Ohio served as the northern “trunk line” of the Underground Railroad, a system of secret routes used by free people in the North South to help slaves escape to freedom. Escape routes developed throughout Ohio with safe houses where slaves could be concealed during the day.
The Underground Railroad | OhioWins
- During the mid 1800′s, Ohio played an integral role in helping escaped slaves obtain their freedom. The commonly used name, “the Underground Railroad” was actually coined in Ohio when a runaway slave swam across the Ohio River and was being chased by his owner by boat.
How was Ohio an important part of the Underground Railroad?
Ohio played a major role in leading escaped slaves from lives of captivity to their dreams of freedom. Canal systems, such as the Miami and Erie Canal completed in 1845, as well as motorized rail systems and freight trains gave slaves and their conductors options for escape.
Did the Underground Railroad run through Ohio?
Although there were Underground Railroad networks throughout the country, even in the South, Ohio had the most active network of any other state with around 3000 miles of routes used by escaping runaways. First Ohio was bordered by 2 slave states: Virginia and Kentucky.
What was Ohio’s role in slavery?
Ohio prohibited slavery, but only in the sense that no one could buy or sell slaves within the state. Not until 1841 did Ohio enact a law so that any slave brought into the state automatically became free. Before then, Southern slave owners regularly visited Ohio and especially Cincinnati accompanied by slaves.
Were there slaves in Ohio?
Slavery was abolished in Ohio in 1802 by the state’s original constitution. When Virginian John Randolph’s 518 slaves were emancipated and a plan arose to settle them in southern Ohio, the population rose up in indignation.
How many Underground Railroad stops in Ohio?
According to research done by the Friends of Freedom Society, there are well over 20 documented Underground Railroad sites in Columbus, but since many of those are private homes, the addresses have not been made public.
How did slaves get across the Ohio River?
The exact number isn’t known, but it is believed that tens of thousands of slaves escaped to freedom through the secret network of the Underground Railroad. Many made it by crossing the Ohio River, the boundary between slave-holding Kentucky and free Ohio.
Does the Underground Railroad still exist?
It includes four buildings, two of which were used by Harriet Tubman. Ashtabula County had over thirty known Underground Railroad stations, or safehouses, and many more conductors. Nearly two-thirds of those sites still stand today.
Was Ohio a Union or Confederate state?
The Union included the states of Maine, New York, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, California, Nevada, and Oregon. Abraham Lincoln was their President.
When did Ohio abolish slavery?
While the Ohio Constitution of 1851 banned slavery in the state, it left open one exception.
What state ended slavery first?
In 1780, Pennsylvania became the first state to abolish slavery when it adopted a statute that provided for the freedom of every slave born after its enactment (once that individual reached the age of majority). Massachusetts was the first to abolish slavery outright, doing so by judicial decree in 1783.
When was Ohio founded?
Although legally Ohio became the 17th state with the February 19, 1803 act of Congress, Ohio statehood is celebrated on March 1. The date of March 1, 1803 was when the Ohio legislature met for the first time. This was retroactively made the statehood date by a 1953 Resolution of the United States Congress.
Underground Railroad aided by Ohio
The state of Ohio played a significant part in guiding runaway slaves from their lives of slavery to their aspirations of freedom. Many runaway slaves used the Underground Railroad, a legendary path to freedom traveled by thousands of runaway slaves, to reach northern destinations where they were more likely to avoid capture. The Underground Railroad was a complex system designed to transport slaves to northern destinations where they were more likely to avoid capture. According to Warren Van Tine, a history professor at Ohio State University, “Ohio was extremely vital to the success of the Underground Railroad.” “Because of its geographic position, Ohio was possibly the most important state in terms of the success of the Underground Railroad.” According to Van Tine, the Ohio River and Lake Erie served as a transportation route between Canada and Virginia.
Several locations in Franklin County may take pride in their involvement with the Underground Railroad.
Second Baptist Church, the Kelton House Museum and Gardens, the Margaret Agler House, and the Southwick-Good Funeral Chapel, all of which are located at 3100 N.
“I believe that the functioning of the Underground Railroad was a very essential aspect of American history,” said William Good, proprietor of Southwick-Good Funeral Chapel in Southwick, Massachusetts.
- Attempts were made to chronicle this heritage by William Siebert, who had worked on the Ohio State University campus as a history professor and department head.
- Despite the fact that his publications and studies presented a thorough history of Ohio counties, the pathways followed by runaways and their conductors, and various personal experiences, some may argue that his works omitted certain critical information.
- In his writings, there are a number of subterranean conductors who aren’t mentioned, particularly African-Americans,” Van Tine explained.
- Finding information on specific places suspected of being train stations can be a challenging endeavor because of the secrecy surrounding them.
The Underground Railroad in Ohio – The Cleveland Civil War Roundtable
The following is written by Roundtable Historian Daniel J. Ursu. It is the Cleveland Civil War Roundtable’s 50th anniversary this year. Copyright & Intellectual Property Rights 2019-2020, All Rights Reserved Note from the editor: The following paper served as the historical brief for the Cleveland Civil War Roundtable’s meeting in December of 2019. Our speaker for this evening will be speaking on the Colored Troops who served throughout the American Civil War. In addition, as many of you are aware, he plays a character who is associated with the Underground Railroad.
- The Underground Railroad may be traced back to 1804 to its inception.
- Stephen was quickly pursued by his mother, who had fled to find her son in the ensuing chaos.
- The Boudes resisted, and when the rest of the town rallied to their cause, it was agreed that the community would take up the cause of escaped slaves from this point on forward.
- The term “Underground Railroad” first appeared in print in 1831.
- The Ohio River at Ripley, Ohio, southeast of Cincinnati was the scene of a scuffle between pursuers and a slave called Tice Davids at this period.
- As a result of his frustration, the owner gave up his hunt and concluded that Davids “must have gone off on a subterranean highway.” The Rankin home in Ripley, Ohio, is a historical landmark.
- This phrase has gained popularity.
The “tracks” were the routes that people took to get away. Helpers were referred to as “conductors” or “stationmasters” in the olden days. Groups of runaways were referred to as “trains,” and the places where they were hidden were referred to as “stations” or “depots.”
- According to Roundtable Historian Daniel J. Ursu CLEVELAND’S CENTER FOR THE CIVIL WAR The copyright for this year and next year is reserved. [Note from the editor] In December 2019, the Cleveland Civil War Roundtable met in Cleveland, Ohio, and this piece served as the historical brief for the discussion. Throughout our presentation this evening, our speaker will speak about the Colored Troops who served during the American Civil War. As many of you are aware, he also portrays a character who is connected to the Underground Railroad. This evening’s history short, which will focus on the Underground Railroad, particularly in Ohio, felt like an obvious choice. There are records indicating that the Underground Railroad was established around 1804. General Thomas Boude, who served in the Revolutionary War and acquired a slave named Stephen Smith and took him to Columbia, Pennsylvania, was the pioneer of a system that allowed escaped slaves to flee the Southern United States of America. In short order, Stephen was joined by his mother, who had fled in an attempt to locate her son. Later, the slaveowner returned and requested the return of her slaves, which was granted after many weeks. The Boudes resisted, and when the rest of the town rallied to their cause, it was agreed that the community would take up the cause of fleeing slaves from this point forward. Within a year, similar mood had extended to Ohio, and efforts to aid slaves in their escape were under way. Approximately 1831 was the year when the phrase “Underground Railroad” first appeared. It was possible to escape slavery by using secret “highways” along the Ohio River. The Ohio River at Ripley, Ohio, southeast of Cincinnati was the scene of a scuffle between pursuers and a slave called Tice Davids. After diving into the ocean with his slaveowner following close behind in a rowboat, Davids vanished from sight entirely. As a result of his frustration, the owner gave up his search and concluded that Davids “must have used an underground route.” A home in Ripley, Ohio, named after a famous author. The Rankin home, which was owned by impassioned abolitionist John Rankin and became one of the most prominent stops on the Underground Railroad, is now a National Historic Landmark. In recent years, this phrase has gained popularity. Around 1835, antislavery activists began to employ this metaphor and vocabulary from the railroad industry to describe their actions, such as tracks, trains, agents, stationmasters, conductors, and stations, among others. “Trails” were used to identify escape routes. Train conductors and stationmasters were the terms used to describe those who assisted the train. Runaways were organized into “trains,” and the places where they were hidden were referred to as “stations” or “depots.”
The Underground Railroad was founded by a grassroots movement, which is what we term today a “grassroots” movement. However, when professional slave catchers were dispatched to recover runaway slaves, the system evolved into an elaborate network of secret contacts between free blacks and white sympathizers, which enabled runaways to be transported safely and efficiently to the northern United States and eventually to Canada. Despite this, it was unable to establish itself as an organized business due to the fact that its actions were officially “illegal.” There were escape routes in every state, but Ohio had the most extensive networks because of its strategic location along the Mason-Dixon Line and its proximity to two significant slave states, Virginia and Kentucky.
- The Ohio River was particularly vital to runaways, with more than half of them relying on it for survival.
- One of the most effective programs for assisting runaways was operated by Ohioans, and it was particularly important for those in and passing through Kentucky.
- The total number of known voluntary railroad employees in the North was around 3,200, with approximately 1,500 of those working in Ohio – over half of the total!
- In Oberlin, Ohio, there is a monument dedicated to the Underground Railroad.
- In the city of Oberlin, no escaped slave was ever recaptured and returned to bondage.
- Travel was primarily done on foot, but as the number of women and children increased, escorts and cars were dispatched to assist them.
- One group was even packaged and delivered as freight by train or boat.
The North Star or one of the several northward tributaries of the Ohio River served as navigational aids for fugitives going on foot.
Cleveland, Ohio’s Cozad-Bates House is a historic building.
For example, roughly 16 abolitionists from Salem, Ohio, used their homes as stations to spread the word about their cause.
Several churches were substantially involved, however the churches themselves did not participate publicly due of the unlawful nature of the undertaking.
Members assisted black fugitives with shelter, clothes, food, medical attention, and transportation while on the run.
The “Anti-Slavery Bugle” was known for its motto, “No Union With Slaveholders.” It was founded in 1831.
The final edition of the magazine was published on May 4, 1861, exactly 22 days after the start of firing on Fort Sumter and the official start of the Civil War in the United States. The Underground Railroad in the Southbound Direction is a related link.
Underground Railroad – Ohio History Central
According to Ohio History Central This snapshot depicts the “Freedom Stairway,” which consists of one hundred stairs going from the Ohio River to the John Rankin House in Ripley, which served as a station on the Underground Railroad during the Civil War. Presbyterian clergyman and educator John Rankin (1793-1886) spent most of his time working for the abolitionist anti-slavery struggle. The home features various secret rooms, some of which were used to hide freedom fighters. An illuminated sign was erected in front of the home to signal that it was safe for anyone seeking freedom to approach it.
- An underground railroad system of safe homes and hiding places that assisted freedom seekers on their journeys to freedom in Canada, Mexico, and other countries outside of the United States was known as the Underground Railroad (UR).
- Although it is unknown when the Underground Railroad had its start, members of the Society of Friends, often known as the Quakers, were actively supporting freedom seekers as early as the 1780s, according to historical records.
- As early as the late 1700s, slavery was outlawed in the vast majority of Northern states.
- African Americans were forced to flee the United States in order to genuinely achieve their freedom.
- Despite the fact that slavery was outlawed in Ohio, some individuals were still opposed to the abolition of the institution.
- Many of these individuals were adamantly opposed to the Underground Railroad.
- Other people attempted to restore freedom seekers to their rightful owners in the aim of receiving prizes for their efforts.
Over three thousand slaves were rescued from their captors and granted freedom in Canada thanks to the efforts of Levi Coffin, a Cincinnati man who lived in the late 1840s and early 1850s.
His house was perched on a three hundred-foot-high hill with a panoramic view of the Ohio River.
He gave the freedom seekers with sanctuary and kept them hidden until it was safe for them to proceed farther north in their quest for independence.
These individuals, as well as a large number of others, put their lives in danger to aid African Americans in their journey to freedom.
They typically chose to live in communities where there were other African Americans.
A total of eight communities along the Lake Erie shoreline served as embarkation locations for the freedom seekers’ journey to Canada, including Ashtabula, Painesville, Cleveland, Sandusky, Toledo, Huron, Lorain, Conneaut, and Conneaut.
It is still unknown exactly how the Underground Railroad came to be known by that moniker.
In 1831, a freedom seeker called Tice Davids fled from his slave owners in Kentucky, where he had been held since birth.
Davids had arrived at the coast only a few minutes before him. Following the arrival of his boat, the holder was unable to locate Davids and concluded that he “must have gone off on a subterranean path.”
- According to the Ohio History Central website. Photo of the “Freedom Stairway,” which consists of one hundred stairs that go from the Ohio River to the John Rankin House in Ripley, which served as a stop on the Underground Railroad. John Rankin (1793-1886) was a Presbyterian preacher and educator who spent a significant portion of his life to the antislavery cause. The mansion features multiple secret rooms, some of which were used to hide freedom fighters during the American Revolution. An illuminated sign was set in front of the home to signal that it was safe for anyone seeking freedom to enter the building. As a museum, the John Rankin House is a component of the Ohio History Connection’s state-wide network of historic sites, which includes the John Rankin House. Known as the Underground Railroad, it was a network of safe homes and hiding places that assisted freedom seekers on their journeys to freedom in areas such as Canada, Mexico, and other countries other than the United States. Freedom seekers were guided from place to place by white and African-American “conductors,” who were both white and black. Despite the fact that it is unknown when the Underground Railroad had its start, members of the Society of Friends, popularly known as the Quakers, were actively aiding slaves as early as the 1780s. By the 1810s, a small number of citizens in Ohio were assisting freedom fighters. As early as the late 1700s, slavery was outlawed in the vast majority of northern states. But even if freedom seekers relocated to a free state, the United States Constitution as well as the Freedom Seeker Law of 1793 and the Freedom Seeker Law of 1850 allowed slave owners to recover their property from them. Afro-Americans had to leave the United States in order to genuinely achieve their independence. Some Underground Railroad stations developed as a consequence, and these could be found across Ohio and other free states, providing freedom seekers with safe havens while on their trip to Canada. Some people in Ohio resisted the abolition of slavery despite the fact that slavery was illegal in the state. People in this community thought former slaves would relocate to the state, steal employment away from the white population, and demand similar rights as whites. There were a lot of people that were against the Underground Railroad. Conductors came under attack from a number of passengers. Other people attempted to restore freedom seekers to their rightful owners in the aim of receiving rewards for their actions. Ohio was home to a number of renowned abolitionists who played an important part in the Underground Railroad network. Over three thousand slaves were rescued from their captors and granted freedom in Canada because to the efforts of Levi Coffin, a Cincinnati citizen who lived in the late 1840s. Abolitionists dubbed Coffin the “president of the Underground Railroad” as a result of his efforts on their behalf. African Americans seeking freedom were accommodated at the home of John Rankin, a Presbyterian preacher serving in Ripley as a conductor. A three-hundred-foot-high hill overlooking the Ohio River served as the setting for his mansion. He used a lamp to indicate freedom seekers in Kentucky when it was safe to cross the Ohio River, and he would tell them when it was not. He offered sanctuary for the freedom searchers and kept them hidden until it was safe for them to proceed farther north. When John Parker, Rankin’s next-door neighbor, took a boat across the Ohio River, he transported hundreds of slave fugitives. In order to aid African Americans in their journey to freedom, these men and a large number of others endangered their lives. A number of the freedom seekers chose to remain in Ohio when they arrived there. In most cases, they chose to live in communities with other African Americans. Many of the freedom seekers carried on to Canada after their initial stop in the country. A total of eight communities along the Lake Erie shoreline served as embarkation locations for the freedom seekers’ journey to Canada, including Ashtabula, Painesville, Cleveland, Sandusky, Toledo, Huron, Lorain, and Conneaut. Wilbur Siebert, a historian, estimated that Ohio had around three thousand miles of Underground Railroad pathways. Uncertainty persists as to how the Underground Railroad came to be known by its current name. A story involving Ohio is one such example of this. When Tice Davids fled from his slave owners in Kentucky in 1831, he became known as the “Freedom Seeker.” A boat chased after Davids as he swam across the Ohio River. His holder was close behind him. Just a few minutes before him, Davids arrived at the shoreline. When Davids failed to appear after landing his boat, the holder concluded that he “must have used a subterranean path.”
The Underground Railroad: In the Ohio River Valley Review for Teachers
During their attempts to flee, players learn about the very real hazards that slaves faced, including the possibility of death from fatigue and recapture. Successful attempts result in the player reaching Canada, settling in northern settlements that are mostly comprised of runaway slaves, or enlisting in the Union army, depending on the situation. Each game concludes with an epilogue that explains how slavery was eventually abolished by the Emancipation Proclamation, as well as the political measures that were taken as a result of that decision.
The use of original pictures and imagery from the era, as well as the names of real people and locations, is what makes the experience so enjoyable and memorable.
Its simple design and somewhat clunky point-and-click interface, however, may turn off some players.
The Underground Railroad in Indiana
Mary Schons contributed to this article. The 20th of June, 2019 is a Thursday. For 30 years before to the American Civil War, enslaved African Americans utilized the Underground Railroad to gain their freedom, a network known as the Underground Railroad (1861-1865). The “railroad” employed a variety of routes to transport people from slave-supporting states in the South to “free” states in the North and Canada. Sometimes abolitionists, or persons who were opposed to slavery, were responsible for organizing routes for the Underground Railroad.
- There was a great deal of activity on the Underground Railroad in the states that bordered the Ohio River, which served as a boundary between slave and free states.
- Not everyone in Indiana supported the emancipation of enslaved people.
- Because Indiana was a part of the Underground Railroad, its narrative is the tale of all states that had a role in it.
- However, while some people did have secret chambers in their homes or carriages, the great bulk of the Underground Railroad consisted of individuals surreptitiously assisting slaves who were attempting to flee slavery in whatever manner they were able to.
- The persons that were enslaved were referred to as “passengers.” “Stations” were private residences or commercial establishments where passengers and conductors seeking freedom might take refuge.
- If a new owner supported slavery, or if the residence was revealed to be a station on the Underground Railroad, passengers and conductors were obliged to locate a new station or move on somewhere.
- Only a small number of people kept records of this hidden activity in order to protect homeowners and others seeking freedom who required assistance.
People who were found assisting those who had fled slavery faced arrest and imprisonment.
No one knows exactly how the Underground Railroad received its name, nor does anybody care.
Another version of the story assigns the name to a freedom-seeker who was apprehended in Washington, D.C., in the year 1839.
A third narrative connects the name to an enslaved man called Tice Davids, who made the decision to pursue his freedom in 1831, according to the legend.
Unfortunately, there was no boat available to take us over the river.
His enslaver returned to Kentucky without him, claiming that Davids had vanished while traveling on a “underground railroad.” To put it another way, the name “Underground Railroad” had been widely accepted by the mid-1840s.
According to Article 6 of the Northwest Ordinance, slavery was prohibited north of the Ohio River; however, the rule did not apply to enslaved persons who were already residing in the region.
Slavery was a common feature of life in the Northwest Territories at the time.
Indiana was established as a territory in 1800, with future United States PresidentWilliam Henry Harrison serving as the area’s first territorial governor.
Harrison and his followers also believed that permitting slavery in Indiana would increase the state’s population.
Their petition was refused by Congress.
The “contract holder” has the authority to determine how long the victim must be held in slavery.
When Indiana became a state in 1816, its stateConstitutioncontained wording that was comparable to Article 6 of the Northwest Ordinance—new enslaved persons were not permitted, but existing enslaved people were allowed to continue in their current state of enslavement.
The term “slave” was still used to describe some Hoosiers as late as the 1820 census.
(White people were exempt from this requirement.) Indiana’s 1851 Constitution prohibited blacks from voting, serving in the military, or testifying in any trial in which a white person was accused of a crime.
All three pathways eventually went to Michigan and subsequently to Canada, although they took different routes.
Lewis Harding said in a 1915 history of Decatur County, Indiana, that the county was a spot where three roads came together after crossing the Ohio River at separate points in the county.
assisted the escaped slaves in every way imaginable,” he adds, using the injunction as an example.
As Harding says, “the sympathies of the majority of the residents of this nation were with the escaped slave and his rescuer.” Historians now feel that the path to independence resembled a spider’s web rather than three independent pathways to freedom.
While traveling, they had to avoid organized networks of patrolmen who grabbed freedom-seekers and held them hostage for ransom money.
Known as the “President of the Underground Railroad,” Coffin is credited for bringing slavery to Indiana in 1826.
In his memoir, Reminiscences, Coffin tells the story of two girls who escaped Tennessee and sought refuge with their grandparents in the Indiana county of Randolph.
They were not, however, destined to live in safety.
When the alarm went off, it attracted the majority of the settlement’s black people together in a single location.
Unknown to them, an uncle of the two girls rode up on his horse at the same time the enslaver was being held at bay by the grandmother’scorn knife.
They were not given any authorization to enter the premises or search for items, according to him.” The uncle remained at the doorway for as long as he could to continue the dispute with the enslaver.
According to the account, the girls were disguised as guys and sneaked past the crowd to where two horses were waiting for them.
The girls were able to make it to Coffin’s residence without incident.
Eliza Harris’s Indefatigable Escape Indiana is the scene of one of the most famous slave escapes in history, which took place in the state of Indiana.
Harris made the snap decision to flee to Canada with her infant son in tow.
There were no bridges, and there was no way for a raft to get through the thick ice.
Moving from one ice floe to another while carrying her child, she eventually made it to the other end.
Eliza, in fact, is the name of the character who travels across the frigid Ohio.
In order to recover from their ordeal, Harris and her child traveled to Levi Coffin’s Fountain City residence.
In 1854, Levi and Catherine Coffin were on a visit to Canada with their daughter when a woman approached Catherine and introduced herself.
God’s blessings on you!” It was Eliza Harris, who had safely migrated to Chatham, Ontario, Canada, when the call came through.
Illustration provided courtesy of The Library of Congress is a federal government institution that collects and organizes information.
Examine the list of locations to determine if any are in your immediate vicinity.
But it was carried out according to a completely other set of rules.
Levi Coffin’s Reminiscences, published in 1880abet Help is a verb that refers to assisting in the committing of a crime.
abolitionist A person who is opposed to slavery as a noun.
authority Making choices is the responsibility of a nounperson or organization.
The payment of a fine or the performance of a contract under the terms of an agreement constitutes a bond, which is an unenforceable agreement.
cattle Andoxen are nouncows.
The American Civil War The American Civil War was fought between the Union (north) and the Confederacy between 1860 and 1865.
conductor A person who escorted slaves to safety and freedom on the Underground Railroad was known as a guide.
The House of Representatives and the Senate are the two chambers of the United States Congress.
convictVerb to find someone guilty of committing a criminal offense.
Municipality is a type of political entity that is smaller than a state or province, but often larger than a city, town, or other municipality.
defendantNounperson or entity who has been accused of committing a crime or engaging in other misconduct.
economy The production, distribution, and consumption of commodities and services are all referred to as a system.
enslave acquainted with the verbto completely control Adjectivewell-known.
forbidVerb to ban or prohibit something.
fugitive a noun or an adjective that has gotten away from the law or another limitation a system or order established by a country, a state, or any other political body; government Harriet Beecher Stowe was an American writer and abolitionist activist who lived from 1811 to 1896.
Nouna huge, flat sheet of ice that is floating on the surface of a body of water.
labor is a noun that refers to work or employment.
Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the term negronoun was frequently used to refer to persons of African descent.
During the American Civil War, the North was comprised of states that backed the United States (Union).
A portion of the modern-day states of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota belonged to the Northwest Territory at the time of its creation.
The Ohio River is the greatest tributary of the Mississippi River, with a length of 1,580 kilometers (981 miles).
passenger A fugitive slave seeking freedom on the Underground Railroad is referred to as a noun.
Requests are made verbally, and are frequently accompanied by a document signed by the respondents.
prominentAdjectivethat is significant or stands out.
recover from an accident or strenuous activityVerb to recover from an injury or rigorous activity repeal a verb that means to reverse or reject anything that was previously guaranteed rouse a verb that means to awaken or make active.
Slavery is a noun that refers to the act of owning another human being or being owned by another human being (also known as servitude).
South During the American Civil War, the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) was backed or sympathized with by a huge number of states.
Supreme CourtNounin the United States, the highest judicial authority on questions of national or constitutional significance.
terminology A noungroup of words that are employed in a particular topic area.
Nounland that is protected against invaders by an animal, a person, or the government.
the southern hemisphere Geographic and political territory in the south-eastern and south-central sections of the United States that includes all of the states that sided with the Confederacy during the American Civil War.
unconstitutional Adjective that refers to a violation of the laws of the United States Constitution.
9th President of the United States of America, William Henry HarrisonNoun (1773-1841). (1841). word-of-mouth Informal communication, sometimes known as rumor or rumor mill. NounA official order issued by a government or other authoritative body.
Mary Schons contributed to this report. on the 20th of June in the year of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ When enslaved African Americans attempted to gain their freedom in the 30 years preceding the American Civil War, they turned to the Underground Railroad for assistance (1861-1865). Slavery-supporting states in the South were served by a network of “railroads” that connected them to “free” states in the North and Canada. Sometimes abolitionists, people who were opposed to slavery, organized paths for the Underground Railroad.
- There was a great deal of activity on the Underground Railroad in the states that bordered the Ohio River, which served as a boundary between slave and free states.
- Despite widespread support for emancipation, not all Hoosiers were on board with it.
- Because Indiana was a part of the Underground Railroad, its history is the tale of all states that participated in it.
- To the dismay of many, the Underground Railroad did not consist of a network of underground passageways.
- Persons who traveled south to discover enslaved people who were looking for freedom were referred to as “pilots” in railroad jargon.
- “Passengers” were the term used to describe the slaves.
- With each change in ownership of the house, additional or fewer stations were added to the Underground Railroad network.
It was done in a discreet manner, by word of mouth, that the stations were being established.
Liberation aspirants would be compelled to return to servitude if they were apprehended and brought to justice.
Slavery was backed by both states that supported slavery and free states, and this extended to both groups.
According to one account, the term was coined by failed Pennsylvania patrolmen who attempted to abduct freedom seekers.
He said that he collaborated with others to flee to the North, where “the railroad went underground all the way to Boston,” after being tortured by his captors.
Eventually, Davids managed to get away from his Kentucky enslaver and make it to the Ohio River in time.
When Davids realized he was about to be captured, he swam over the river to the other side and slid out of sight.
To put it another way, the phrase “Underground Railroad” had become widely used by the mid-1840s.
When the new United States government formed the Northwest Territory in 1787, it included the area that would eventually become Indiana as part of that territory.
Even though no one else was permitted to be enslaved in 1787, people who were enslaved in 1787 remained such.
Vincennes and FloydCountyin the south, and as far north as La Porte, are two places where evidence of slavery has been found.
Because Harrison believed that slavery would help the economy flourish, he advocated its use.
For a period of ten years, the politicians and business leaders of Indiana petitioned Congress to remove Article 6.
Indiana Territory House of Representatives established a new legislation in 1805 that allowed persons to keep enslaved people who had been bought in the United States after they were brought to the country.
Property was extended to the enslaved person’s offspring, as well.
Indiana was a free state by 1816, yet it was not a welcoming environment for African-Americans.
) (This was not required of white folks.
Indiana’s Underground Railroad (also known as the Indiana Underground Railroad System) There were three primary lines of the Underground Railroad in Indiana, according to popular belief at the time of the discovery.
The slavery trade in Canada was prohibited in 1833.
Decatur County, Indiana, was described by Lewis Harding in his history of the county published in 1915 as a spot where three roads came together after crossing the Ohio River at various points.
assisted the escaped slaves in every way imaginable,” he adds, using the injunction as his source.
As Harding says, “the sympathies of the vast majority of the residents of this nation were with the escaped slave and his aid.” Rather than three different roads to independence, historians today believe the journey to freedom resembled a spider’s web.
While traveling, they had to avoid organized networks of patrolmen who grabbed freedom-seekers and held them hostage in exchange for ransom payments.
Levi Coffin of Newport, Indiana, was the most well-known Underground Railroad “station master” in the state (now called Fountain City).
The couple claimed to have hosted about 2,000 individuals over the course of two decades, spreading bedrolls on their kitchen floor to accommodate as many people as they could fit in.
“It was there that the girls stayed after their long and risky voyage of relishing their newly won independence and hoped that their master would never find out where they had gone.” They had no intention of remaining in safety, though.
Their captor, as well as a gang of men from Richmond and Winchester, were awakened by this event.
Around the grandparents’ hut, more than 200 people gathered to encircle and protect them from harm.
“He wanted to see the writ, which was provided to him by the officer,” Levi explains.
He denied that they were given any clearance to enter the residence and search for goods.” The uncle remained at the doorway as long as he could to continue the dispute with the enslaver.
According to the account, the girls were disguised as guys and sneaked past the throng to a location where two horses waiting for them.
To Coffin’s residence, the girls were able to make it without incident.
One of Eliza Harris’ children was sold for money in the winter of 1830, according to her enslaver, who she overheard that he was planning to sell another of her children for money.
Eventually, she managed to get free and flee to the Ohio River.
Harris leaped onto a slab of ice floating in the river after hearing her enslaver’s horse approaching.
It was in Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a book by Harriet Beecher Stowe, that Harris’ heroic escape was recounted.
It went on to become one of the most important novels in history, inspiring many Americans to sympathize with enslaved people and abolitionists as a result of reading it.
They then apparently spent some time in the adjacent town of Pennville, Indiana, before continuing their journey northwards.
“How are you, Aunt Katie?” the woman shouted as she snatched Catherine’s hand in her own.
God bless you!” It was Eliza Harris, who had successfully migrated to Chatham, Ontario, Canada, from her previous residence in the United Kingdom.
Thank you for using this illustration National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) (also known as the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)) The Underground Railroad Has Arrived.
Analyze the list of locations to determine whether any are in your immediate vicinity.
A completely new approach was taken in its execution.
1880abet, Levi Coffin wrote his reminiscences.
abolish is a verb that means to eliminate or eliminate something.
accommodate Provide or fulfill is a verb.
presumptive or presumptiveAdjectives that are asserted Roughly Adjective that refers to a figure that is either generic or close to accurate.
baffle verb to be perplexed and annoyed The payment of a fine or the performance of a contract under the terms of an agreement is referred to as a bond.
cattle ‘Nouncows’ are a kind of adverb.
In the American Civil War (also known as the American Revolutionary War), The American struggle between the Union (north) and the Confederacy between 1860 and 1865 is referred to as the American Civil War (south).
Both the House of Representatives and the Senate comprise the United States Congress.
Someone is found guilty of an illegal conduct when they are found guilty by a jury.
An administrative unit that is smaller than a state or province but often larger than a city, town, or other municipality.
DefendantNounperson or entity who has been accused of engaging in criminal activity or another type of misconduct dwell To reside in a certain location is the verb to reside.
encourage Verb to motivate or encourage someone or something.
forbidVerb to forbid or prohibit something from happening.
fugitive a noun or an adjective that has gotten away from a law or other constraint a system or order established by a country, a state, or any other political body Noun Abolitionist leader and author Harriet Beecher StoweNoun(1811-1896) was an American writer and activist who was active in the abolitionist movement.
- ice floe influential Important in terms of having the power to influence the thoughts or attitudes of others; influential in terms of being influential in terms of being influential.
- Nounwork or employment is defined as: labor.
- A network is a collection of interconnected linkages that allows for movement and communication.
- a region of the United States that stretched between the Mississippi River and Pennsylvania’s western border, and north of the Ohio River (from 1787 to 1803).
- novelNounA fictitious narrative or tale that is told in a fictional manner.
- ostensibly It is a noun that means to feign or show up.
pilot Person who traveled to slave states in search of slaves desiring freedom and willing to sacrifice their lives in order to obtain it was known as an informer on the Underground Railroad.
adjective significant or distinguishing itself from the rest of the crowd ransom Property release or return fees are referred to as nounfees.
repeal Something that was once assured is being overturned or rejected.
slave hunter Uncountable person who goes in search of fugitive slaves with the intention of forcing them back into servitude.
smuggle Take something secretly or steal it is the definition of the word “steal.” South An ill-defined geographic territory mostly consisted of states that either backed or were sympathetic to the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) during the American Civil War.
Those who identify with the Supreme CourtNounthe highest judicial authority in the United States on questions of national or constitutional significance To comprehend or share a feeling or emotion is to use the verb understand.
terrain Topographic features of a particular area are denoted by the noun.
a region in the southeastern United States a geological and political region in the south-eastern and south-central regions of the United States that includes all of the states that backed the Confederacy during the American civil war In Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote an anti-slavery novel in 1852, which became known as the Uncle Tom’s Cabin Noun.
9th President of the United States, William Henry HarrisonNoun (1773-1841). (1841). word-of-mouth Informal communication, often known as rumor, NounA official order issued by a government or other authoritative authority.
Mary Schons is a writer who lives in New York City.
Kara West, Emdash Editing, Jeannie Evers, Emdash Editing
Kara West, Emdash Editing, Jeannie Evers, and Emdash Publishing
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OHIOArchaeologicalandHistoricalPUBLICATIONS. WELCOME TO THE SHANDONCENTENNIAL. ALBERT SHAW, a New York-based journalist. [ On August 26 and 27, 1903, a centenary celebration of the Congregational Church and village of Shandon, Butler County, Ohio, was held in the town of Shandon. Mrs. Minter C. Morris, Mr. Minter C. Morris, Mr. Minter C. Roland, Mr. Michael Jones, Miss Edna Manuel, Dr. W. O. Thompson, Mr. MuratHalstead, and Dr. Albert Shaw were among those who addressed the congregation in the order of ceremonies, which also included addresses by the Reverend M.
- Jones, Pastor of the Church, Mr.
- Williams, Mr.
- Morris, Mr.
- Roland, Mr.
- Albert Shaw, the editor of the Review of Reviews.
- Albert Shaw was born on July 23, 1857, in the town of Shandon, Butler County, Ohio.
- That notion is the sense of appreciation and pride we should have in knowing that we are the sons and daughters of a distinguished line of pioneers.
The men and women who controlled the American wilderness, prepared it to be the home of millions of people who spoke the same language and possessed a similar culture, and gave to us the legacy of their hope, courage, and faith are the best and bravest individuals we can find in all of history.
Underground Railroad in Ohio
The monument shown above, which was erected by Cameron Armstrong on the campus of OberlinCollege and represents the beginnings of the Underground Railroad in Ohio, may be seen above. A critical crossroads on the Underground Railroad, Oberlin connected five separate paths that fleeing slaves may have traveled in order to escape. During the Civil War, no fugitive who lived in Oberlin was ever returned to bondage, and the town has been dubbed “The Town that Started the Civil War.” When Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance in 1787, one of the stipulations prohibited slavery in any future state admitted to the Union that was located north of the Ohio River.
- Later, Congress amended the legislation to include a provision making it a federal criminal to help or hide fugitive slaves, which might result in harsh penalties or even imprisonment if the act was committed.
- Even in a free state like Ohio, living was made incredibly difficult as a result of this.
- This would be especially true in the lower half of the state, where inhabitants were more likely to have been previous residents of Virginia or Kentucky, or to have descended from ancestors who had lived in these states at some point in their lives.
- While speaking at local gatherings, anti-slavery activists may frequently transform them into a confrontational confrontation.
- In reality, most of the people on the network were only familiar with a few of the other users, which helped to keep everyone’s identities safe.
- Ohio, with around 3000 miles of pathways used by fleeing runaways, had the most active network of any other state, despite the fact that there were Underground Railroad networks throughout the country, including the Southern states.
- First and foremost, Ohio shared a border with two slave states: Virginia and Kentucky.
- Among all the states participating in these subterranean networks, Ohio was the one that was closest to Canada, with a distance of just roughly 250 miles or less between any point along the Ohio River and Lake Erie, where freedom might be found.
While the Pennsylvania Quakers were largely responsible for the inception of the abolitionist movement, the Ohio Quakers appeared to have been more directly involved in transporting escaping slaves on their way north and toward freedom, particularly those fleeing slaves from the Virginia plantations.
Prior to it, there was a scarcity of knowledge regarding railways in general.
There was no railroad, and there was no underground railroad with the Underground Railroad, of course.
The term railroad was utilized because the persons participating in the activities used phrases that were frequently associated with railways to describe different parts of their operations, leading to the name railroad being used.
- OberlinCollege has erected a monument commemorating the beginning of the Underground Railroad in Ohio, designed by Cameron Armstrong and located on the college’s campus. Oberlin served as a critical juncture on the Underground Railroad, connecting five separate paths that fleeing slaves may have travelled to freedom. It has been said that no fugitive residing in Oberlin was ever returned to bondage, and the town has been dubbed “The Town that Started the Civil War” because of this. Slavery was prohibited in every new future state admitted to the Union north of the Ohio River, according to the Northwest Ordinance, which was adopted by Congress in 1787. Following the ordinance’s passage, Congress passed legislation making it a federal criminal to help or hide fugitive slaves, a crime punishable by heavy penalties or even imprisonment. In addition, plantation owners offered prizes to freelance bounty hunters in exchange for slaves who were returned. Even in a free-state like Ohio, this made life incredibly tough. Anywhere in Ohio, nearly any municipality, it is almost certain that around half of the inhabitants will be pro-slavery and the other half will be anti-slavery. In particular, this would be true in the lower half of the state, where inhabitants were more likely to be former residents of Virginia or Kentucky, or to be descended from ancestors who had lived in these two states. When slavery was a prominent topic in Ohio, it was a controversial topic. While speaking at local demonstrations, anti-slavery activists may frequently transform them into a confrontational confrontation. Abolitionists formed hidden networks in order to assist runaway slaves in their movement along a network that was neither announced nor written in order to avoid detection by the authorities. Most of the people who were on the network only knew a handful of the other users, which helped keep everyone’s identities safe. The Underground Railroad was the name given to this network of tunnels and tunneling equipment. Ohio, with around 3000 miles of pathways used by fleeing runaways, had the most active network of any other state, despite the fact that there were Underground Railroad networks all across the country, including the South. For one thing, it’s because of a technicality. The state of Ohio was bordered by two slave states, Virginia and Kentucky, at the time of its establishment. There were more than 400 miles of border between the slave state and the free state as a result. Ohio was the closest state to Canada of all the states participating in these subterranean networks, with just roughly 250 miles or less between any point along the Ohio River and Lake Erie, where freedom might be obtained. Additionally, Ohio had a significant Quaker community, which was concentrated in the state’s eastern and southern regions. While the Pennsylvania Quakers were chiefly responsible for the inception of the abolitionist movement, the Ohio Quakers appeared to have been more actively involved in transporting runaway slaves on their trip north and toward freedom, particularly those fleeing slaves from the Virginia plantation. Despite the fact that it is unclear when the name “Underground Railroad” was coined, it is believed that it was in the 1830s when true railways began to become a viable mode of transportation in the United States. It had been a long time since there had been widespread information about railways. Consider the Internet, which existed in the 1980s but was not widely known until much later by the majority of the population. Naturally, there was no train or underground network associated with the Underground Railroad. Those involved in assisting fugitive slaves were known as “underground” since their activities were prohibited by law, and therefore had to be kept secret. People participating in the activities utilized phrases frequently associated with railways to describe different parts of their operations, which led to the term “railroad” being used in this context.
The use of the same terminology associated with railroads to describe the activities associated with the Underground Railroad became more widespread as physical railroads became more common. This allowed those actively involved in the Underground Railroad to communicate openly without fear of being turned over to the authorities by someone overhearing their conversation. At the time, these code phrases were not known outside of the network, which is understandable given their importance. The title “liberation train” or “the gospel train” was used in certain parts of the country, and in others it was referred to as “the freedom train.” By the 1850s, the name “Underground Railroad” had become the most often used in the state of Ohio.
A fugitive slave could not be assisted under state or federal law, and this was a criminal offense.
It was the plantation owner’s responsibility to apply further punishment to captured slaves when they were returned to the plantation and fields from where they had escaped.
Ohio Anti-Slavery Society
An organization known as the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society was founded by a group of people who shared a strong opposition to slavery. The Ohio Anti-Slavery Society was created in Zanesville, Ohio, in 1835, and was modeled after the framework of the American Anti-Slavery Society, which was founded in 1833 in New York City. When the society was founded, its members committed to work for the abolition of slavery and the adoption of legislation to safeguard African-Americans when they were released from the bonds of slavery.
People who opposed the abolitionists’ ideals were motivated mostly by fear, which was frequently shown in mob attacks on the abolitionists’ homes and workplaces.
When the conference was held in a barn outside of Granville, a mob erupted and attacked the abolitionists who had gathered in the barn.
In addition to bigotry, and because they were unable to accept that racism, they argued that runaway slaves from the southern states would take their employment here in Ohio.
Freedom Center in Cincinnati
The fact that the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center is located in Cincinnati is a blessing for the state of Ohio. This center serves as a clearinghouse for information regarding the Underground Railroad and organizes educational programs to raise awareness of issues impacting African-Americans, among other things. The Center first opened its doors in 2004. There are three buildings that make up the Freedom Center, and they represent the three foundations of freedom: courage, cooperation, and perseverance.
The Freedom Center is located at 50 East Freedom Way in Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 and can be reached at (513) 330-7500. Hours are 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. Tuesday through Sunday.
The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, located in Cincinnati, is a great asset to the state of Ohio and the nation. This facility serves as a clearinghouse for information regarding the Underground Railroad and organizes educational programs to raise awareness of issues impacting African-Americans, such as slavery. When the Center first opened its doors in 2004, it was considered a breakthrough. There are three buildings that make up the Freedom Center, and they represent the three pillars of freedom: courage, collaboration, and perseverance.
Freedom Way, Cincinnati 45202 (513) 330-7500 The Freedom Center is located at 50 E.
Open from 11 a.m.
Tuesday through Sunday.
In search of a safe refuge where they could live with their families without the fear of being shackled in captivity, escaping slaves came across the United States of America. The only certain location was Canada (and, to a lesser extent, Mexico), although getting to these locations was far from straightforward. As soon as an escaped slave arrived on the borders of Canada, they discovered that living there was incredibly harsh, with little job and strict segregation. After escaping slaves made it to Canada, they would frequently return to Ohio, where they might join tiny enclaves of freed slaves that had already been established in remote places, where they could try to stay as inconspicuous as they possibly could.
ABOVE: The narrative of a slave was recounted at the New Boston Fair.
African-Americans helped make the Underground Railroad work
The fact that escaping slaves made the Underground Railroad feasible was the most significant component of the Underground Railroad’s history. If it hadn’t been for their daring, tenacity, and innovation, the railroad would have been nothing more than a footnote in the history of our nation’s development. It was necessary for the majority of runaway slaves not only to get away from their owner’s estate, but also from all of the areas between them and the Ohio River, as well as from all of the other entrance points between the slave and free states.
- Aside from avoiding their previous masters, they also had to dodge the slave-catchers who prowled the countryside in pursuit of fugitives.
- The runaway slaves had a tough voyage since they had to hide in the woods during the day and travel only at night.
- As soon as they passed over the Ohio River, they had to make contact with someone they had never met before, and they had to hope that they would be able to give them with refuge and assistance on their long voyage ahead of them.
- That occurred at a period when the Ohio River frequently froze over, making it possible for the runaways to cross the river without the need of a boat.
- The ice was frequently more like giant pieces of floating ice, which needed cautious footwork to make it safely across the river at night, just by looking at the river itself and not taking into consideration the extremely low temperatures.
Slaves who had already completed the trek to freedom would frequently return to assist others, putting their own safety and freedom at tremendous risk.
Paying the Price:
The fact that escaping slaves made the Underground Railroad feasible was the most crucial feature of the Underground Railroad. They would have been a tiny footnote in our country’s history had it not been for their bravery, determination, and resourcefulness during the construction of the railroad. For the majority of fleeing slaves, getting away from their owner’s estate meant crossing all of the lands between them and the Ohio River, as well as crossing all of the other entrance points between the slave and free states.
- Aside from avoiding their previous masters, they also had to dodge the slave-catchers who patrolled the countryside looking for fugitives.
- It was a tough trek for the runaway slaves, who were forced to hide in the woods by day and walk only at night.
- As soon as they passed over the Ohio River, they had to establish contact with someone they had never met before, and they had to hope that they would be able to give them with refuge and assistance on their long journey ahead of them.
- Back then, the Ohio River frequently froze over, making it feasible for the runaways to cross without the need of a boat on a regular basis.
- The ice was frequently more like enormous pieces of floating ice, which needed cautious footwork to make it safely across the river at night, just by looking at the river itself and not taking into consideration the exceptionally freezing temperatures.
Additional information aboutthe Underground Railroad
See how abolitionists in the United States, like as Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass, and Thomas Garrett, assisted enslaved people in their attempts to escape to freedom. Learn about the abolitionist movement in the United States, as well as the importance of the Underground Railroad in this historical period. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. is a publishing company that publishes encyclopedias. View all of the videos related to this topic. When escaped slaves from the South were secretly assisted by sympathetic Northerners, in defiance of the Fugitive Slave Acts, to reach safe havens in the North or Canada, this was referred to as the Underground Railroad in the United States.
Even though it was neither underground nor a railroad, it was given this name because its actions had to be carried out in secret, either via the use of darkness or disguise, and because railroad words were employed in relation to the system’s operation.
In all directions, the network of channels stretched over 14 northern states and into “the promised land” of Canada, where fugitive-slave hunters were unable to track them down or capture them.
Harriet Beecher Stowe, best known for her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, obtained firsthand experience of escaped slaves via her association with the Underground Railroad in Cincinnati, Ohio, where she lived for a time during the Civil War.
The existence of the Underground Railroad, despite the fact that it was only a small minority of Northerners who took part in it, did much to arouse Northern sympathy for the plight of slaves during the antebellum period, while also convincing many Southerners that the North as a whole would never peacefully allow the institution of slavery to remain unchallenged.
When was the first time a sitting president of the United States appeared on television? Return to the past for the really American responses. Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.