What Is A Parcel On The Underground Railroad? (Question)

Why did the Underground Railroad have secret codes?

  • Underground Railroad Secret Codes Supporters of the Underground Railroad used words railroad conductors employed everyday to create their own code as secret language in order to help slaves escape. Railroad language was chosen because the railroad was an emerging form of transportation and its communication language was not widespread.

What are parcels on the Underground Railroad?

Cargo – Slaves moving along the railroad were sometimes referred to as cargo. Other code words for slaves included “freight,” “passengers,” “parcels,” and “bundles.”

What was a cargo from Harriet Tubman?

One of the most famous conductors was Harriet Tubman. The terms “passengers,” “cargo,” “package” and “freight” referred to escaped slaves. Passengers were delivered to “stations” or “depots,” which were safe houses.

Was there really a train in the Underground Railroad?

The escape network was neither literally underground nor a railroad. ( Actual underground railroads did not exist until 1863.) According to John Rankin, “It was so called because they who took passage on it disappeared from public view as really as if they had gone into the ground.

Were quilts used in the Underground Railroad?

Two historians say African American slaves may have used a quilt code to navigate the Underground Railroad. Quilts with patterns named “wagon wheel,” “tumbling blocks,” and “bear’s paw” appear to have contained secret messages that helped direct slaves to freedom, the pair claim.

What states did the Underground Railroad go through?

These were called “stations,” “safe houses,” and “depots.” The people operating them were called “stationmasters.” There were many well-used routes stretching west through Ohio to Indiana and Iowa. Others headed north through Pennsylvania and into New England or through Detroit on their way to Canada.

What code words were used in the Underground Railroad?

The code words often used on the Underground Railroad were: “ tracks” (routes fixed by abolitionist sympathizers); “stations” or “depots” (hiding places); “conductors” (guides on the Underground Railroad); “agents” (sympathizers who helped the slaves connect to the Railroad); “station masters” (those who hid slaves in

What was the symbol of the Underground Railroad?

The hoot of an owl was used to convey messages. Certain Songs were sung as symbols of Underground Railway members. “All Clear” was conveyed in safe houses using a lighted lantern in a certain place as this symbol. Knocks on doors used a coded series of taps as symbols of identity.

Why are the trees painted white in Underground Railroad?

Trees painted white protects them from sun damage Paint can also be used to protect exposed tree trunks in cases where the bark has been damaged, this method protects the fragile trunk against pests and further damage until the bark has recovered.

Was Kansas part of the Underground Railroad?

Kansas gained a reputation for its active participation in the Underground Railroad and its willingness to fight for freedom.

Were there tunnels in the Underground Railroad?

Contrary to popular belief, the Underground Railroad was not a series of underground tunnels. While some people did have secret rooms in their houses or carriages, the vast majority of the Underground Railroad involved people secretly helping people running away from slavery however they could.

How many slaves did Harriet Tubman save?

Fact: According to Tubman’s own words, and extensive documentation on her rescue missions, we know that she rescued about 70 people —family and friends—during approximately 13 trips to Maryland.

What happened to Lovey in the Underground Railroad?

She secretly decides to join Cora and Caesar’s escape mission but she is captured early in the journey by hog hunters who return her to Randall, where she is killed by being impaled by a metal spike, her body left on display to discourage others who think of trying to escape.

Underground Railroad Terminology

Written by Dr. Bryan Walls As a descendant of slaves who traveled the Underground Railroad, I grew up enthralled by the stories my family’s “Griot” told me about his ancestors. It was my Aunt Stella who was known as the “Griot,” which is an African name that means “keeper of the oral history,” since she was the storyteller of our family. Despite the fact that she died in 1986 at the age of 102, her mind remained keen till the very end of her life. During a conversation with my Aunt Stella, she informed me that John Freeman Walls was born in 1813 in Rockingham County, North Carolina and journeyed on the Underground Railroad to Maidstone, Ontario in 1846.

Many historians believe that the Underground Railroad was the first big liberation movement in the Americas, and that it was the first time that people of many races and faiths came together in peace to fight for freedom and justice in the United States.

Escaped slaves, as well as those who supported them, need rapid thinking as well as a wealth of insight and information.

The Underground Railroad Freedom Movement reached its zenith between 1820 and 1865, when it was at its most active.

  1. A Kentucky fugitive slave by the name of Tice Davids allegedly swam across the Ohio River as slave catchers, including his former owner, were close on his trail, according to legend.
  2. He was most likely assisted by nice individuals who were opposed to slavery and wanted the practice to be abolished.
  3. “He must have gotten away and joined the underground railroad,” the enraged slave owner was overheard saying.
  4. As a result, railroad jargon was employed in order to maintain secrecy and confound the slave hunters.
  5. In this way, escaping slaves would go through the forests at night and hide during the daytime hours.
  6. In order to satiate their hunger for freedom and proceed along the treacherous Underground Railroad to the heaven they sung about in their songs—namely, the northern United States and Canada—they took this risky route across the wilderness.
  7. Despite the fact that they were not permitted to receive an education, the slaves were clever folks.

Freedom seekers may use maps created by former slaves, White abolitionists, and free Blacks to find their way about when traveling was possible during the day time.

The paths were frequently not in straight lines; instead, they zigzagged across wide places in order to vary their smell and confuse the bloodhounds on the trail.

The slaves could not transport a large amount of goods since doing so would cause them to become sluggish.

Enslaved people traveled the Underground Railroad and relied on the plant life they encountered for sustenance and medical treatment.

The enslaved discovered that Echinacea strengthens the immune system, mint relieves indigestion, roots can be used to make tea, and plants can be used to make poultices even in the winter when they are dormant, among other things.

After all, despite what their owners may have told them, the Detroit River is not 5,000 miles wide, and the crows in Canada will not peck their eyes out.

Hopefully, for the sake of the Freedom Seeker, these words would be replaced by lyrics from the “Song of the Fugitive: The Great Escape.” The brutal wrongs of slavery I can no longer tolerate; my heart is broken within me, for as long as I remain a slave, I am determined to strike a blow for freedom or the tomb.” I am now embarking for yonder beach, beautiful land of liberty; our ship will soon get me to the other side, and I will then be liberated.

No more will I be terrified of the auctioneer, nor will I be terrified of the Master’s frowns; no longer will I quiver at the sound of the dogs baying.

All of the brave individuals who were participating in the Underground Railroad Freedom Movement had to acquire new jargon and codes in order to survive. To go to the Promised Land, one needed to have a high level of ability and knowledge.

Underground Railroad Secret Codes : Harriet Tubman

Supporters of the Underground Railroad made use of the following words: Railroad conductors were hired on a daily basis to construct their own code as a secret language in order to assist slaves in escaping. The railroad language was chosen since it was a new mode of transportation at the time, and its communication language was not widely used. Secret code phrases would be used in letters sent to “agents” in order to ensure that if they were intercepted, they would not be apprehended. A form of Underground Railroad code was also utilized in slave songs to allow slaves to communicate with one another without their owners being aware of their activities.

Agent Coordinator, who plotted courses of escape and made contacts.
Baggage Fugitive slaves carried by Underground Railroad workers.
Bundles of wood Fugitives that were expected.
Canaan Canada
Conductor Person who directly transported slaves
Drinking Gourd Big Dipper and the North Star
Flying bondsmen The number of escaping slaves
Forwarding Taking slaves from station to station
Freedom train The Underground Railroad
French leave Sudden departure
Gospel train The Underground Railroad
Heaven Canada, freedom
Stockholder Those who donated money, food, clothing.
Load of potatoes Escaping slaves hidden under farm produce in a wagon
Moses Harriet Tubman
Operator Person who helped freedom seekers as a conductor or agent
Parcel Fugitives that were expected
Patter roller Bounty hunter hired to capture slaves
Preachers Leaders of and spokespersons for the Underground Railroad
Promised Land Canada
River Jordan Ohio River
Shepherds People who encouraged slaves to escape and escorted them
Station Place of safety and temporary refuge, a safe house
Station master Keeper or owner of a safe house

Following that will be Songs of the Underground Railroad. Underground Railroad codes, coded language, coded music, Underground Railroad followers, underground railroad, supporters of the Underground Railroad Underground Railroad is a subcategory of the category Underground Railroad.

Underground Railroad Symbols: Secret Codes ***

Underground Railroad Symbols for kids: The Underground Railway HistoryThere were harsh penalties for runaway slaves and their helpers – refer to theFugitive Slave Act.Although slaves had been trying to escape from slavery for many years the name “Underground Railroad” only started to be used in 1831 followingthe religious revival of theSecond Great Awakeningwhich resulted in the1830 Abolitionist Movementwhich became active followingNat Turner’s Rebellionleading to the establishment of theUnderground Railroad.For additional information also refer toUnderground Railroad MapsUnderground Railroad Symbols for kids: The Name “Underground Railway”The term “Underground Railroad” was chosen in 1831 as a secret code name for the escape routes used by fugitive slaves. The reason the name was chosen was this date coincided withthe time the first railroads began to run in America – refer toAmerican Railroads.The word “underground” was added meaning a covert group organized to hide a secret operation.Underground Railroad Symbols for kids: Symbols and SignsThe”Underground Railroad”, operating under essential secrecy, adopted many symbols and signs that were made known to the fugitive slaves:● Passwords were used to ensure the fugitives were genuine ● Messages were sent by drumming stones together ● The hoot of an owl was used to convey messages ● Certain Songs were sung as symbols of Underground Railway members ● “All Clear” was conveyed in safe houses using a lighted lantern in a certain place as this symbol ● Knocks on doors used a coded series of taps as symbols of identity ● Certain items, such as a quilt, were hung on a clotheslineUnderground Railroad Symbols for kids: Quilt CodesUnsubstantiated theories has been offered that quilts were made containing Underground Railway symbols. The use of symbols on quilts were said to be an effective way for slaves to communicate nonverbally with each other andhelp each other to escape. This does make some sense in relation to quilts being hung on clotheslines. Symbols used to indicate routes:●Geese symbols flying North●Crossroads symbols that indicated Cleveland, Ohio●Bears Paw symbols conveying a message to take a mountain route●Bow tie symbols meaning it would be necessary to change from slave clothing●Broken dish symbols which would be used as directional symbols along the escape route● Symbols of log cabins told slaves to look for this symbol on their journey to freedom●Box symbols that indicated it was time to pack (box-up) ready to escape● Patterns called a monkey wrench were were symbols reminding slaves to prepare for the journey taking weapons or tools that would helpon their journey ● North Star symbols indicating the way to freedomUnderground Railroad Symbols for kids: The Secret Code NamesOnce the name”Underground Railroad”had been established, it was logical to use other secret words, phrases, codes, signs and symbols that referred to the operation of a real railroad. At this time everyone was talking about the new American railroad. It was essential to keep escape plans completely secret and by using these secret codes anyone who overheard such conversations would think they were talking about the railroad, not runaway slaves.Underground Railroad Symbols: The Secret Language of the “Underground Railway”The meaning of words and symbols used in the”Underground Railroad” relating to railways were as follows:Underground Railroad Symbols for kids – RailwaysWords, Signs and Symbols – Meaning and DefinitionUnderground Railroad -The name for the secret network of organizations and operations who helped slaves to escape slaveryRailroad Line -Line referred to the route from one safe house to anotherConductor -Conductors were those who guided fugitive slaves between safe housesStation master -The station master was the owner of a safe houseStation / Depot -Station and Depot were the secret names given to hiding places or safe houses used during escapesCargo / Freight -Cargo or Freight was the name given to fugitive slaves who received assistance from conductors on the Underground RailroadPassengers -Passengers was another name give to slaves traveling the escape routesBaggage -Baggage was another secret name for a fugitive slaveParcels -Term to indicate that fugitive slaves were on their way to a safe houseStockholders -The name given to abolitionists who donated money, food, shelter and clothing to the Underground RailwayTicket Agents -Agents was the name given to those who coordinated and planned escape routes. Slaves weregiven a ‘ticket’Operator or Engineer -Other names for a conductor (the guides)Jumping off place -Place of safe shelter for fugitive slavesPatty Rollers or Paddy Rollers -Patty Rollers, Pattyrollers or Paddy Rollers were slave catchers. Probably a derivation of patrollers but ‘Roller rigs’ was used for the investigation of steam locomotivesWords, Signs and Symbols-Meaning and DefinitionUnderground Railroad Symbols Facts for kids – RailwaysUnderground Railroad Symbols: Code words and phrases relating to ReligionJust as the American railroads provided secret words and symbols relating to the”Underground Railroad” it was also safe to apply religious words, signs and symbols to extend the vocabulary of the organization. Thewords, phrases and symbols used in the”Underground Railroad” relating to religion were as follows:Underground Railroad Symbols for kids – ReligiousWords, Signs and Symbols-Meaning and DefinitionCanaan -Canaan was a biblical term used to mean CanadaHeaven -The word used to describe the destination of a fugitive, usually referring to CanadaPreachers -Abolitionists or leaders of the”Underground Railroad”River Jordan -The secret code word for the Ohio RiverShepherds -Shepherds were alternative names for Conductors meaning those who guided fugitive slaves between safe housesMoses -Moses was the code name of Harriet Tubman, the most famous conductorGospel Songs -Gospel songs like “Steal away, steal away, steal away to Jesus”, “Swing low, sweet chariot” and “Wade in the Water” were used to indicate that an escape plan was about to be carried out or give reminders to use water to travel by. The song “Follow the Drinking Gourd” was a reminder to follow the North Star – as this would always lead the way to freedomWords, Signs and Symbols-Meaning and DefinitionUnderground Railroad Symbols for kids – ReligiousUnderground Railroad Symbols: Other Code words and phrasesOther secret words, phrases and symbols relating to the”Underground Railroad” were also used to extend the vocabulary of the network as follows:Underground Railroad Symbols and PhrasesPhrases-Meaning and Definition”The river bank makes a mighty good road” -A reminder to travel by water”The wind blows from the South today” -An alert that fugitive slaves were in the area”The dead trees will show you the way” -A reminder that moss grows on the North side of dead trees useful when the stars were not visible”Left foot, peg foot” -A description of a certain conductor”The friend of a friend sent me” -Password used by slave fugitivesPhrases-Meaning and DefinitionUnderground Railroad Symbols for kids – ReligiousUnderground Railroad Symbols: Other Useful Words and PhrasesOther useful words and phrases associated with the”Underground Railroad” are as follows:Underground Railroad – Meaning of Useful Words and PhrasesWords and Phrases-Meaning and DefinitionAbolitionist -A social reformer in favor of abolishing slaveryAntebellum -Antebellum is the name given to historical era that preceded the Civil WarEmancipation -Emancipation is the act of setting a person free from slaveryManumission -Manumission the formal act of freeing from slavery.A written legal document freeing a person from slaveryFree States -Free States that did not allow slaverySlave States -Slave States permitted slaveryThe Mason-Dixon Line -The Mason-Dixon Line is the boundary line dividing the northern free states from the southern slave statesThe ‘Gag rule’-TheGag Rulewas a provision that prevented the discussion of a topic in Congress, such as abolishing slaverySecession -Secessionwas the withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil WarFugitive Slave Law -The Fugitive Slave Laws were acts passed by Congress in 1793 and 1850 outlawing any efforts to impede the capture of runaway slavesMulatto -A word used to describe a child of a black person and a white personWords and Phrases-Meaning and DefinitionUnderground Railroad – Meaning of Useful Words and PhrasesBlack History for kids: Important People and EventsFor visitors interested in African American History refer toBlack History – People and Events.A useful resourcefor teachers, kids, schools and colleges undertaking projects for the Black History Month.Underground Railroad Symbols for kids – President Andrew Jackson VideoThe article on the Underground Railroad Symbols provides an overview of one of the Important issues of his presidential term in office. The following Andrew Jackson video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 7th American President whose presidency spanned from March 4, 1829 to March 4, 1837.Underground Railroad Symbols● Interesting Facts about Underground Railroad Symbols for kids ● Underground Railroad Symbols for kids ● The Underground Railroad Symbols, a Important event in US history ● Andrew Jackson Presidency from March 4, 1829 to March 4, 1837 ● Fast, fun, interesting Underground Railroad Symbols ● Picture of Underground Railroad Quilt Symbols ● Underground Railroad Symbols for schools, homework, kids and children
See also:  Who Gave Most Of The Money To For The Underground Railroad?

Harriet Tubman Biography – The Underground Railroad

Return to the Biographies page. Harriet Tubman did not achieve her release from slavery entirely on her own; rather, she was assisted by the Underground Railroad on her journey to freedom. What was the Underground Railroad, and how did it work? As you are undoubtedly aware, the Underground Railroad was not a real railroad in the traditional sense. A loosely organized network of hidden routes, safe havens, and individuals who were prepared to assist fugitive slaves on their journey north existed at the time.

  • Quakers were a religious sect that held a strong belief in the wickedness of slavery and felt that it should be eliminated.
  • Harriet Tubman’s Quest for Freedom Harriet Tubman had heard stories of individuals who assisted slaves in their attempts to go to the north throughout the years.
  • When Harriet arrived at this woman’s home, she was handed a letter that had code phrases and directions to the next location.
  • Harriet most likely went from Maryland into Delaware before continuing north to Pennsylvania.
  • Despite the fact that Delaware was a free state, the area remained hazardous due to the large number of slave catchers in the area.

The use of code phrases to help maintain secrecy was necessary since both the runaway slaves and anyone who assisted them would face terrible punishment if they were apprehended.

  • Stations or Depots – Stations or depots were locations where fugitive slaves might hide out during the day or take a break for a short period of time. Stations might be anything from country cottages to barns, churches, caverns, and even dwellings in urban areas. On the route north, the average travel distance between stations was around 10 miles. It wasn’t just the slaves who were in danger
  • The individuals who sheltered the slaves were also putting their lives in peril by allowing them to remain in their homes. If they were apprehended, they would risk high penalties or even jail. Northern Territory referred to as the “Promised Land” at various periods throughout history. Other code terms for the North included the words “heaven” and “terminal,” among other things. Following the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, Canada was designated as the Promised Land since the northern United States was no longer a safe haven for fugitive slaves. Conductors were those who accompanied fugitive slaves on their trip and provided them with assistance. After escaping to the north, Harriet Tubman joined the Underground Railroad, where she rose to become one of the railroad’s most accomplished conductors. Consignment – Slaves who were transported by train were frequently referred to as cargo. Other code phrases for slaves were “freight,” “passengers,” “parcels,” and “bundles.”
  • Liberty Lines – The pathways taken by slaves on their way to freedom were referred to as “liberty lines” or “freedom trails.”
  • Freedom Trails – Even after their emancipation, slaves were instructed to keep their escape routes a secret and to speak about them as little as possible. Stockholders are those who contributed to the Underground Railroad through the provision of money or resources.

The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed to protect fugitive slaves. Following the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, the Underground Railroad underwent a transformation. As a result of this legislation, runaway slaves in the northern United States were forced to be returned to their masters in the southern United States. Canada was now the lone safe haven for fugitive slaves seeking refuge. The Underground Railroad was now tasked with assisting slaves in their journey to Canada. Slave safe homes were located across the northern United States to protect slaves from slave hunters on their passage to Canada.

William Still’s archives include a wealth of information on the Underground Railroad, which we may learn from today.

He kept meticulous records of the slaves he assisted (numbering in the hundreds) in order to assist family members in reuniting once they were released from slavery.

Table of Contents for Biography

  1. Overview and Interesting Facts
  2. Born into Slavery
  3. Early Life as a Slave
  4. Wounded
  5. Dreaming of Freedom
  6. The Escape
  7. The Underground Railroad
  8. The Underground Railroad The First Rescue and the Freedom of the People
  9. The Conductor
  10. The Legend Continues to Grow
  11. Harper’s Ferry and the Beginning of the Civil War After the war, life as a spy, later life and death are all covered.

Overview and Interesting Facts; Born into Slavery; Early Life as a Slave; Wounded; Dreaming of Freedom; The Escape; The Underground Railroad; The First Rescue and the Freedom of the World. The Legend Continues to Grow; The Conductor Starting point for the American Civil War: Harper’s Ferry. After the war, life as a spy, later life and death are all discussed.

See also:  When Did Male Slaves Started To Work In The Underground Railroad? (Question)

6 Strategies Harriet Tubman and Others Used to Escape Along the Underground Railroad

Despite the horrors of slavery, the decision to run was not an easy one. Sometimes escaping meant leaving behind family and embarking on an adventure into the unknown, where harsh weather and a shortage of food may be on the horizon. Then there was the continual fear of being apprehended. On both sides of the Mason-Dixon line, so-called slave catchers and their hounds were on the prowl, apprehending runaways — and occasionally free Black individuals likeSolomon Northup — and taking them back to the plantation where they would be flogged, tortured, branded, or murdered.

In total, close to 100,000 Black individuals were able to flee slavery in the decades leading up to the Civil War.

The majority, on the other hand, chose to go to the Northern free states or Canada.

1: Getting Help

Harriet Tubman, maybe around the 1860s. The Library of Congress is a federal government institution that collects and organizes information. No matter how brave or brilliant they were, few enslaved individuals were able to free themselves without the assistance of others. Even the smallest amount of assistance, such as hidden instructions on how to get away and who to trust, may make a significant difference. The most fortunate, on the other hand, were those who followed so-called “conductors,” like as Harriet Tubman, who, after escaping slavery in 1849, devoted her life to the Underground Railroad.

Tubman, like her other conductors, built a network of accomplices, including so-called “stationmasters,” who helped her hide her charges in barns and other safe havens along the road.

She was aware of which government officials were receptive to bribery.

Among other things, she would sing particular tunes or impersonate an owl to indicate when it was time to flee or when it was too hazardous to come out of hiding. She also mailed coded letters and dispatched couriers to deliver them.

2: Timing

Tubman developed a number of other methods during the course of her career to keep her pursuers at arm’s length. For starters, she preferred to operate during the winter months when the longer evenings allowed her to cover more land. Also, she wanted to go on Saturday because she knew that no announcements about runaways would appear in the papers until the following Monday (since there was no paper on Sunday.) Tubman carried a handgun, both for safety and to scare people under her care who were contemplating retreating back to civilization.

The railroad engineer would subsequently claim that “I never drove my train off the track” and that he “never lost a passenger.” Tubman frequently disguised herself in order to return to Maryland on a regular basis, appearing as a male, an old lady, or a middle-class free black, depending on the occasion.

  1. They may, for example, approach a plantation under the guise of a slave in order to apprehend a gang of escaped slaves.
  2. Some of the sartorial efforts were close to brilliance.
  3. They traveled openly by rail and boat, surviving numerous near calls along the way and eventually making it to the North.
  4. After dressing as a sailor and getting aboard the train, he tried to trick the conductor by flashing his sailor’s protection pass, which he had obtained from an accomplice.
  5. Enslaved women have hidden in attics and crawlspaces for as long as seven years in order to evade their master’s unwelcome sexual approaches.

4: Codes, Secret Pathways

Circa 1887, Harriet Tubman (far left) is shown with her family and neighbors at her home in Auburn, New York. Photograph courtesy of MPI/Getty Images The Underground Railroad was almost non-existent in the Deep South, where only a small number of slaves were able to flee. While there was less pro-slavery attitude in the Border States, individuals who assisted enslaved persons there still faced the continual fear of being ratted out by their neighbors and punished by the law enforcement authorities.

In the case of an approaching fugitive, for example, the stationmaster may get a letter referring to them as “bundles of wood” or “parcels.” The terms “French leave” and “patter roller” denoted a quick departure, whilst “slave hunter” denoted a slave hunter.

It was possible for fugitives to utilize a secret chamber or secret passage on occasion, which would later come to be associated with the Underground Railroad in the popular imagination.

5: Buying Freedom

The Underground Railroad, on the other hand, functioned openly and shamelessly for long of its duration, despite the passing of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act, which prescribed heavy fines for anybody proven to have helped runaways. Stationmasters in the United States claimed to have sheltered thousands of escaped slaves, and their activities were well documented. A former enslaved man who became a stationmaster in Syracuse, New York, even referred to himself in writing as the “keeper of the Underground Railroad depot” in his hometown of Syracuse, New York.

At times, abolitionists would simply purchase the freedom of an enslaved individual, as they did in the case of Sojourner Truth.

Besides that, they worked to sway public opinion by funding talks by Truth and other former slaves to convey the miseries of bondage to public attention.

6. Fighting

The Underground Railroad volunteers would occasionally band together in large crowds to violently rescue fleeing slaves from captivity and terrify slave catchers into going home empty-handed if all else failed. Perhaps unsurprisingly, John Brown was one among those who advocated for the use of brutal force. Abolitionist leader John Brown led a gang of armed abolitionists into Missouri before leading a failed uprising in Harpers Ferry, where they rescued 11 enslaved individuals and murdered an enslaver.

Brown was followed by pro-slavery troops throughout the voyage.

Aboard the Underground Railroad- Bethel AME Church

Bethel AME Church, in Springtown, New JerseyPhotograph courtesy of Laura Aldrich
The small, concrete masonry church known as Bethel AME Church is as arare, surviving African American institution associated with multiple participantsin the Underground Railroad. Located in the heart of the black community of Springtownin Greenwich Township, the church and its congregation offered lodging to fugitiveslaves travelling north after leaving Maryland’s Eastern Shore and Delaware. Oralhistories attest that Harriet Tubman used the Springton/Greenwich station from1849-1853 during her passage north through Delaware to Wilmington – one of hermost famous routes.The original congregation of Bethel AME Church had previouslybeen members of various Methodist Episcopal churches in southern New Jersey. Untilthe early 1800s, white and black Methodist Episcopals worshipped together at thesechurches, as the members were all vehemently opposed to slavery. But as membershipgrew, Methodist slaveholders joined these churches and pressured church leadersto soften their anti-slavery position. Eventually, black members found themselvesunwelcome, and in Greenwich they formed the African Society of Methodists, whichby 1810 had purchased a small parcel of land and a cabin or house. By 1817, thecongregation joined the newly chartered African Methodist Episcopal Church, whichwas formed in Philadelphia. When their first church was destroyed by fire in the1830s, the present Bethel AME Church was built one mile away form the originalsite in Greenwich Townshipand between 1838 and 1841. The new building was locatednext door to the home of Algy Stanford, a church member and Underground Railroadoperator.Greenwich was originally settled by Quakers in 1685. After the ManumissionAct of 1786, which enabled Quakers to free their slaves without financial hardship,the village of Springtown gradually developed as Quakers starting selling smalltracts of land to free blacks. By the time of the Civil War, Springtown had developedinto a large group of free land-holding blacks which made the area ideal for abolitionistactivity. For many fugitive slaves, Springtown was a temporary destination beforemoving on, for others it became the end of their running. Their presence swelledthe size of Springtown and strengthened it as a force for abolitionTheBethel AME Church is located on Sheppards Mill Rd. in Greenwich Township, NewJersey. It is private property, and not open to the public.Previous|List of Sites|Home |Next

Learn the History of the Underground Railroad in Vandalia

When it comes to history lovers and Underground Railroad enthusiasts alike, Cass County is a must-visit destination. TheVillage of Vandalia played a vital role in the Underground Railroad system during the American Civil War. In addition, the county was the site of the 1847 Kentucky Raid, which happened in the county.

About the Underground Railroad in Vandalia Michigan

Near the community of Vandalia, Michigan, there is a historical plaque on M-60 that points out the intersection of two major Underground Railroad routes — the Quaker line from the Ohio River and the Illinois line from St. Louis — and the intersection of two important lines in the Underground Railroad. The Quaker line was guarded by members of the Cass County Quaker community. The railway that headed into Canada began at the juncture. The lakes, parks, and other recreational opportunities in the county draw the majority of visitors to the towns and villages in the county.

  • Despite the fact that many of the landmarks and safe homes that were a part of this period in history have been demolished, some of them are still standing.
  • Bonine Houseis a Greek Revival farmhouse that was once owned by abolitionists and is not available to the public.
  • Bonine, in reality, was a Quaker who set aside property for freedom seekers and freedmen to cultivate on during the Civil War.
  • It is speculated that abolitionists used the carriage house to conceal escaped slaves, although no substantial evidence has been discovered to support this theory.
  • In exchange for their assistance in farming the land, Bonine split it among the freedom seekers, who then divided it again among themselves.
  • Today, you may learn more about it by reading a historical marker.

Using these maps, you may go to 20 different locations within a 4-mile radius of Vandalia. Additionally, maps are available at Milo Barnes Parkat the UGRR historical site. If you don’t stop along the route, the journey will take around one hour. courtesy of @andimariem for the photo

Underground Railroad Days in Vandalia Michigan

Make plans to attend Vandalia’s annual Underground Railroad Days event in mid-July if you’re searching for something to do in the middle of the month. Among the festivities are historical presentations, classic automobile exhibitions, vendor/craft show booths, and plenty of delicious food!

Other Things to Do and Restaurants in Cass County

While visiting Vandalia, Dr. T.K. Lawless Park offers a variety of recreational opportunities, including mountain biking, hiking, fishing, disc golfing, open-field games like horseshoes and volleyball, as well as picnics and other outdoor activities. With its status as an International Dark Sky Park, which it gained in 2019, it is one of just a few parks in the world to hold this distinction. Similarly, Rudolphi Woods in Dowagiac is available for hiking and running throughout the year. While you’re in Dowagiac, you might want to take in a movie at the 5 Mile Drive-in, which is one of the few remaining drive-in cinemas in the state.

  • In case you become hungry on your journey, Marcolo’s PizzaSubs serves Chicago-style pizza, breadsticks, garlic bread, sub sandwiches, wraps, and pasta, among other things.
  • You may order hot or cold coffee concoctions, as well as individual cakes, cookies, cupcakes, Danishes, and other sweet treats from the bakery.
  • Authentic Italian cuisine can be found at theWood Fire Trattoria, which is located in the heart of downtown.
  • Dessert may be found at The Wildpatchin Marcellus, which serves soft-serve ice cream in every flavor and shape conceivable.

Where to Get a Campsite in Cass County

Cass County is home to a number of campsites, which are a result of the availability of natural resources. The majority of them are concentrated in the east side of the county:

  • Hemlock Lake Campground is owned by Rogers Resort Inc., as is Camelot Campground, Lakeside Campground, Roberts Corey Lake Campground, Cranberry Lake Campgrounds, and Roberts Corey Lake Campground.
See also:  Underground Railroad Who Started It? (TOP 5 Tips)

Additional Lodging Options Nearby:

  • View Diamonds Sparkling on the Water in this newly furnished waterfront lake house on a family-friendly all-sports lake. Peaceful, quiet retreat close to nature. Take pleasure in your family’s memories for a lifetime

Photos of Vandalia’s Underground Railroad Historical Sites

Known as the Awesome Mitten team, we are a small group of authors and editors that research and produce our in-depth instructions found across the site. We also update previous material to ensure that it is still extremely useful to you.

Preserving New York’s Ties to the Underground Railroad

Is the local administration giving adequate respect to historical landmarks that commemorate Black history? That is the issue hanging over two imperiled antebellum residences, one in Brooklyn and one in Manhattan, that were originally held by abolitionists and have just been brought before the Landmarks Preservation Commission. Sixteen years after the city’s plan to use eminent domain to seize and demolish a Greek Revival rowhouse in Downtown Brooklyn that may have served as a stop on the Underground Railroad sparked a fierce preservation campaign, the proposed landmark at 227 Duffield Street finally received a public hearing at the Landmarks Preservation Commission in July.

A thorough assessment of the property had previously been requested by the city’s first lady, Chirlane McCray, a stance that was also supported by Mayor Bill de Blasio.

New efforts to save a second vulnerable property owned by abolitionists, located at 857 Riverside Drive, were quickly denied by the commission in late November, even as the public awaits an as-yet-unscheduled vote on historic status that may forever safeguard 227 Duffield.

For The New York Times, Katherine Marks contributed reporting.

Only 17 sites are associated with abolitionism or the Underground Railroad, the network of Black and white activists who assisted enslaved African-Americans fleeing north to freedom before to the Civil War, out of more than 37,000 municipal assets protected on the National Register of Historic Places.

However, despite the fact that slavery was not abolished in New York State until 1827 and that the city maintained strong ties to the Southern slave economy until the Civil War, a small group of courageous New Yorkers played a significant role in the effort to abolish slavery and assist those fleeing bondage.

  • Even in free states, those who harbored fugitive slaves were liable to severe penalties and up to six months in prison under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850.
  • The image is courtesy of the Yale University Art Gallery.
  • The threatened two-story wood-frame house at Riverside and West 159th Street was built around 1851 and is now in risk of being demolished.
  • Also on top of the villa is a cupola with eight windows, which is an attractive addition that recalls the wood-frame house at 200 Lafayette Avenue in Brooklyn, where the villa was originally built.
  • In contrast, the Riverside home has been stripped of its cupola and front porch, and the clapboard siding on its front face has been replaced with faux-stone siding to create a more modern appearance.
  • Following the approval of an application to construct a 13-story residential structure on the site, a demolition permit application for 857 Riverside was filed with the Buildings Department in August.
  • Spencer Developers’ Michael Petrokansky and Sigmund Freund are listed as the property’s owners on the demolition application.



In spite of the fact that Mr.

“We’re looking into the authenticity of the sales transaction, and we want to fight to keep him from being evicted,” Mr.

The move went happened, and we believe he wasn’t quite aware of what was going on at the time.

Wright stated that if he is successful in regaining possession of the house, he intends to repair the cupola, clapboard siding, and wraparound porch that have been lost.

Petrokansky, who was only briefly contacted by phone, declined to speak further.

Freund did not react.

For The New York Times, Katherine Marks contributed reporting.

Brewer, and several other local officials.

In the 1850s, heirs of the naturalist-painter John James Audubon created a suburban neighborhood of Italianate villas out of the surrounding countryside, which is now known as the Audubon Park Historic District.

In addition to providing a rich source of period data, Matthew Spady, a historian who lives across the street from the imperiled home and who just released a book about Audubon Park, also assisted with the project.

Amodio, a freelance writer who also lives in the neighborhood, who contributed his own research and wrote an extensive history of the property, which was presented to the landmarks commission in November by the Alliance for the Preservation of Historic Homes.

Harris held the home from 1852 and 1854, when he sold it to Judge John Newhouse, a business associate and fellow abolitionist who was also an activist against slavery.

Peter S.

Harris’s antislavery advocacy is well documented in the study, although the possibility that the Harris-Newhouse Home was used as a safe house for fugitives is purely conjectural.

Harris preached anti-slavery lectures and hosted abolitionist conferences at his Wesleyan Methodist church on King Street in Lower Manhattan, which is now known as 95 King Street.

Harris’s sugar factory, located at 144 Duane Street in what is now known as TriBeCa, was described as “a type of Grand Central Station of the Underground Railroad” by an architect named William Johnson, who was also a self-proclaimed “active operator” of the Underground Railroad network at the time.

  • Amodio refers to as “a prototypical Black Lives Matter moment writ large,” a racist 1846 political cartoon depicts a dehumanizing caricature of George Kirk, an African-American fugitive from Southern slavery who has been discovered inside a box on a horse-drawn wagon marked “D.
  • Harris had dispatched his dray to attempt to entice Kirk to the safety of his refinery, but “the whole police force of the city turned slave-catcher,” according to the New-York Tribune, and Kirk was apprehended by officers who used epithets before being released by a compassionate judge.
  • One of the “many exquisite building plots” that Harris promoted for construction at the time was a three-acre plot of land that would eventually become the address 857 Riverside.
  • The next year, Harris repurchased both the home and the acreage.
  • Spady, the park’s historian, the home may have been built by one of Audubon’s sons, who was putting up villas on his family’s estate nearby at the time and who also appears to have erected an apartment for Harris.
  • Peter S.
  • Harris, a man of ambition as well as compassion, built a new refinery on the Hudson at 160th Street, just a few blocks away from the little residence, as well as a port for shipping.

A risky venture, establishing a passenger line to compete with the Hudson River Railroad was a risky undertaking.

Spady’s book, “The Neighborhood Manhattan Forgot,” Harris’ genuine motivation was most likely to establish a new Underground Railroad station.


Beyond this apparent infrastructure of liberty, Mr.

Abolitionists, the couple co-founded the Washington Heights Congregational Church in 1854, which maintained a staunch anti-slavery attitude.

Author Eric Foner said in an interview that people like Harris were “certainly against the grain,” and that they were “certainly not in the mainstream of political and racial thinking in New York City.” Foner’s book, “Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad,” is about the history of the Underground Railroad.

“It was the New York merchants that carried southern cotton and exercised control over the cotton trade across the Atlantic to England.” New York corporations also provided insurance to southern slave-owners against the death of their human chattel, while the city’s banks provided loans for the purchase of slaves and plantation property in the southern United States.

In addition, the city of New York had a municipal administration that was pro-southern.

Because of the considerable alterations that have been made to the home and its architectural characteristics, she said in response that the structure “doesn’t appear to have the integrity essential for recognition as an individual landmark.” “The renovations include the removal of the octagonal cupola and wraparound porch, as well as their ornate trim, the replacement of windows and doors, as well as the removal of their enframements, and the insertion of permastone veneer to the exterior walls.” This means that the home “neither the historic look nor appropriate historical fabric from the nineteenth-century abolitionist era,” according to her conclusion.

Because a two-story storefront was built to the Truesdell home on Duffield Street (also known as Abolitionist Place) in the 1930s, the Truesdell house on Duffield Street (also known as Abolitionist Place) has been a source of contention in the preservation battle.

For The New York Times, Katherine Marks contributed reporting.

It is “absolutely obvious” under the city landmarks statute, she explained, that a landmark may have either historic or aesthetic characteristics — it is a “or,” rather than a “and.” “Even the most obnoxious structure on the planet may be designated as a historic landmark if it is historically significant.” The concentration on the integrity of historic fabric also “raises an intriguing problem of racial justice,” according to Peter S.

  • Green, a leader of the Upper Riverside Residents Alliance, which advocates for the preservation of the neighborhood’s historic character.
  • Brewer, the borough president, have stated that they would continue the landmark battle and that they will oppose zoning findings made by the Buildings Department that might allow the house’s owners to erect a 13-story skyscraper on the site.
  • Latimer in Flushing, Queens, as a precedent for historic landmark designation.
  • Adams said that the Latimer House had not only been renovated by removing all outward ornamentation, but it had also been relocated to a new location.
  • “It’s easy to imagine something similar occurring here,” says the architect.
  • About January 10, Mr.
  • The discussion will take place on the internet and will be moderated by Mr.

According to Tom Calarco, co-author of “Secret Lives of the Underground Railroad in New York City,” the theory that Harris used his boat and refinery, as well as the 857 Riverside villa, to aid freedom seekers heading north is “everything sounds supportable based on what was going on in New York City at the time.” Because they were such strong abolitionists — they were assisting hundreds of escaped slaves each year — the Wesleyan Methodist link was significant.

  1. Mr.
  2. Although the connection between Mr.
  3. ‘It would become a place of pilgrimage for Black people,’ Mr.
  4. “It would become a place where teachers could take school kids and say, ‘Hey, look, right here in your own neighborhood, there were white people who were highly invested in the notion that people shouldn’t be slaves,'” Mr.

“It would become a place of pilgrimage for Black people.” As he went on to say: “There are figures in our past, such as this sugar refiner, who point the way toward what we need to do in order to overcome those who want to turn the clock back, and this house is a remarkable landmark that represents this man and his cause, and this house is a remarkable landmark that represents this man and his cause.” Sign up here to receive weekly email updates on the latest residential real estate news.

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