Underground Railroad: A Route of Escape. During the Civil War (1863-1865), abolitionists in New Jersey assisted runaway slaves with their escape to northern free states. No New Jersey county has a richer black historical presence than Burlington Country.
What was New Jersey’s role in the Underground Railroad?
In the years preceding the American Civil War, New Jersey was a major route for slaves escaping their masters in the South. The legendary Underground Railroad (UGRR), which was neither underground nor a railroad, is preserved today at sites throughout the region.
What was the Underground Railroad and why was it created?
The Underground Railroad was established to aid enslaved people in their escape to freedom. The railroad was comprised of dozens of secret routes and safe houses originating in the slaveholding states and extending all the way to the Canadian border, the only area where fugitives could be assured of their freedom.
What is the Underground Railroad and what was its impact?
A well-organized network of people, who worked together in secret, ran the Underground Railroad. The work of the Underground Railroad resulted in freedom for many men, women, and children. It also helped undermine the institution of slavery, which was finally ended in the United States during the Civil War.
Who was involved in the Underground Railroad and how was it organized?
The Underground Railroad had many notable participants, including John Fairfield in Ohio, the son of a slaveholding family, who made many daring rescues, Levi Coffin, a Quaker who assisted more than 3,000 slaves, and Harriet Tubman, who made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.
Where in New Jersey was the Underground Railroad?
Runaways would be taken to one of the four main starting points on New Jersey’s Underground Railroad: Cape May, Greenwich/Springtown, Salem or Port Republic. Traveling north to Camden or Mount Holly, they would be funneled into one of central New Jersey’s seven major escape routes.
What states did the Underground Railroad run through?
These were called “stations,” “safe houses,” and “depots.” The people operating them were called “stationmasters.” There were many well-used routes stretching west through Ohio to Indiana and Iowa. Others headed north through Pennsylvania and into New England or through Detroit on their way to Canada.
Why was the Underground Railroad significant?
The underground railroad, where it existed, offered local service to runaway slaves, assisting them from one point to another. The primary importance of the underground railroad was that it gave ample evidence of African American capabilities and gave expression to African American philosophy.
What was the purpose of the Underground Railroad quizlet?
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early-to-mid 19th century, and used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.
How did the Underground Railroad contribute to the Civil War?
The Underground Railroad physically resisted the repressive laws that held slaves in bondage. By provoking fear and anger in the South, and prompting the enactment of harsh legislation that eroded the rights of white Americans, the Underground Railroad was a direct contributing cause of the Civil War.
Was the Underground Railroad a success?
Ironically the Fugitive Slave Act increased Northern opposition to slavery and helped hasten the Civil War. The Underground Railroad gave freedom to thousands of enslaved women and men and hope to tens of thousands more. In both cases the success of the Underground Railroad hastened the destruction of slavery.
What happened after the Underground Railroad?
After the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act as part of the Compromise of 1850 the Underground Railroad was rerouted to Canada as its final destination. Thousands of slaves settled in newly formed communities in Southern Ontario. Suddenly their job became more difficult and riskier.
How did the Underground Railroad lead to the Civil War quizlet?
How did the Underground Railroad cause the Civil War? *The Underground Railroad was a escape route for fugitive slaves in America. *Slaves would be helped by Northerners or “Quakers” who help slaves escape to Canada. *The Underground Railroad made the South mad because this was beneficial to slaves.
Was the Underground Railroad a real railroad?
Nope! Despite its name, the Underground Railroad wasn’t a railroad in the way Amtrak or commuter rail is. It wasn’t even a real railroad. The Underground Railroad of history was simply a loose network of safe houses and top secret routes to states where slavery was banned.
New Jersey’s Underground Railroad
African American ancestry and vestiges of the Underground Railroad may be found in abundance across South Jersey. South Jersey is home to a number of historic monuments and structures that proudly preserve and interpret the history of African Americans in the Delaware River Region for future generations. Take a journey through Swedesboro and into the twentieth century, where you may visit the Richardson Avenue School. The school, which first opened its doors in 1931, functioned as a “separate but equal” school for African American pupils for 11 years.
Today, it serves as a museum, with guided tours available by appointment.
It is possible to see remnants of the famous Subterranean Railroad (UGRR), which was neither underground nor a railroad, at several locations around the region.
Located just outside of Swedesboro is Mount Zion A.M.E.
- A little distance down the road is a cemetery that contains the bones of some of those fugitives as well as African American Civil War combatants from the 1860s.
- (African Methodist Episcopal) Church, located in the city of Camden, is the city’s oldest Black institution and a station on the Underground Railroad.
- The town of Lawnside in Camden County, which was previously known as Free Haven and subsequently Snow Hill, is worth mentioning.
- Peter Mott’s residence is located in this peaceful neighborhood.
- In today’s world, the Peter Mott House serves as a monument, and guided tours are offered.
- A stop on the Underground Railroad (UGRR) was said to have been the Enoch Middleton House in Hamilton (Mercer County), with its owner serving as both station master and conductor, according to local oral tradition.
- The Burlington Pharmacy, New Jersey’s oldest pharmacy still in continuous business, was a well-known meeting place for abolitionists in South Jersey during the mid-19th century.
- Medford was the hometown of James Still, dubbed “The Black Doctor of the Pines,” and the brother of William Still, a notable historian and Underground Railroad agent.
- Jacobs Chapel A.M.E.
- Still attended services and is buried.
He made a name for himself as a musician, actor, athlete, civil rights activist, and novelist, among other things. It is dedicated to Giles R. Wright, Jr., an internationally known historian of African American history.
Freedom’s Path: The Underground Railroad in NJ
African American history and vestiges of the Underground Railroad may be found in abundance in South Jersey. South Jersey is home to a number of historic monuments and structures that proudly preserve and exhibit the African-American legacy of the Delaware River Region for future generations. Take a journey through Swedesboro and into the twentieth century to see the Richardson Avenue School and learn about its history. Opening its doors in 1931, the school educated African American pupils for 11 years as a “separate but equal” school.
- As of today, it serves as a museum, with guided tours available on request.
- It is possible to see remnants of the famous Subterranean Railroad (UGRR), which was neither underground nor a railroad, in several locations throughout the Southeast.
- Mount Zion A.M.E.
- There is a cemetery just a short distance away that has the gravesites of some of those fugitives as well as African American Civil War heroes.
- A leading stationmaster in New Jersey, its priest was Thomas Clement Oliver.
- An individual from the nearby hamlet of Haddonfield made it feasible for this community to exist by purchasing pieces of land and reselling them to formerly enslaved individuals.
- Mott was a free African-American, and his home served as a safe haven for those traveling on the Underground Railroad during the time of slavery.
Cherry Hillis Croft Farm, which is a popular stopping point for runaway slaves in the adjacent area of Cherry Hill A stop on the Underground Railroad (UGRR) was said to have been the Enoch Middleton House in Hamilton (Mercer County), whose owner served as both station master and conductor, according to local oral tradition.
- George Washington after returning from the war.
- “The Black Doctor of the Pines,” James Still, lived in Medford with his brother, William Still, who was a prominent historian and Underground Railroad agent.
- Still attended services at Jacobs Chapel A.M.E.
- Never forget that historicPrinceton was the birthplace of Paul Robeson, the son of an escaped slave who grew up to become one of the most prominent African Americans of the twentieth century.
A singer, actor, athlete, civil rights activist, and author, he made a name for himself in a variety of fields. In honor of Giles R. Wright Jr., a prominent researcher of African-American history who passed away recently.
New Jersey and the Underground Railroad
1st of April, 2006 The history of slavery in New Jersey is a complex one that includes both the good and the terrible. On the one hand, in 1786, the state passed legislation prohibiting the entry of slaves, thereby putting an end to the African slave trade through the state’s ports. Those who already had slaves, on the other hand, were entitled to keep them. The issue of abolition became such a major and divisive issue in the ensuing 15 years that New Jersey became the very last northern state to outlaw it through a gradual process that began in 1804, freeing all black children born after July 4, 1804 — but only after they turned 21 (for females) or 25 (for males) years of age (for males).
- New Jersey had 18 slaves in the 1860 census, making it the only state in the northern United States to still hold them.
- Those in the southern half of the state, which was primarily Quaker, greatly supported it, while those in the northern half of the state, which was primarily Dutch and English farmers and businesspeople, were vehemently opposed to the measure.
- The road to freedom was known as the Underground Railroad.
- New Jersey has ties to two of the most important persons in the history of the Underground Railroad.
- After the United Kingdom abolished slavery in 1833, Canada became a shelter for fugitive slaves.
- The free blacks and white people who assisted the runaway slaves – whether by whispered messages or by providing refuge and food – placed themselves in grave peril.
(The United States Constitution forbade slaves from acquiring their freedom by escaping to non-slave states in order to become free.) If they were unable to apprehend the fugitives they were looking for, slave catchers would occasionally kidnap free blacks and falsely accuse them of being runaway slaves, as was the case in the Civil War.
More information on Black History may be found at: History of the State of New Jersey
Underground Railroad: A Route of Escape
|Burlington Pharmacy, built in 1731 and established as a pharmacy in 1841.According to oral tradition, this Quaker-owned building was used frequently to harbor Underground RR fugitives and was the site of anti-slavery rallies.Photo courtesy CulturalHeritage Department, Burlington CountyDuring the Civil War (1863-1865), abolitionists in New Jersey assisted runaway slaves with their escape to northern free states.No New Jersey county has a richer black historical presence than Burlington Country. By 1790, the county had the largest free black population of any county in New Jersey. This can be attributed to its location in the Delaware Valley, known as the “cradle of emancipation,” where slaves were freed on a large scale. The sizeable presence and influence in the valley of Quakers, America’s first organized group to speak out against the evils of bondage, enabled this region to be the pacesetter regarding black emancipation.Underground railroad stations that belonged to whites provide examples of interracial cooperation and goodwill. Burlington served as a short stop, where horses were changed, after a rapid twenty-mile trip from Philadelphia to Princeton. The stop would be known as Station A. Bordentown, known a Station B, served as a continuous connection to the line from Philadelphia to Princeton. Another line ran east through Station B, which followed the northern route. Its southern route remained independent for sixty miles before it intersected with the Bordentown corridor. Another branch of the Philadelphia line extended through Bucks County, Pennsylvania, to Trenton, then followed a northern course to New York.Documentation includes a tour guide ofAfrican-America Historic Sites in Burlington County,a newspaper article from 1860, and photos.Originally submitted by: Christopher H. Smith, Representative (4th District).|
- Friday, April 1st It is possible to see both the negative and positive aspects of slavery in New Jersey’s history. However, in 1786, the state passed legislation outlawing the importing of slaves, thereby halting the African slave trade that had been supplying the state’s ports for decades. Slaves were allowed to remain in the possession of individuals who already possessed slaves. The issue of abolition became such a major and divisive issue in the ensuing 15 years that New Jersey became the very last northern state to outlaw it through a gradual process that began in 1804, freeing all black children born after July 4, 1804 — but only after they turned 21 (for females) or 25 (for males) years old (for males). After the Civil War, a second statute was passed in 1846, which designated the state’s surviving slaves (all of whom were elderly) as “apprentices” for the remainder of their lives. It was noted in the 1860 census that New Jersey still had 18 slaves, making it the only state in the northern United States to do so. The beginnings of abolishionism as a force for social and political transformation may be traced back to around 1830. Those in the southern half of the state, which was primarily Quaker, greatly supported it, while those in the northern half of the state, which was primarily Dutch and English farmers and businesspeople, were vehemently opposed to the idea. A dedicated group of people in Philadelphia and New Jersey, including free blacks and abolitionists, were able to form a secretive but effective road to freedom that connected the slave states of the east — primarily Virginia, Delaware, and Maryland — to the farm houses of Cumberland, Gloucester, and Burlington Counties, through New Brunswick to Elizabeth, Newark, and Jersey City, and finally to New York and, in some cases, Canada. During the Civil War, abolitionist This was the New Jersey branch of the Underground Railroad, which ultimately assisted between 30,000 and 40,000 slaves in their quest for freedom throughout the United States and the world at large. Several prominent players in the Underground Railroad have been identified with New Jersey. The legendary Harriet Tubman, who escaped slavery on Maryland’s eastern shore by way of the Underground Railroad, worked at Cape May during the summers of 1849 to 1852, and was responsible for leading more than 300 slaves from Maryland to the Canadian province of Ontario. Following the abolition of slavery in the United Kingdom in 1833, Canada became a shelter for those fleeing persecution in their home countries. In addition to being a key organizer of the railroad operations in Philadelphia, native New Jerseyan William Still, whose descendants still live in the predominantly black community of Lawnside, in Camden County, was the author of a book in 1872 about the experiences of the courageous fugitives he assisted in bringing to safety. It was extremely dangerous for the free blacks and whites who assisted the runaway slaves, whether it was by whispered messages or by providing refuge and food. Federal responsibility for apprehending fugitive slaves was established by the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, which mandated their return and penalized anyone who assisted or sheltered them with heavy penalties and jail terms. Abolitionists attempted to achieve their freedom by fleeing to non-slave states, but the United States Constitution prohibited such an attempt. If they were unable to apprehend the fugitives they were looking for, slave catchers would occasionally kidnap free blacks and falsely accuse them of being escaped slaves, according to legend. Because black individuals in the South chose to join Union Army soldiers approaching their territory rather than travel to the North, the Underground Railroad came to an end with the outbreak of the American Civil War. See also: African-American Civil Rights Movement History of New Jersey
The Local Legacies project captures a “snapshot” of American culture as it was expressed in the spring of 2000, and it is available online. Because of this, it is not being updated with new or changed content, with the exception of “Related Website” links, which are updated on a regular basis.
Black History NJ: The Underground Railroad
Despite the fact that we frequently include individuals in our Black History NJstories, this time will be a little different. This is due to the fact that the focus of this segment is on the part played by New Jersey in the Underground Railroad. Of course, the Underground Railroad was a network of individuals and locations that assisted slaves in their attempts to flee during the mid-19th century. However, many people are unaware of the role that New Jersey played in its success. In the course of its existence, brave American abolitionists assisted around 100,000 Americans in achieving their liberation from slavery.
Slavery was officially prohibited in the state in 1846 as a result of this decision.
More From the Best of New Jersey
The Underground Railroad Runs Through New Jersey
The Underground Railroad provided food, clothes, shelter, and transportation to those in need while “conductors” escorted slaves down the path of the Underground Railroad. New Jersey was established as a rest stop and important access point along these long journeys. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, on the other hand, gave southern “masters” the ability to retrieve their fugitive slaves. This made traveling via the railroad more difficult, and many runaways sought sanctuary in places where they felt safest, such as New Jersey.
- While some traveled to New Jersey from Delaware by crossing the water, others arrived to the state from Pennsylvania through the Pennsylvania Turnpike.
- This church in Greenwich Township served as a safe refuge for those fleeing slavery along the Trans-Siberian Railroad.
- Without a doubt, we’re referring to Harriet Tubman here.
- In 1849, she managed to migrate to New Jersey, where she was able to avoid enslavement.
She spent years working on the Greenwich Line in New Jersey, where she became familiar with the routes through Salem, Cumberland, and Cape May counties. During her tenure as a conductor, she made 19 visits to the southern United States, assisting in the emancipation of more than 300 slaves.
Aid Along Cape May County
The Underground Railroad was maintained and transported along the Underground Railroad by Edward Turner and Tubman, who worked together. Turner, a free black farmer in Cape May County, served as a train stop on his isolated wooded estate, which he owned outright. While Turner was settling into his new position in New Jersey, Tubman was assisting runaways in a number of other states as well as Canada. Runaways were helped by Turner and his family throughout the Civil War and up until slavery was abolished nationwide in 1865, when he passed away.
The top (hero) image is courtesy of Smallbones /Wikimedia Commons.
The Underground Railroad at the Jersey Shore: Secret stops start to emerge
A little girl was spending the day at 24 S. Main St. in Allentown, where she was staying with a family of Quakers known as the Robbins sisters, who lived in an old house on the street. While assisting one of the women, she wandered down the cellar around twilight. Years later, the girl would tell the incident to the Allentown Messenger newspaper, which reported it as follows: “Passing through a door in a partition, we came into a partially furnished room, where six Africans were seated at a table having their meal.” At the time, she had no idea that the persons in front of her were escaping slaves, and it was only years later that she discovered that what she had witnessed was a technique for running what was then known as the ‘underground railroad’ during the era of African slavery.” Because of the release of an Amazon Prime miniseries on the subject last month, the Underground Railroad, a network of hidden passageways and safe homes used by slaves to escape into free states and Canada, is gaining renewed attention.
- More information may be found in the video at the top of this page.
- It followed a course similar to that of today’s New Jersey Turnpike.
- The Underground Railroad (Urban Railroad): Learn more about these hotly discussed locations in Central Jersey.
- Siegel’s map includes the town of Imlaystown, which is a part of the township of Upper Freehold.
- Historically, as historians have noted, the coastal part of New Jersey had been colonized by slaveholders and was less populated by antislavery Quakers, who had a bigger presence in Allentown, Imlaystown, and the state’s western half.
As Walter Greason, a Monmouth University historian and urbanist who has written extensively about race and class in America, put it, “For the most part, Monmouth and Ocean counties were very unfriendly to the Underground Railroad.” “It would be extremely risky for white residents to assist individuals fleeing the shelter.” They may be expelled from their churches, expelled from the neighborhood, lose business partners, and lose opportunities for work.
It was a high-stakes bet,” says the author. Perhaps this explains why it’s so difficult to pinpoint exactly where the Underground Railroad passed through this portion of the country. The following is a list of what is known.
Slavery at the Shore
Slavery on the Jersey Shore has been there since the 1600s. ‘In the 1670s, Lewis Morris is a sugarcane plantation owner in Barbados who transports almost 60 slaves from his property to Tinton Falls,’ according to author and Farmingdale native Rich Geffken, who wrote the novel. “And it is here that slavery gains a foothold,” says the author. The ‘Black burial cemetery’ in Holmdel is a neglected but important aspect of the town’s history. Geffken is considered to be the author of the book on the subject.
Despite the fact that New Jersey stayed in the Union throughout the Civil War, the state was not a bastion for abolitionists.
The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, which forced fugitive slaves to be returned and compelled inhabitants of free states to participate, raised the stakes for Underground Railroad “conductors” and heightened tensions amongst neighbors.
The Harriet Tubman Museum in Cape May is dedicated to the life and legacy of Harriet Tubman.
Aiding in Allentown
In least since the 1600s, slaves have been held at the Jersey Shore. The novelist and Farmingdale native Rich Geffken described Lewis Morris, a sugarcane farmer in Barbados, who “brings 60 or more slaves from his plantation to Tinton Falls” in the 1670s. Slavery gains a grip in this area, so to speak.” “Black burial mound” in Holmdel: a neglected yet important element of the town’s historical heritage When it comes to the issue, Geffken essentially wrote the book on it. His 208-page “Stories of Slavery in New Jersey,” which was released in January by The History Press (with a foreword by Greason) and sold out of its initial edition in four months, was the fastest-selling book in the history of New Jersey.
Greason stated that towards the end of the war, in 1865, there were still slaves in Monmouth County who had only been emancipated because of the 13th Amendment at that time.
With regard to sentiments in New Jersey, Geffken explained, “There was the vested interest of individuals whose families and livelihoods were dependent on slavery for 150 years, as well as Quakers and those who supported the Underground Railroad and assisted fugitive slaves.” A mixed bag of individuals showed there, including some who wanted to provide a hand and those who were frightened of getting into problems with the authorities.
The Harriet Tubman Museum in Cape May is a place where heroes may be honored.
Imlaystown and Toms River
- In regards to the Underground Railroad’s journey through Central Jersey, Fabiano explained that “they would skip Trenton since that was where the bounty hunters were stationed.” “New Brunswick was yet another hot spot they wished to stay away from. He said that the most well-documented path was the one that went from Crosswicks to Cranbury, but that there were others. In Imlaystown, Fabiano explained, “the Toms River route passed through.” “I have a feeling they headed to Merino Hills.” Witness to the Battle of Appomattox: In Matawan, a dignified salute is given to black Civil War veterans for the first time. The estate of businessman and anti-slavery campaigner Samuel Gardiner Wright, Merino Hill House and Farm is still in existence today. According to Fabiano, a subsequent owner stated there was “a fake ceiling” there, which was most likely used to conceal runaway slaves. The link to Toms River is a little more difficult to trace. “There was a period when runaways were transported from Allentown to Toms River and placed on a boat bound for the north,” Fabiano recalled. Lester Owens, an Underground Railroad scholar, is quoted as claiming in a 1999 Asbury Park Press story that “many slaves hid in cargo vessels in Toms River and attempted to make their way to Jersey City, where there were companies where they might find employment in the 1860s.” With the exception of Cape May, Toms River is the only Jersey Shore town on today’s Underground Railroad map that was home to legendary campaigner Harriet Tubman during the early 1850s. The slaves who arrived on these shores, according to Owens, would search for beams of yellow or blue light as an indication that they were being received by someone associated with the railroad. There must be some great stories to tell about this, but they remain a mystery to the present. According to the Ocean County Historical Society, which is situated in Toms River, there are no specifics about the incident. “It’s difficult to identify sources that are recorded,” Fabiano remarked. “Even though our sources are secondary – newspaper stories — they are based on first-person recollections,” says the author. “That’s as good as it’s going to get for you.” A Lincoln cousin lives in Upper Freehold, and a 259-year-old fingerprint may be able to rescue a cemetery. During the course of his book research, Geffken stumbled into this difficulty. Everyone who has a root cellar or porch that appears to have been used as a stop on the Underground Railroad claims that their grandmother’s house was a station on the Underground Railroad, according to him. It’s a fact that people weren’t documenting those material since it was considered too dangerous. Despite this, new information is continuously being revealed. The Asbury Park Press published a map of the New Jersey Underground Railroad in 1999, however it does not include any stops in Monmouth or Ocean counties. Three are depicted on the present map. “History is always changing,” Fabiano explained. “Reliable sources will emerge, and from there we’ll discover more.” Any schools or groups interested in hosting Rick Geffen for a presentation on his book “Stories of Slavery in New Jersey” can contact him through email at [email protected] Jerry Carino is a community writer for the Asbury Park Press, where he writes about intriguing people, inspiring tales, and important topics that affect the Jersey Shore. You can reach him by email at [email protected]
Library Guides: Underground Railroad in Jersey City: Underground Railroad in Jersey City
Jersey City served as the last “stop” on the Underground Railroad’s path through New Jersey, which ended in Philadelphia. Enslaved individuals from areas such as Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina were forced to flee. They proceeded to the Delaware River, where they crossed over to New Jersey, where they remained until they arrived in Jersey City. Jersey City was the colonialDutch settlement of New Netherlands in Harsimus, which was demolished in the 18th century. Slave traffickers began bringing Africans to the United States in the 1640s for sale.
- Several settlers, whose names may be found on the city’s street signs, bought the African prisoners and forced them to labor on their lands.
- Jacob Stoffelsen was a slave trader who lived in the 16th century (1601-1677).
- Cornelius Van Vorst was the son of Cornelius Van Vorst and Vrouwtje Ides Van Vorst.
- Enslaved people were regarded as personal property, and the slave owner would occasionally give them away to other people.
- Guert Tysen provided Stoffelsen with a slave in gratitude for the hospitality he showed him at the Van Vorst farm.
- An alleged argument about Stoffelsen’s ownership of the slave, according to the archives of the Holland Society of New York, led in a lawsuit tried before the City Court of New Amsterdam in 1654.
- The possession of the slave by Stoffelsen was affirmed by the court.
In 1679, Joachem Anthony, a free Dutch-speaking Black from New Amsterdam, became a member of the Dutch Reformed Church, which was then located in Amsterdam (now Old Bergen Church in Jersey City).
The Reverend John Cornelison (1793-1828), a pastor to Black slaves in Bergen township, was born in the United States.
Before the establishment of African-American churches in Jersey City in the 1850s, a large number of Blacks joined white congregations.
Slave trader Captain Thomas Brown built his wealth in the early 1700s.
Boats could land next to his house and offload their human cargo, which was convenient.
One of the first “African burying grounds” on the plantation of slave owner Cornelius Garrabrant is seen on a map from 1841.
In the backyard of the house, just off of Johnston Avenue and Pine Street, near the northern entrance of Liberty State ParkStation of the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail System, were the graves of those who had died there.
Eaton describes Jersey City and its historic sites in her book Jersey City and Its Historic Sites: “A large number of enslaved people fled to New York and Connecticut.
They were always brought back to Communipaw to be buried by their friends, and their funerals were conducted in the old Garrabrant stone home, which used to stand on the site of what is now Phillip Street.
The enactment of the Gradual Abolition Act in 1804 marked the beginning of New Jersey’s legal abolition of slavery over a period of time.
According to the census of 1790, the population of Bergen County (which comprised Bergen and Hudson counties before 1840) was 12,601 people, with 2300 slaves and 192 “other free” people, making it the county with the greatest number of slaves in New Jersey (at 19.8 percent).
The clause was based on an 1807 act that denied the right to vote to women and freed slaves who had previously qualified under the state constitution of 1776, but had since lost their eligibility.
The slave population in New Jersey was decreased to 236 in 1850 as a result of these regulations.
During the antebellum period, an estimated fifty to seventy thousand enslaved people traveled through Jersey City on their path to freedom, according to historical estimates.
Many people left for Canada or New York as soon as they arrived.
They were transported to the Jersey City shore at the Five Corners (Newark and Summit Avenues), where they were secreted in carts.
They also rented boats to transport them through the Morris Canal basin.
Harsimus Cove, near the foot of Washington Street or Montgomery Street, was a point of departure for certain Blacks who wanted to get out of Jersey City (todayExchange Place).
The ferryboats transported them to the Hudson River Passenger Station, which is located at the junction of Church and Chambers Streets in New York City’s Hudson River neighborhood.
With their passage, the Underground Railroad became increasingly profitable for kidnappers of runaway slaves, and the Underground Railroad became more perilous for abolitionists who participated in its operation.
Jersey City’s first and only mayor, Dudley S.
He served as mayor for three terms.
Congregations around the city of Jersey City, such as the First Baptist Church on Clinton Avenue, prohibited abolitionist speeches that expressed support for the Southern states.
According to legend, Tabernacle Church, located at the southeast intersection of York Street and Marin Boulevard, was “the first successful congregational church in the city of Jersey City” (Henderson Street).
Because of its outreach to the city’s needy, the Tabernacle Church came to be known as the “People’s Palace” in subsequent years.
During the 1850s, his home at 79 Clifton Place, which was the sole property on the block, was referred to as a “safe house.” Holden harbored fleeing slaves in the basement, which was equipped with a fireplace for the benefit of the temporary residents.
He used the observatory to track the movements of individuals who had been imprisoned in his home, and he was rewarded for his efforts.
Additionally, he points out that the land beyond the Medical Center, near Cornelison Avenue, was a pine and cedar woodland that provided security to the slaves, despite the fact that it was well known to bounty hunters (Cunningham, VHS copy of Jersey City Cable TV Documentary, 1991).
A “depot” on the Underground Railroad, his residence at 134 Washington Street in the Morris Canal Basin on the Hudson River served as a stop on the journey.
Holt went on to work as an editor for the Jersey City Courier and Advertiser in New Jersey.
Everett was referred to as “a conductor” because he provided information on escape routes out of Jersey City.
Between 1828 and 1830, they were released and went on to work as oystermen on the Hudson River.
During the same year, the Morris Canal Company paid $125 for a part of their land in order to begin construction on the canal.
According to a sign near the Martin Luther King Jr.
According to the ideas of the “Copperhead” group of the Democratic Party expressed in a local Jersey City newspaper, The American Standard (1859-1875), published by John H.
It blamed the abolitionist movement for the Civil War and opposed Abraham Lincoln’s presidential candidacy in 1860, while he was running for president.
It was widely believed that the Democratic Party controlled Hudson County, and that the newspaper was “Democratic.” The Copperhead dissenters opposed the draft and demanded that the war be brought to a close as soon as possible.
Commemoration of the Twenty-First Century A reenactment of the Underground Railroad took place in New Jersey from September 29 to October 13, 2002, during the month of September.
On day fourteen, the group arrived in Jersey City and spent the day touring the city’s landmarks, including the Abraham Lincoln monument in Lincoln Park, the Metropolitan AME Zion Church at 140 Belmont Avenue, and the Hilton-Holden House, before attending the final performance at Liberty State Park.
The walk came to a close near the spot where enslaved people first arrived in Jersey City many years ago.
Jersey City: The Last Stop on The Underground Railroad
The majority of people are aware that Jersey City has a long and illustrious past. For a variety of causes, this Hudson County community has been the site of several historical events and notable figures from both the United States and the rest of the globe. But there is one aspect of history in particular that jumps out – the Underground Railroad, or UR. Yes, Jersey City has some very deep ties to the Underground Railroad, and it has assisted many people in their journeys back and forth to freedom in the northern reaches of the country.
About the Underground Railroad
During the age of slavery, the Underground Railroad functioned from the late 18th century to the Civil War and was a large network of routes, people, and places that assisted runaway slaves in the American South in their escape to the northern United States and Canadian provinces. Because slavery was outlawed in the North, the region was dubbed “the Promise Land.” Despite the fact that the “Underground Railroad” did not exist in the traditional sense, it had a similar function of transporting individuals vast distances through barns and churches as well as businesses and houses in order to elude capture and enslavement.
It was one of the last “stations” on the Underground Railroad’s route through New Jersey, which ended in Jersey City.
The History in JC
It was in the same location as the Dutch town of New Netherlands at Harsimus, where slavery was first introduced into the United States in the 1640s, that the Underground Railroad was established. Dutch colonists brought African slaves to their colony of New Netherland in order to provide work for the development of the province. During this time period in Jersey City, settlers with well-known street names such as Garrabrant, Newkirk, Brinkerhoff, Prior, Tuers, Van Horne, Van Reypen, Van Vorst, Van Winkle, and Vreeland, among others, acquired slaves to labor on their estates and farms.
More information may be found at: The Bergen-Lafayette neighborhood in Jersey City is a great place to start your exploration.
Later, in 1664, England seized control of the colony and resumed the introduction of slaves from Africa into the country.
The British Crown offered the slaves freedom in exchange for their willingness to desert their masters and fight for the British Empire.
Thousands of slaves escaped to the United Kingdom, where they were promised freedom. During this period, they were responsible for resettling more than 3,000 freed slaves.
Underground Railroad Roots in Jersey City
When the Underground Railroad was active, Jersey City had underground passageways via which slaves could walk in the dark for 10 to 20 miles every night in order to escape into the free state of New Jersey, according to historical records. In Jersey City, the people who assisted and worked for the Underground Railroad were motivated by a desire to see justice done and a desire to put an end to slavery. They were so devoted to assisting slaves that they were willing to put their own lives, safety, and freedom on the line to do it for others.
- Also at his residence on the junction of Bergen and Sip Avenues, he kept slaves who were given religious services and reading lessons by him and his family.
- In addition, an early “African burial place” on the land of slave owner Cornelius Garrabrant is depicted on a map of Jersey City from 1841.
- In the backyard of his home near the intersection of Johnston Avenue and Pine Street (now in the Bergen-Lafayette area of Jersey City), the slaves were buried, and this location remained in use throughout the time of the Underground Railroad.
- By 1827, the state of New Jersey had emancipated the last of its slaves as part of its gradual abolition policy.
- Many of them would leave for Canada or New York after they had successfully arrived in our country.
- David Holden, an abolitionist, banker, and amateur astronomer who lived in the area, is the inspiration for the name of this locality.
- It was between Newark and the Belleville Turnpike that one of the Underground Railroad lines passed, which led directly to Jersey City.
- From here and the Morris Canal basin, abolitionists hired ferry and coal boats to take fugitive slaves over the Hudson River (nicknamed “River Jordan”) and into Canada, New England, or New York City, among other destinations.
- Historians have speculated that the escaping slaves may have offered services to unload goods from New York City boats in return for passage across the Hudson River to safety.
- Jackson Avenue is one of the city’s most important thoroughfares.
- During the Civil War, the Jackson brothers’ property in Jersey City was transformed into a safe house and a vital connection in the Underground Railroad network.
One of the reasons Jersey City is considered to be one of the most varied cities in America is due to the history and advancement of the Underground Railroad, which has routes and a presence throughout the city.
Evelyn was born and raised in Jersey City, and she is a well-known local influencer in the area. She graduated from Syracuse University with a degree in marketing and business, and she presently works as a freelancer in the social media industry. Since moving to Hoboken, she has also resided in Jersey City, and she is passionate about supporting local businesses and serving as a local resource for all of her friends and neighbors. She is an animal enthusiast who claims to know more about Jersey City’s animals than it does about its humans.
Making The Northeast Connection: The Underground Railroad In New Jersey
Few people are aware of the significant part that New Jersey played in the Underground Railroad Movement and how crucial this involvement was in the successful liberation of tens of thousands of Africans who were kept in bondage in the American South during the era of slavery there. The abstract contribution to liberation provided by New Jersey inhabitants, both black and white, who engaged in the state’s Underground Railroad network, however, is much more significant than the number of people who were liberated in the state.
- On the contrary, New Jersey was a participant in the practice of slavery practically from the time the first African slaves arrived in North America at the beginning of the 17th century until the end of the 19th century.
- This number had nearly doubled by the time the decade had passed.
- Thirty years after the beginning of the Underground Railroad, eighteen slaves were still registered in New Jersey, making our state the last state in the northern hemisphere to still be in possession of slaves.
- This amendment was the final step towards the emancipation of any surviving slaves in America.
- In contrast to the regulations of several other northern states, the laws of New Jersey demanded that runaway slaves from other states who were arrested or who were staying in New Jersey be returned to their original owners.
A considerable number of fugitive slaves remained in these villages (which were largely situated in rural southern New Jersey) because they provided physical sanctuary due to the large number of slaves they housed and because they were home to a large number of free black and Quaker abolitionists.
New Jersey, which was centrally located between two of the most active Underground Railroad metropolitan centers, Philadelphia and New York City, served as a critical segment of the Underground Railroad’s northern bound “tracks,” or system of transporting runaway slaves northward, during the Civil War.
- Both Tubman and Still were key parts of the Underground Railroad’s success.
- She was born into slavery in 1820 and fled from a farm on Maryland’s Eastern Shore to the North in 1849, using the Underground Railroad to do so.
- Between 1850 and 1860, Ms.
- On some of her trips to and from Maryland, she passed via New Jersey.
- Still was a member of the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society and then the director of the General Vigilance Committee of Philadelphia, where he was in charge of the Committee’s funds, which helped to pay Harriet Tubman’s raids to liberate slaves in the city of Philadelphia.
- While New Jersey has many of the places that formerly functioned as “stations” along the Underground Railroad’s northeastern route, the state also contains a substantial number of sites that are no longer in existence.
- This path, which began in Springtown and ended in Greenwich, was one of the most well-known Underground Railroad routes.
- Harriet Tubman aided in the operation of this line for more than a decade.
Several years of study by the New Jersey Historical Commission on the Underground Railroad in New Jersey has resulted in the publication of a report on its findings, titled “Steal Away, Steal Away.”: A Guide to the Underground Railroad in New Jersey.” Besides information on several of the sites previously mentioned, the Commission’s report contains information on additional Underground Railroad locations in Salem, Camden, Burlington, Mercer, Middlesex, and Warren Counties, as well as information on other Underground Railroad sites in the surrounding areas.
Published last year, the Underground Railroad Commission’s final report represents the culmination of the Underground Railroad Project, which was made possible by legislation backed by several of my colleagues in the State Senate and made feasible by funding from the federal government.
With increasing awareness of its subject matter among residents, I hope it will also draw attention to the critical need for preservation efforts as more and more people become educated about it and recognize that a pivotal piece of American history and the worldwide struggle for human rights occurred right in our own backyards.
The establishment of the Underground Railroad was perhaps the most significant factor in the chain of events that culminated in the Civil War and the eventual abolition of slavery in this country, and the fugitive slaves who risked their freedom time and time again so that others could understand the meaning of liberty are truly heroes of American history.
“.a more common example of humanity could hardly be found among the most unfortunate-looking farm workers of the South,” Thomas Wentworth Higginson remarked of Harriet Tubman in one of his famous letters.
Currently, Senator Gill represents New Jersey’s 34th legislative district, which covers portions of Essex and Passaic Counties. A member of the Senate Judiciary Committee as well as the Senate Committee on Economic Growth, Agriculture, and Tourism, the senator has a diverse range of interests.