What Was The Premkse Of The Underground Railroad And Was It Found In Oswego New Yourk?

Underground Railroad Station – Town of Oswego. For the many African Americans who lived in the Slave States prior to and during the American Civil War, the Underground Railroad provided them the opportunity and assistance for escaping slavery and finding freedom.

What is the history of the port of Oswego?

  • Oswego is home to the Port of Oswego and once was a hub for several major railroads: the New York Central Railroad (NYC), the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad (DL W), and the New York, Ontario and Western Railway (O W) railways. Both railways operated a coal trestle for fueling steamships at the Port of Oswego.

Did the Underground Railroad go through upstate New York?

Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad. As Foner details in his new book, Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad, New York was a crucial way station from the Upper South through Pennsylvania and onward to upstate New York, New England and Canada.

What was the Underground Railroad and why was it created?

The Underground Railroad was established to aid enslaved people in their escape to freedom. The railroad was comprised of dozens of secret routes and safe houses originating in the slaveholding states and extending all the way to the Canadian border, the only area where fugitives could be assured of their freedom.

Was New York the Underground Railroad?

Abolitionists employed a vast network of churches, safe houses, and community sites in New York, as well as the 445-mile border with Canada, to help emancipate enslaved people.

What parts of New York were part of the Underground Railroad?

Underground Railroad sites in New York

  • North Star Underground Railroad Museum, Ausable Chasm.
  • Harriet Tubman National Historical Site, Auburn.
  • Plymouth Church, Brooklyn.
  • Gerrit Smith Estate National Park, Petersboro.
  • Niagara Falls Underground Railroad Heritage Center, Niagara Falls.

Why did slaves go to New York?

During the American Revolutionary War, the British troops occupied New York City in 1776. The Philipsburg Proclamation promised freedom to slaves who left rebel masters, and thousands moved to the city for refuge with the British. By 1780, 10,000 black people lived in New York.

What cities did the Underground Railroad go through?

In the decades leading up to the American Civil War, settlements along the Detroit and Niagara Rivers were important terminals of the Underground Railroad. By 1861, some 30,000 freedom seekers resided in what is now Ontario, having escaped slave states like Kentucky and Virginia.

Did the Underground Railroad really exist?

( Actual underground railroads did not exist until 1863.) According to John Rankin, “It was so called because they who took passage on it disappeared from public view as really as if they had gone into the ground. After the fugitive slaves entered a depot on that road no trace of them could be found.

When was the Underground Railroad found?

system used by abolitionists between 1800-1865 to help enslaved African Americans escape to free states.

How far did the Underground Railroad go?

Because it was dangerous to be in free states like Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, or even Massachusetts after 1850, most people hoping to escape traveled all the way to Canada. So, you could say that the Underground Railroad went from the American south to Canada.

Which city built the first underground railroad?

The London Underground, which opened in 1863, was the world’s first underground railway system. More than 30,000 passengers tried out the Tube on the opening day and it was hailed by the Times as “the great engineering triumph of the day”. Pictured – William Gladstone on an inspection of the first underground line.

Who was the first to use the Underground Railroad?

What Was the Underground Railroad? The earliest mention of the Underground Railroad came in 1831 when enslaved man Tice Davids escaped from Kentucky into Ohio and his owner blamed an “underground railroad” for helping Davids to freedom.

What directions did slaves often take when escaping?

Sometimes they traveled with people escaping all the way from the South, where they had been enslaveed, to the North or to Canada, where they would be free. Sometimes the conductors traveled only a short distance and then handed those escaping to another helper.

Was Staten Island part of the Underground Railroad?

STATEN ISLAND, N.Y. — Staten Island has a rich history revolving around people of African descent who were freed from enslavement – from Sandy Ground to stops along the Underground Railroad.

Why did some black abolitionists become increasingly more militant during the 1840s?

Why did some black abolitionists become increasingly militant during the 1840s? They were inspired by several slave rebellions and mutinies on ships.

Which historic residence in Albany was a crucial stop along the Underground Railroad?

One important site noted in the video is the Stephen and Harriet Myers Residence, which was discovered just outside the region’s historic district. Located at 194 Livingston Avenue in Albany, New York, the townhouse served as a stop on the Underground Railroad and as an anti-slavery meeting place.

Freedom Trails North

Douglass makes use of the appendix to clarify his views on religion. A significant distance, he believes, separates Christ’s clean and peaceful Christianity from that of slaveholding America’s corrupt Christian faith. When it comes to Southern “Christians” whipping slaves, prostituting female slaves, and stealing the salaries of working slaves while claiming Christian principles such as humility, cleanliness, and virtue, Douglass has a clear knowledge of what is going on. Douglass argues that the Southern church and slaveholders are allies in their struggle against one another.

Douglass supports his point of view with quotations from the Bible, an abolitionist poetry, and a parodic adaptation of a Southern song.

Visit the Underground Railroad’s ‘great central depot’ in Syracuse, New York

An association is evoked by the names Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass, which invokes memories of former slaves, abolitionists, and the fight for liberation for enslaved Africans. Tubman and Douglass were both native New Yorkers; Tubman was from Auburn and Douglass was from Rochester, and they were responsible for the emancipation of thousands of slaves. However, less is known about the role central New York played in the establishment of the ” underground railroad,” which was a network of safe houses and routes that stretched from points in the southern United States to the country’s northern borders and was used during the 1800s to transport runaway slaves to freedom in free states and Canada through the United States.

  • Even before the Civil War, the city of Syracuse had an active “vigilance committee” that worked to prevent runaways from being re-enslaved.
  • Syracuse was formerly responsible for producing 90 percent of the nation’s salt.
  • Following the Civil War, the eclectic group of visitors shared groundbreaking views about how to live in America after the war.
  • Because we are all created in God’s image, religious leaders thought, “This issue of chattel slavery is untenable if we are all made in God’s image, and so, how can we enslave others?” “Searing” is what he says.
  • Jermain Loguen, who was dubbed the “Underground Railroad King,” had arrived in Syracuse from his home in New York.
  • Loguen’s home was located in the 1400 block of East Genesee Street.
  • William “Jerry” Henry made it safely to Kingston, Ontario, Canada, where he lived out the rest of his days as a free man until his death a few years later.

The “Jerry Rescue” monument, constructed in the 1990s, is one of such relics and locations.

According to Searing, there are perhaps a dozen Underground Railroad-related sites in the city, however many of them have been demolished, such as the house where Harriet Powell was held.

If you ask a passing stranger about Harriet Powell and her impact on history, you will almost certainly receive a puzzled look in return.

The news of Harriet Powell’s escape from slavery in 1839 traveled around the world, raising the prominence of Syracuse as a haven for those seeking freedom.

It is part of the association’s commitment to preserving and retelling the stories of the Underground Railroad and Syracuse’s role in the African American struggle for freedom.

Searing is still ecstatic with the play’s successes, even after all these years.

“It was fantastic to see the reactions.” “She was a slave who had the appearance of being white—a quadroon.” Her master, Davenport, put out a return flier for $200 in exchange for her return.

There, she meets Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who will go on to become a famous activist after meeting her.

With help from the Onondaga Historical Association, castings of molds were constructed from excavated faces found etched into the walls of the church’s basement.

Slaves, it is thought, were responsible for the faces, which predate the 1880s.

Syracuse is frequently referred to as the “Gateway to Freedom” because of its proximity to the Canadian border, despite the fact that midwestern territories such as Ohio received a large number of runaways from the Underground Railroad’s borderland, which included areas bordering slave and free states.

Westmoreland is a senior historian at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center.


They were quite useful in concealing fugitives.

Most people are unaware that the Underground Railroad was started by black individuals in southern states, who, despite their own enslavement, assisted others in crossing the border to freedom in “northern states,” according to the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center.

The Little-Known History of the Underground Railroad in New York

Cyrus Gates House, located in Broome County, New York, was formerly a major station on the Underground Railroad’s route through the country. Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons There was a time when New York City wasn’t the liberal Yankee bastion that it is now. When it came to abolitionists and abolitionist politics in the decades preceding up to the Civil War, the city was everything but an epicenter of abolitionism. Banking and shipping interests in the city were tightly related to the cotton and sugar businesses, both of which relied on slave labor to produce their products.

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However, even at that time, the Underground Railroad, a network of hidden safe houses and escape routes used by fugitive slaves seeking freedom in the North, passed through the city and into the surrounding countryside.

In New York, however, the full extent of the Underground Railroad’s reach has remained largely unknown, owing to the city’s anti-abolitionist passion.

“This was a community that was strongly pro-Southern, and the Underground Railroad was working in much greater secrecy here than in many other parts of the North, so it was much more difficult to track down the Underground Railroad.”

Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad

runaway slaves and antislavery campaigners who disobeyed the law to aid them in their quest for freedom are the subjects of this gripping documentary. Eric Foner, more than any other researcher, has had a significant impact on our knowledge of American history. The Pulitzer Prize–winning historian has reconfigured the national tale of American slavery and liberation once more, this time with the help of astounding material that has come to light through his research. Foner’s latest book, Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad, describes how New York was a vital way station on the Underground Railroad’s journey from the Upper South to Pennsylvania and on to upstate New York, the New England states and Canada.

  • Their narrative represents a phase in the history of resistance to slavery that has gotten only sporadic attention from historians up to this point.
  • The existence of the Record of Fugitives, which was collected by abolitionist newspaperman Sydney Howard Gay in New York City, was unknown to researchers until a student informed Foner of its existence.
  • A runaway long forgotten, James Jones of Alexandria, according to Gay’s account, “had not been treated cruelly but was bored of being a slave,” according to the records.
  • Foner reports that many fugitives ran away because they were being physically abused as much as they did out of a yearning for freedom, using terms such as “huge violence,” “badly treated,” “rough times,” and “hard master” to describe their experiences.
  • During the late 1840s, he had risen to the position of the city’s foremost lawyer in runaway slave cases, frequently donating his services without charge, “at tremendous peril to his social and professional status,” according to Gay.
  • Agent,” a title that would become synonymous with the Underground Railroad.
  • He was an illiterate African-American.
  • A number of letters and writs of habeas corpus bearing his name appear later on, as well as some of the most important court cases emerging from the disputed Fugitive Slave Law of 1850.
  • “He was the important person on the streets of New York, bringing in fugitives, combing the docks, looking for individuals at the train station,” Foner said.

that he had ever been the liberator of 3,000 individuals from bondage.” The author, who used theRecordas a jumping off point to delve deeper into New York’s fugitive slave network, also traces the origins of the New York Vigilance Committee, a small group of white abolitionists and free blacks who formed in 1835 and would go on to form the core of the city’s underground network until the eve of the Civil War.

The New York Vigilance Committee was a small group of white abolitionists and For the duration of its existence, Foner writes, “it drove runaway slaves to the forefront of abolitionist awareness in New York and earned sympathy from many people beyond the movement’s ranks.” It brought the intertwined concerns of kidnapping and fugitive slaves into the wider public consciousness.” The publication of Gateway to Freedom takes the total number of volumes authored by Foner on antebellum, Civil War, and Reconstruction America to two dozen.

  • His previous book, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery, was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize and was published in 2012.
  • What was the inspiration for this book?
  • Everything started with one document, the Record of Fugitives, which was accidentally pointed up to me by a Columbia University student who was writing a senior thesis on Sydney Howard Gay and his journalistic career and happened to mention it to me.
  • She was in the manuscript library at Columbia when she mentioned it.
  • It was essentially unknown due to the fact that it had not been catalogued in any manner.
  • What was the atmosphere like in New York at the time?
  • As a result of their tight relationships with cotton plantation owners, this city’s merchants effectively controlled the cotton trade in the region.

The shipbuilding industry, insurance firms, and banks all had a role in the financialization of slavery.

They came to conduct business, but they also came to enjoy themselves.

The free black community and the very tiny band of abolitionists did exist, but it was a challenging setting in which to do their important job.

Routes were available in Ohio and Kentucky.

It was part of a larger network that provided assistance to a large number of fugitives.

It is incorrect to think of the Underground Railroad as a fixed collection of paths.

It wasn’t as if there were a succession of stations and people could just go from one to the next.

It was even more unorganized – or at least less organized – than before.

And after they moved farther north, to Albany and Syracuse, they were in the heart of anti-slavery area, and the terrain became much more amenable to their way of life.

People advertised in the newspaper about assisting escaped slaves, which was a radically different milieu from that of New York City at the time.

The phrase “Underground Railroad” should be interpreted relatively literally, at least toward the conclusion of the book.

Frederick Douglas had just recently boarded a train in Baltimore and traveled to New York.

Ship captains demanded money from slaves in exchange for hiding them and transporting them to the North.

The book also looks at the broader influence that escaped slaves had on national politics in the nineteenth century.

The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 was a particularly severe piece of legislation that drew a great deal of controversy in the northern states.

So that’s something else I wanted to emphasize: not only the story of these individuals, but also the way in which their acts had a significant impact on national politics and the outbreak of the Civil War. Activism History of African Americans Videos about American History that are recommended

Discover Starr Clark Tin Shop & the Underground Railroad in Mexico, NY

The most recent update was made on March 24, 2021. The people and sites of New York State were critical to the success of the Underground Railroad’s journey throughout the country. For many runaways, it was the final state they had to pass through before they could be fully free in Canada. That network of abolitionists, both black and white, who risked their own lives and freedom in order to save others was formed in 1848. There are hundreds more stories that have yet to be shared and remembered by the public.

  1. One such example is that of the Starr Clark Tin Shop in Mexico, New York, which was founded in 1903.
  2. This essay is part of a series on the Underground Railroad in New York State that will be published in the near future.
  3. 1:The John W.
  4. Harriet Tubman is number three on the list.
  5. 4:Explore the history of Syracuse’s Underground Railroad at these historical sites.

The History of Starr Clark Tin Shop

Built in 1827 as the town mercantile, the tin store has seen a great deal of transformation over the course of over 200 years of operation. It was changed into a tin business when Starr Clark and his wife Harriet arrived in town, and Starr was able to make things that the people desperately needed. In addition, it operated as the town’s post office, where people could send and receive letters from one another. From 1832 through 1867, Starr Clark worked at the tin business at the same location.

In May 2002, the Starr Clark Tin Shop was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a historic landmark.

The tin business is now a museum devoted to the Underground Railroad and its history in Mexico, New York, and is open to the public.

All of the objects on exhibit have been contributed by members of the local community. A unique display commemorating model Audrey Munson is shown on the second level of the building. The third floor of the building has further historical information about the community.

Starr Clark – A Station Master on the Underground Railroad

One of the most remarkable things about Starr Clark that I discovered was that he was the only person in town who received the only newspaper in town. Yes, you are correct. There was just one newspaper delivered to the entire town. Furthermore, it was transported all the way from Albany to Starr Clark’s Tin Shop in Mexico. When you factor in the fact that many people at the time were illiterate, it’s no surprise that the tin store became a popular meeting place for the community. After all, it was there that people could find out what was going on in the rest of the globe.

And, as a result of his commitment to the eradication of slavery, he took great care to keep up with the newest anti-slavery developments.

According to Mayor Jim Hotchkiss, “abolition was at the core of Clark’s tale,” and he is pleased to tell it.

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impartial justice for all men, regardless of their status or race.” — In 1866, Reverend Kinney delivered a eulogy for Clark, which included the words Furthermore, Clark maintained strong ties with other prominent leaders of the movement from across the state, including Gerrit Smith and Harriet Tubman.

Clark also issued the first anti-slavery petition from Mexico, which was published in 1835.

Prime Location Between Syracuse and Oswego

You could be wondering, ‘Why Mexico?’ you might wonder. What makes this hamlet such a significant location for an Underground Railroad stop is unclear. However, it is vital to recall that the railroad’s operations were illegal, took place at night, and were carried out mostly on foot. For the railroad to be functional, it was necessary for dwellings and safe places to be located in close proximity to one another. Meanwhile, while Reverend Loguen was in Syracuse supervising the movement’s progress, one of the logical next locations was Mexico, which is around 30 miles north of the city.

Many continued on to Oswego before boarding a boat to cross Lake Ontario, and others continued on to the Thousand Islands region.

Have you been inspired by Starr Clark’s story?

Jones, a fellow conductor on the Underground Railroad who was once a slave who managed to elude capture.

“George”, the Fugitive Slave who Got to Canada

One of the most well-documented stories from the Underground Railroad is Starr Clark and a fugitive slave called George, whom he assisted in his escape from slavery.

Mayor Hotchkiss recalls the account of how Clark first spotted George, who was standing in what is now the parking lot across from the museum, and how he immediately recognized him. Starr Clark aided George and wrote about it in the newspaperFriend of Man, which was published at the time.

Where Did the Runaways Hide?

It seems improbable that any of the escaped slaves took refuge within the confines of the tinsmith’s business. According to the findings of the Mexico Historical Society’s investigation, the runaways remained at the Clark residence just next door. The Clarks’ house featured a tank room on the second level, which they used for storage. The location was where they could collect rainwater for use in various household activities such as washing, cooking, and cleaning. The spherical tank took up a significant amount of space in one of the upper bedrooms.

When the tin shop was being restored, historians and archaeologists were brought in to ensure that everything was done in order to preserve the building’s history.

If you dig a trench around the perimeter of the structure, you will find pig bones and pipe fragments, but there will be no sign of a tunnel.

Unfortunately, this will remain a mystery for the time being.

Visiting Starr Clark Tin ShopMuseum

Because to its recent repairs, the tin business has been transformed into a museum dedicated to the history of Mexico. During regular hours, the museum displays a variety of items that depict what it was like to work in a tin business in the nineteenth century. New pieces have been created by a local tinsmith to complement the older pieces that have been given. By appointment, the museum provides free tours that are tailored to your interests and can last anywhere from an hour to several hours.

Historical Artifacts

Here are a few examples of the most fascinating objects on show at the museum:

  • Here are a few examples of the most intriguing objects on show at the Museum:

Is Starr Clark Tin Shop Haunted?

In light of the tin shop’s long history and the large number of individuals who have passed through its doors, it would not be unexpected to hear that Starr Clark Tin Shop is a haunted establishment. If you believe in such a thing, then go ahead. Many individuals, however, are convinced that it is true after hearing inexplicable sounds and experiencing chilly shivers. Because of the experiences that visitors have experienced, the structure has been designated as a stop on the New York State Haunted History Trail.

Underground Railroad Sites Near Starr Clark Tin Shop

The local courthouse is located just across the street from the tin business museum. In the early 2000s, a vast mural depicting the history of Mexico, New York, and the city’s role in the Underground Railroad was painted on the brick façade of the building, which now extends almost the entire length of its parking lot.

Bristol Hill Church

Bristol Hill Church, located in the town of Volney not far from the tin store, is worth a visit. The church is also known to have had substantial links to the Underground Railroad throughout its time in existence. Bristol Hill Church has a history that is unique in this historical period. When the church was first organized in 1812, it was not separated by race or gender. People from the neighborhood, both black and white, gathered for worship together. In 1831, they collaborated in the construction of the church.

One specific parishioner got well-known as a result of his deeds.

He worked at several odd jobs throughout Ohio and Mississippi until getting a position aboard a riverboat in the Gulf of Mexico.

The authorities took him into detention and demanded that he submit documentation proving his freedom as well as pay a fine.

Governor Seward’s Act, passed in May 1840, was inspired by James Seward’s account and was intended to prevent free black New Yorkers from being unjustly coerced into slavery.

Other Abolitionists in Oswego County

It certainly required a village to assist slaves on their journey to freedom. As a result, the Clarks were not alone in their opposition to slavery. In addition to the Mexico and broader Oswego communities, there were many more abolitionists in the area. The most well-known of these individuals were AsaCaroline Wing. Then there’s OrsonAmy James, who provided a one-night respite for William “Jerry” Henry before the Beebe family took him in and hosted him on their farm for a couple of weeks. James Jackson was another abolitionist from the area who went on to become well-known for the Jackson Sanitorium and, perhaps more strangely, the invention of granola in the town.

Each and every one of them made a difference, including Edwin Charlotte Clarke, JohnLydia Edwards, and Orson Ames.

Underground Railroad

A town came together to assist slaves on their journey to freedom. The Clarks were not alone in their opposition to slavery, as a result of this. In addition to the Mexico and broader Oswego communities, there were many more abolitionists in these areas as well. Of these, AsaCaroline Wing was the most well-known. Then there’s OrsonAmy James, who provided a one-night respite for William “Jerry” Henry before the Beebe family took him in and housed him on their property for a few weeks. One of the town’s other abolitionists, James Jackson, went on to become famous for the Jackson Sanitorium and, more strangely, for the invention of granola.

Each and every one of them made a difference, including Edwin Charlotte Clarke, JohnLydia Edwards, and Orson Ames, among others.

Quaker Abolitionists

The Society of Friends (Quakers) is often regarded as the first organized group to actively assist escaped enslaved persons. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with Quakers for attempting to “liberate” one of his enslaved servants. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved persons who were on the run from slavery. Abolitionist organisations founded by Quakers in North Carolina lay the basis for escape routes and safe havens for fugitive slaves during the same time period.

What Was the Underground Railroad?

According to historical records, the Quakers were the first organized organization to actively assist fugitive slaves. When Quakers attempted to “liberate” one of Washington’s enslaved employees in 1786, George Washington took exception to it. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved persons who were fleeing their masters’ hands.

Abolitionist societies founded by Quakers in North Carolina lay the basis for escape routes and safe havens for fugitives at the same time. It was another aggressive religious institution that assisted escaping enslaved persons, the African Methodist Episcopal Church, which was founded in 1816.

How the Underground Railroad Worked

The majority of enslaved persons aided by the Underground Railroad were able to flee to neighboring states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made catching fugitive enslaved persons a lucrative industry in the deep South, and there were fewer hiding places for them as a result of the Act. The majority of fugitive enslaved people were on their own until they reached specific places farther north. The escaping enslaved people were escorted by individuals known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were also used as hiding places throughout the war.

The personnel in charge of running them were referred to as “stationmasters.” There were several well-traveled roads that ran west through Ohio and into Indiana and Iowa.

The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.

Fugitive Slave Acts

Those enslaved persons who were assisted by the Underground Railroad were primarily from border states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland (see map below). Fugitive slave capture became a lucrative industry in the deep South after the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, and there were fewer hiding places for escaped slaves as a result. Refugee enslaved persons usually had to fend for themselves until they reached specified northern locations. In the runaway enslaved people’s journey, they were escorted by people known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were among the hiding spots.

Stationmasters were the individuals in charge of running them.

Others traveled north via Pennsylvania and into New England, while others passed through Detroit on their route to the Canadian border.

See also:  What States Did The Figitive Slaves Travel Through As They Move Through The Underground Railroad? (The answer is found)

Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad during its heyday. When she and two of her brothers fled from a farm in Maryland in 1849, she was given the name Harriet (her married name was Tubman). She was born Araminta Ross, and she was raised as Harriet Tubman. They returned a couple of weeks later, but Tubman fled on her own again shortly after, this time making her way to the state of Pennsylvania. In following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and other individuals.

Tubman was distraught until she had a vision of God, which led her to join the Underground Railroad and begin escorting other fugitive slaves to the Maryland state capital.

Tubman transported groups of fugitives to Canada on a regular basis, believing that the United States would not treat them favorably.

Frederick Douglass

In his house in Rochester, New York, former enslaved person and celebrated author Frederick Douglasshid fugitives who were assisting 400 escapees in their journey to freedom in Canada. Reverend Jermain Loguen, a former fugitive who lived in the adjacent city of Syracuse, assisted 1,500 escapees on their journey north. The Vigilance Committee was established in Philadelphia in 1838 by Robert Purvis, an escaped enslaved person who later became a trader. Josiah Henson, a former enslaved person and railroad operator, founded the Dawn Institute in Ontario in 1842 to assist fugitive slaves who made their way to Canada in learning the necessary skills to find work.

Agent,” according to the document.

John Parker was a free Black man living in Ohio who worked as a foundry owner and who used his rowboat to ferry fugitives over the Ohio River.

William Still was a notable Philadelphia citizen who was born in New Jersey to runaway slaves parents who fled to Philadelphia as children.

Who Ran the Underground Railroad?

The vast majority of Underground Railroad operators were regular individuals, including farmers and business owners, as well as preachers and religious leaders. Some affluent individuals were active, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who stood for president on two separate occasions. Smith acquired a full family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841 and freed them from their captivity. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, is credited with being one of the first recorded individuals to assist escaped enslaved persons.

Coffin stated that he had discovered their hiding spots and had sought them out in order to assist them in moving forward.

Coffin eventually relocated to Indiana and then Ohio, where he continued to assist fugitive enslaved individuals no matter where he was.

John Brown

Abolitionist John Brown worked as a conductor on the Underground Railroad, and it was at this time that he founded the League of Gileadites, which was dedicated to assisting fleeing enslaved individuals in their journey to Canada. Abolitionist John Brown would go on to play a variety of roles during his life. His most well-known duty was conducting an assault on Harper’s Ferry in order to raise an armed army that would march into the deep south and free enslaved people at gunpoint. Ultimately, Brown’s forces were beaten, and he was executed for treason in 1859.

  • The year 1844, he formed a partnership with Vermont schoolteacher Delia Webster, and the two were jailed for assisting an escaped enslaved lady and her young daughter.
  • Charles Torrey was sentenced to six years in jail in Maryland for assisting an enslaved family in their attempt to flee through Virginia.
  • After being apprehended in 1844 while transporting a boatload of freed slaves from the Caribbean to the United States, Massachusetts sea captain Jonathan Walker was sentenced to prison for life.
  • John Fairfield of Virginia turned down the opportunity to assist in the rescue of enslaved individuals who had been left behind by their families as they made their way north.

Fairfield’s strategy was to go around the southern United States appearing as a slave broker. He managed to elude capture twice. He died in 1860 in Tennessee, during the American Reconstruction Era.

End of the Line

Operation of the Underground Railroad came to an end in 1863, during the American Civil War. In actuality, its work was shifted aboveground as part of the Union’s overall campaign against the Confederate States of America. Once again, Harriet Tubman made a crucial contribution by organizing intelligence operations and serving as a commanding officer in Union Army efforts to rescue the liberated enslaved people who had been freed. MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman led a daring Civil War raid after the Underground Railroad was shut down.


During the American Civil War, the Underground Railroad came to an end about 1863. When it came to the Union fight against the Confederacy, its activity was carried out aboveground. This time around, Harriet Tubman played a critical role in the Union Army’s efforts to rescue the recently liberated enslaved people by conducting intelligence operations and serving in the role of leadership. FOR MORE INFORMATION, PLEASE READ THESE STATEMENTS. Harriet Tubman Led a Brutal Civil War Raid Following the Underground Railroad.

Daniel Hughes (underground railroad) – Wikipedia

Daniel Hughes
Born 1804Oswego County, New York
Died 1880Williamsport, Pennsylvania
Occupation Lumber raftsman andUnderground Railroadconductor
Height 6 ft 8 in (2.03 m)
Spouse(s) Ann Rotch
Children 16

He worked as a conductor, agent, and station master for the Underground Railroad, which was situated in Loyalsock Township, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania in the United States. Daniel Hughes was born in 1804 and died in 1880. Ira owned a barge on the Pennsylvania Canal that hauled timber from Williamsport, Pennsylvania on the West Branch Susquehanna River, all the way to Havre de Grace, Maryland. When Hughes returned to Lycoming County from his trip up the Susquehanna River, he hid runaway slaves in the hold of his barge.

  1. Hughes’ home was nestled in a hollow or tiny valley in the mountains just north of Williamsport, and it was built in the early 1900s.
  2. Due to the efforts of concerned African American citizens of Williamsport, the disparaging term was officially abolished in 1936 by the city council of Williamsport.
  3. According to the Census of 1850, he was an amulatto.
  4. He was an imposing figure for his day, measuring 6 feet 8 inches tall and weighing up to 300 pounds at his peak.
  5. The 1850 census revealed that she, too, was of mixed race.
  6. Hughes’ barge and mansion served as a sanctuary for fugitive slaves fleeing to freedom.
  7. A number of caves beneath the Hughes property provided additional hiding places for the fugitive slaves.

Although Daniel Hughes operated in a part of the United States where slavery had been outlawed for many years, this did not imply that the majority of his neighbors and townspeople shared his views on the subject.

Fugitive slave catchers were formerly required to halt at the Mason–Dixon line under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793, but this was changed by the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, which permitted them to pursue escaped slaves into the Northern states.

The Freedom Road Cemetery Historical Marker is located on Freedom Road.

In order to keep the slaves safe, Hughes was compelled to lead them under cover of night.

Hughes and his sons attempted to work on evenings when there was no moon.

On the way to the next station, Hughes took the escaped slaves through Lewis Township, near the hamlet of Trout Run onLycoming Creek, and dropped them off at the station.

In his latter years, Daniel Hughes’ son, Robert, recalled many aspects of his father’s adventures on the Underground Railroad, which he had throughout his childhood.

Despite the fact that I was just a small child, I have vivid memories of delivering food to them in the woods.

Frequently, patrollers would visit to our location in search of fugitives.

Rich and decent individuals in Williamsport, the majority of whom were Quakers, contributed to the effort.” Besides providing portion of his land for use as a cemetery, Daniel Hughes made other contributions to the African American community in the Williamsport area.

The cemetery, which is honored by a Pennsylvania Historical Marker, is home to nine African Veterans of the American Civil War who died during the American Civil War. Hughes’ wishes were carried out and he was laid to rest in an unmarked grave at the cemetery.


The Orson Ames House is a ca. 1830 modest single story frame home in the village of Mexico, New York. It is where, on the evening of October 5, 1851, Orson and Amy Ames sheltered the famous freedom seeker William “Jerry” Henry. It is the only remaining property in the area marking where “Jerry” hid on his escape to freedom. “Jerry’s” widely publicized and popularly supported escape directly challenged the Federal government’s ability to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. “Jerry” had escaped slavery in Missouri, and was working in Syracuse, when he was arrested as a runaway by Federal marshals in October 1851.

Once his shackles were removed by a blacksmith, he was hidden for four days before escaping in a meat wagon to Mexico.

Local abolitionists moved him next to Asa and Mary Whipple barn in a more secluded area in Toad Hollow.

Asa and Mary Whipple’s son-in-law in 1899 told the story in a surviving letter.

He married Amy Perkins and had six children.

He was the wealthiest of the core group of Mexico abolitionists.

He signed the first anti-slavery petition from the county, and in 1838 volunteered to be part of the town’s Vigilance Committee which helped freedom seekers escape.

(341) The Orson Ames Houseis located at 3339 Main Street in the Oswego County village of Mexico.

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