Who really ran the Underground Railroad?
- The “railroad” itself, according to this legend, was composed of “a chain of stations leading from the Southern states to Canada,” as Wilbur H. Siebert put it in his massive pioneering (and often wildly romantic) study, The Underground Railroad (1898), or “a series of hundreds of interlocking ‘lines,’ ” that ran from Alabama or Mississippi,
What grade is the Underground Railroad?
The lessons are suitable for grades 4-9. The Anti-Slavery Society of Canada was the last of several short-lived anti-slavery societies in Canada. These societies were part of an international abolitionist movement supported by leading moral thinkers of the day in Britain, Europe and the United States.
What age do children learn about slavery?
By the early elementary years (1st or 2nd grade), children are more likely to be developmentally ready to talk about slavery. By middle school, youth can have in-depth discussions that examine the far-reaching role slavery played in the United States’ economy and society.
What was the Underground Railroad 4th grade?
The Underground Railroad was a term used for a network of people, homes, and hideouts that slaves in the southern United States used to escape to freedom in the Northern United States and Canada.
How do you explain the Underground Railroad to kids?
It went through people’s houses, barns, churches, and businesses. People who worked with the Underground Railroad cared about justice and wanted to end slavery. They risked their lives to help enslaved people escape from bondage, so they could remain safe on the route.
Why should students learn about the Underground Railroad?
It is a demonstration of how African Americans could organize on their own – dispelling the myth that African Americans did not resist enslavement. It provided an opportunity for sympathetic Americans to assist in the abolition of slavery.
Why is it important to learn about the Underground Railroad?
The underground railroad, where it existed, offered local service to runaway slaves, assisting them from one point to another. The primary importance of the underground railroad was that it gave ample evidence of African American capabilities and gave expression to African American philosophy.
How do you explain slavery to a 7 year old?
Some say the best approach is to start early, introducing children as young as 5 by using picture books about slavery that are not graphic but also don’t play down the experience. Some want to avoid the subject altogether. They worry about anger, fear, guilt. Some feel ill-equipped.
At what age can we introduce children to honest history?
Honest History Magazine is written for kids ages 6-12. However, it can be for older kids also as a history resource, for short snippets on history, or even stand alone project based homeschool studies.
How many slaves were caught on the Underground Railroad?
Estimates vary widely, but at least 30,000 slaves, and potentially more than 100,000, escaped to Canada via the Underground Railroad.
How many slaves did Levi Coffin help escape?
In 1826, he moved to Indiana and over the next 20 years he assisted more than 2,000 enslaved persons escape bondage, so many that his home was known as the “Grand Central Station of the Underground Railroad.”
How did Harriet Tubman find out about the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad and Siblings Tubman first encountered the Underground Railroad when she used it to escape slavery herself in 1849. Following a bout of illness and the death of her owner, Tubman decided to escape slavery in Maryland for Philadelphia.
What are some important facts about the Underground Railroad?
7 Facts About the Underground Railroad
- The Underground Railroad was neither underground nor a railroad.
- People used train-themed codewords on the Underground Railroad.
- The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 made it harder for enslaved people to escape.
- Harriet Tubman helped many people escape on the Underground Railroad.
How did slaves escape the Underground Railroad?
Conductors helped runaway slaves by providing them with safe passage to and from stations. They did this under the cover of darkness with slave catchers hot on their heels. Many times these stations would be located within their own homes and businesses.
What year did the Underground Railroad begin and end?
system used by abolitionists between 1800-1865 to help enslaved African Americans escape to free states.
Teach Your Kids About . the Underground Railroad
It was a perilous voyage for slaves fleeing slavery in the southern states as they travelled north on the Underground Railroad, an underground network of people who opposed slavery and assisted the fugitives on their trek to Canada, where they could live free. Please see the list below for more study materials to learn more about this time of history. Lesson Plans are a type of plan that is used to teach a subject.
- An interactive lesson plan based on the Underground Railroad Teacher’s Guide, published by Scholastic: the lesson plan contains four “stops” where students may learn about different parts of the Underground Railroad journey through audio, video, and other interactive activities
- Instructional Materials on the Underground Railroad – Lesson plans organized by grade level Lessons are in.doc format, which means they will download to your PC. Digital Classroom for the Underground Railroad– Contains lesson plans, handouts, virtual field excursions, a digital book shelf with movies and worksheets, and much, much more. Educators can use the Fort Pulaski National Monument as a starting point for their investigations on the life of African-American slaves during the Civil War. National Park Service’s Quest for Freedom: The Underground Railroad is a documentary on the Underground Railroad. There are various lessons connected to the abolition of slavery and the Underground Railroad included in this book. In Motion’s Runaway Journeys is a piece of music. Lesson plans for students in grades 6 and up about the migration of African-Americans are available. The material offered on the Runaway Journeys website was used to create this report. This resource comes from the Institute for Freedom Studies and is titled Teaching the Underground Railroad. Heritage Minutes has created lesson materials for grades K–9 about the Underground Railroad. Underground Railroad Heritage Minute lesson ideas for secondary grades
- Henry’s Freedom Box lesson plans for secondary grades according to Scholastic – lesson plans and activities based on the children’s book of the same name
Figures of Influence Harriet Tubman (also known as “Tubman”) was an American woman who lived during the Civil War.
- Debbie Musiek created the Harriet Tubman Unit, and the Tarsus Literary and Library Consulting created the Harriet Tubman Research Pathfinder.
William Still: I’d want to thank you for your service.
- The William Still Story, courtesy of Public Broadcasting Service. William Still, an abolitionist, is featured in a video, lesson materials, and other resources.
Various Other Resources
- Site of John Freeman Wells’s historical significance The Underground Railroad Museum is located in New York City. This museum is located in Puce, Ontario, which served as the subterranean railroad’s terminus. Uncle Tom’s Cabin has an interesting personal tale as well as photographs. Dresden is a town in the province of Ontario. Located on the grounds of the historic site is Rev. Josiah Henson, who served as the basis for the novel “Uncle Tom’s Cabin.” On Black History Canada, there is an article about the Underground Railroad. Lists of references and resources from all around the internet
- Internet Resources for the Underground Railroad on CyberBee– A list of websites and other resources
Although there appears to be a lot of debate on whether quilt codes are true or not, here are some useful resources on the subject regardless of your opinion.
- Crafting Your Own Quilt Pattern Board Gameby Deceptively Educational – Step-by-step instructions on how to craft your own quilt pattern board game
- Quilt code patterns– an explanation of the patterns and what they signified
- Quilt code patterns Quilt patterns and the Underground Railroad: the significance of patterns in history
- Creating Your Own Secret Quilt Message from Pathways to Freedom is a fun and engaging online activity.
- Mission US: Mission 2 – Flight to Freedom — an interactive online game in which you take on the role of 14-year-old Lucy King, who is attempting to flee slavery via the Underground Railroad
- Mission US: Mission 2 – Flight to Freedom The Underground Railroad Interactive Game–a “choose your own adventure” style game in which you determine which steps to follow along your journey north
- The Underground Railroad Interactive Game The Underground Railroad: Journey to Freedom is an interactive game in the manner of a 3D movie. This handbook is also accessible to educators in grades 6 through 10
- Create a 3D representation of Harriet Tubman with Crayola Triarama
- Create an Underground Railroad Lantern using Arkansas Civil War 150
- And more.
A challenge presented by Ben and Me that will see bloggers publish their way through the alphabet over the course of 26 weeks will include a post on books. The letter U is represented here. Feel free to participate yourself, or simply to see what other people are writing about!
‘The third rail in early-childhood education’: When are children old enough to learn about slavery?
When the notification about the first-grade field trip arrived at Taylor Harris’ house, she became instantly apprehensive. A visit to a massive Virginia plantation, where hundreds of people had been enslaved, was planned for her daughter and her elementary school classmates in Loudoun County, Virginia, as part of their field trip. Despite the fact that the previous plantation had been renamed “historic home and gardens,” Harris, who is African-American, was filled with concerns. What would the youngsters learn about the plantation’s history if they were allowed to stay?
In addition, why was a bunch of first-graders coming there to begin with, when there were so many other possibilities for instructive field excursions available?
The history of slavery, according to some, is too difficult for young children to comprehend, and therefore it is preferable to introduce the subject later in elementary school or middle school rather than earlier in primary school.
Some people choose to stay away from the issue entirely.
In the event that her daughter was to go on a field trip to a former plantation, she wanted to make certain that she would not be served a whitewashed version of history that ignored racism, cruelty, and economic exploitation that made life so profitable and enjoyable for some people while miserable for others.
It might be difficult to locate books and classes that deal with slavery in an honest and respectful manner.
More recently, a third book aimed at young children also drew widespread criticism.
A small girl narrates the story, and she explains that she and her father, as well as their entire family, are among the slaves that belong to President Washington.
Washington have the most faith, second only to Billy Lee, the president’s personal servant.” Scholastic, the book’s publisher, stated in a statement that “despite the great intentions and convictions of the author, editor, and artist, we do not feel this product fits the requirements of proper presentation of material to younger children.” In 2015, another children’s book, “A Fine Dessert,” was again attacked for portraying slavery in a positive light, this time as a sweet treat.
For children aged four to eight, the illustrated book featured an enslaved mother and daughter bringing dessert to their masters and then cheerfully removing the dish from their table and placing it in a kitchen closet to “lick it clean.” Emily Jenkins, the book’s author, later expressed regret, stating, “I have come to recognize that my book, while intended to be inclusive, realistic, and hopeful, is racially insensitive.” “I take full responsibility and express my heartfelt regret.” It is not the fact that these novels are purposely or menacingly racist that is the problem, according to critics, but the fact that they propagate a benign picture of slavery that continues to obscure the destructive truth about slavery.
“The types of things that we have to use in order to teach students about this subject are quite restricted.” As Ebony Elizabeth Thomas, an associate professor at the University of Pennsylvania’s Graduate School of Education, put it, “it’s truly the third rail in early-childhood education.” Thomas has researched how slavery is depicted in children’s literature and has written a book about it.
- (Source: The Washington Post.
- The author cites Angela Johnson’s “All Different Now: Juneteenth, the First Day of Freedom,” Laban Carrick Hill’s “Dave the Potter: Artist, Poet, Slave,” and Shane W.
- One source of concern for instructors is the possibility that the reality of slavery will be too much for young kids to handle.
- Many young pupils, on the other hand, are still learning about slavery and the reasons why runaways are forced to escape their homes.
Educating Tolerance, a nonprofit organization of the Southern Poverty Law Center, says in recommendations it produced lately for teaching young children about slavery that slavery is “a essential element of the history of the United States.” In the same way that history teaching begins in primary school, learning about slavery should begin there as well.
Rebekah Gienapp, a Methodist pastor in Memphis who is white, wrote on her blog, TheBarefootMommy.com, on what children should learn about slavery since her little son, who is now 7 years old, had reached an age at which she believed he needed to be aware of the history.
“They will be able to learn the more complex reality in high school, but if we don’t talk to them about slavery and resistance when they are younger, they will not be able to have those talks when they are adolescents.” In Memphis public schools, where the majority of the students were black, Gienapp, 41, credits her teachers with helping her gain a better understanding of the role slavery played in the United States and how its legacy continued to affect black Americans long after slavery was abolished.
- Gienapp is married and has two children.
- The experience of African Americans, particularly under slavery, was sometimes overshadowed by other narratives, including those that offered a more favorable portrayal of slaveholding secessionists, which were more popular at the time.
- Among the books recommended by Gienapp on her blog are “In the Time of the Drums,” by Kim L.
- Gregory Christie, both of which are aimed at teaching young children about slavery.
- Gienapp realized that she has numerous relatives who had slaves last summer while researching her family’s ancestry.
- Childhood education specialists believe that engaging pupils at a young age with facts about slavery, rather than myths about slavery, is critical for a shift of learning to take place.
About the project: Teaching Slavery
To conduct this investigation into how slavery is taught in schools across the country, The Washington Post spoke with more than 100 students, teachers, administrators, and historians from across the country. They also observed middle school and high school history classes in Birmingham, Ala., Fort Dodge, Iowa, Germantown, Maryland, Concord, Mass., Broken Arrow, Okla., as well as the District of Columbia. The articles in this project examine the lessons students are learning about slavery, the obstacles that teachers face when teaching this difficult subject, the appropriate age at which to introduce difficult concepts about slavery to young students, and the ways in which teachers connect the history of slavery to 21st-century racism and white supremacy in America.
Other tales from the project may be found here.
The Underground Railroad was not a real railway in the traditional sense. The truth is that it was a clandestine organization that operated in the United States prior to the Civil War. The persons who worked on the Underground Railroad assisted fugitive slaves from the South in their efforts to reach safe havens in the North or Canada. The Underground Railroad utilized railroad terminologies as code phrases to communicate with one another. “Lines” were the names given to the roads leading to freedom.
- “Conductors” were those who were in charge of transporting or concealing enslaved persons.
- Because it was against the law, the Underground Railroad had to be kept a closely guarded secret.
- The people who managed the Underground Railroad were abolitionists, meaning they intended to abolish, or at the very least bring slavery to an end, in every state.
- It is thought that Thomas Garrett, a Quaker leader, assisted over 2,700 enslaved persons in their escape.
- The abolitionist Harriet Tubman was a former enslaved lady who helped hundreds of enslaved people to freedom.
The majority of lines terminated in Canada. Some estimates have the number of slaves who “traveled” the Underground Railroad at anywhere from 40,000 and 100,000, depending on who you ask. The railroad’s operations came to a stop with the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Kids History: Underground Railroad
Civil War is a historical event that occurred in the United States. During the American Civil War, the phrase “Underground Railroad” was used to describe a network of persons, residences, and hiding places that slaves in the southern United States used to flee to freedom in the northern United States and Canada. Is it possible that there was a railroad? The Underground Railroad wasn’t truly a railroad in the traditional sense. It was the moniker given to the method by which individuals managed to flee.
- Conductors and stations are two types of conductors.
- Conductors were those who were in charge of escorting slaves along the path.
- Even those who volunteered their time and resources by donating money and food were referred to as shareholders.
- Who was employed by the railroad?
- Some of the Underground Railroad’s conductors were former slaves, such as Harriet Tubman, who escaped slavery by way of the Underground Railroad and subsequently returned to assist other slaves in their escape.
- They frequently offered safe havens in their houses, as well as food and other supplies to those in need.
What mode of transportation did the people use if there was no railroad?
Slaves would frequently go on foot during the night.
The distance between stations was generally between 10 and 20 miles.
Was it a potentially hazardous situation?
There were those trying to help slaves escape, as well as those who were attempting to aid them.
In what time period did the Underground Railroad operate?
It reached its zenith in the 1850s, just before the American Civil War.
How many people were able to flee?
Over 100,000 slaves are said to have fled over the railroad’s history, with 30,000 escaping during the peak years before the Civil War, according to some estimates.
This resulted in a rule requiring that fugitive slaves who were discovered in free states be returned to their masters in the south.
Slaves were now had to be carried all the way to Canada in order to avoid being kidnapped once more by the British.
The abolitionist movement began with the Quakers in the 17th century, who believed that slavery was incompatible with Christian principles.
Ducksters’ Lewis Hayden House is located in the town of Lewis Hayden. The Lewis Hayden House functioned as a station on the Underground Railroad during the American Civil War. Information on the Underground Railroad that is both interesting and educational
- Slave proprietors wished to be free. Harriet Tubman, a well-known train conductor, was apprehended and imprisoned. They offered a $40,000 reward for information leading to her capture. That was a significant amount of money at the time
- Levi Coffin, a Quaker who is claimed to have assisted around 3,000 slaves in gaining their freedom, was a hero of the Underground Railroad. The most usual path for individuals to escape was up north into the northern United States or Canada, although some slaves in the deep south made their way to Mexico or Florida
- Canada was known to slaves as the “Promised Land” because of its promise of freedom. The Mississippi River was originally known as the “River Jordan” in the Bible
- Fleeing slaves were sometimes referred to as passengers or freight on railroads, in accordance with railroad nomenclature
- This page is the subject of a ten-question quiz
- Listen to an audio recording of this page being read: You are unable to listen to the audio element because your browser does not support it
- Learn about Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad by reading this article.
HistoryCivil WarHistoryCivil War Works Cited
Teaching Hard History: Grades K-5 Introduction
We’ve created a great road where none previously existed, and we hope that many instructors and curriculum professionals will follow in our footsteps. That is exactly what we hope to do with this guide: to give essentials that will serve as a basis for further learning about slavery, both in the past and now. These basics provide a balance between stories of oppression and stories of resistance and agency. Rather than being a “peculiar” institution, slavery was a national institution motivated by a desire for profit, as demonstrated by these scholars.
- This framework for the primary grades provides age-appropriate, vital knowledge about American slavery that is grouped thematically within grade bands, making it easier for instructors to tread the narrow line between overwhelming pupils and sugarcoating the reality.
- The framework itself contains real guidelines for how to introduce these concepts to pupils in an engaging manner.
- To that end, we hope that instructors would choose to involve youngsters in discussions on important themes like what it means to be free and how humans make decisions even in the most difficult of situations.
- They have blazed a trail where none previously existed, and we hope that many other teachers and curriculum professionals will follow in their footsteps.
- Using the framework, you may identify important ideas and summary objectives that are supported by instructional tactics.
- This elementary framework broadens our scope to encompass instructors and children in the primary grades, which is a welcome development.
- We believe that schools should begin telling the tale of our country’s beginnings and direction as early as possible and on a regular basis.
Students have a right to be taught the complete and accurate history of the United States.
1 Being honest, especially when it is tough, helps to create trust, which is vital for developing good connections between instructors and students (and between teachers and students).
They frequently speak and think about the concepts of freedom, equality, and power.
Young people desire to contribute to the development of a more just and equitable society.
Slavery has played a significant role in the history of the United States.
Unfortunately, neither state departments of education nor the publishing business give adequate recommendations on how to educate about slavery to children and teenagers in an effective manner.
Teachers are being urged to commemorate Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass as early as kindergarten, despite the fact that slavery may not be included in their state’s curriculum until the fourth grade.
When it comes to social studies education in elementary schools, elementary educators encounter a number of challenges.
Teachers who specialize in one of those areas are more likely to be found than those who specialize in social studies, which is frequently excluded from statewide testing regimes.
Many books on the Underground Railroad may be found in school libraries and English Language Arts (ELA) classes, but there are none that describe the day-to-day life of enslaved families and their children.
This guide fills in the blanks.
When done correctly, teaching about slavery encompasses all ten of the primary topic strands for social studies instruction proposed by the National Council for the Social Studies (National Council for the Social Studies).
Furthermore, it is compatible with existing instructional programs.
As students learn about the history of slavery via the use of this framework, they are encouraged to participate in discussions about the meaning and value of freedom.
Identity, variety, culture, time, change, citizenship, conflict and capitalism are some of the concepts that young pupils acquire as they are prepared to comprehend the greater arc of American history by their teachers.
In the same way that history teaching begins in primary school, learning about slavery should begin there as well.
Students who have been taught to sugarcoat or ignore slavery until later grades are more offended by or even averse to truthful stories about American history, according to research.
It is preferable for them to deliberate in the development of curriculum that enables pupils to comprehend the lengthy, complex history, as well as the current ramifications, of slavery.
We teach the constituent pieces of algebra long before we teach algebra as a whole. Our history lessons should be structured in a similar manner. The following are some guiding ideas to bear in mind as educators read through this resource.
Be ready to talk about race.
If you are studying slavery, it is hard to do so without bringing up issues like as racism and white supremacy. This is something that many instructors, particularly white teachers, find uncomfortable. Speaking about race, and in particular encouraging students to see it as a social construction rather than a biological truth, may provide a chance for students to engage in productive and serious discussions provided the discussion is correctly handled, as seen in the following example. First and foremost, instructors should take some time to analyze their own identities as well as the ways in which those identities shape the way they perceive the world around them.
Teachers should also take into account the demographics of their classroom and become fluent in culturally sustaining educational practices that acknowledge and draw upon students’ identities as assets for learning in order to maximize learning outcomes.
Teach about commonalities.
When teaching about different times and cultures, it is vital to begin by emphasizing the parallels between the students’ life and the civilizations being studied before moving on to examine the contrasts. When children learn about “cultural universals” such as art forms, group laws, social organization, fundamental needs, language, and festivities, they are more likely to perceive that individuals are connected together by commonalities regardless of whether they belong to a particular group.
4 This strategy also aids pupils in developing empathy, which is a crucial ability for social and emotional development in children.
Center the stories of enslaved people.
The practice of starting a lesson with describing the ills of slavery is a common blunder made by instructors. This quietly conveys the message that enslaved people lacked autonomy and a sense of cultural identity. As an alternative, begin by being familiar with the multiplicity of African kingdoms and Native countries, along with the intellectual and cultural traditions of these peoples. It will be possible to add depth and detail to these topics if we concentrate on individual nations (for example, the Benin Empire or the Onondaga Nation).
The talents and humanity of persons who were slaves are highlighted in the first step of this strategy.
As they engage in a discussion about slavery, students should keep the humanity of enslaved individuals at the forefront of their minds by investigating texts that speak to the different experiences of enslaved people from their own viewpoints as well as the views of their descendants.
Embed civics education.
The history of slavery in the United States provides students with several opportunity to investigate the different facets of civics that are presented to them. First and foremost, students should think about the nature of authority and power. In this section, they should define what it is to have power and explain the many ways in which individuals utilize power to aid, damage, and influence situations. Students might begin by looking at examples from their own classrooms, families, and communities to learn about how power is earned, utilized, and justifiably justified.
As they learn more about the history of slavery, students should begin to comprehend the several levels of governance in the United States (local, state, tribal, and national), as well as the concept that regulations might differ from one location to another.
It is important for students to look at examples and role models from the past and today and to ask themselves, “How can I make a difference?”
Teach about conflict and change.
At one level, the history of American slavery is a narrative of horrible oppression; at another, it is a story of amazing resistance and perseverance. Students should understand that enslaved individuals wished to be free, and that while some were able to escape, it was a tough process. Educators must be cautious to demonstrate to children that enslaved people rebelled in different ways, such as by learning to read colonial languages or by devising rites such as “jumping the broom” when marriage was prohibited.
They should also be aware that many individuals were opposed to slavery and wished to see it abolished altogether.
Return to the K-5 Framework for Teaching Difficult History
The Underground Railroad Facts for Kids
- The Underground Railroad was a network of people (both black and white) that assisted enslaved persons in their attempts to flee the southern United States. They did so by providing them with refuge and assistance. Although the specific date on which they began is unknown, it is most likely that they did so around the late 1800s. They persisted in their endeavors until the Civil War was concluded and slavery was abolished.
During the era of slavery in America, enslaved individuals were forced to flee to the northern United States. There were a variety of routes, locations, and persons that assisted them in doing this. Continue reading to find out more about the Underground Railroad. The Underground Railroad was the name given to this network. Although it was not a railroad in the traditional sense, it had the same purpose: it assisted enslaved individuals in escaping large distances from their owners.
The Quakers were the first religious group to assist fugitive slaves. Quakers were a religious sect in the United States that adhered to the principles of nonviolence. During the Revolutionary War, George Washington claimed that Quakers attempted to free one of his enslaved employees. Isaac T. Hopper, a Quaker abolitionist, established a network in Philadelphia in 1800 to assist slaves who were on the run from their masters.
At the same time, Quaker abolitionists founded societies in North Carolina that set the groundwork for routes and safe havens for runaway slaves. In 1816, the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AMEC) was founded in the United States. They also assisted fleeing enslaved individuals.
How did the Underground Railroad work
It was in 1831 when a slave called Tice Davids managed to escape his master and make his way into Ohio, thus beginning the history of the Underground Railroad. According to the proprietor, Davids was aided in his escape by a “underground railroad.” Someone called Jim who was enslaved disclosed to people who tortured him that he intended to travel north along the “underground railroad” all the way to Boston in 1839, according to a Washington-based newspaper. It is not known whether or whether the Underground Railroad traveled via tunnels.
People who participated with the Underground Railroad were concerned about justice and wanted to see slavery put an end to its practice.
According to certain estimates, the Underground Railroad assisted in the emancipation of 100.000 enslaved individuals.
They started referring to it as the “Underground Railroad” after that.
The parts of the Underground Railroad
It was in 1831 when a slave called Tice Davids managed to escape his master and make his way into Ohio, marking the beginning of the Underground Railroad. According to the proprietor, Davids was aided in his escape by a “underground railroad” Someone called Jim who was enslaved disclosed to people who tortured him that he intended to travel north along the “underground railroad” all the way to Boston in 1839, according to a Washington newspaper. It was not necessary for the Underground Railroad to pass via tunnels.
Justice and the abolition of slavery were important concerns for those who helped with the Underground Railroad.
The Underground Railroad, according to some estimates, assisted in the emancipation of 100.000 enslaved individuals.
The “Underground Railroad” became a popular nickname.
- A group of people known as “conductors” assisted fugitive slaves by leading them to safety. Stations were the locations where fugitive slaves were housed until they could be reunited with their families.
- Individuals involved in the hiding of slaves were referred to as “station masters.”
- ‘Passengers’ refer to people who are going along the routes and are also referred to as ‘travelers.’
- Cargo: Those who had made it to the safe homes were referred to as the “cargo.”
Vigilance committees were organisations that were formed to defend fugitive slaves from bounty hunters who were pursuing them. They quickly began assisting other enslaved individuals in their attempts to elude capture by leading them down the Underground Railroad. People who worked on the Underground Railroad almost always did it on their own. They did not appear to be a part of any group. There were many people from many occupations and walks of life there, including those who had formerly been enslaved.
They were in danger of being apprehended since they were carrying out this operation at night and because there was a significant distance between safe places where the runaways might seek refuge from slave hunters and flee.
Fugitive Slave Acts
There were a set of federal statutes known as the Fugitive Slave Acts that allowed you to apprehend and return runaway enslaved persons. They were enacted in the year 1793. The first Fugitive Slave Act made it possible to return fugitive slaves to their masters while also imposing penalties on those who assisted them in their escape. Also noteworthy is that the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 strengthened regulations about runaways and increased the severity of penalties for interfering with the capture of fugitives.
Solomon Northup, a free black musician who was kidnapped in Washington, DC, was one of the most well-known cases.
Following the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, all people were required to assist in the apprehension of slaves.
The Underground Railroad provided assistance to the vast majority of enslaved individuals, but mainly those in border states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland.
Helping the Underground Railroad
Across the country, bake sales were held to generate funds for the Underground Railroad in villages and cities. They raised money by selling meals, handcrafted trinkets, and items given by the public. A large number of individuals desire to purchase gifts for their family and friends during the Christmas season. It is possible that this tradition would not have begun without the assistance of abolitionists. They were able to assist by establishing exchange points where individuals could exchange gifts.
Some others, like as William Seward, encouraged others to flee, and he aided them in their efforts.
Having to juggle a variety of other responsibilities such as cooking, buying, and sewing was a positive thing for the women who had to do them because it made them feel like they were making a significant impact in the world by performing these modest actions.
Graceanna Lewis was one of the first three women to be accepted to the Academy of Natural Sciences, and she was the first female president of the Academy. Graceanna was not only one of the first professionally recognized female naturalists, but she was also a campaigner for abolition and social reform throughout her lifetime. In an early article, Graceanna Lewis invited other Quakers to join her and assist her in her endeavors.
The Lewis farm in Pennsylvania became a well-known station on the Underground Railroad, which assisted individuals in their quest for freedom. Aside from that, they offered clothing and provisions for persons fleeing slavery.
She was an abolitionist who escaped from slavery and assisted other enslaved persons in their efforts to do the same. She also worked as a nurse and as a spy for the Union, and she was an advocate for women’s suffrage. Harriet Tubman is a well-known figure in American history because she accomplished so many remarkable things. Maryland was the place of Harriet Tubman’s birth. When she was a child, her given name was Araminta Ross. However, once her mother passed away, she changed her name to Harriet.
- When Harriet was five years old, she was forced to work as a nursemaid for a group of white people, who would occasionally beat her if they were upset about anything that happened at the facility or if she didn’t perform what they demanded of her.
- She took a step between the two and was struck instead.
- They had to carry me to the home because I was bleeding and fainting.
- However, the marriage was not going well, and Harriet’s brothers Ben and Henry were on the verge of being auctioned off.
- Harriet Tubman traveled to Philadelphia in 1849 and then returned to Maryland, where she was able to save her family’s lives.
- In the end, she was able to assist dozens of other individuals in their escape from slavery by going at night and in complete secrecy.
- After the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, Harriet Tubman assisted in guiding fugitives farther north into British North America, where she died (Canada).
- Harriet made a total of 19 journeys back to Maryland in order to obtain 300 slaves.
- She was successful in rescuing her parents in 1857.
- The American Civil War began.
- She began her career as a chef and nurse, and then advanced to the position of armed scout and spy.
Some slaves used disguises to avoid detection. William Craft and his wife, Ellen, were able to elude enslavement. They were born in Macon, Georgia, but they fled to Philadelphia on Christmas Day, when the city was closed. They claimed to be a white guy and his servant in order to keep their true identities hidden from the public. Because they were enslaved, neither William nor Ellen had the ability to read or write. When they wanted to sign something, Ellen would put her arm in a sling to protect her arm from injury.
There were also other disguises used, such as slaves costumed as funeral procession groups. To avoid being immediately identified as slaves, some feigned to have vision or hearing difficulties in order to avoid being easily identified as such.
Special codes in the Underground Railroad
The slaves communicated with one another using codes to let them know when they were safe. When someone was coming to the station, the folks in charge would send someone down to a separate residence so that they would be aware of the situation. When the slaves came, several of them tossed pebbles at the person’s window to let him or her know they were there.
Canada was an excellent destination to flee from the shackles of slavery. Black people were given the freedom to reside anywhere they want in Canada. They may serve on juries and run for public office, among other things. Some fugitive smugglers from the Underground Railroad settled in Canada and assisted newly arrived fugitives in their new home. Find out more about the Triangular Slave Trade.
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Kentucky’s Underground Railroad (Urban Underground Railroad) (M, O) “Local stories of courage and sacrifice on the Underground Railroad, the hidden network of people who assisted enslaved individuals in their journey north to freedom, have been unearthed in Boone County, Kentucky, as a result of recent study. As they prepared to cross the Ohio River, people could take in the scenery from the county’s hilltop overlooking the river. Historic sites in the area are described by local historians, who also recount the story of the Cincinnati 28, who staged an audacious escape and then concealed in plain sight as they moved through Cincinnati.” The following is an excerpt from PBS Learning Media: The Underground Railroad: An Introduction (y) It is taught to students about the Underground Railroad and the reasons why slaves utilized it.
- Classes in grades 1-2 In this lesson, students will study about natural and human-made signs that assisted slaves in finding their way north through the Underground Railroad during the American Civil War.
- Classes in grades 1-2 In this lesson, students will learn how to identify slave states and free states during the time of the Underground Railroad, examine the difficulties of escape, and determine the path they would have traveled if they were on the run from slavery.
- Guide for Educators (Y) Students in Grades 6-10 may learn about history using game-playing techniques.
- Africa in America resource bank from PBS.org on the Underground Railroad (Y, M, O, T) and Africans in America.
- In this article from History.com, we will discuss the Underground Railroad (Y, M, O and T).
- Tours of the Underground Railroad (Y, M, O, and T) are available through the Friends of the First Living Museum.
- Sites of the Underground Railroad in Indiana (Y, M, O, T) Indiana’s involvement with the Underground Railroad is detailed here.
During the years leading up to and during the Civil War, a large number of runaway slaves journeyed across the state of Indiana.
Teaching resources for students at three different levels.
Players in the Harriet Tubman Readers Theater (Y, M) To learn about Harriet Tubman, an American hero, and to learn about the Underground Railroad, a multiple-role reader’s theater script is used.
Kindergarten to fourth grade This is the story of William Still, who was a member of the Underground Railroad (Y, M, O, T).
Using Maryland as a Route to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in the State of Maryland (Y, M, O, T) Among the many resources available on this site are original source documents, historical events, museums, and individuals who operated on the Underground Railroad in Maryland.
Slaves and Underground Railroad conductors were both involved in the Underground Railroad (Y,M,O,T) Learn why and how slaves fled from their masters by utilizing the underground railroad, as well as who was in charge of running the railroad.
History Museum in Newton, Massachusetts (Y,M,O,T) In addition to permanent exhibitions, the Newton History Museum also hosts rotating exhibits on a range of historical themes.
The abolitionist movement in Newton and how the Jackson family utilized their home to serve as an Underground Railroad station are both covered in detail in this exhibit.
The John Brown Museum is located in the heart of the city (Y,M,O,T) In the midst of “Bleeding Kansas,” the Reverend Samuel Adair and his wife, Florella, were peaceful abolitionists who moved to Kansas and resided in Osawatomie, a thriving abolitionist settlement that was also a flashpoint for violence.
- Today, the cabin still exists on the location of the Event of Osawatomie, when John Brown and 30 free-state defenders faced 250 pro-slavery troops in 1856, and serves as a memorial to the battle.
- Levi Coffin House is a historic building in Levi, Pennsylvania (Y,M,O,T) This listed National Historic Landmark, which was erected in 1839 in the Federal style, served as a stop on the renowned Underground Railroad for fleeing slaves during the pre-Civil War era.
- During their 20-year residence in Newport, the Coffins were responsible for assisting more than 2,000 slaves to find safety.
- They will investigate the themes of slavery, respect, and giving of one’s time or skill in order to better the lives of others around them.
There’s a train coming, and you better get ready (Y,M) By studying the roles individuals played in the Underground Railroad, students will get an understanding of how charity is an important aspect of African American history and culture. Grades 3, 4, and 5
Journey on the Underground Railroad
Do you require more assistance with EL students? Try out theVocabulary in Contextpre-lesson activity first.
- Students will be able to accurately apply terms connected to the Underground Railroad in a variety of situations.
It is a change to the whole group lesson that is made in order to distinguish for children who are English language learners. EL adjustments are made.
- Inquire of pupils whether or not they are familiar with the Underground Railroad. Explain that the Subterranean Railroad was neither underground nor a railroad, as the name suggests. Slave escape was a word used to describe the hidden method by which slaves were able to escape slavery with the assistance of numerous individuals. “Have you ever utilized or made up a secret code before?” you might ask your pupils. Invite a few students to speak about their own personal experiences. Inform kids that the Underground Railroad used a code that was similar to a secret language. Special phrases were employed to keep the Underground Railroad concealed from slave owners, allowing slaves to talk about fleeing via the Underground Railroad without their masters realizing what they were talking about. Inform kids that they will be studying some of the particular vocabulary that was used to explain various components of the Underground Railroad today
- Make the following concepts more understandable to students: “slavery,” “secret code,” “underground,” “railroad,” and “escaping.”
- To provide the ELs with more context and background knowledge about the Underground Railroad, show them photographs linked to it.
Teaching the Underground Railroad: Lesson Plans
|On this SiteAboutthe Teaching SummitLessonPlansPhotographs Literature||
Read aloud: Aunt Harriet’s Underground Railroad in the Sky (for first and second grades) (MS Word document)
The Underground Railroad’s Superheroes (MS Word document) Groups of Conductors (3rd and 4th grade) (MS Word document) Third and Fourth Grade Freedom Quilts (MS Word document) Quilts of Freedom (3rd-6thgrade)