What Was Rev. Rankin’s Role In The Underground Railroad?

In Ripley, Rankin served as a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad and opened his home to African Americans seeking freedom. His home stood on a three hundred-foot high hill that overlooked the Ohio River.

What did John Rankin do on the Underground Railroad?

  • From 1822 to 1865, Rankin, along with his wife and children, assisted hundreds of escaped slaves in their trek to freedom. Located on the Ohio River, John Rankin’s home (and Ripley, Ohio in general) were considered one of the first stations on this route of the Underground Railroad.

What was John Rankin known for?

John Rankin (February 5, 1793 – March 18, 1886) was an American Presbyterian minister, educator and abolitionist. Upon moving to Ripley, Ohio, in 1822, he became known as one of Ohio’s first and most active “conductors” on the Underground Railroad.

What was Ohio’s role in slavery?

Ohio prohibited slavery, but only in the sense that no one could buy or sell slaves within the state. Not until 1841 did Ohio enact a law so that any slave brought into the state automatically became free. Before then, Southern slave owners regularly visited Ohio and especially Cincinnati accompanied by slaves.

What did Ohio do in the Underground Railroad?

Ohio served as the northern “trunk line” of the Underground Railroad, a system of secret routes used by free people in the North & South to help slaves escape to freedom. Escape routes developed throughout Ohio with safe houses where slaves could be concealed during the day.

Why was Ripley Ohio important to escaping slaves?

With its location along the banks of the Ohio River and proximity to the slaveholding state of Kentucky, Ripley became an early stop on the Underground Railroad – a network of people and places organized to help escaping slaves find freedom in the north. Rankin also published several important anti-slavery writings.

Was John Rankin a conductor on the Underground Railroad?

Aboard the Underground Railroad– John Rankin House. A National Historic Landmark, this was the home of Presbyterian minister John Rankin who is reputed to have been one of Ohio’s first and most active “conductors” on the Underground Railroad.

Which two were important conductors on the Underground Railroad in Ripley Ohio?

1963) Nathaniel Collins and his family were conductors on Ripley’s Underground Railroad network. The Collins family lived in a home along Ripley’s Front Street, which sits along the Ohio River, just down the street from fellow abolitionist Dr. Alexander Campbell.

Who started the Underground Railroad in Ohio?

Beginning in the late 1840s, Levi Coffin, a resident of Cincinnati, helped more than three thousand slaves escape from their masters and gain their freedom in Canada.

Did the Underground Railroad run through Ohio?

Although there were Underground Railroad networks throughout the country, even in the South, Ohio had the most active network of any other state with around 3000 miles of routes used by escaping runaways. First Ohio was bordered by 2 slave states: Virginia and Kentucky.

Was the Underground Railroad illegal?

The Underground Railroad was a secret system developed to aid fugitive slaves on their escape to freedom. Involvement with the Underground Railroad was not only dangerous, but it was also illegal. So, to help protect themselves and their mission secret codes were created.

How many Underground Railroad stops in Ohio?

According to research done by the Friends of Freedom Society, there are well over 20 documented Underground Railroad sites in Columbus, but since many of those are private homes, the addresses have not been made public.

Does the Underground Railroad still exist?

It includes four buildings, two of which were used by Harriet Tubman. Ashtabula County had over thirty known Underground Railroad stations, or safehouses, and many more conductors. Nearly two-thirds of those sites still stand today.

How did slaves get across the Ohio River?

The exact number isn’t known, but it is believed that tens of thousands of slaves escaped to freedom through the secret network of the Underground Railroad. Many made it by crossing the Ohio River, the boundary between slave-holding Kentucky and free Ohio.

Did Ohio ever have slaves?

Slavery was abolished in Ohio in 1802 by the state’s original constitution. When Virginian John Randolph’s 518 slaves were emancipated and a plan arose to settle them in southern Ohio, the population rose up in indignation.

How did Robert Smalls escape slavery?

Born into slavery in Beaufort, South Carolina, he freed himself, his crew, and their families during the American Civil War by commandeering a Confederate transport ship, CSS Planter, in Charleston harbor, on May 13, 1862, and sailing it from Confederate-controlled waters of the harbor to the U.S. blockade that

What did William Lloyd Garrison do in the fight against slavery?

In 1830, William Lloyd Garrison started an abolitionist paper, The Liberator. In 1832, he helped form the New England Anti-Slavery Society. When the Civil War broke out, he continued to blast the Constitution as a pro-slavery document. When the civil war ended, he, at last, saw the abolition of slavery.

John Rankin – Ohio History Central

According to Ohio History Central John and Jane Rankin were married in 1872. He was a Presbyterian clergyman who was also a significant part of the Underground Railroad network, which helped fleeing slaves in the years leading up to the American Civil War. John Rankin died in 1865. Rankin was born on the 4th of February, 1793, in the state of Tennessee. He received his education at Washington College in Virginia and went on to serve as a preacher in the Presbyterian Church. Rankin devoted his life to the abolition of slavery in the United States.

Because slavery was legal in Kentucky, Rankin’s opinions on the subject were widely dissented.

Slavery was prohibited in the state of Ohio.

Rankin was a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad in Ripley, and he welcomed African Americans seeking freedom into his home while living there.

  1. Rankin would use a lamp to notify escaped slaves in Kentucky that it was safe for them to cross the Ohio River, which they did.
  2. Because of the United States Constitution and the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, slave owners were able to retrieve fugitive slaves, even if they were living in a free state like Ohio at the time.
  3. From South Carolina to Canada, escaped slaves might find refuge at Underground Railroad sites along the journey.
  4. In her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe honored Rankin’s attempts to aid African Americans in the United States.
  5. Rankin was a Presbyterian clergyman who spent the most of his time in Ohio.
  6. He also assisted in the formation of an anti-slavery group in New York, which later became the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society, which was founded in 1835.
  7. The institution had a maximum enrollment of 250 students at its height.
  8. Many of the college’s students were from Kentucky, and they did not share Rankin’s abolitionist viewpoints on slavery.

Some students dropped out of Ripley College and never returned. Rankin also gave lectures for the American Anti-Slavery Society in the northern United States. He was frequently the target of gang-related violence. He died on March 18, 1886, in Ironton, Ohio, after a brief illness.

See Also

  1. OHIO’S WAR: THE CIVIL WAR IN DOCUMENTS, edited by Christine Dee, is available online. Ann Hagedorn’s book, Ohio University Press, Athens, 2007
  2. Hagedorn, Ann Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad is a book about the heroes of the Underground Railroad. Reid and Whitelaw (2002, 2002)
  3. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. Ohio’s Statesmen, Generals, and Soldiers in the War: A Portrait of the State. Clarke Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1895
  4. Roseboom, Eugene H. The period from 1850 to 1873 is known as the Civil War Era. The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society published the book in 1944.

John Rankin (abolitionist) – Wikipedia

Ellen Rankin Copp, a sculptor, created a bust of Reverend John Rankin, who was his great-grandfather. John Rankin was an American Presbyterian clergyman, educator, and abolitionist who lived from February 5, 1793 to March 18, 1886. After settling in Ripley, Ohio, in 1822, he quickly established himself as one of the state’s first and most active “conductors” on the Underground Railroad. Rankin’s writings and activities in the anti-slavery campaign had an impact on prominent abolitionists such as William Lloyd Garrison, Theodore Weld, Henry Ward Beecher, and Harriet Beecher Stowe, who were all active before the Civil War.

Early career

Rankin was born in Dandridge, Jefferson County, Tennessee, to Richard and Jane (Steele) Rankin, and grew up in a strictCalvinist family with his siblings and parents. His parents were well-educated, which was rare in such a rural section of the country. They were devout Presbyterians, and their children were brought up in a religious environment. Jane was a staunch opponent of slavery who would not back down. : 22–23 Beginning when he was eight years old, John’s perspective on the world and his religious beliefs were profoundly influenced by two events: the Second Great Awakening revivals that were spreading through the Appalachian area, and the emergence of a slave revolt headed by Gabriel Prosser in 1800.

  • The opportunity to study at Washington College, under the guidance of Rev.
  • Following graduation, he was appointed pastor of the Abingdon Presbytery, but because his anti-slavery ideas were not tolerated, he departed Tennessee in 1817 and never returned.
  • Within a few months, however, he mustered the fortitude to speak out against “all forms of injustice,” first broadly and then explicitly against slavery, despite Tennessee’s status as a slave state.
  • He was taken aback when his elders replied by advising him that if he wanted to ever speak out against slavery from the pulpit again, he should consider leaving Tennessee immediately.
  • When Rankin stopped to preach at Lexington and Paris, Kentucky, he discovered of the need for a pastor at Concord Presbyterian Church in Carlisle, Kentucky, which he learned about while traveling north.
  • He stayed for four years and established a school for slaves; but, after a year, they were pushed from their schoolhouse to an empty home, and then to his friend’s kitchen, by club-wielding crowds, and the kids eventually ceased attending.

A rowing crew carried him and his family over the ice-cold river during the night of December 31 – January 1, 1822. In Ripley, he established a Presbyterian academy for boys, which the young Ulysses S. Grantonce went as a student in 1838.

Ripley and the Underground Railroad

His parents, Richard and Jane (Steele) Rankin, reared him in a strict Calvinist family in the town of Dandridge, Jefferson County, Tennessee. Even though his parents came from an impoverished neighborhood, they were well-educated. As devout Presbyterians, they instilled a religious education in their children as well. In her opposition to slavery, Jane was adamant. : 22–23 Beginning when he was eight years old, John’s perspective on the world and his religious faith were profoundly influenced by two events: the Second Great Awakening revivals that were sweeping through the Appalachian region at the time, and the emergence of a slave revolt led by Gabriel Prosser in 1801.

  • Washington College, directed by Rev.
  • Following graduation, he was appointed minister of the Abingdon Presbytery, but because his anti-slavery ideas were not tolerated, he departed Tennessee in 1817 and never returned.
  • Within a few months, however, he mustered the fortitude to speak out against “all forms of injustice,” first broadly and then explicitly against slavery, despite Tennessee’s standing as an abolitionist stronghold.
  • He was taken aback when his elders replied by advising him that if he wanted to ever fight slavery from the pulpit again, he should consider leaving Tennessee.
  • When Rankin stopped to preach in Lexington and Paris, Kentucky, he discovered that the Concord Presbyterian Church in Carlisle, Kentucky, was in desperate need of a preacher.
  • He stayed for four years and established a school for slaves; but, after a year, they were pushed from their schoolhouse to an empty home, and then to his friend’s kitchen, by club-wielding crowds, and the pupils eventually stopped coming.

His family had to row over the cold river during the night of December 31st and January 1st, 1822. A Presbyterian academy for boys was built by him in Ripley, where the young Ulysses S. Grantonce went in 1838.

The real Eliza

A tale of a lady the Rankins had kept in 1838 after she had fled by crossing the frozen Ohio River with her kid in her arms was related by Rankin during a visit to Lane Theological Seminary to see one of his sons. Professor Calvin Stowe was there at the time and heard the story. Stowe’s wife (Harriet Beecher Stowe) also heard the story and subsequently based the character Eliza in her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin on the woman in question.

Film depiction

The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati has a permanent exhibit of Brothers of the Borderland, a video that recounts Rankin’s work in the Underground Railroad in Ripley and is available for viewing on demand.

Letters on Slavery

The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati has a permanent exhibit of the film Brothers of the Borderland, which shows Rankin’s efforts in the Underground Railroad in Ripley.

Beyond the pulpit

The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati has a permanent exhibit of the film Brothers of the Borderland, which recounts Rankin’s involvement in the Underground Railroad in Ripley.

“Freedom’s Heroes”

Rankin’s burial is located at Ripley’s Maplewood Cemetery. In May 1892, six years after John Rankin’s death, a monument commemorating Rankin and his wife, Jean Lowry Rankin, was dedicated on the grounds of the Maplewood Cemetery in Ripley, Ohio, and was appropriately called “Freedom’s Heroes.”

“National Abolition Hall of Fame”

In Ripley, in Maplewood Cemetery, there is a grave for Rankin After John Rankin died in 1892, the Maplewood Cemetery in Ripley, Ohio, was dedicated to him and his wife, Jean Lowry Rankin, with a monument suitably called “Freedom’s Heroes” erected to them in May 1892, six years after their deaths.

Writings

  • John Rankin is the author of this work (1811). A solution for universalism is a detailed defense of the theory of future and unending punishment, which is presented in this book. Cincinnati. OCLC936386232
  • Rankin, John
  • Rankin, John (1826). The following letters about slavery were sent to Mr. Thomas Rankin, a shopkeeper in the town of Middlebrook in the county of Augusta, Virginia. Ripley, Ohio is a town in the state of Ohio. OCLC13221793
  • John Rankin is the author of this work (1833). Slavery in the United States of America: Letters to Mr. Thomas Rankin, a shopkeeper in Middlebrook, Augusta County, Virginia Rankin, John
  • Garrison and Knapp, Boston, Mass. (1836). letters about American slavery addressed to Mr. Thomas Rankin, merchant in Middlebrook, Augusta County (Virginia) (2nd ed.). Charles Whipple and John Rankin were born in Newburyport, Massachusetts (1838). letters about American slavery addressed to Mr. Thomas Rankin, merchant in Middlebrook, Augusta County (Virginia) (5th ed.). Isaac Knapp is a Boston-based writer.
  • John Rankin is the author of this work (1830). A discourse about the deity of our Lord and Savior. Rankin, John
  • West Union, Ohio.OCLC47153765
  • West Union, Ohio (1835). The statement made by the faculty of the Lane Seminary in response to the recent issues that the school has been experiencing is examined. The author’s home town of Ripley, Ohio
  • Rankin, John
  • And Thome, James A. (1836). It was held at Granville on April 27th and 28th in 1836 that the Ohio Anti-slavery Society celebrated its first anniversary, which was documented in this report. The Ohio Anti-Slavery Society is based in Cincinnati. OCLC224956762
  • Rankin, John (1836). An address to the churches on the subject of slavery, delivered at the first anniversary of the Ohio State Anti-slavery Society, was published in the journal The Ohioan. The Ohio Anti-Slavery Society is based in Medina, Ohio. In this instance, OCLC841409108 is associated with Rankin, John, and the Ohio Anti-slavery Society (1838). An account of the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society’s third anniversary celebration, which took place on May 30, 1838, in the town of Granville, Licking County, Ohio. Cincinnati
  • John Rankin (author) (1840). A practical work on the covenant of grace, as given to Abraham, is being presented as a gift to families. Designed to encourage the practice of family religion. C. Edwards & Company, Ripley, Ohio
  • Rankin, John (1841). Unitarianism has an antidote in the form of: Contains a thorough defense of the doctrine of the Trinity, the Divinity of Jesus Christ, the Personality and Deity of the Holy Spirit, the original and total depravity of man, the necessity of the agency of the Spirit to Renew the heart, the Substitution of Christ for his people, and Justification by his Righteousness, as well as a comprehensive defense of other Christian beliefs. Adapted to the reading abilities of all different types of readers. Weed and Wilson
  • Rankin, John (Cincinnati, Ohio) (c. 1854). A brief autobiography of Samuel Donnell, Esq. The American Reform Tract and Book Society is based in Cincinnati.
See also:  Where Were Underground Railroad Routes? (Solved)

Archival material

The Ohio Historical Society in Columbus has a collection of archival materials about Rankin.

References

  1. Birney, William (informal) (1890). James G. Birney is an American businessman. His Day and Age. D. Appleton & Company of New York
  2. Abc.com Donna B. Jacobson is the author of this work (2018). “Biography”. Rev. John Rankin and the town of Ripley, Ohio, 1820-1850. Borderlander of Light. The original version of this article was published on October 24, 2019. Hagedorn, Ann (February 2, 2020)
  3. Retrieved February 2, 2020 (2001). Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad is a book about the heroes of the Underground Railroad. Waugh, 2009, p. 19
  4. “John Rankin – Ohio History Central.” Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-87065-7
  5. Waugh, 2009, p. 19
  6. “John Rankin – Ohio History Central.” Archived from the original on 2017-10-20
  7. Jacobson, The Rankin House
  8. Autobiography of John Rankin
  9. Andrew Ritchie’s full name is Andrew Ritchie (1870). The soldier, the struggle, and the victory: a brief summary of Rev. John Rankin’s contributions to the anti-slavery movement. “Brothers of the Borderland” at freedomcenter.org
  10. Cincinnati: Western Tract and Book Society
  11. Hagedorn, p. 139
  12. Cincinnati: Western Tract and Book Society Hagedorn, p. 58
  13. Rankin, John (2017-10-20)
  14. (1835). A critical examination of the faculty of Lane Seminary’s statement in light of the current issues that the school has experienced. The author lives in Ripley, Ohio. The Ohio Anti-Slavery Convention’s proceedings are available online. On the twenty-second, twenty-third, and twenty-fourth of April, 1835, a meeting was held in Putnam. There is no mention of a publisher. The year is 1835
  15. Hagedorn, pp. 99-100
  16. Hagedorn, 219
  17. Chernow, Ron (2017). John Rankin, Antislavery Prophet, and the Free Presbyterian Church,” American Presbyterians, 72:3 (Fall 1994), 167
  18. Larry G. Willey, “John Rankin, Antislavery Prophet, and the Free Presbyterian Church,” American Presbyterians, 72:3 (Fall 1994), 169
  19. “John Rankin – Ohio History Central”
  20. “John Rankin”

Bibliography

  • ‘Beyond The River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad’ by Ann Hagedorn is out now. Waugh, Joan (2002, ISBN 0-684-87065-7)
  • SimonSchuster, 2002, ISBN 0-684-87065-7 (2009). US Grant is an acronym that stands for United States Grant. It is published by the University of North Carolina Press under the ISBN 978-0-8078-3317-9.

Further reading

  • John Rankin is the author of this work (1978). The life and times of Rev. John Rankin, an abolitionist. (Autobiography). Appalachian Press, based in Huntington, West Virginia. OCLC4702737
  • Ritchie, Andrew
  • OCLC4702737 (1870). The soldier, the struggle, and the victory: a brief summary of Rev. John Rankin’s contributions to the anti-slavery movement. The Western Tract and Book Society is based in Cincinnati.

External links

  • Rev. John Rankin and the town of Ripley, Ohio, 1820-1850, “Borderlander of Light” (reverendjohnrankin.org) Archived on the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine on October 24, 2019. John Rankin was an ardent abolitionist who died in prison. The African American Registry
  • John Rankin.Ohio History Central
  • The African American Registry The Rankin House.Ohio Historical Society
  • The Rankin House.Ripley, Ohio: Freedom’s Landing
  • John RankinatFind a Grave
  • National Abolition Hall of Fame
  • Aboard the Underground Railroad – John Rankin House.National Park Service Cultural Resources
  • The Rankin House.Ohio Historical Society

John Rankin

In the wake of the American Revolution and the Second Great Awakening, John Rankin (1793-1886), a white southerner by birth, was a leading figure in the first wave of antislavery agitation that erupted in the United States. In 1815, he became a member of the Manumission Society of Tennessee. Rankin became a licensed Presbyterian pastor in 1817, and he immediately began teaching that slaveholding was wrong. After Presbyterian authorities advised Rankin that he should never again express such views from the pulpit in Tennessee, Rankin made the decision to relocate with his family to a more liberated area.

  • In 1822, Rankin was forced to transfer to Ripley, Ohio, due to a combination of increasing personal risk and financial difficulties.
  • It was in 1824 when Rankin discovered that his brother Thomas, who was born in Virginia, had become a slaveholder.
  • It was first published serially in Rankin’s local newspaper, the Castigator, but it was not until 1826 that the piece was published in book form by a Cincinnati publisher.
  • It was one of the first publications published by the newly formed American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833, when it was first published.
  • The Presbyterian Church split in 1838 into two groups, the New School and the Old School, on the issue of evangelicalism.
  • Abolitionist sentiment among New School Presbyterians began in 1846, when their General Assembly reversed a minister’s suspension for advocating for slavery in the church.
  • It was in November 1847 that the Presbyterian comeouters came together to create the Free Synod of Cincinnati, which was eventually called the Free Presbyterian Church.

John Rankin was one of the most well-known Underground Railroad conductors in the United States, and he was the inspiration for Harriet Beecher Stowe’s fictitious character, Eliza Harris, in Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which was based on a real-life incident.

They worked in conjunction with African-American John Parker to transform the little Ohio town of Ripley into one of the most important crossing locations for fugitives from slavery.

Rankin’s reputation among disgruntled Kentuckians rose to the point that a $3,000 reward was set on his head.

Despite this, the Underground Railroad conductors in Ripley’s stated that not a single slave who made it to their hamlet had ever been recaptured.

He served as a vital link between the first generation of opponents of slavery and the later immediate abolitionists of the nineteenth century.

Rankin also represents tens of thousands of antislavery Southerners who opted to flee the region in protest against human bondage, according to the organization.

Renovated Rankin House tells story of slaves running to freedom

Details discovered during the restoration process restore the building’s look to when it operated as a stop on the Underground Railroad. OUR ORIGINAL HISTORY RIPLEY, Ohio (AP) — The John Rankin House appears to be in like-new condition. At least, that’s how it appeared 185 years ago when the Rev. John Rankin, a Presbyterian pastor and outspoken abolitionist, opened his home as a temporary shelter for slaves trying to flee from Kentucky. Located on Liberty Hill in Ripley, Ohio, some 50 miles east of Cincinnati, the two-story home has undergone extensive renovations on the outside as well as the interior, and it will be rededicated on Saturday, Aug.

  1. In the house, which is a National Historic Landmark, visitors will find the inside to be virtually unchanged from when the Rankins resided there.
  2. Running slaves crossing the Ohio River relied on a light in the window for navigational guidance.
  3. According to the Ohio History Connection, formerly the Ohio Historical Society, which has owned the site since 1938, the Rev.
  4. Rankin’s family.
  5. Efforts were taken to make the home as true as possible to the time between the 1830s and the 1840s in which it was built.

According to Betty Campbell, the site manager and president of Ripley Heritage Inc., the nonprofit organization that manages the home, “methods of study are substantially different today than they were in 1948 for restoration.” The exposed brick facade of the home was subjected to paint analysis, which revealed that it had been painted twice, first in brownish red and subsequently in ochre.

  1. To determine the architectural elements of the home, Chris Buchanan, project manager from the Ohio History Connection, played the role of a “detective architect.” In order to figure out what sort of locks were used, he looked at the outline left on the original front door.
  2. “The stenciling is the great surprise,” Buchanan remarked of the project.
  3. The door frame molding was removed in order to reinstate the original single door, showing an area of wallpaper beneath it.
  4. Researchers discovered a few houses in New York State from the same time period with stenciling designs that matched the ones they were looking for, and they were able to replicate them.
  5. Her crew took great care in measuring and painting the stencils by hand.
  6. Visitors will be able to compare the original stenciling with the new décor because a sample of the old stenciling has been preserved.
  7. Telling stories about ‘Eliza’ and fighting off bounty hunters are two of my favorite things to do.

During this time period, two incidences happened on the premises that are the subject of this report.

It was told to family friend Harriet Beecher Stowe, who adapted it for the character Eliza in her 1852 novel “Uncle Tom’s Cabin,” which played a role in influencing public opinion on slavery.

Rankin and his son, Adam Lowry Rankin, both described in their autobiographies of protecting their house against bounty hunters in 1841, a year in which they were born.

Jean Rankin’s contributions are often underestimated.

When it comes to the remodeling, Bartlett admits that he isn’t sure how true it is, but that they are trying their best to convey the tale.

When: Saturday, Aug.

Open every weekend from the first weekend in May until the end of October, 10 a.m.

Wednesday through Saturday, 12 p.m.

Sunday Admission is $4; students in grades K-12 are $2; children under 5 are free; and Ohio History Connection members are free.

For further information, call 937-392-1627 or 800-752-2705, or visit the Ohio History Connection website at: RANKIN HOUSE IS LOCATED ON RANKIN STREET “publishdate=”2014-08-18 17:38:42 +0000 UTC” updateddate=”2014-08-18 17:46:36 +0000 UTC” slot=”timestamp” publishdate=”2014-08-18 17:38:42 +0000 UTC”>

Underground Railroad

SubjectCategories IndexCincinnati HistoryLibrary and Archives
In the years after the Civil War, stories of an Underground Railroad that helped runaway slaves travel north to safety and freedom came to rank among the most popular elements of local legend. They were also among the most exaggerated, misunderstood and difficult to document.Since it was against the law to assist escaping slaves, it was necessary to conceal the activities of the Underground Railroad, and due to this secrecy, much of what is known about it today was recorded many years after the events took place.
Contrary to legend, no tunnels burrowed under the Ohio River and no highly organized institution existed to spirit runaways northward. Most importantly, the idea that runaways were helpless cargo in the caring hands of highly principled and fearless whites distorted reality.The Underground Railroad was an informal network operated by both whites and blacks.
The role of free blacks in the activities of the Underground Railroad is often underestimated.Runaway slaves often found assistance from fellow blacks, who rarely trusted even well known abolitionists with news that a new group of slaves was passing through. In a letter to Lewis Tappan in February 1837,James G. Birney, publisher of the abolitionist newspaperThe Philanthropist, speaking of runaways passing through Cincinnati, commented that “the Slaves are escaping in great numbers through Ohio to Canada. � Such matters are almost uniformly managed by the colored people.I know nothing of them generally till they are past.”In Cincinnati, there were three local black churches that provided a safe haven for those who were seeking freedom.These religious institutions wereAllen Temple A.M.E. Church,Union Baptist Church, andZion Baptist Church. Levi Coffin Reminiscences of Levi Coffin, 1876Cincinnati History Library and ArchivesCincinnati Museum Center
There were also whites in Cincinnati who assisted escaping slaves, and the most noted of these individuals was Levi Coffin.Coffin began actively participating in the Underground Railroad while living in Indiana. After moving to Cincinnati in 1847, he and his wife thought their work with assisting runaway slaves was over.But as Coffin later wrote in hisReminiscences, “we were soon fully initiated into the management of Underground Railroad matters in Cincinnati and did not lack for work.Our willingness to aid the slaves was soon known and hardly a fugitive came to the city without applying to us for assistance.”
John RankinThe Soldier, the Battle, and the Victoryby Andrew Ritchie, 1852Cincinnati History Library and ArchivesCincinnati Museum Center Ohio was a major player in the Underground Railroad.Of the estimated 100,000 slaves who escaped the South, approximately 40,000 of them are believed to have traveled through Ohio.In addition to Levi Coffin, others in southwest Ohio provided assistance along the road to freedom.To the north of the city, the home of Samuel and Sally Wilson in College Hill served as an Underground Railroad station.In Clermont County there were a number of stations, including the home of Robert Fee in Moscow.Further east in Ripley, John Parker, a former slave, and the Reverend John Rankin were also well-known conductors on the Underground Railroad.
To learn more about the Underground Railroad,consult the following resources: Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground RailroadBy Ann HagedornGeneral 973.7115 H141This work discusses the role Ripley, Ohio played in the Underground Railroad and looks at various local participants, including the Reverend John Rankin and John Parker.View catalog recordRequest slip
Encyclopedia of the Underground Railroad By J. Blaine Hudson General f973.7115 H885eView catalog recordRequest slip
Fleeing for Freedom: Stories of the Underground Railroad as told by Levi Coffin and William StillEdited with an introduction by George and Willene HendrickGeneral 973.7115 F594View catalog recordRequest slip
Freedom�s Struggle: A Response to Slavery from the Ohio Borderlands By Gary L. Knepp General 973.7115 K68This book explores Clermont County�s role in the antislavery movement.View catalog recordRequest slip
Front Line of Freedom: African Americans and the Forging of the Underground Railroad in the Ohio Valley By Keith P. Griffler General 973.7115 G855View catalog recordRequest slip
Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad in the Kentucky Borderland By J. Blaine Hudson General f973.7115 H885View catalog recordRequest slip
His Promised Land: The Autobiography of John P. Parker, Former Slave and Conductor on the Underground Railroad By John P. Parker General B P241View catalog recordRequest slip
John P. Parker: Black Abolitionist Entrepreneur, 1827-1900 By Louis Weeks inOhio History, Vol. 80, No. 2, Spring 1971, pages 155‑162General q977.1 O37apView catalog recordRequest slip
Levi Coffin, Quaker:Breaking the Bonds of Slavery in Ohio and Indiana By Mary Ann YannessaGeneral B C675yView catalog recordRequest slip
My Eyes Have Seen the Glory: A College Hill Sourcebook of Black History By the College Hill Historical Society Pamphlets f977.14 C697bView catalog recordRequest slip
The Mysteries of Ohio�s Underground RailroadsBy Wilbur Henry Siebert General 326.973 S571 View catalog recordRequest slip
Reminiscences of Levi Coffin, the Reputed President of the Underground RailroadBy Levi CoffinGeneral B C675 View catalog recordRequest slip
The Reverend John Rankin: Early Ohio Antislavery LeaderBy Larry Gene WilleyThesis fB R211w View catalog recordRequest slip
The Soldier, the Battle, and the Victory: Being a Brief Account of the Work of Rev. John Rankin in the Anti-Slavery Cause By Andrew Ritchie R.B. B R211View catalog recordRequest slip
Traveling the Underground Railroad: A Visitor�s Guide to More than 300 SitesBy Bruce ChadwickGeneral 973.7115 C432 View catalog recordRequest slip
The Underground Railroad: Legend and RealityBy Larry Gara inTimeline, Vol. 5, No. 4, August/September 1988, pages 18‑31 General q977.1 T583 View catalog recordRequest slip
A Woman�s Life Work: Including Thirty Years� Service on the Underground Railroad and in the WarBy Laura S. HavilandGeneral B H3881 View catalog recordRequest slip
Sources Used for Historical Sketch:
  • Its look has been restored to its former state as a station on the Underground Railroad, thanks to newly discovered facts and information. BECAUSE WE’VE BEEN HERE FOR A LONG TIME The town of Ripley, Ohio, has a population of around 2,000 people and a population of about 10,000. The John Rankin House appears to be in like-new condition. If not as it appeared 185 years ago when the Rev. John Rankin, a Presbyterian pastor and staunch opponent of slavery, opened his home as a temporary shelter for slaves fleeing Kentucky. It will be dedicated on Saturday, August 23, at the two-story home situated on Liberty Hill in Ripley, which is 50 miles east of Cincinnati and has undergone extensive renovations on the outside and inside. In the house, which is a National Historic Landmark, visitors will find the inside to be virtually unchanged from when the Rankins lived in it. When it came to abolitionists and free blacks assisting slaves in their escape to freedom in the decades leading up to the Civil War, the Rankin mansion was a stop on the Underground Railroad. Running slaves crossing the Ohio River used on a light in the window for navigation. Despite the fact that Ohio was a free state, federal law demanded that runaway slaves be captured and returned to their homeland. According to the Ohio History Connection, formerly the Ohio Historical Society, which has owned the site since 1938, the Rev. Rankin, his wife, Jean, and their 13 children provided refuge to more than 2,000 escaping slaves by concealing them in the cellar beneath the barn or the attic, sometimes as many as 12 at a time. It is necessary to delve under the surface of things in order to understand history. To the best of our ability, the home was recreated in a manner that was as true as possible to the era between 1830 and 1840. The initial renovation, completed in 1948, had historically inaccuracies such as a portico at the front door, which has since been removed from the structure. According to Betty Campbell, the site manager and president of Ripley Heritage Inc., the charity that manages the home, “methods of study are significantly different today than they were in 1948 for restoration.” The exposed brick facade of the home was subjected to a paint examination, which revealed that it had been painted twice, first in a brownish red and subsequently in an ochre. In accordance with Rankin’s wishes, it has been repainted a brownish red hue. To determine the architectural elements of the home, Chris Buchanan, project manager from the Ohio History Connection, played the role of “detective architect.” In order to figure out what sort of locks were used, he looked at the outline left on the original front door. He then installed shutters to the windows using the hardware that was still outside. According to Buchanan, the stenciling is the true surprise here. Double doors were installed in 1863 to allow for more natural light into the parents’ chamber. A section of wallpaper had been exposed by removing the door frame molding in order to reinstate the original single door. According to Campbell, “but then they performed examination of the plaster and wallpaper, and behind the wallpaper there was this stenciling, which was much older and unique to the home,” he added. A few houses in New York State from the same era were discovered to have stenciling designs that matched the ones used in this project, which they were able to replicate. A historic restoration and reproduction artist, Kris Lemmon of Deco Works Studio in East Walnut Hills, was enlisted to assist with the project. By hand, her crew meticulously measured and painted the stencils. The walls in the parlor have been painted cream with turquoise trim, while the walls in the bedroom have been painted salmon with a green stencil. For visitors to be able to compare the old and new décor, a sample of the original stenciling has been preserved. A new roof, electrical wiring, heating and air conditioning, as well as a parking lot, were all part of the $1.1 million rehabilitation project. Telling tales about ‘Eliza’ and fighting off bounty hunters are two of the most important aspects of this job. The house has been restored to tell the narrative of a heroic family who risked all to save their fellow human beings. During this time period, there were two occurrences that took place on the premises. When a fugitive slave and her baby daughter attempted to cross the icy Ohio River to reach the Rankins in February 1838, they were apprehended and imprisoned. Rankin related the incident to a family friend, Harriet Beecher Stowe, who used it for the character Eliza in her 1852 novel “Uncle Tom’s Cabin,” which was influential in shaping public opinion against slavery. Rev. Rankin and his son, Adam Lowry Rankin, described in their autobiographies of protecting their house against bounty hunters in 1841, a year in which they were born. In many people’s minds, Jean Rankin played an important part in their lives, sewing clothes for their children and providing food for the runaway slaves when their husband was out preaching for days at a time. Jennifer Bartlett, regional site coordinator for Ohio History Connection, said Jean “shed as large a shadow as John.” With the help of the restoration crew’s discovery of elements from everyday life in the compact four-bedroom house, it becomes easier to imagine how many people lived in the little house. Despite the fact that the refurbishment is not historically correct, “we’re trying our best to communicate the tale,” Bartlett said of his team’s efforts. In the event that you decide to proceed, Rankin House will be re-dedicated on June 1. In what location: 6152 Rankin Hill Road in Ripley When: Saturday, Aug. 23, 11 a.m.
  • Free entry to the rededication ceremony following the ceremony 10 a.m.-5 p.m. on weekends from the first weekend in May to the end of October 12 p.m. to 5 p.m. Wednesday-Saturday Sunday Entrance is $4
  • Students in schools K-12 are $2
  • Children under five are free
  • And Ohio History Connection members are admitted for free 937-392-1627 or 800-752-2705, and visit the Ohio History Connection website: RANKIN HOUSE IS LOCATED ON RANKIN ROAD Time stamp: 2014-08-18 17:38:42 +0000 UTC
  • Updated date: 2014-08-18 17:46:36 +0000 UTC
  • Slot: timestamp: 2014-08-18 17:46:36 +0000 UTC
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Copyright © 2004-2020 Cincinnati Museum Center. All Rights Reserved.Images not to bereproduced without written authorization. This online guide opened on February 10, 2004.

John Rankin and the Underground Railroad

Heidi Breudigam came up with the idea.

Core Theme:

Underground Railroad (also known as the Underground Railroad System)

Grade:

2 days are allotted (45 minute periods)

2nd grade Social Studies Benchmarks and Indicators:

Examine everyday life in the past and present, exhibiting a knowledge that, while basic human needs remain the same, they are satisfied in diverse ways depending on the period and location in which they are experienced. History: A Day in the Life Answer questions about daily life in the past by using historical artifacts, pictures, biographies, maps, diaries, and folklore as sources of information. Methods and Techniques in Social Studies Obtain information from a variety of sources, including oral, visual, print, and electronic.

Identify the information-gathering sources that were used: persons, printed materials, and electronic sources.

Primary sources:

Lesson 11: Students will learn about the Underground Railroad in Ohio by watching a video on the history of the Underground Railroad. 2.Students will read a portion from the bookLife on the Underground Railroadby Sally Senzell Isaacs with a partner and write down the primary theme and two significant elements from each section. They will then present them to the rest of the class. Lesson 21. Students will complete the person of history worksheet and create three interview questions for Rev. or Mrs.

  • (The instructor will take on the character of either Rev.
  • Rankin, and will dress appropriately.) The class will read and debate original source letters from Rev.
  • Students will conduct an interview with Rev.
  • Rankin in Lesson 31.

Description of the instructional steps to implement the lesson.

Lecture 11: Review material from websites on the Underground Railroad in Ohio and debate it with the rest of the class. 2. Distribute Underground Railroad books to kids, and have them read a segment of the book aloud with a partner. In the third step, students jot down the primary concept and significant information from the section. 4. Student pairs give a presentation to the rest of the class on their research. 5. Evaluation – worksheet with the main idea and crucial facts, as well as instructor observation of how the students work in groups and participate in discussions.

  • Distribute a person of history worksheet and have students complete the first side, which should include information on Rev.
  • 2.
  • Three.
  • Rankin’s letters on slavery to his brother in Kentucky as well as his sermon at the Lane Seminary.
  • 4.

Teacher will dress as Rev. or Jean Rankin, and the students will conduct an interview with them in lesson 31. 2. Students will complete the back of the person in history worksheet by expressing their opinions on the Civil War and slavery from the perspective of Rev. or Jean Rankin.

Post Assessment and Rubric:

Viewing webpages on a computer and a projector Dressing up in the role of Rev. or Jean Rankin is encouraged. Knowledge of the Rev. and Mrs. Jean Rankin’s background

Materials needed by students:

Computer and projector are required to see the websites. Dressing up like the Rev. or Jean Rankin is encouraged. The Rankins’ family history is well-documented.

Light of freedom

RIPLEY, Ohio (AP) — The presence of a candle in the window of the preacher’s house, perched high on a hill overlooking the Ohio River, signaled that the coast was clear and that fugitive slaves may find temporary shelter on their journey from the Southern states. It was the first stop on the route to freedom that became known as the Underground Railroad, a network of safe houses where abolitionists, Quakers, free blacks, and others protected fleeing slaves from bounty hunters. It was the first stop on the route to freedom that became known as the Underground Railroad.

  1. It was one of hundreds of secret meeting locations, churches, and the homes of well-known abolitionists that were utilized as safe houses in over two dozen states during the abolitionist movement’s heyday.
  2. Southgate walked 519 miles across three states, including Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York, to visit Underground Railroad sites three years ago.
  3. It is estimated that more than 500 routes cross the state of Ohio alone, but from the early 1800s until the Civil War, runaways escaped to freedom from all points along the line between the North and Southern United States.
  4. It wasn’t necessary to go about informing everyone what you were doing, as would be the case with any unlawful action, according to Betty Campbell, spokesperson at Rankin House.
  5. The National Park Service maintains a list of 60 Underground Railroad historic sites spread across 21 states.
  6. Some places, such as the Rankin House, provide guided tours of their buildings.
  7. Cincinnati is also home to the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, a $110 million facility that serves as a comprehensive collection of knowledge concerning the historical period.

During Black History Month in February, expect to see a large number of people.

John Brown was an outspoken abolitionist who led skirmishes in Kansas and a raid on the federal armory at Harper’s Ferry, West Virginia, in hopes of obtaining weapons for a slave rebellion.

Brown died in 1859.

In addition to Civil War battlefields and the fort where Brown made his final stand before being arrested and executed, the 3,000-acre property spans Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia and contains a number of other historical sites.

One of the museums on the grounds tells the narrative of Brown and the abolitionist cause, with a particular emphasis on the raid and Brown’s trial and death as a result of the raid.

Visitors may tour the Harriet Tubman Home for the Aged in Auburn, New York, which is a humble frame house where the former slave – who went on to become a scout, nurse, and spy during the Civil War – assisted more than 300 fugitive slaves in completing their escape.

There are a number of items on exhibit, including Douglass’ hymn book as well as many walking canes, one of which was constructed from the remains of one of John Brown’s dwellings.

The National Park Service Web site can assist tourists in locating a starting point, and they may even devise their own itinerary.

She walked around six miles a day, mainly alone and on back roads, and she found herself thinking about the challenges and worries that the runaways were experiencing.

When you’re just putting one foot in front of the other, it’s okay.” “I could imagine how terrifying it must have been,” she reflected on the experience.

According to Rosa Caskey, director of the Afro-American MuseumCultural Center in Wilberforce, “There’s been a huge rebirth in people seeking to figure out where these sites are, people wanting to see and maybe relive a bit of that history.” Visitors come to Ripley’s Believe It or Not, which brings them to the Freedom Center, and from there, if you’re interested in history, you’ll want to stop by our museum,” says the curator.

They’re all designed to work together. “It’s a continuation of the story.”

John Rankin House, Ripley

Travel More than 2,000 men and women who were fleeing slavery over the Underground Railroad found refuge in this mansion overlooking the Ohio River during the Civil War. May of the year 2021 PHOTOGRAPHY BY Griffin White| ART BY The John Rankin House is perched high above the Ohio River and the community of Ripley on a hill overlooking the river. John Rankin, a Presbyterian pastor, lived there with his wife, children, and neighbors. With their support, more than 2,000 African Americans seeking liberation from slavery were able to travel safely through the area.

  1. The food, water, and direction supplied by Rankin and his family assisted individuals escaping north to continue their journey into Canada and remain one step ahead of bounty hunters between 1822 and 1865, according to the National Park Service.
  2. Listed as a National Historic Landmark in 1997, the John Rankin House was chosen not just for its contribution to the cause of freedom, but also because it served as an inspiration for the Underground Railroad stop in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s 1852 novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
  3. “I think some people just thought it was a good story, but it has been proven that Harriet Beecher Stowe and her family were friends with the family of Rev.
  4. “I think some people just thought it was a good story, but it has been proven that Harriet Beecher Stowe and her family were friends with the family of Rev.
  5. The tours last around 45 minutes, and tourists will be treated to panoramic views of the Ohio River, Kentucky hills, and the community of Ripley throughout their time there.
  6. “That tale of independence is just as vital today as it was then,” says the author.

Eastern Illinois University : Teaching with Primary Sources

Travel More than 2,000 men and women who were fleeing enslavement through the Underground Railroad found refuge in this mansion overlooking the Ohio River. May in the next year DESIGN BY Griffin White| ART BY A.J. It is perched high above the Ohio River and the community of Ripley on a hill overlooking the river. John Rankin, a Presbyterian pastor, lived there with his family, who, with the support of his wife, children, and neighbors, helped grant safe passage to more than 2,000 African Americans fleeing slavery.

  1. The food, water, and direction supplied by Rankin and his family assisted individuals escaping north to continue their journey into Canada and remain one step ahead of bounty hunters between 1822 and 1865.
  2. Because of its contribution to the cause of freedom, as well as its inspiration for the Underground Railroad stop in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, in 1997, the John Rankin House was recognized as a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service.
  3. It has been proven that Harriet Beecher Stowe and her family were friends with the family of Rev.
  4. “I believe some people just thought this was a good story, but it has been proven that Harriet Beecher Stowe and her family were friends with the family of Rev.
  5. The historic property, which has been lovingly restored, is owned by the Ohio History Connection.
  6. ‘John Rankin’s family, as well as many other men and women — both black and white — in the community of Ripley, acted as Underground Railroad conductors,’ explains Campbell.

“As vital today as it was then, that tale of liberation is still being told.” Closed from November through March; 6152 Rankin Hill Rd., Ripley 45167, 800/752-2705.

A Dangerous Path to Freedom

Traveling through the Underground Railroad to seek their freedom was a lengthy and risky trek for escaped slaves. Runaway slaves were forced to travel long distances, sometimes on foot, in a short amount of time in order to escape. They accomplished this while surviving on little or no food and with little protection from the slave hunters who were rushing after them in the night. Slave owners were not the only ones who sought for and apprehended fleeing slaves. For the purpose of encouraging people to aid in the capture of these slaves, their owners would post reward posters offering monetary compensation for assisting in the capture of their property.

  • Numerous arrested fugitive slaves were beaten, branded, imprisoned, sold back into slavery, or sometimes killed once they were apprehended.
  • They would have to fend off creatures that wanted to kill and devour them while trekking for lengthy periods of time in the wilderness, as well as cross dangerous terrain and endure extreme temperatures.
  • The Fleeing Slave Law of 1850 permitted and promoted the arrest of fugitive slaves since they were regarded as stolen property rather than mistreated human beings under the law at the time.
  • They would not be able to achieve safety and freedom until they crossed the border into Canada.
  • Aside from that, there were Underground Railroad routes that ran south, on their way to Mexico and the Caribbean.
  • He was kidnapped from his northern abode, arrested, and prosecuted in Boston, Massachusetts, under the provisions of this legislation.
  • After the trial, Burns was returned to the harshness of the southern states, from which he had thought he had fled.

American Memory and America’s Library are two names for the Library of Congress’ American Memory and America’s Library collections.

He did not escape via the Underground Railroad, but rather on a regular railroad.

Since he was a fugitive slave who did not have any “free papers,” he had to borrow a seaman’s protection certificate, which indicated that a seaman was a citizen of the United States, in order to prove that he was free.

Unfortunately, not all fugitive slaves were successful in their quest for freedom.

Harriet Tubman, Henry Bibb, Anthony Burns, Addison White, Josiah Henson, and John Parker were just a few of the people who managed to escape slavery using the Underground Railroad system.

He shipped himself from Richmond, Virginia, to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in a box that measured three feet long, two and a half feet deep, and two feet in diameter. When he was finally let out of the crate, he burst out singing.

ConductorsAbolitionists

Train conductors on the Underground Railroad were free persons who provided assistance to escaped slaves moving via the Underground Railroad system. Runaway slaves were assisted by conductors, who provided them with safe transportation to and from train stations. They were able to accomplish this under the cover of darkness, with slave hunters on their tails. Many of these stations would be in the comfort of their own homes or places of work, which was convenient. They were in severe danger as a result of their actions in hiding fleeing slaves; nonetheless, they continued because they believed in a cause bigger than themselves, which was the liberation thousands of oppressed human beings.

  • They represented a diverse range of ethnicities, vocations, and socioeconomic backgrounds.
  • Due to the widespread belief that slaves were considered property, the freeing of slaves was perceived as a theft of slave owners’ personal belongings.
  • Captain Jonathan Walker was apprehended off the coast of Florida while attempting to convey slaves from the United States to freedom in the Bahamas.
  • With the following words from one of his songs, abolitionist poet John Whittier paid respect to Walker’s valiant actions: “Take a step forward with your muscular right hand, brave ploughman of the sea!
  • She never lost sight of any of them during the journey.
  • He went on to write a novel.
  • John Parker is yet another former slave who escaped and returned to slave states in order to aid in the emancipation of others.

Rankin’s neighbor and fellow conductor, Reverend John Rankin, was a collaborator in the Underground Railroad project.

The Underground Railroad’s conductors were unquestionably anti-slavery, and they were not alone in their views.

Individuals such as William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur and Lewis Tappan founded the American Anti-Slavery Society, which marked the beginning of the abolitionist movement.

The group published an annual almanac that featured poetry, paintings, essays, and other abolitionist material.

Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave who rose to prominence as an abolitionist after escaping from slavery.

His other abolitionist publications included the Frederick Douglass Paper, which he produced in addition to delivering public addresses on themes that were important to abolitionists.

Anthony was another well-known abolitionist who advocated for the abolition of slavery via her speeches and writings.

For the most part, she based her novel on the adventures of escaped slave Josiah Henson.

Efforts of Abolitionists Telling Their Story:Fugitive Slave Narratives

Henry Bibb was born into slavery in Kentucky in the year 1815, and he was the son of a slave owner. After several failed efforts to emancipate himself from slavery, he maintained the strength and persistence to continue his struggle for freedom despite being captured and imprisoned numerous times. His determination paid off when he was able to successfully escape to the northern states and then on to Canada with the assistance of the Underground Railroad, which had been highly anticipated. The following is an excerpt from his tale, in which he detailed one of his numerous escapes and the difficulties he faced as a result of his efforts.

  1. I began making preparations for the potentially lethal experiment of breading the shackles that tied me as a slave as soon as the clock struck twelve.
  2. On the twenty-fifth of December, 1837, the long-awaited day had finally arrived when I would put into effect my previous determination, which was to flee for Liberty or accept death as a slave, as I had previously stated.
  3. It took every ounce of moral strength I have to keep my emotions under control as I said goodbye to my small family.
  4. Despite the fact that every incentive was extended to me in order to flee if I want to be free, and the call of liberty was booming in my own spirit, ‘Be free, oh, man!
  5. I was up against a slew of hurdles that had gathered around my mind, attempting to bind my wounded soul, which was still imprisoned in the dark prison of mental degeneration.
  6. Furthermore, the danger of being killed or arrested and deported to the far South, where I would be forced to spend the rest of my days in hopeless bondage on a cotton or sugar plantation, all conspired to discourage me.
  7. The moment has come for me to follow through on my commitment.
  8. This marked the beginning of the construction of what was known as the underground rail route to Canada.

For nearly forty-eight hours, I pushed myself to complete my journey without food or rest, battling against external difficulties that no one who has never experienced them can comprehend: “not knowing when I might be captured while traveling among strangers, through cold and fear, braving the north winds while wearing only a thin layer of clothing, pelted by snow storms through the dark hours of the night, and not a single house in which I could enter to protect me from the storm.” This is merely one of several accounts penned by runaway slaves who were on the run from their masters.

Sojourner Truth was another former slave who became well-known for her work to bring slavery to an end.

Green and many others, including Josiah Henson, authored autobiographies in which they described their own personal experiences.

Perhaps a large number of escaped slaves opted to write down their experiences in order to assist people better comprehend their struggles and tribulations; or perhaps they did so in order to help folks learn from the mistakes of the past in order to create a better future for themselves.

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