise, and because railroad words were employed in relation to the system’s operation.

In all directions, the network of channels stretched over 14 northern states and into “the promised land” of Canada, where fugitive-slave hunters were unable to track them down or capture them.

Harriet Beecher Stowe, best known for her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, obtained firsthand experience of escaped slaves via her association with the Underground Railroad in Cincinnati, Ohio, where she lived for a time during the Civil War.

The existence of the Underground Railroad, despite the fact that it was only a small minority of Northerners who took part in it, did much to arouse Northern sympathy for the plight of slaves during the antebellum period, while also convincing many Southerners that the North as a whole would never peacefully allow the institution of slavery to remain unchallenged.

When was the first time a sitting president of the United States appeared on television? Return to the past for the really American responses. Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.

Underground Railroad, The (1820-1861)

Smuggled fugitives through the Underground Railroad during the winter seasonThe Underground Railroad was constructed to help enslaved persons in their escape to freedom. The railroad network was made up of dozens of hidden routes and safe houses that began in slaveholding states and extended all the way to the Canadian border, which was the only place where fugitives could be certain of their freedom. From Florida to Cuba, or from Texas to Mexico, there were shorter routes that took you south.

The Underground Railroad’s success was dependent on the collaboration of previous runaway slaves, free-born blacks, Native Americans, and white and black abolitionists who assisted in guiding runaway slaves along the routes and providing their houses as safe havens for the fugitive slave population.

  1. The Underground Railroad in the Nineteenth Century New York Public Library’s Jean Blackwell Hutson Research and Reference Division, part of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, provided this photograph.
  2. The railroad employed conductors, among them William Still of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, who was likely the most well-known of the group.
  3. Slave-hiding spots were called stations, and stationmasters were individuals who hid slaves in their houses.
  4. The Underground Railroad functioned as a number of interconnected networks.
  5. Those responsible for leading the fugitive slaves north did so in stages.
  6. The “freight” would be transferred on to the next conductor once it reached another stop, and so on until the full journey had been completed.
  7. When the Underground Railroad was successful, it engendered a great deal of hostility among slaveholders and their friends.

The law was misused to a tremendous extent.

Due to the fact that African Americans were not permitted to testify or have a jury present during a trial, they were frequently unable to defend themselves.

Ironically, the Fugitive Slave Act fueled Northern opposition to slavery and contributed to the outbreak of the American Civil War.

A large number of those who escaped became human witnesses to the slave system, with many of them traveling on the lecture circuit to explain to Northerners what life was like as a slave in the slave system.

It was the success of the Underground Railroad in both situations that contributed to the abolition of slavery.

Blaine Hudson, Encyclopedia of the Underground Railroad (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, 2006); David W.

Instructions for Citing This Article (in APA Format): Waggoner, C., and Waggoner, C. (n.d.). The Underground Railroad was in operation from 1820 until 1861). Project on the History of Social Welfare. It was retrieved from

Underground Railroad

Smuggled fugitives through the Underground Railroad during the winter seasonThe Underground Railroad was constructed to assist enslaved persons in their escape to freedom from slavery. As a result, the railroad network consisted of hundreds of hidden routes and safe homes that began in slaveholding states and extended all the way to the Canadian border, which was the only place where fugitives could be certain of their freedom. From Florida to Cuba, or from Texas to Mexico, there were shorter routes that sent travelers south.

  1. The Underground Railroad’s success was dependent on the collaboration of past runaway slaves, free-born blacks, Native Americans, and white and black abolitionists who assisted in guiding fugitive slaves along the routes and providing safe havens in their own houses.
  2. In the nineteenth century, there was an underground railroad.
  3. From the jargon that was employed along the lines, the Underground Railroad received its moniker.
  4. Agents, stations, stationmasters, passengers or freight, and even investors were all included in this category.
  5. As a series of interconnected networks, the Underground Railroad functioned efficiently.
  6. It was a gradual process on the part of those who led the fugitive slaves northward.
  7. It would be transferred on to the next conductor after the “freight” had reached another stop until the full trip had been completed.

A great deal of hostility was built among slaveholders and their sympathizers as a result of the success of the Underground Railroad.

The Act allowed slave owners or their agents to request assistance from federal, state, and local law enforcement officials in non-slaveholding states in the capture of fugitive slaves.

African Americans who were not born into slavery were abducted by slave catchers.

It is sufficient for the slave-catcher to make an oath that the black guy is, in fact, a runaway slave, after which they may return the slave to its alleged owner in exchange for a reward.

See also:  Who Were Two Key Historical Figures Involved With The Underground Railroad? (Best solution)

Thousands of enslaved women and men were released and tens of thousands more were given hope as a result of the underground railroad.

The Underground Railroad attracted many more people, who became members and supporters.

Willie Still’s book, The Underground Railroad, is a good place to start looking (Chicago, Johnson Publishing Company, 1970) Passages to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in History and Memory (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books in association with the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, 2004); J.

Blight, Passages to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in History and Memory (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books in association with the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center), BlackPast.org has granted permission to republish their material.

Example of APA Citation for this Article: Charles Waggoner, C. Waggoner & Associates, Inc. (n.d.). From 1820 to 1861, the Underground Railroad transported people from one place to another. An historical study of social welfare. Obtainable via the website

Facts, information and articles about the Underground Railroad

Aproximate year of birth: 1780

Ended

1780 is a rough estimate.

Slaves Freed

Estimates range between 6,000 and 10,000.

Prominent Figures

Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. William Still is a well-known author and poet. Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by author Levi Coffin. John Fairfield is a well-known author.

Related Reading:

The Story of How Canada Became the Final Station on the Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman’s Legacy as a Freedom Fighter and a Spion is well documented.

The Beginnings Of the Underground Railroad

Even before the nineteenth century, it appears that a mechanism to assist runaways existed. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with the assistance provided to one of his escaped slaves by “a organization of Quakers, founded for such purposes.” The Religious Society of Friends, or Quakers as they are more officially known, were among the first abolitionist organizations to emerge. Their influence may have played a role in Pennsylvania becoming the first state to abolish slavery, which was home to a large number of Quakers.

In recognition of his contributions, Levi is often referred to as the “president of the Underground Railroad.” In Fountain City, Ohio, on Ohio’s western border, the eight-room Indiana home they bought and used as a “station” before they came to Cincinnati has been preserved and is now a National Historic Landmark.

The Underground Railroad Gets Its Name

Owen Brown, the father of radical abolitionist John Brown, was a member of the Underground Railroad in the state of New York during the Civil War. An unconfirmed narrative suggests that “Mammy Sally” designated the house where Abraham Lincoln’s future wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, grew up and served as a safe house where fugitives could receive food, but the account is doubtful. Routes of the Underground Railroad It was not until the early 1830s that the phrase “Underground Railroad” was first used.

Fugitives going by water or on genuine trains were occasionally provided with clothing so that they wouldn’t give themselves away by wearing their worn-out job attire.

Many of them continued on to Canada, where they could not be lawfully reclaimed by their rightful owners.

The slave or slaves were forced to flee from their masters, which was frequently done at night. It was imperative that the runaways maintain their eyes on the North Star at all times; only by keeping that star in front of them could they be certain that they were on their trip north.

Conductors On The Railroad

A “conductor,” who pretended to be a slave, would sometimes accompany fugitives to a plantation in order to lead them on their journey. Harriet Tubman, a former slave who traveled to slave states 19 times and liberated more than 300 people, is one of the most well-known “conductors.” She used her shotgun to threaten death to any captives who lost heart and sought to return to slavery. The Underground Railroad’s operators faced their own set of risks as well. If someone living in the North was convicted of assisting fugitives in their escape, he or she could face fines of hundreds or even thousands of dollars, which was a significant sum at the time; however, in areas where abolitionism was strong, the “secret” railroad was openly operated, and no one was arrested.

His position as the most significant commander of the Underground Railroad in and around Albany grew as time went on.

However, in previous times of American history, the phrase “vigilance committee” generally refers to citizen organizations that took the law into their own hands, prosecuting and hanging those suspected of crimes when there was no local government or when they considered the local authority was corrupt or weak.

White males who were found assisting slaves in their escape were subjected to heavier punishments than white women, but both were likely to face at the very least incarceration.

The Civil War On The Horizon

Events such as the Missouri Compromise and the Dred Scott decision compelled more anti-slavery activists to take an active part in the effort to liberate slaves in the United States. After Abraham Lincoln was elected president, Southern states began to secede in December 1860, putting an end to the Union’s hopes of achieving independence from the United States. Abolitionist newspapers and even some loud abolitionists warned against giving the remaining Southern states an excuse to separate. Lucia Bagbe (later known as Sara Lucy Bagby Johnson) is considered to be the final slave who was returned to bondage as a result of the Fugitive Slave Law.

Her owner hunted her down and arrested her in December 1860.

Even the Cleveland Leader, a Republican weekly that was traditionally anti-slavery and pro-the Fugitive Slave Legislation, warned its readers that allowing the law to run its course “may be oil thrown upon the seas of our nation’s difficulties,” according to the newspaper.

Following her capture, Lucy was carried back to Ohio County, Virginia, and punished, but she was released at some time when Union soldiers took control of the region. In her honor, a Grand Jubilee was celebrated on May 6, 1863, in the city of Cleveland.

The Reverse Underground Railroad

A “reverse Underground Railroad” arose in the northern states surrounding the Ohio River during the Civil War. The black men and women of those states, whether or not they had previously been slaves, were occasionally kidnapped and concealed in homes, barns, and other structures until they could be transported to the South and sold as slaves.

Kids History: Underground Railroad

There has sprung up a “reverse Underground Railroad” in northern states that border the Ohio River. The black men and women of those states, whether or whether they had previously been slaves, were occasionally kidnapped and concealed in homes, barns, and other structures until they could be transported to the South and sold as slaves there.

  • Slave proprietors wished to be free. Harriet Tubman, a well-known train conductor, was apprehended and imprisoned. They offered a $40,000 reward for information leading to her capture. That was a significant amount of money at the time
  • Levi Coffin, a Quaker who is claimed to have assisted around 3,000 slaves in gaining their freedom, was a hero of the Underground Railroad. The most usual path for individuals to escape was up north into the northern United States or Canada, although some slaves in the deep south made their way to Mexico or Florida
  • Canada was known to slaves as the “Promised Land” because of its promise of freedom. The Mississippi River was originally known as the “River Jordan” in the Bible
  • Fleeing slaves were sometimes referred to as passengers or freight on railroads, in accordance with railroad nomenclature

Activities

  • This page is the subject of a ten-question quiz
  • Listen to an audio recording of this page being read: You are unable to listen to the audio element because your browser does not support it
  • Learn about Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad by reading this article.

HistoryCivil WarHistoryCivil War Works Cited

The Underground Railroad

At the time of slavery, the Underground Railroad was a network of routes, locations, and individuals that assisted enslaved persons in the American South in their attempts to flee to freedom in the northern states. Subjects History of the United States, Social StudiesImage

Home of Levi Coffin

Levi Coffin’s residence in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he lived as an American Quaker and abolitionist. This was a station on the Underground Railroad, a network of routes, locations, and individuals that assisted enslaved persons in escaping to the North during the Civil War. Cincinnati Museum Center provided the photography. “> During the age of slavery, the Underground Railroad was a network of routes, locations, and individuals that assisted enslaved persons in the American South in escaping to the North, according to the Underground Railroad Museum.

Although it was not a real railroad, it fulfilled the same function as one: it carried passengers across large distances.

The people who worked for the Underground Railroad were driven by a passion for justice and a desire to see slavery abolished—a drive that was so strong that they risked their lives and jeopardized their own freedom in order to assist enslaved people in escaping from bondage and staying safe while traveling the Underground Railroad.

  • As the network expanded, the railroad metaphor became more prevalent.
  • In recent years, academic research has revealed that the vast majority of persons who engaged in the Underground Railroad did it on their own, rather than as part of a larger organization.
  • According to historical tales of the railroad, conductors frequently pretended to be enslaved persons in order to smuggle runaways out of plantation prisons and train stations.
  • Often, the conductors and passengers traveled 16–19 kilometers (10–20 miles) between each safehouse stop, which was a long distance in this day and age.
  • Patrols on the lookout for enslaved persons were usually on their tails, chasing them down.
  • Historians who study the railroad, on the other hand, find it difficult to distinguish between fact and fiction.
  • Eric Foner is one of the historians that belongs to this group.
  • Despite this, the Underground Railroad was at the center of the abolitionist struggle during the nineteenth century.
  • Levi Coffin’s residence in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he lived as an American Quaker and abolitionist.
  • Cincinnati Museum Center provided the photography.
  • Person who is owned by another person or group of people is referred to as an enslaved person.

Slavery is a noun that refers to the act of owning another human being or being owned by another human being (also known as servitude). Abolitionists utilized this nounsystem between 1800 and 1865 to aid enslaved African Americans in their attempts to flee to free states.

Media Credits

With the exception of promotional graphics, which normally link to another page that carries the media credit, all audio, artwork, photos, and videos are attributed beneath the media asset they are associated with. In the case of media, the Rights Holder is the individual or group that gets credited.

Director

With the exception of promotional graphics, which normally link to another page that carries the media credit, all audio, artwork, photos, and videos are acknowledged beneath the media asset in question. It is the person or entity who is attributed with being the Rights Holder for media.

Author

The National Geographic Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the exploration of the world’s natural wonders.

Production Managers

Gina Borgia is a member of the National Geographic Society. Jeanna Sullivan is a member of the National Geographic Society.

Program Specialists

According to National Geographic Society’s Sarah Appleton, Margot Willis is a National Geographic Society photographer.

Last Updated

The 21st of June, 2019 Permissions Granted to Users Users’ permissions are detailed in our Terms of Service, which you can see by clicking here. Alternatively, if you have any issues regarding how to reference something from our website in your project or classroom presentation, please speak with your instructor. They will be the most knowledgeable about the selected format. When you contact them, you will need to provide them with the page title, URL, and the date on which you visited the item.

Media

If a media asset is available for download, a download button will show in the lower right corner of the media viewer window. If no download or save button displays, you will be unable to download or save the material.

Text

The text on this page is printable and may be used in accordance with our Terms of Service agreement.

Interactives

Printing and using the text on this page is permitted under our Terms of Service.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *