What is the article summary of the trail of Tears?
- For the article summary, see Trail of Tears summary. Trail of Tears, in U.S. history, the forced relocation during the 1830s of Eastern Woodlands Indians of the Southeast region of the United States (including Cherokee, Creek, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole, among other nations) to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.
What was the Trail of Tears called?
In 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jackson’s Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma. The Cherokee people called this journey the “Trail of Tears,” because of its devastating effects.
Why was the trail nicknamed Trail of Tears?
The term Trail of Tears invokes the collective suffering those people experienced, although it is most commonly used in reference to the removal experiences of the Southeast Indians generally and the Cherokee nation specifically.
Where is the Trail of Tears?
Severe exposure, starvation and disease ravaged tribes during their forced migration to present-day Oklahoma. Severe exposure, starvation and disease ravaged tribes during their forced migration to present-day Oklahoma.
What was the Trail of Tears short answer?
The Trail of Tears was when the United States government forced Native Americans to move from their homelands in the Southern United States to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. Peoples from the Cherokee, Muscogee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole tribes were marched at gunpoint across hundreds of miles to reservations.
How would you describe the Trail of Tears?
The term “Trail of Tears” refers to the difficult journeys that the Five Tribes took during their forced removal from the southeast during the 1830s and 1840s. The Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole were all marched out of their ancestral lands to Indian Territory, or present Oklahoma.
Which of the following caused the Trail of Tears?
The Cherokee Trail of Tears resulted from the enforcement of the Treaty of New Echota, an agreement signed under the provisions of the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which exchanged Indian land in the East for lands west of the Mississippi River, but which was never accepted by the elected tribal leadership or a majority
What was the Trail of Tears quizlet?
In 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jackson’s Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present- day Oklahoma. The Cherokee people called this journey the “Trail of Tears,” because of its devastating effects.
Where was the Trail of Tears started?
At New Echota, Georgia, the pro-treaty faction of the Cherokee signed away Cherokee lands in Appalachia and began the removal process.
Is the Trail of Tears marked?
The Trail is not a clearly marked nor continuous hiking trail. Instead it is a corridor that passes through communities as well as wild areas and through different states and land ownership.
When was the start of the Trail of Tears?
Today, three Cherokee tribes are federally recognized: the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians (UKB) in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation (CN) in Oklahoma, and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI) in North Carolina.
Which tribes were in Trail of Tears?
Some 100,000 American Indians forcibly removed from what is now the eastern United States to what was called Indian Territory included members of the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole tribes.
How many Cherokee were on the Trail of Tears?
The “Trail of Tears” refers specifically to Cherokee removal in the first half of the 19th century, when about 16,000 Cherokees were forcibly relocated from their ancestral lands in the Southeast to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) west of the Mississippi.
Trail of Tears
The beginning of the 1830s saw approximately 125,000 Native Americans living on millions of acres of land in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina, and Florida, land their forefathers and foremothers had occupied and farmed for decades before them. There were very few Indians left anywhere in the southeastern United States of America at the end of the decade. The federal government, acting on favor of white settlers who wanted to plant cotton on the Indians’ lands, forced them to abandon their homes and trek hundreds of miles to a specifically designated “Indian area” across the Mississippi River, which they had never seen before.
The ‘Indian Problem’
A common source of anxiety and resentment among white Americans, particularly those living on the western frontier, was Native Americans: American Indians seemed to them to be a strange and foreign race who had taken up residence on territory that white settlers desired (and believed they deserved). In the early years of the American republic, certain authorities, such as President George Washington, felt that the most effective method to resolve the “Indian issue” was for the Native Americans to be “civilized” by the rest of society.
Many Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, Creek, and Cherokee people in the southeastern United States adopted similar practices, and as a result, they were known as the “Five Civilized Tribes” of the region.
- In their quest to build their fortunes through cotton farming, many of these Europeans resorted to violence in order to seize land from their Indigenous neighbors.
- State governments joined together in this campaign to expel Native Americans from the southern United States.
- In Worcester v.
- If no one planned to implement the Supreme Court’s findings (as President Andrew Jackson surely did not), then the decisions would be “.still born,” as President Andrew Jackson observed in 1832.
In their determination to acquire Indian territories, the southern states went to considerable measures to ensure that this region was theirs for the taking.
Andrew Jackson had long been an advocate for what he referred to as “Indian removal” before his death. With the help of his army colleagues, he had spent years leading brutal campaigns against Native Americans, including the Creeks in Georgia and Alabama, as well as the Seminoles in Florida–campaigns that resulted in the confiscation of hundreds of thousands of acres of Native American land by white farmers. As president, he was able to carry on this campaign. During his tenure as president, he signed the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which granted the federal government the authority to exchange Native-held lands in the cotton kingdom east of the Mississippi for lands to the west, in the “Indian colonization zone,” which had been acquired by the United States as part of its purchase of Louisiana.
President Jackson and his administration, on the other hand, routinely disregarded the letter of the law and forced Native Americans to abandon territories where they had lived for centuries.
Some were “bound in shackles and marched double file,” according to one historian, while others were provided with no food, supplies, or other assistance by the federal government on their voyage to Indian Territory.
According to one Choctaw chief who spoke to an Alabama newspaper, there had been a “trail of tears and death.”
The Trail of Tears
The Indian-removal procedure was still in progress. In 1836, the federal government forcibly removed the Creeks from their lands for the final time; 3,500 of the 15,000 Creeks who embarked on the journey to Oklahoma perished on the journey. The Cherokee people were separated into two groups: What was the most effective strategy for dealing with the government’s intention to seize control of their territory? Some people wished to remain and fight. Others believed that agreeing to leave in return for money and other concessions was a more logical course of action.
- According to the federal government, the treaty was already signed, but many Cherokee felt misled because the negotiators did not represent their tribal government or anybody else.
- By 1838, just roughly 2,000 Cherokees had migrated from their Georgia homeland to Indian Territory, according to historical records.
- After forcing the Cherokee into stockades at bayonet point, Scott and his forces proceeded to pillage their homes and personal possessions while they were there.
- The expedition was plagued by epidemics of whooping cough, typhus, dysentery, cholera, and malnutrition, and historians estimate that more than 5,000 Cherokee perished as a result of the trek.
The federal government assured them that their new property would stay unmolested in perpetuity, but as the line of white settlement crept westward, “Indian Country” decreased and contracted more and farther. Oklahoma was admitted as a state in 1907, and Indian Territory was officially abolished.
Can You Walk The Trail of Tears?
The Trail of Tears stretches over 5,043 miles and crosses nine states: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Tennessee. Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri The Trail of Tears National Historic Trail is currently managed by the National Park Service, and sections of it are accessible by foot, horseback, bicycle, or automobile.
The Trail of Tears is a historical trail that began in the United States of America. NPS.gov. WithHistory Vault, you can watch hundreds of hours of historical film that is completely commercial-free. Begin your risk-free trial today.
On Whitehead’s The Underground Railroad : Coles’s On Whitehead’s The Underground Railroad Chapter 8 Summary & Analysis
Tennessee Summary After being seized by Ridgeway, Cora is forced to ride in a wagon with Ridgeway and two of his buddies, Boseman and Homer, to avoid arrest. In many ways, Boseman embodies the stereotypical slave catcher, complete with a penchant for violence. A tiny black child of ten years old, Homer was purchased as a slave by Ridgeway and released fourteen hours later by another slaver. After being released from slavery, Homer has refused to leave Ridgeway, and he continues to labor with the slave catcher, chaining himself to their wagon each night before falling asleep.
- Ridgeway plans to reunite the two slaves and return them to Georgia together.
- Cora attempts to flee twice, but is apprehended both times and is sentenced to even more chains.
- Despite Ridgeway’s warnings and instructions to stop, Jasper continues to sing continuously.
- Despite the money Ridgeway had hoped to gain by sending Jasper back to his plantation, he admits that the discomfort caused by Jasper’s singing isn’t worth it to him.
- The majority of the villages they pass through on their way to Nashville have been ravaged by natural calamities, including a large fire and a cholera epidemic.
- When Lovey was brought back to the Randall plantation, where she was hung and impaled, the situation became dire.
- Ridgeway takes pleasure in telling Cora these things, taking pleasure in her anguish.
He claims that both of them are just acting on their natural survival instincts.
The following night, Boseman removes Cora’s chains in order to rape her a second time.
In the meantime, Cora is unchained, and the young black man who had observed her earlier appears, accompanied by two others armed with firearms and knives.
Cora kicks Ridgeway in the face three times before fleeing with the others in the group.
Cora gets a kick out of hearing about the terrible murders of Lovey and Caesar, and he takes great joy in doing so.
Upon shooting Jasper for no other reason than to be annoyed by the man’s singing, he replies to his friends’ shock and grief by calculating the financial damage he has caused them.
His sidekick Homer double-checks the books and verifies Ridgeway’s computation with a chilly, “He’s right,” as if it were his own calculation.
Even while it would be easier to portray Ridgeway as a psychopath who is devoid of compassion, his character is more complicated.
Terrance Randall is not a friend of his, and he despises the guy for many of the same reasons that Cora despises him.
Ridgeway makes his decisions not because he has a purposeful wish to be good or wicked, but rather because they are convenient or based on his own whim.
Cora’s travel across Tennessee provides her with a chance to ponder American ethics at the national level, ethics that are beyond of her control and the control of anybody she has come into contact with.
In this chapter, Ridgeway introduces Cora to the term “Manifest Destiny,” which refers to the belief that white people have the right to acquire what is “rightfully” theirs by relocating Native Americans and Africans to “their respective locations.” Even while none of the white people currently residing in Tennessee are individually accountable for the fact that their land was stolen from Cherokees, they are all collectively complicit in the American mission of removing the land’s indigenous occupants.
The fact that a number of the towns that they pass through have been devastated by natural disasters — a massive fire has destroyed several towns, and a cholera outbreak has killed the residents of several others — leads Cora to believe that perhaps these white people have received what they deserve.
It is Boseman and Ridgeway who get into a similar disagreement with one another.
Trail of Tears
Frequently Asked Questions
What was the Trail of Tears?
The Trail of Tears was a forced transfer of Eastern Woodlands Indians from the Southeast region of the United States (including the Cherokee, Creek, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole, among other tribes) to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River that occurred during the 1830s. There are roughly 100,000 indigenous people who were driven from their homes during this period, which is also known as the removal era, according to estimates based on tribe and military records; around 15,000 perished on the voyage west.
After the enactment of the Omnibus Public Lands Management Act in 2009, the physical trail, which included numerous overland routes and one primary water route, spanned for about 5,045 miles (8,120 km) over sections of nine states, according to the National Park Service (Alabama, Arkansas,Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri,North Carolina,Oklahoma, and Tennessee).
- As a result of the BritishProclamation of 1763, the area between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River was recognized as Indian Territory.
- The British and, subsequently, the United States administrations, for the most part, overlooked these acts of trespass.
- At risk were vast sums of money: at their peak, Georgia’s gold mines produced around 300 ounces of gold every day.
- President Andrew Jackson, who was himself a successful trader, backed up this stance.
- Among other things, it empowered the president to negotiate with eastern nations in order to have them relocated to areas of property west of the Mississippi River, and it allocated around $500,000 for transportation and compensation to native proprietors.
- Jackson’s support for the act was reaffirmed in various messages to Congress, including “On Indian Removal” (1830) and “A Permanent Habitation for the American Indians” (1835).
- In general, the Southeast Indians were well organized and extensively involved in agriculture, as was the case across the region.
This meant that speculators who acquired such estates could make a profit right away because the land had already been cleared, pastures fenced, barns and homes erected, and other improvements had already been made.
When the Choctaw polity reached a settlement in 1830, they exchanged their real estate for western territory, transportation for themselves and their belongings, and logistical help both during and after the voyage to the west.
Many Choctaw died as a result of exposure, starvation, weariness, and sickness while traveling as a result of bureaucratic incompetence and corruption.
Members of the Chickasaw nation were skeptical of federal guarantees that they would be reimbursed for their property, so they sold their landholdings at a profit and used the proceeds to fund their own transportation.
In 1832, the Creek also concluded a deportation deal with the United States.
Federal officials once again demonstrated their incompetence and corruption, resulting in the deaths of numerous Creek people, many of whom died from avoidable causes similar to those that had killed Choctaw passengers.
As a result, the United States urged that the pact be upheld, inciting such intense opposition to removal that the resulting struggle became known as the Second Seminole War (1835–42).
The Cherokees decided to take legal action in order to prevent their relocation.
Georgia(1831) and Worcester v.
Like the Seminoles, a few Cherokee leaders negotiated a removal deal that was later rejected by the Cherokee people as a whole, much like the Seminoles.
This was not to be the case, as the United States troops began removing Cherokee people from their homes in 1838, frequently under threat of death.
Participants in the river route were carried into boats and transported down sections of the Tennessee and Ohio rivers as well as parts of the Mississippi and Arkansas rivers, until landing at Fort Gibson in Indian Territory.
The trek is said to have claimed the lives of 4,000 of the estimated 15,000 Cherokee, while about 1,000 escaped imprisonment and established settlements in North Carolina.
As a result, between 1830 and 1840, literally hundreds of band-specific deportation agreements were arranged with the peoples of that region.
Small groups of Native Americans living in the prairies and deciduous forests of the Lower Midwest, including bands ofSauk, Fox, Iowa, Illinois, and Potawatomi, ceded their land with great reluctance and were forced to move west under the pressure of speculators, settlers, and the United States military.
They comprised possibly one-third to one-half of individuals who were subjected to deportation, despite the fact that their stories are generally eclipsed by those of the more populous Southeast nations.
Following the inclusion of multiple newly recorded routes, as well as roundup and dispersion locations, as previously indicated, the original trail had more than doubled in size in 2009. Elizabeth Prine Pauls is a writer and actress. Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica
Underground Railroad Terminology
Written by Dr. Bryan Walls As a descendant of slaves who traveled the Underground Railroad, I grew up enthralled by the stories my family’s “Griot” told me about his ancestors. It was my Aunt Stella who was known as the “Griot,” which is an African name that means “keeper of the oral history,” since she was the storyteller of our family. Despite the fact that she died in 1986 at the age of 102, her mind remained keen till the very end of her life. During a conversation with my Aunt Stella, she informed me that John Freeman Walls was born in 1813 in Rockingham County, North Carolina and journeyed on the Underground Railroad to Maidstone, Ontario in 1846.
- Many historians believe that the Underground Railroad was the first big liberation movement in the Americas, and that it was the first time that people of many races and faiths came together in peace to fight for freedom and justice in the United States.
- Escaped slaves, as well as those who supported them, need rapid thinking as well as a wealth of insight and information.
- The Underground Railroad Freedom Movement reached its zenith between 1820 and 1865, when it was at its most active.
- A Kentucky fugitive slave by the name of Tice Davids allegedly swam across the Ohio River as slave catchers, including his former owner, were close on his trail, according to legend.
- He was most likely assisted by nice individuals who were opposed to slavery and wanted the practice to be abolished.
- “He must have gotten away and joined the underground railroad,” the enraged slave owner was overheard saying.
- As a result, railroad jargon was employed in order to maintain secrecy and confound the slave hunters.
In this way, escaping slaves would go through the forests at night and hide during the daytime hours.
In order to satiate their hunger for freedom and proceed along the treacherous Underground Railroad to the heaven they sung about in their songs—namely, the northern United States and Canada—they took this risky route across the wilderness.
Despite the fact that they were not permitted to receive an education, the slaves were clever folks.
Freedom seekers may use maps created by former slaves, White abolitionists, and free Blacks to find their way about when traveling was possible during the day time.
The paths were frequently not in straight lines; instead, they zigzagged across wide places in order to vary their smell and confuse the bloodhounds on the trail.
The slaves could not transport a large amount of goods since doing so would cause them to become sluggish.
Enslaved people traveled the Underground Railroad and relied on the plant life they encountered for sustenance and medical treatment.
The enslaved discovered that Echinacea strengthens the immune system, mint relieves indigestion, roots can be used to make tea, and plants can be used to make poultices even in the winter when they are dormant, among other things.
After all, despite what their owners may have told them, the Detroit River is not 5,000 miles wide, and the crows in Canada will not peck their eyes out.
Hopefully, for the sake of the Freedom Seeker, these words would be replaced by lyrics from the “Song of the Fugitive: The Great Escape.” The brutal wrongs of slavery I can no longer tolerate; my heart is broken within me, for as long as I remain a slave, I am determined to strike a blow for freedom or the tomb.” I am now embarking for yonder beach, beautiful land of liberty; our ship will soon get me to the other side, and I will then be liberated.
No more will I be terrified of the auctioneer, nor will I be terrified of the Master’s frowns; no longer will I quiver at the sound of the dogs baying.
All of the brave individuals who were participating in the Underground Railroad Freedom Movement had to acquire new jargon and codes in order to survive. To go to the Promised Land, one needed to have a high level of ability and knowledge.
The Underground Railroad [ushistory.org]
The National Park Service (NPS) Through the Underground Railroad, Lewis Hayden was able to elude enslavement and later found work as a “conductor” from his home in Massachusetts. Speakers and organizers are required for any cause. Any mass movement requires the presence of visionary men and women. However, simply spreading knowledge and mobilizing people is not enough. It takes people who take action to bring about revolutionary change – individuals who chip away at the things that stand in the way, little by little, until they are victorious.
- Instead of sitting around and waiting for laws to change or slavery to come crashing down around them, railroad advocates assisted individual fleeing slaves in finding the light of freedom.
- Slaves were relocated from one “station” to another by abolitionists during the Civil War.
- In order to escape being apprehended, whites would frequently pose as the fugitives’ masters.
- In one particularly dramatic instance, Henry “Box” Brown arranged for a buddy to lock him up in a wooden box with only a few cookies and a bottle of water for company.
- This map of the eastern United States depicts some of the paths that slaves took on their way to freedom.
- The majority of the time, slaves traveled northward on their own, searching for the signal that indicated the location of the next safe haven.
- The railroad employed almost 3,200 individuals between the years 1830 and the conclusion of the Civil War, according to historical records.
Harriet Tubman was perhaps the most notable “conductor” of the Underground Railroad during her lifetime.
Tubman traveled into slave territory on a total of 19 distinct occasions throughout the 1850s.
Any slave who had second thoughts, she threatened to kill with the gun she kept on her hip at the risk of his life.
When the Civil War broke out, she put her railroad experience to use as a spy for the Union, which she did successfully for the Union.
This was even worse than their distaste of Abolitionist speech and literature, which was already bad enough.
According to them, this was a straightforward instance of stolen goods. Once again, a brick was laid in the building of Southern secession when Northern cities rallied with liberated slaves and refused to compensate them for their losses.
Eastern Illinois University : Teaching with Primary Sources
However, many of the intriguing and lesser known elements of the Underground Railroad are not included in many textbooks, despite the fact that it is an essential part of our nation’s history. It is intended that this booklet will serve as a window into the past by presenting a number of original documents pertaining to the Underground Railroad. Broadsides, prize posters, newspaper clippings, historical records, sheet music, pictures, and memoirs connected to the Underground Railroad are among the primary sources included in this collection.
- The Underground Railroad was a covert structure established to assist fugitive slaves on their journey to freedom in the United States.
- As a result, secret codes were developed to aid in the protection of themselves and their purpose.
- Runaway slaves were referred to as cargo, and the free persons who assisted them on their journey to freedom were referred to as conductors.
- These stations would be identified by a lantern that was lighted and hung outside.
A Dangerous Path to Freedom
Traveling through the Underground Railroad to seek their freedom was a lengthy and risky trek for escaped slaves. Runaway slaves were forced to travel long distances, sometimes on foot, in a short amount of time in order to escape. They accomplished this while surviving on little or no food and with little protection from the slave hunters who were rushing after them in the night. Slave owners were not the only ones who sought for and apprehended fleeing slaves. For the purpose of encouraging people to aid in the capture of these slaves, their owners would post reward posters offering monetary compensation for assisting in the capture of their property.
- Numerous arrested fugitive slaves were beaten, branded, imprisoned, sold back into slavery, or sometimes killed once they were apprehended.
- They would have to fend off creatures that wanted to kill and devour them while trekking for lengthy periods of time in the wilderness, as well as cross dangerous terrain and endure extreme temperatures.
- The Fleeing Slave Law of 1850 permitted and promoted the arrest of fugitive slaves since they were regarded as stolen property rather than mistreated human beings under the law at the time.
- They would not be able to achieve safety and freedom until they crossed the border into Canada.
- Aside from that, there were Underground Railroad routes that ran south, on their way to Mexico and the Caribbean.
- He was kidnapped from his northern abode, arrested, and prosecuted in Boston, Massachusetts, under the provisions of this legislation.
- After the trial, Burns was returned to the harshness of the southern states, from which he had thought he had fled.
American Memory and America’s Library are two names for the Library of Congress’ American Memory and America’s Library collections.
He did not escape via the Underground Railroad, but rather on a regular railroad.
Since he was a fugitive slave who did not have any “free papers,” he had to borrow a seaman’s protection certificate, which indicated that a seaman was a citizen of the United States, in order to prove that he was free.
Unfortunately, not all fugitive slaves were successful in their quest for freedom.
Harriet Tubman, Henry Bibb, Anthony Burns, Addison White, Josiah Henson, and John Parker were just a few of the people who managed to escape slavery using the Underground Railroad system.
He shipped himself from Richmond, Virginia, to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in a box that measured three feet long, two and a half feet deep, and two feet in diameter. When he was finally let out of the crate, he burst out singing.
Train conductors on the Underground Railroad were free persons who provided assistance to escaped slaves moving via the Underground Railroad system. Runaway slaves were assisted by conductors, who provided them with safe transportation to and from train stations. They were able to accomplish this under the cover of darkness, with slave hunters on their tails. Many of these stations would be in the comfort of their own homes or places of work, which was convenient. They were in severe danger as a result of their actions in hiding fleeing slaves; nonetheless, they continued because they believed in a cause bigger than themselves, which was the liberation thousands of oppressed human beings.
- They represented a diverse range of ethnicities, vocations, and socioeconomic backgrounds.
- Due to the widespread belief that slaves were considered property, the freeing of slaves was perceived as a theft of slave owners’ personal belongings.
- Captain Jonathan Walker was apprehended off the coast of Florida while attempting to convey slaves from the United States to freedom in the Bahamas.
- With the following words from one of his songs, abolitionist poet John Whittier paid respect to Walker’s valiant actions: “Take a step forward with your muscular right hand, brave ploughman of the sea!
- She never lost sight of any of them during the journey.
- He went on to write a novel.
- John Parker is yet another former slave who escaped and returned to slave states in order to aid in the emancipation of others.
Rankin’s neighbor and fellow conductor, Reverend John Rankin, was a collaborator in the Underground Railroad project.
The Underground Railroad’s conductors were unquestionably anti-slavery, and they were not alone in their views.
Individuals such as William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur and Lewis Tappan founded the American Anti-Slavery Society, which marked the beginning of the abolitionist movement.
The group published an annual almanac that featured poetry, paintings, essays, and other abolitionist material.
Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave who rose to prominence as an abolitionist after escaping from slavery.
His other abolitionist publications included the Frederick Douglass Paper, which he produced in addition to delivering public addresses on themes that were important to abolitionists.
Anthony was another well-known abolitionist who advocated for the abolition of slavery via her speeches and writings.
For the most part, she based her novel on the adventures of escaped slave Josiah Henson.
Efforts of Abolitionists Telling Their Story:Fugitive Slave Narratives
Henry Bibb was born into slavery in Kentucky in the year 1815, and he was the son of a slave owner. After several failed efforts to emancipate himself from slavery, he maintained the strength and persistence to continue his struggle for freedom despite being captured and imprisoned numerous times. His determination paid off when he was able to successfully escape to the northern states and then on to Canada with the assistance of the Underground Railroad, which had been highly anticipated. The following is an excerpt from his tale, in which he detailed one of his numerous escapes and the difficulties he faced as a result of his efforts.
- I began making preparations for the potentially lethal experiment of breading the shackles that tied me as a slave as soon as the clock struck twelve.
- On the twenty-fifth of December, 1837, the long-awaited day had finally arrived when I would put into effect my previous determination, which was to flee for Liberty or accept death as a slave, as I had previously stated.
- It took every ounce of moral strength I have to keep my emotions under control as I said goodbye to my small family.
- Despite the fact that every incentive was extended to me in order to flee if I want to be free, and the call of liberty was booming in my own spirit, ‘Be free, oh, man!
- I was up against a slew of hurdles that had gathered around my mind, attempting to bind my wounded soul, which was still imprisoned in the dark prison of mental degeneration.
- Furthermore, the danger of being killed or arrested and deported to the far South, where I would be forced to spend the rest of my days in hopeless bondage on a cotton or sugar plantation, all conspired to discourage me.
- The moment has come for me to follow through on my commitment.
- This marked the beginning of the construction of what was known as the underground rail route to Canada.
For nearly forty-eight hours, I pushed myself to complete my journey without food or rest, battling against external difficulties that no one who has never experienced them can comprehend: “not knowing when I might be captured while traveling among strangers, through cold and fear, braving the north winds while wearing only a thin layer of clothing, pelted by snow storms through the dark hours of the night, and not a single house in which I could enter to protect me from the storm.” This is merely one of several accounts penned by runaway slaves who were on the run from their masters.
Sojourner Truth was another former slave who became well-known for her work to bring slavery to an end.
Green and many others, including Josiah Henson, authored autobiographies in which they described their own personal experiences.
Perhaps a large number of escaped slaves opted to write down their experiences in order to assist people better comprehend their struggles and tribulations; or perhaps they did so in order to help folks learn from the mistakes of the past in order to create a better future for themselves.
The Underground Railroad Recap: Square in the Teeth
Image courtesy of Kyle Kaplan/Amazon Studios Burning Slowly Cora is being pursued by the flames as she flees North Carolina. We are watching a parade on an ash-covered field, with fire and smoke covering the ground: Cora is shown traveling beside Ridgeway’s wagon, her wrists and ankles bound and chained; the horses are being guided by Homer and Boseman; and the fugitive Jasper (Calvin Leon Smith) is seen in the back. Ridgeway rides around the gathering on his own horse, keeping an eye out for anyone who could be attempting to flee.
- Throughout the course of this episode, we learn a little bit more about each of the characters as they speak, journeying alongside them as they crawl their way through a scorching Tennessee landscape.
- Ridgeway intends to return Cora to Georgia, but as Cora realizes by the position of the sun, they’re traveling west rather than south as he had planned.
- So what is the reason for this shift in direction?
- It was a complete surprise when Ridgeway turned up in North Carolina and discovered Cora.
- “The truth is, you took me completely by surprise.” Ridgeway had overheard someone mention a “station” after an abolitionist was caught in Southern Virginia, so he decided to conduct some investigation into the matter.
- Ridgeway is consumed with narrativizing his experience, and he and Cora are seen as fated adversaries to one another.
- The cause of the fires is still up in the air, according to everyone.
They’re on Cherokee country — in fact, they’re on “The Trail of Tears — and death,” to use Boseman’s phrase — and they’re in danger.
Ridgeway, who is a genius at explaining away his mistakes, responds, “No.
“It was only a spark.” Following a fleeing guy on horseback, Ridgeway eventually catches up with him.
Boseman’s Dissatisfaction We know he’s a jerk from his very first piece of conversation – he says something to Cora that will never be forgotten by anyone.
One night, while drinking around the campfire, he pushes Ridgeway even more, upset by their inability to go forward with their ideas.
“And for what, wounded soul?” you could ask.
“It was him who freed the prisoners today.
The angry Boseman threatens Ridgeway with the prospect of just having Homer to beat on and talk to if he quits.
“The Great Spirit didn’t believe in you!” says the Great Spirit.
Ridgeway kills him by shooting him twice in the head.
And, perhaps more importantly, Cora finally asks the question I’ve been dying to know the answer to: “How long has he been with you?” “I purchased him,” Ridgeway says.
I bought him for five bucks.
I’m not sure why.
That was not a thought that appealed to me.
The following day, I began drafting emancipation documents.
Cora calls into question the notion that Homer is free or has agency in this situation.
After seeing Homer’s sleeping pattern, Cora inquires, “Do you force him to lock himself in his room at night?” He claims it’s the only way he can get himself to sleep, and Ridgeway agrees.
Cora’s Spirit is a collection of poems written by Cora.
We get to see a little piece of her personality, and even her sense of humour, come through.
“However, it appears that you are eager to inform me.” I couldn’t help but laugh a bit.
I let out a gasp!
For his part, Ridgeway describes in detail Lovey’s execution for Cora, including how Terrance Randall “hooked through the ribs with a spike” when she was hung on the gallows, where she was still alive for two days.
Cora’s talk with Jasper that night is the most memorable sequence from this episode in my opinion.
She addresses her mother, Mabel, first, saying, “Mama, are you there?
You’re having a great time up in the north.
“I make a pledge to you.” “Hey Lovey, what are you up to these days?” says the second.
I’m aware that you’re still living someplace.
Imissyou.” Third to Caesar: “Caesar (she says), if I could just go back in time.” Things would be done differently if I were in your shoes.
I’m going to meet you again one day, and I’m going to make things right.” Lastly, to Grace: “Grace, you’re a powerful woman.
You’re not tied to any kind of cart.
Cora’s elegies, on the other hand, compel him to speak to her: “Praise the Lord, you’ve run out of things to say.” But despite Jasper’s grumpiness, they chat about Florida and why he refuses to eat: “What’s the point?” “I ain’t giving up,” he declares in response to Cora’s assertion that he has given up.
- “Nobody is allowed to touch me.” Last Exhalations Ridgeway and Homer get sidetracked while out hunting for raccoons in the last section of the episode.
- She comes upon a lake – this is the same location where we last saw her in the first episode’s prologue, with the same music playing and her dressed in the same attire as before.
- She walks more slowly and more slowly as the water grows deeper and deeper, and the camera pans up to an aerial picture as her head slips beneath the surface of the water.
- When we get back to the lake, Ridgeway is “rescuing” Cora by dragging her out of the water with him.
- She sneezes and coughs.
- “Is this what you’re looking for?
- “It ain’t that simple,” says the author.
Ridgeway buryes Jasper’s grey body in the soil before they leave the location.
Ridgeway, the Drama King, truly shot the man in the back of the head for his bag of food!
he is a sucker for a good metaphor.
When you combine Boseman’s closing statements with Cora’s and Jasper’s, he’s taken down a lot of stairs.
If there is such a thing as justice, what am I ever supposed to do?” Thuso Mbedu’s performance in this episode is nothing short of outstanding.
Calvin Leon Smith’s performance makes his brief appearance all the more memorable.
“I used to be a picker,” Jasper explains.
The Bible text that Jasper appears to be quoting is Psalms 137:9, which reads, “Happy.
If I weren’t writing recaps, this would be the moment at which I would take a break from the program for a bit, not because I don’t want to see it through to its end, but simply because it has been such a huge loss for me after five hours.
In this episode, we gain some intriguing insight into the characters’ thoughts on death and survival.
Cora disagrees with Jasper’s assessment that her attempts to flee have been in vain, and she is determined to succeed.
As suggestions for this part and the themes explored throughout the colonial Tennessee that we witness burning, I offer two poetry books: (1)Build Yourself a Boatby Camongne Felix, who conducted a conversation with Barry Jenkins about the program; and (2)Whereasby Layli Long Soldier The Underground Railroad is a term used to describe a system of transportation that allows people to flee their homes.
a recap of what happened: square in the teeth