What is the Underground Railroad?
- The Underground Railroad—the resistance to enslavement through escape and flight, through the end of the Civil War—refers to the efforts of enslaved African Americans to gain their freedom by escaping bondage.
What happened to unsold slaves?
Slaves were scrubbed and their wounds filled with hot tar before auction. The unsold and frail were often sold by scramble auctions, where after agreeing a flat rate, plantation owners would race to grab the best workforce.
How were African slaves captured and sold?
The capture and sale of enslaved Africans European traders captured some Africans in raids along the coast, but bought most of them from local African or African-European dealers. These dealers had a sophisticated network of trading alliances collecting groups of people together for sale.
Why was the Underground Railroad illegal?
After the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act as part of the Compromise of 1850 the Underground Railroad was rerouted to Canada as its final destination. The Act made it illegal for a person to help a run away, and citizens were obliged under the law to help slave catchers arrest fugitive slaves.
What was the punishment for the Underground Railroad?
A severe beating was the most common form of discipline, usually administered with a bull whip or a wooden paddle. The offender would be hung by the hands or staked to the ground and every slave on the plantation would be forced to watch the whipping to deter them from running away.
Why were slaves sold at auctions?
Once a slave ship made it to the Caribbean, the cargo of enslaved people would be sold at auction. Enslaved people would have to be prepared first. The healthier they appeared to be, the higher the price they would fetch.
Who sold slaves to the Royal African Company?
It was led by the Duke of York, who was the brother of Charles II and later took the throne as James II. It shipped more African slaves to the Americas than any other company in the history of the Atlantic slave trade. It was established after Charles II gained the English throne in the Restoration of 1660.
Were there tunnels in the Underground Railroad?
Contrary to popular belief, the Underground Railroad was not a series of underground tunnels. While some people did have secret rooms in their houses or carriages, the vast majority of the Underground Railroad involved people secretly helping people running away from slavery however they could.
Does the Underground Railroad still exist?
It includes four buildings, two of which were used by Harriet Tubman. Ashtabula County had over thirty known Underground Railroad stations, or safehouses, and many more conductors. Nearly two-thirds of those sites still stand today.
Where did the slaves go after the Underground Railroad?
They eventually escaped either further north or to Canada, where slavery had been abolished during the 1830s. To reduce the risk of infiltration, many people associated with the Underground Railroad knew only their part of the operation and not of the whole scheme.
Who built the Underground Railroad?
In the early 1800s, Quaker abolitionist Isaac T. Hopper set up a network in Philadelphia that helped enslaved people on the run.
How many slaves did Harriet Tubman save?
Fact: According to Tubman’s own words, and extensive documentation on her rescue missions, we know that she rescued about 70 people —family and friends—during approximately 13 trips to Maryland.
PEOPLE SOLD AT AUCTION
In Whitehead’s fictional South Carolina, abolitionists provide newly liberated individuals with education and economic opportunities, at least on the surface. However, as Cora and Caesar quickly discover, their new companions’ conviction in white superiority is contrary to their kind words. (Eugenicists and proponents of scientific racism frequently articulated opinions similar to those espoused by these fictitious characters in twentieth-century America.) A intoxicated doctor, while conversing with a white barkeep who also happens to be an Underground Railroad conductor, discloses a plan for his Black patients: “With targeted sterilization—first the women, then both sexes in due course—we could liberate them from bondage without worry that they’d slaughter us in our sleep.” “Controlled sterilization, research into communicable diseases, the perfecting of new surgical techniques on the socially unfit—was it any surprise that the best medical talents in the country were flocking to South Carolina?” the doctor continues.
“Was it any surprise that the best medical talents in the country were flocking to South Carolina?” Whitehead’s reality contains a North Carolina that is an all-white state that has prohibited slavery as well as the sheer presence of any Black residents—a dystopia that has overtones of nineteenth-century Oregon.
Whitehead’s envisioned image of South Carolina is reminiscent of the unethical Tuskegee Syphilis Study, which took place in the state.
Wikimedia Commons has made this image available to the public.
- Black people are prohibited from entering the state, and any who do so—including the numerous previously enslaved persons who lack the financial means to depart North Carolina—are murdered in weekly public rituals.
- The plot of property, which is owned by a free Black man named John Valentine, is home to a thriving colony of runaways and free Black people who appear to coexist harmoniously alongside white settlers.
- On the day of the final discussion between the two sides, a mob of white strangers assaults the farm, burning it to the ground and slaughtering innocent bystanders.
- There is a pocket of blackness in this fledgling state,” says the author.
- The Underground Railroaddescribes a similar (but fictitious) raid on a farm in Indiana.
- According to an article published earlier this year by Tim Madigan for Smithsonianmagazine, a similar series of incidents took place in the Greenwood district of Tulsa, which was known as “Black Wall Street” at the time.
According to Madigan, the slaughter was far from an isolated incident: “In the years preceding up to 1921, white mobs murdered African Americans on hundreds of instances in cities such as Chicago, Atlanta, Duluth, Charleston, and elsewhere.” The inclusion of incidents that occurred after the abolition of slavery highlights the institution’s “pernicious and far-reaching tendrils,” according to Sinha.
“He’s giving you the range of possibilities,” says Foner, “what freedom may actually mean, or are the limits to freedom coming after slavery?” “It’s about. the legacy of slavery, and the way slavery has corrupted the entire civilization,” adds Foner.
- When a group of slaves arrives in South Carolina in the 1780s, they are scheduled to be sold at Ashley Ferry (just outside of Charleston). The auctioned offas were sold as farm equipment to the general public, which included men, women, and children. Advertisements extol the merits of a certain slave
- And African-Americans were exempt from the restrictions placed on them by the United States when the colonies proclaimed independence from Great Britain in 1776. Many white purchasers inspect captured Africans and negotiate a purchase price with African slave traffickers
- Families were frequently divided. Some white buyers even sought to claim that American slavery was justifiable. “Buy us too,” a mother begs in this scene. During the slave trade, kidnapped Africans were housed in “slave pens” in Alexandria, Virginia while in Easton, Maryland a large crowd of white people assembled to see a slave auction.
What was life like for slaves when they were purchased? What type of apparel did they choose to wear? How much food were they permitted to consume?
Archives Revealing Information on Slavery & the Underground Railroad Lead Fall 2019 sale of Printed & Manuscript Americana
The auction of Printed and Manuscript Americana at Swann Galleries on Thursday, September 26 was a resounding success, with an 88 percent sell-through rate and a total revenue of more than $1 million.
The sale began with material linked to the abolition of slavery. The top lot contained a significant archive of the Dickinson-Shrewsbury salt factory in West Virginia, which was sold separately. Swann’s archive sold for $173,000, the highest amount ever paid for a collection in the company’s history. “Because of the immense scope of the system of slavery, original manuscripts pertaining to individuals who were enslaved are not in short supply,” says Rick Stattler, Book Department Director and Americana Specialist: “Original manuscripts relating to those who were enslaved are not in short supply.” A vast archive, on the other hand, that recounts the narrative of a single region and a single group of people across time is uncommon.
- The agricultural sector accounts for the majority of what survives.
- Through communication, lists, and receipts, it is possible to track down dozens of persons over the course of decades.
- Washington, who resided near the salt factory after enslavement and was his stepfather, according to court documents.
- It was valued at $100,000 because of its log of travelers on the Underground Railroad, which made it famous.
Among the items sold from Herbert Auerbach’s famed Western collection was the first edition of the Mormon cornerstonePearl of Great Price, 1815, by Franklin D. Richards, which brought in a record $11,050. In addition to the above-mentioned works, significant records included Richard Price’sObservations on the Importance of the American Revolution (1784), which sold for $2,750, and José Ramirez’sVia Lactea (1698), which sold for $3,750.
Civil War Diaries
Samuel Walker’s Mississippi River naval diary, written during the Civil War, was auctioned for $15,000 and was the most profitable. Adam Reinoehl’s Civil War journal, which was brilliantly written and illustrated, brought in $6,500 at auction.
Several early St. Louis almanacs, including the first one ever published in the city, were the subject of a frenzy of bidding as the auction started. After a stressful back-and-forth round of bidding between phones, the lot was sold for $27,500 in the end. In addition, a small archive of Luther D.
Cook’s whaling business records from Sag Harbor, New York, which brought $30,000, a three-page printed treasury report by Alexander Hamilton, which brought $6,750, and William J. Stone’s 1833 Force printing of the Declaration of Independence, which brought $20,000, were all sold.
Browse the complete list of results from ourSeptember 26, 2019 sale of PrintedManuscript Americana.
Throughout history, the same education tale has made headlines over and over: A history teacher chooses to conduct a slavery simulation in order to provide an interesting and memorable history lecture. Just last month, a 5th grade teacher in New York City instructed some black pupils to pretend to be slaves, and then pretended to sell them off to their predominantly white peers. Also this month, a 4th grade teacher in North Carolina had her children participate in a game similar to Monopoly that was based on the Underground Railroad.
Teachers at a high school in Cerritos, California, shackled pupils’ hands and instructed them to lie close together on the floor in order to replicate the forcible transit of enslaved Africans over the Atlantic two years ago.
However, many educators believe that in practice, slavery simulations may be used to diminish awful events, perpetuate racial power dynamics, and inflict emotional harm to African-American pupils.
“It’s a win-win situation.” “Yes, you could put forth more effort to make it more realistic, but then you run the risk of adding trauma.”
Classroom simulations are not just used to teach about slavery, but also to teach about other topics. History and social studies professors frequently invite students to role-play various aspects of political and civic life, such as representing different interest groups and reaching a compromise, or debating a piece of legislation, among other things. Many believe that these sorts of simulations might be helpful instruments for civic learning since they are open-ended and allow students to participate in decision-making.
- According to her, if pupils are just following a script, they are not participating in historical inquiry.
- Slavery simulations are one of the less prevalent sorts of classroom reenactments, but others believe they have the greatest potential for harming the students involved.
- Jones, an assistant professor of education at Grinnell College in Iowa, has been keeping track of persons who have made headlines or gained recognition on social media platforms.
- Students are given exercises that degrade black people such as those that urge them to enumerate reasons why African Americans make “excellent slaves,” which are based on historical simulations of slave auctions, the Middle Passage, and the Underground Railroad.
- She did point out, however, that not every event is reported in the media.
- However, there are several simulation exercises that may be found on the internet.
According to WECT, a local news station in North Carolina, the board game that the instructor in North Carolina used was acquired from the website.
Emotion as Learning Tool
Some instructors believe that evoking significant emotions from pupils, which simulations are often meant to accomplish, can serve as a springboard for further inquiry and investigation. This isn’t a novel concept. When Martin Luther King, Jr. was slain the day after Jane Elliott developed a stratified society in her primary school classroom, she was attempting to highlight the type of inequality that King had dedicated his life to combating. Elliott, who is white, separated her all-white class into two groups, one with blue eyes and the other with brown eyes, and provided preferential treatment to the brown-eyed students throughout the day in the now-famous exercise.
- Elliott wanted pupils to grasp what racism was like, and that it was based on socially manufactured disparities, rather than on biological differences.
- In the years afterwards, Elliott has been called to conduct diversity trainings at many educational institutions and corporations throughout the world.
- Only a few studies have indicated long-term benefits in terms of bias reduction; others have found that the practice produces tension and worry in participants.
- If, as many believe, America is currently undergoing a civic crisis, it is possible that schools are failing miserably in their civic responsibilities.
- It is intended that this essay serve as a continuation of that continuing endeavor.
- Some history instructors believe that this type of role-playing might help students feel more connected to oppression in the past, particularly in the setting of a history classroom.
- Stokes, a civil rights leader who also worked as a teacher and principal in Baltimore.
- A student strike for improved circumstances at his segregated high school was led by Stokes, who grew up in Virginia during the 1940s and 1950s.
According to a 2010 article in Social Education, the journal of the National Council for the Social Studies, the simulation he designed “presents students with some of the actual facts and conditions that have been a part of our nation’s history” and provides them with an opportunity to discuss what this history means to them today.
- Uncovering the structural roots of racism through an exercise such as Elliott’s can help to explain how bias can lead to prejudice, and prejudice can lead to discrimination, among other things.
- “They want pupils to be aware of the psychological anguish associated with slavery,” Jones explained.
- Paul, Minnesota, has been incorporating experiential learning into her college classes for many years.
- High students were guided through a three-mile circuit in the woods as part of an outdoor simulation of an escape on the Underground Railroad.
During a debriefing session following the exercise, some black students who had participated reported feeling fear and strongly disliking certain aspects of the experience, including when facilitators pretended to sell members of the group at a slave auction, according to McKinney’s dissertation on the subject.
McKinney explained that seeing some tiny portion of what enslaved people went through helped black children realize that “you are significant, you have a voice, and you have a narrative,” according to McKinney.
However, she acknowledges that kids may experience powerful emotions to simulations, which may include sobbing. In McKinney’s opinion, “it’s OK for individuals to be in emotional anguish as long as we can talk about it.”
‘The History Is Painful’
LaGarrett King, an associate professor in the University of Missouri’s faculty of education, says that instructors and students will have to deal with feelings of discomfort when they learn about slavery in the United States. There is no getting around the fact that history is difficult and that people feel uncomfortable. There is no way around it,” said King, who is also the founding director of the CARTER Center for K-12 Black History Education at the institution. However, when black children are encouraged to assume the role of slaves, the violence they experience is disproportionately severe, resulting in a reaffirmation of past injustice, according to King.
- Even if white professors had no intention of harming their black students, simulations of slavery, according to King, can be painful for them.
- “What precisely do teachers want?” you may wonder in such a scenario.
- Above all, there is consensus that instructors should proceed with prudence while conducting slavery simulations.
- However, while the organization does not take a position on simulations, Paska believes that exercises involving sensitive issues such as slavery might provide special problems.
Teachers Need Slavery Education, Too
Educators and students alike, according to LaGarrett King, an associate professor at the University of Missouri’s college of education, will have to manage pain in order to learn about slavery. According to King, who is also the founding director of the CARTER Center for K-12 Black Past Education at the University of Georgia, “the history is traumatic, people feel uncomfortable, and there’s no getting around it.” While it is true that violence is disproportionately experienced by black children when made to act as slaves, King asserted that such violence also reproduces past injustice.
Johnson is opposed to the usage of slavery simulators, which he believes are “about continuing to inscribe misery on the backs of black people and black bodies.” Simulations of slavery, according to King, may be painful for black children, despite the fact that white professors are not attempting to harm their students.
“What precisely do teachers want?” you may wonder in a scenario like this.
Jones was the one who posed the question.
Lawrence Paska, the executive director of the National Council for Social Studies, explained that “teaching controversy is what we do in social studies.” However, while the organization does not take a position on simulations, Paska said that exercises involving sensitive issues such as slavery might provide special problems.
” What he wanted to know was, “How do you do a simulation in a way that is authentic, that is not in any way disparaging, or reduces historical perspective, or that in any way marginalizes the experience of the persons or groups who are being portrayed?”
A Slave Pen Journey – National Underground Railroad Freedom Center – Google Arts & Culture
Affirmed by LaGarrett King, an associate professor in the faculty of education at the University of Missouri, who believes that instructors and students will have to negotiate discomfort in order to understand about slavery, There is no getting around the fact that the past is unpleasant and that people are uncomfortable with it, according to King, who is the founding director of the CARTER Center for K-12 Black History Education at the institution.
- However, when black children are encouraged to play the role of slaves, the brutality they experience is disproportionately severe, causing them to experience oppression that is rooted in history, according to King.
- According to Jones, these exercises frequently mirror the power dynamics of slavery, as in the case of a New York event in which a high school instructor pretended to “sell off” black kids to their white counterparts.
- “Can you tell me what the goal is?” Jones had inquired.
- “Teaching controversy is what we do in social studies,” said Lawrence Paska, executive director of the National Council for Social Studies.
- “How can you conduct a simulation in a way that is authentic, that is not in any way disparaging or reduces historical perspective, or that in any way marginalizes the experience of the persons or groups who are being portrayed?” he asked.
The Underground Rail Road by William Still, Plus
LaGarrett King, an associate professor in the University of Missouri’s faculty of education, feels that instructors and students will have to manage discomfort in order to understand about slavery. “The past is terrible, people feel uncomfortable, and there’s no way around it,” said King, who is also the founding director of the university’s CARTER Center for K-12 Black History Education. However, when black children are encouraged to act out the role of slaves, the brutality they experience is disproportionately severe, causing them to experience oppression that is rooted in history, according to King.
According to Jones, these exercises frequently mirror the power relations of slavery, as was the case in New York, where a high school instructor pretended to “sell off” black kids to their white counterparts.
“Can you tell me what your goal is?” Jones inquired.
“Teaching controversy is what we do in social studies,” said Lawrence Paska, the executive director of the National Council for Social Studies.
“How do you produce a simulation in a way that is authentic, that is not in any way disparaging or reduces historical perspective, or that in any way marginalizes the experience of the persons or groups who are being portrayed?” he asked.
American schools can’t figure out how to teach kids about slavery
According to reports in March, a white fifth-grade teacher at an upscale New York private school was accused of staging a fake slave auction for her kids, in which white fifth-graders pretended to bid on their black classmates. Two months later, a state inquiry by the New York attorney general verified that the mock auction had taken place and that it had a detrimental influence on pupils, requiring the school to implement a new set of changes. Taking place at the Chapel School in Bronxville, New York, a private school in an affluent, primarily white suburb north of Manhattan, the student auction raised more than $100,000.
According to the site, the instructor then escorted the pupils back into the classroom, where their white classmates “were urged to bid on them.” While participating in the simulation, Antinozzi is said to have claimed to be a slave auctioneer.
As the mother, Vernex Harding, told the New York Daily News, “I am astonished and outraged that this has happened to my baby.” A fake auction was described as “racially inappropriate and unpleasant” in an email sent to the school by the administration, prompting an inquiry by the administration into the event.
In the course of her own inquiry into the subject, New York Attorney General Letitia James discovered that two distinct fifth-grade classrooms took part in the activity.
It has since reached an agreement with the Attorney General’s office, agreeing to implement a number of reforms, including developing a plan to increase staff diversity, retaining an equity consultant, and developing a new code of conduct that outlines how the school will handle complaints of harassment and discrimination.
When the classroom mock auction initially made headlines in March, it was only the latest in a long series of high-profile problems involving poorly thought-out teachings about slavery in American schools.
Together, these examples demonstrate how inadequate American schools remain in their efforts to educate pupils about slavery and how it has influenced the history of the United States.
When people are not taught the history of slavery in school, they are less likely to understand how the consequences of enslavement continue to affect black communities in the modern era.
There have been plenty of examples of highly questionablelessons about slavery in schools
A Wilmington, North Carolina, primary school was making news at the same time as the New York incident was developing in March because it was using a “monopoly-like” role-playing game called “Escaping Slavery” to teach kids about the Underground Railroad. The grandmother of a black kid at the school contended that the game was insulting, pointing out that it had cartoon imagery of shackles and enslaved families among other objectionable elements. Students were obliged to utilize a “Freedom Punch Card” during one portion of the game.
Students at a school in Loudoun County, Virginia, were condemned a few weeks before that for completing an obstacle course designed to replicate traveling via the Underground Railroad.
Alternatively, the Loudoun NAACP argued that even if the game’s intent were not explicitly stated, the game’s purpose was clear: given that the Underground Railroad was used to aid enslaved people in their escape to the North, the vast majority of students who participated in the obstacle course would be acting in the role of enslaved people, according to the organization.
The boy’s school district apologized, but instructors at the trip site disputed that pupils were learning about the Great Depression, noting that the trip has been taking place for over 15 years and that the trip location is a historic school with predominantly black faculty and staff.
A lot of states are struggling to teach the full history of slavery. That struggle is having a big impact on students.
Many of these incidences have been brought to light in recent years by angry black parents and civil rights organizations on social media, but it is unknown how prevalent these types of actions are. What is evident, however, is that these simulations are part of a wider set of challenges that school systems across the United States are facing when it comes to teaching about slavery and relating the past to ongoing struggles for racial justice in the present. The Southern Poverty Law Center published a study in 2018 that takes a detailed look at this topic.
And what they discovered was rather distressing.
According to the researchers, it is conceivable that these students were confused the Civil War with the Revolutionary War because they stated that tax protests were the root of the battle in 48 percent of the responses.
As Ohio State University historian Hasan Kwame Jeffries said in a study, “Although we educate students that slavery existed, we fail to equip them with the information or historical context they require to make sense of its inception, evolution, death, and legacy.” “And in certain circumstances, we downplay slavery’s significance to the point that its influence — on people and on the nation — is rendered insignificant.
A false and insufficient grasp of slavery and its legacy is left to high school graduates, including legislated discrimination and racial inequities that continue to negatively impact black communities even today.
Moreover, as recent debates over teachings such as the simulated auction in New York City and other problematic lessons demonstrate, this fight has a significant impact on black kids and their parents.
[African-American History]. Still. The Underground Railroad and Vale. Fanaticism.
Bailey Bishop’s private collection includes the items in this photograph. GILBERT VALE is a fictional character created by author GILBERT VALE. IN THE CASE OF MATTHIAS, THE SIMPLE STORY OF ISABELLA, MR. AND MRS. B. FOLGER, MR. PIERSON, MR. MILLS, CATHERINE, AND ISABELLA ILLUSTRATES THE SOURCE AND INFLUENCE OF FANATICISM. REPLY TO WOMAN LABORATORY STONE WILLIAM STILL is the author of the novel NEW YORK: BY THE AUTHOR (1835). THE UNIVERSAL UNDERGROUND RAILROAD IN THEIR EFFORTS FOR FREEDOM, SLAVES KEPT RECORD OF FACTS, AUTHENTIC NARRATIVES, LETTERS, AND SO ON, WHICH TELL OF THEIR HARDSHIPS, HAIR-BREADTH ESCAPES, AND DEATH STRUGGLES.
- There is some browning and soiling, as well as some mild foxing.
- There are 24 steel-engraved plates in all.
- The first biography of Sojourner Truth, the renowned African abolitionist, reformer, and women’s rights campaigner who lived in the nineteenth century.
- Sojourner Truth, whose real name was Isabella Baumfree before she changed her identity, was only recently acknowledged for his work as an essential early chapter in her life, thanks to the efforts of Gilbert Vale.
- (Boston, 1850).
- In the words of William Still, author of The Underground Rail Road, his house served as a station on the Underground Railroad for “nineteen out of every twenty escaped slaves that traveled through Philadelphia” (DAB).
- 28; Blockson, Afro-American Collection8745; Sabin 98337; Blockson, Afro-American Collection8745; Sabin 98337.
- 338 are all excellent resources.
‘Slave sale’ concerns prompt changes to Underground Railroad reenactment
- Residents of Westerville will not be sold into slavery this weekend, despite reports to the contrary. After receiving concerns about the propriety of the sale, a recreation of the Underground Railroad was changed to make it more suitable. “I believe people were under the impression that they were going to be auctioned off, and that was not the case,” said Phyllis Self, the city’s leisure supervisor. “They believed we were making a joke of the Underground Railroad and staging a social event out of it.” Self explained that the Freedom Trail was envisioned as a piece of participatory theater that would educate people about the dangers that African slaves encountered as they fled to the northern states and into Canada during the American Civil War. From after dark tonight until early tomorrow morning, a cast of reenactors will lead parties over 52 acres of land on foot and by horse-drawn wagon. Participants must register in advance and be 12 years old or older to participate. Self explained that the voyage was originally intended to include the sale of some of the participants, but that one of the performers will now assume the role of a slave for that phase. Participants will only be there to witness the sale, but they will still play an active part as fugitive slaves for the remainder of the event. She reported that, of the six phone calls she got, the majority of individuals were supportive after they realized that the emphasis was on history rather than on games and enjoyment. When entertainment writer Evita Hudson of Columbus Urban Life expressed her dissatisfaction with the event, it sparked a dispute on her blog and Facebook page, which has more than 1,400 followers. “At first, I was taken aback. To be honest, it was the phrasing of the commercial that got to me “” she explained. “It gave the impression that it was a celebration.” Hudson believes that, over 150 years after the abolition of slavery in the United States, selling another human being is still too delicate a subject for a lighthearted advertising. However, some people expressed outrage and displeasure, while others praised the core principle of the event and stated that it was “sickening.” Hudson stated that she made the decision to attend the event after doing further research on the Freedom Trail. Hudson stated that she learnt a little bit about the importance played by the Westerville region in the Underground Railroad. In the 1960s and 1970s, Delaware County, particularly the Africa Road region, was well-known for assisting individuals in their journey north to freedom. For Freedom Trail, Self and her colleagues at the Westerville Public Library and the Westerville Historical Society worked for seven years on the research and creation of the exhibition. She explained that organizers visited similar events in other locations and opted to tone down a few aspects of their own. Participants will be handled with care, and actors will refrain from using insulting remarks. “We’re on the right track historically,” Self added. “We also wanted to be politically acceptable,” says the group leader. [email protected]
Slave Live and the Underground Railroad
Historically significant time period: 1801–1877 Between the American Revolution and the conclusion of the Civil War, millions of Africans were imported to America and sold as slaves to the British and other European countries. Males, females, and children from the west coast of Africa were abducted and forced into slave ships that traveled all the way across the Atlantic Ocean to the United States. Many people grew ill and perished as a result of the two-month journey. Those who survived were auctioned off to the highest bidder at a later date.
Many West Africans were sold to plantation owners in South Carolina, who used them to produce rice in the swampy lowlands of the state.
Slaves were considered to be property.
Thousands attempted to flee to freedom through the Underground Railroad, which was a network of covert ways.
By readingFollow the Drinking Gourd and participating in the activities listed below, you may learn more about slave life and the Underground Railroad. More information about the Underground Railroad may be found here.
Read This Book
Date range: 1801–1877 (historical era) A large number of Africans were imported to America as slaves between the American Revolution and the conclusion of the Civil War. Males, females, and children from the west coast of Africa were abducted and forced into slave ships that traveled all the way across the Atlantic Ocean to reach North America. Many people grew ill and perished throughout the two-month journey. They were sold at auction to the highest bidder among those who survived the ordeal.
- Plantation owners that farmed rice in the swampy lowlands of South Carolina purchased a large number of West Africans.
- They were regarded as valuable possessions by their masters.
- Underground Railroad, sometimes known as the Underground Railroad, was a network of covert pathways that thousands of people attempted to use to get to freedom.
- More information about the Underground Railroad may be found here »
- Detailed information about the book »
- Download the reading guidePDF »
Jeanette Winter provided the images for the book Follow the Drinking Gourd. With permission from Dragonfly Books, a division of Alfred A. Knopf, this image has been used.
- Meeting and learning the song that leads a family of slaves to freedom is a must-do for any history buff. After then, talk about a few questions you have regarding the tale. Download the PDF document »
- Documents provide us with hints about the past. Consider the contents of a document to determine what it was intended for and what it may teach us about the past. Download the PDF document »
Using Rice Plantation Tools
- Examine photographs of tools used in rice plantations. What do you suppose the tools were used for, and how did they work? Download the PDF document »
Album with rare 1860s Harriet Tubman photo sells for $161K
FILE – This undated file photo given by Swan Auction Galleries depicts an image of abolitionist Harriet Tubman, who lived in the nineteenth century. Swann Galleries is presenting the image, which dates from the late 1860s, for sale in New York on Thursday, March 30, 2017, as part of an auction of books, other printed material, and photographs from the slavery and abolition periods. Photograph courtesy Swann Auction Galleries via Associated Press, File FILE – This undated file photo given by Swan Auction Galleries depicts an image of abolitionist Harriet Tubman, who lived in the nineteenth century.
- Photograph courtesy Swann Auction Galleries via Associated Press, File NEW YORK (AP) – New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio has resigned.
- Swann Galleries said that the portrait from the late 1860s, as well as other pieces in the book, sold for $130,000, plus a $31,000 auctioneer charge.
- The winning offer was placed over the phone by Lion Heart Autographs, a dealer headquartered in New York City.
- She was in her late 40s at the time of the incident.
- The album was offered as part of a larger auction that included books, other written materials, and photographs from the ages of slavery and abolition.
- Tubman, a freed slave from Maryland, was instrumental in the emancipation of a large number of other slaves from the South by guiding them north on the Underground Railroad.
- After that, she moved to Auburn, New York, which is in the Finger Lakes region.
- It earned more than $27,000 through its “Bring Harriet Home” online fundraising campaign in partnership with Women You Should Fund, a platform dedicated to promoting women-led projects in the community.
Auburn is where she passed away in 1913 and is where she is buried. The item has been updated to reflect that the sale price was $161,000, not $162,500, as originally stated.
Underground Railroad Human Trafficking – Operation Underground Railroad
Salt Lake City, Utah (November 2, 2019): (TICKETS AVAILABLE IN AUGUST)
Patrick Moore Memorial Golf Tournament
Carlsbad, California (May 6, 2019)
O.U.R. Phoenix Rescue Run
Peoria Sports Complex, Saturday, December 7, 2019
Alta Dance Academy- The Steps We Take
29th of May, 2019Coeur D’Alene, Idaho
Children’s Freedom Fun-Run/Walk
COEUR D’ALENE, Idaho (May 29, 2019)
A Red Carpet Evening with Operation Underground Railroad
Nashville, Tennessee (May 22, 2019)
DALLAS BREAK THE CHAIN GOLF CLASSIC
Dallas Athletic Club will host a game on November 11, 2019.
3rd Annual Hinckley Dermatology Charity Scramble
Dallas Athletic Club on November 11, 2019
Operation Toussaint Screening
Escondido, California – June 29, 2019
5th Annual Tyler’s 2 Mile Fun Run/Walk and Toddler Dash
Escondido, California (June 8, 2019)
2019 SCM Car Show
Elizabeth, Colorado (August 17, 2019)
Seaside 5K Run to Break the Chain
Elizabeth, Colorado – August 17, 2019 –
Race to Stop Traffick DC
Centreville, Virginia (October 19, 2019)
2019 RACE TO STOP TRAFFICK DALLAS
Westlake, Texas (September 2, 2019)
Operation Toussaint Screening
Richmond, Virginia (August 3, 2019)
The MusicThe Message
Richmond, Virginia – August 3, 2019 –
Salt Lake City, Utah – September 20, 2019 –
Rexburg Rescue Run
Rexburg, Idaho (September 7, 2019)
Massage Parlor Outreach
San Diego, California (September 21, 2019)
Gift of Freedom
16th of November, 2019Springville, Utah
Hurricane, Utah (October 12, 2019)
Race to Break the Chain – SLC 5K
Salt Lake City, Utah, October 26, 2019Salt Lake City
Disc Golf Doubles Tournament
Salt Lake City, UT (October 26, 2019):
Harrison ChiropracticWellness Fundraiser
Salt Lake City, UT (October 26, 2019)
Break The Chain Run Costa Rica 2020
The 9th of February, 2020 Costa Rica’s capital city is San Jose.
Holiday Home Tour
Park City, Utah, December 7, 2019Park City, UT
BYU Care Week Show
The BYU Campus in Provo, Utah, on November 23, 2019.
Miracles for Christmas- Benefit Concert
Syracruse, Utah – December 21, 2019Syracruse, UT
Operation Toussaint Screening
Copiague, New York, February 10, 2020
Run Against Traffic 5K
Provo, Utah, February 29, 2020
Free At Last
Provo, UT – February 29th, 2020
Strikes Out For Slavery
Provo, UT, February 29, 2020
Tony Robbins Birthday: A Benefit Concert for O.U.R.
The date is February 29, 2020. Los Angeles, California
Human Trafficking Coalition
The date is February 27, 2020. Deputy Chief of the Escondido Police Department
Operation Toussaint Screening
The date is February 20, 2020 in Rexburg, Idaho.
Community Carnival March 6th-8th
Phoenix, Arizona, March 8, 2020
Operation Toussaint- Public Showing
12th of March, 2020 Huntsville is a city in the state of Utah.
Rise Up For Children
30th of July, 2020 Worldwide
Yoga Teachers Against Child Trafficking*
This event will take place on December 31, 2021 and is currently available for purchase.
DFW Annual Race to Stop Traffick Virtual 5K*
Dallas, Texas, October 23, 2021 (Virtual)
Run Against the Traffic
5th of April, 2021Virtual
Festival of Hope*
The date is August 21, 2021. Oakdale is a city in the state of California.
Iron Cowboy: Conquer 100
The date is June 8, 2021. Salt Lake City, Utah (Utah)
Not On Our Watch Virtual 5K
30th of April, 2021 During the month of April, there will be a virtual event.
21st Intermountain Mustang and All Ford Stampede (IMAFS) 2021 Charity Car Show Event
Ogden, Utah, August 14, 2021
Annual Bigass Crawfish Bash
The date is May 15, 2021 in La Marque, Texas.
Chiro Heroes 1st Annual Golf Tournament*
La Marque, Texas (May 15, 2021) –
The date is July 24, 2021. Florida
Putt-ing an End to Child Trafficking
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, June 25, 2021
The Fierce Love 4 Freedom EventRide
The deadline is July 31, 2021. Hughesville is a town in Pennsylvania.
Tennessee Backyard Ride to Rescue
The date is July 24, 2021. Tennessee’s Mt. Juliet is a popular tourist destination.
Run to Stop Traffick 5K*
Farmington, UT – September 25, 2021Farmington, UT
Self Defense Night
UTah State University, Farmington, July 21, 2021
No Child Left Behind Dinner and Silent Auction*
The date is August 20, 2021.
GET LOUD CONCERT
30th of July, 2021 Point Lehi, Utah, is celebrating Thanksgiving this year.
RISE UP LIVE STREAM
Online publication date: July 29, 2021
Skate The Ring
Canyonview Drive, Saint George, Utah 20211871 Canyonview Drive, Saint George
Golf Outing For The Benefit of Operation Underground Railroad*
Lemont, Illinois – September 17, 20211370 McCarthy Road, Lemont
Gift of Freedom Benefitting Operation Underground Railroad*
The Experience Event Center in Provo, Utah, will host the event on October 8, 2021.
Dance For O.U.R. Kids*
Nashville, Tennessee 37214, October 9, 20212612 McGavock Pike, Nashville, Tennessee 37214
Gift of Freedom Benefitting O.U.R.
The Experience Event Center, 1440 North Moon River Drive, Provo, UT, will host an event on October 9, 2021.
For the One Gala
The date is November 6, 2021. Salt Lake City, Utah (Utah)
District Hall in Boston
District Hall in Boston, Massachusetts, on November 1, 2021
Eastern Illinois University : Teaching with Primary Sources
However, many of the intriguing and lesser known elements of the Underground Railroad are not included in many textbooks, despite the fact that it is an essential part of our nation’s history. It is intended that this booklet will serve as a window into the past by presenting a number of original documents pertaining to the Underground Railroad. Broadsides, prize posters, newspaper clippings, historical records, sheet music, pictures, and memoirs connected to the Underground Railroad are among the primary sources included in this collection.
- The Underground Railroad was a covert structure established to assist fugitive slaves on their journey to freedom in the United States.
- As a result, secret codes were developed to aid in the protection of themselves and their purpose.
- Runaway slaves were referred to as cargo, and the free persons who assisted them on their journey to freedom were referred to as conductors.
- These stations would be identified by a lantern that was lighted and hung outside.
A Dangerous Path to Freedom
Traveling through the Underground Railroad to seek their freedom was a lengthy and risky trek for escaped slaves. Runaway slaves were forced to travel long distances, sometimes on foot, in a short amount of time in order to escape. They accomplished this while surviving on little or no food and with little protection from the slave hunters who were rushing after them in the night. Slave owners were not the only ones who sought for and apprehended fleeing slaves. For the purpose of encouraging people to aid in the capture of these slaves, their owners would post reward posters offering monetary compensation for assisting in the capture of their property.
- Numerous arrested fugitive slaves were beaten, branded, imprisoned, sold back into slavery, or sometimes killed once they were apprehended.
- They would have to fend off creatures that wanted to kill and devour them while trekking for lengthy periods of time in the wilderness, as well as cross dangerous terrain and endure extreme temperatures.
- The Fleeing Slave Law of 1850 permitted and promoted the arrest of fugitive slaves since they were regarded as stolen property rather than mistreated human beings under the law at the time.
- They would not be able to achieve safety and freedom until they crossed the border into Canada.
- Aside from that, there were Underground Railroad routes that ran south, on their way to Mexico and the Caribbean.
- He was kidnapped from his northern abode, arrested, and prosecuted in Boston, Massachusetts, under the provisions of this legislation.
- After the trial, Burns was returned to the harshness of the southern states, from which he had thought he had fled.
American Memory and America’s Library are two names for the Library of Congress’ American Memory and America’s Library collections.
He did not escape via the Underground Railroad, but rather on a regular railroad.
Since he was a fugitive slave who did not have any “free papers,” he had to borrow a seaman’s protection certificate, which indicated that a seaman was a citizen of the United States, in order to prove that he was free.
Unfortunately, not all fugitive slaves were successful in their quest for freedom.
Harriet Tubman, Henry Bibb, Anthony Burns, Addison White, Josiah Henson, and John Parker were just a few of the people who managed to escape slavery using the Underground Railroad system.
He shipped himself from Richmond, Virginia, to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in a box that measured three feet long, two and a half feet deep, and two feet in diameter. When he was finally let out of the crate, he burst out singing.
Train conductors on the Underground Railroad were free persons who provided assistance to escaped slaves moving via the Underground Railroad system. Runaway slaves were assisted by conductors, who provided them with safe transportation to and from train stations. They were able to accomplish this under the cover of darkness, with slave hunters on their tails. Many of these stations would be in the comfort of their own homes or places of work, which was convenient. They were in severe danger as a result of their actions in hiding fleeing slaves; nonetheless, they continued because they believed in a cause bigger than themselves, which was the liberation thousands of oppressed human beings.
- They represented a diverse range of ethnicities, vocations, and socioeconomic backgrounds.
- Due to the widespread belief that slaves were considered property, the freeing of slaves was perceived as a theft of slave owners’ personal belongings.
- Captain Jonathan Walker was apprehended off the coast of Florida while attempting to convey slaves from the United States to freedom in the Bahamas.
- With the following words from one of his songs, abolitionist poet John Whittier paid respect to Walker’s valiant actions: “Take a step forward with your muscular right hand, brave ploughman of the sea!
- She never lost sight of any of them during the journey.
- He went on to write a novel.
- John Parker is yet another former slave who escaped and returned to slave states in order to aid in the emancipation of others.
Rankin’s neighbor and fellow conductor, Reverend John Rankin, was a collaborator in the Underground Railroad project.
The Underground Railroad’s conductors were unquestionably anti-slavery, and they were not alone in their views.
Individuals such as William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur and Lewis Tappan founded the American Anti-Slavery Society, which marked the beginning of the abolitionist movement.
The group published an annual almanac that featured poetry, paintings, essays, and other abolitionist material.
Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave who rose to prominence as an abolitionist after escaping from slavery.
His other abolitionist publications included the Frederick Douglass Paper, which he produced in addition to delivering public addresses on themes that were important to abolitionists.
Anthony was another well-known abolitionist who advocated for the abolition of slavery via her speeches and writings.
For the most part, she based her novel on the adventures of escaped slave Josiah Henson.
Efforts of Abolitionists Telling Their Story:Fugitive Slave Narratives
Henry Bibb was born into slavery in Kentucky in the year 1815, and he was the son of a slave owner. After several failed efforts to emancipate himself from slavery, he maintained the strength and persistence to continue his struggle for freedom despite being captured and imprisoned numerous times. His determination paid off when he was able to successfully escape to the northern states and then on to Canada with the assistance of the Underground Railroad, which had been highly anticipated. The following is an excerpt from his tale, in which he detailed one of his numerous escapes and the difficulties he faced as a result of his efforts.
- I began making preparations for the potentially lethal experiment of breading the shackles that tied me as a slave as soon as the clock struck twelve.
- On the twenty-fifth of December, 1837, the long-awaited day had finally arrived when I would put into effect my previous determination, which was to flee for Liberty or accept death as a slave, as I had previously stated.
- It took every ounce of moral strength I have to keep my emotions under control as I said goodbye to my small family.
- Despite the fact that every incentive was extended to me in order to flee if I want to be free, and the call of liberty was booming in my own spirit, ‘Be free, oh, man!
- I was up against a slew of hurdles that had gathered around my mind, attempting to bind my wounded soul, which was still imprisoned in the dark prison of mental degeneration.
- Furthermore, the danger of being killed or arrested and deported to the far South, where I would be forced to spend the rest of my days in hopeless bondage on a cotton or sugar plantation, all conspired to discourage me.
- The moment has come for me to follow through on my commitment.
- This marked the beginning of the construction of what was known as the underground rail route to Canada.
For nearly forty-eight hours, I pushed myself to complete my journey without food or rest, battling against external difficulties that no one who has never experienced them can comprehend: “not knowing when I might be captured while traveling among strangers, through cold and fear, braving the north winds while wearing only a thin layer of clothing, pelted by snow storms through the dark hours of the night, and not a single house in which I could enter to protect me from the storm.” This is merely one of several accounts penned by runaway slaves who were on the run from their masters.
Sojourner Truth was another former slave who became well-known for her work to bring slavery to an end.
Green and many others, including Josiah Henson, authored autobiographies in which they described their own personal experiences.
Perhaps a large number of escaped slaves opted to write down their experiences in order to assist people better comprehend their struggles and tribulations; or perhaps they did so in order to help folks learn from the mistakes of the past in order to create a better future for themselves.