-Harriet Tubman, 1896. The Underground Railroad—the resistance to enslavement through escape and flight, through the end of the Civil War—refers to the efforts of enslaved African Americans to gain their freedom by escaping bondage. Wherever slavery existed, there were efforts to escape.
What was the Underground Railroad and why was it created?
The Underground Railroad was established to aid enslaved people in their escape to freedom. The railroad was comprised of dozens of secret routes and safe houses originating in the slaveholding states and extending all the way to the Canadian border, the only area where fugitives could be assured of their freedom.
How did the railroad affect slavery?
Railroads bought and sold slaves with contracts and elaborate, printed bills of sale. They recorded these events in balance sheets and company account books. Railroads also developed forms for contracts to hire enslaved labor from slaveholders.
How is the underground railroad connected to the Civil War?
The Underground Railroad physically resisted the repressive laws that held slaves in bondage. By provoking fear and anger in the South, and prompting the enactment of harsh legislation that eroded the rights of white Americans, the Underground Railroad was a direct contributing cause of the Civil War.
Was there an Underground Railroad during slavery?
During the era of slavery, the Underground Railroad was a network of routes, places, and people that helped enslaved people in the American South escape to the North. The name “Underground Railroad” was used metaphorically, not literally.
Why was the Underground Railroad significant?
The underground railroad, where it existed, offered local service to runaway slaves, assisting them from one point to another. The primary importance of the underground railroad was that it gave ample evidence of African American capabilities and gave expression to African American philosophy.
What was the purpose of the Underground Railroad quizlet?
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early-to-mid 19th century, and used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.
What happened in the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad— the resistance to enslavement through escape and flight, through the end of the Civil War—refers to the efforts of enslaved African Americans to gain their freedom by escaping bondage. Wherever slavery existed, there were efforts to escape.
How did the Underground Railroad help enslaved African Americans?
How did the Underground Railroad help enslaved African Americans? It provided a network of escape routes toward the North. In his pamphlet Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, on what did David Walker base his arguments against slavery? They feared that the abolition of slavery would destroy their economy.
How did the Underground Railroad lead to the Civil War quizlet?
How did the Underground Railroad cause the Civil War? *The Underground Railroad was a escape route for fugitive slaves in America. *Slaves would be helped by Northerners or “Quakers” who help slaves escape to Canada. *The Underground Railroad made the South mad because this was beneficial to slaves.
Was the Underground Railroad after the Civil War?
The Underground Railroad ceased operations about 1863, during the Civil War. In reality, its work moved aboveground as part of the Union effort against the Confederacy.
How did the Underground Railroad cause tensions between North and South?
The Fugitive Slave Law of 1793 – federal legislation that allowed slave hunters to capture an escapee in any territory or state with only oral proof that the person was a runaway – increased tensions between North and South, thereby moving the country closer to war.
Was the Underground Railroad an actual railroad?
Nope! Despite its name, the Underground Railroad wasn’t a railroad in the way Amtrak or commuter rail is. It wasn’t even a real railroad. The Underground Railroad of history was simply a loose network of safe houses and top secret routes to states where slavery was banned.
How successful was the Underground Railroad?
Ironically the Fugitive Slave Act increased Northern opposition to slavery and helped hasten the Civil War. The Underground Railroad gave freedom to thousands of enslaved women and men and hope to tens of thousands more. In both cases the success of the Underground Railroad hastened the destruction of slavery.
Underground Railroad was a network of people, both black and white, who helped escaped enslaved persons from the southern United States by providing them with refuge and assistance. It came forth as a result of the convergence of numerous separate covert initiatives. Although the exact dates of its inception are unknown, it was active from the late 18th century until the Civil War, after which its attempts to weaken the Confederacy were carried out in a less-secretive manner until the Civil War ended.
The Society of Friends (Quakers) is often regarded as the first organized group to actively assist escaped enslaved persons. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with Quakers for attempting to “liberate” one of his enslaved servants. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved persons who were on the run from slavery. Abolitionist organisations founded by Quakers in North Carolina lay the basis for escape routes and safe havens for fugitive slaves during the same time period.
What Was the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad was first mentioned in 1831, when an enslaved man named Tice Davids managed to escape from Kentucky into Ohio and his master blamed a “underground railroad” for assisting Davids in his liberation. When a fugitive slave called Jim was apprehended in 1839 in Washington, the press said that the guy confessed his plan to travel north along a “underground railroad to Boston” while under torture. The Vigilance Committees, which were established in New York in 1835 and Philadelphia in 1838 to safeguard escaped enslaved persons from bounty hunters, rapidly expanded their duties to include guiding enslaved individuals on the run.
MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman and her fellow fugitives used the following strategies to escape through the Underground Railroad:
How the Underground Railroad Worked
The majority of enslaved persons aided by the Underground Railroad were able to flee to neighboring states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made catching fugitive enslaved persons a lucrative industry in the deep South, and there were fewer hiding places for them as a result of the Act. The majority of fugitive enslaved people were on their own until they reached specific places farther north. The escaping enslaved people were escorted by individuals known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were also used as hiding places throughout the war.
The personnel in charge of running them were referred to as “stationmasters.” There were several well-traveled roads that ran west through Ohio and into Indiana and Iowa.
While some traveled north via Pennsylvania and into New England, or through Detroit on their route to Canada, others chose to travel south. The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.
Fugitive Slave Acts
The Fugitive Slave Acts were a major cause for many fugitive slaves to flee to Canada. This legislation, which was passed in 1793, authorized local governments to catch and extradite fugitive enslaved individuals from inside the borders of free states back to their places of origin, as well as to penalize anybody who assisted the fleeing enslaved people. Personal Liberty Laws were introduced in certain northern states to fight this, but they were overturned by the Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was intended to reinforce the preceding legislation, which was perceived by southern states to be insufficiently enforced at the time of passage.
The northern states were still considered a danger zone for fugitives who had managed to flee.
Some Underground Railroad operators chose to station themselves in Canada and sought to assist fugitives who were arriving to settle in the country.
Harriet Tubman was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad during its heyday. When she and two of her brothers fled from a farm in Maryland in 1849, she was given the name Harriet (her married name was Tubman). She was born Araminta Ross, and she was raised as Harriet Tubman. They returned a couple of weeks later, but Tubman fled on her own again shortly after, this time making her way to the state of Pennsylvania. In following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and other individuals.
Tubman was distraught until she had a vision of God, which led her to join the Underground Railroad and begin escorting other fugitive slaves to the Maryland state capital.
In his house in Rochester, New York, former enslaved person and celebrated author Frederick Douglasshid fugitives who were assisting 400 escapees in their journey to freedom in Canada. Reverend Jermain Loguen, a former fugitive who lived in the adjacent city of Syracuse, assisted 1,500 escapees on their journey north. The Vigilance Committee was established in Philadelphia in 1838 by Robert Purvis, an escaped enslaved person who later became a trader. Josiah Henson, a former enslaved person and railroad operator, founded the Dawn Institute in Ontario in 1842 to assist fugitive slaves who made their way to Canada in learning the necessary skills to find work.
Agent,” according to the document.
John Parker was a free Black man living in Ohio who worked as a foundry owner and who used his rowboat to ferry fugitives over the Ohio River.
William Still was a notable Philadelphia citizen who was born in New Jersey to runaway slaves parents who fled to Philadelphia as children.
Who Ran the Underground Railroad?
The vast majority of Underground Railroad operators were regular individuals, including farmers and business owners, as well as preachers and religious leaders. Some affluent individuals were active, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who stood for president on two separate occasions. Smith acquired a full family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841 and freed them from their captivity. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, is credited with being one of the first recorded individuals to assist escaped enslaved persons.
Coffin stated that he had discovered their hiding spots and had sought them out in order to assist them in moving forward.
Coffin eventually relocated to Indiana and then Ohio, where he continued to assist fugitive enslaved individuals no matter where he was.
Abolitionist John Brown worked as a conductor on the Underground Railroad, and it was at this time that he founded the League of Gileadites, which was dedicated to assisting fleeing enslaved individuals in their journey to Canada. Abolitionist John Brown would go on to play a variety of roles during his life. His most well-known duty was conducting an assault on Harper’s Ferry in order to raise an armed army that would march into the deep south and free enslaved people at gunpoint. Ultimately, Brown’s forces were beaten, and he was executed for treason in 1859.
- The year 1844, he formed a partnership with Vermont schoolteacher Delia Webster, and the two were jailed for assisting an escaped enslaved lady and her young daughter.
- Charles Torrey was sentenced to six years in jail in Maryland for assisting an enslaved family in their attempt to flee through Virginia.
- After being apprehended in 1844 while transporting a boatload of freed slaves from the Caribbean to the United States, Massachusetts sea captain Jonathan Walker was sentenced to prison for life.
- John Fairfield of Virginia turned down the opportunity to assist in the rescue of enslaved individuals who had been left behind by their families as they made their way north.
- He managed to elude capture twice.
End of the Line
Operation of the Underground Railroad came to an end in 1863, during the American Civil War. In actuality, its work was shifted aboveground as part of the Union’s overall campaign against the Confederate States of America. Once again, Harriet Tubman made a crucial contribution by organizing intelligence operations and serving as a commanding officer in Union Army efforts to rescue the liberated enslaved people who had been freed.
MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman led a daring Civil War raid after the Underground Railroad was shut down.
Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad is a book about the Underground Railroad. Fergus Bordewich is a Scottish actor. A Biography of Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom Catherine Clinton is the first lady of the United States. Who Exactly Was in Charge of the Underground Railroad? ‘Henry Louis Gates’ is a pseudonym for Henry Louis Gates. The Underground Railroad’s History in New York is a little known fact. The Smithsonian Institution’s magazine. The Underground Railroad’s Dangerous Allure is well documented.
See how abolitionists in the United States, like as Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass, and Thomas Garrett, assisted enslaved people in their attempts to escape to freedom. Learn about the abolitionist movement in the United States, as well as the importance of the Underground Railroad in this historical period. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. is a publishing company that publishes encyclopedias. View all of the videos related to this topic. When escaped slaves from the South were secretly assisted by sympathetic Northerners, in defiance of the Fugitive Slave Acts, to reach safe havens in the North or Canada, this was referred to as the Underground Railroad in the United States.
Even though it was neither underground nor a railroad, it was given this name because its actions had to be carried out in secret, either via the use of darkness or disguise, and because railroad words were employed in relation to the system’s operation.
In all directions, the network of channels stretched over 14 northern states and into “the promised land” of Canada, where fugitive-slave hunters were unable to track them down or capture them.
Harriet Beecher Stowe, best known for her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, obtained firsthand experience of escaped slaves via her association with the Underground Railroad in Cincinnati, Ohio, where she lived for a time during the Civil War.
The existence of the Underground Railroad, despite the fact that it was only a small minority of Northerners who took part in it, did much to arouse Northern sympathy for the plight of slaves during the antebellum period, while also convincing many Southerners that the North as a whole would never peacefully allow the institution of slavery to remain unchallenged.
When was the first time a sitting president of the United States appeared on television? Return to the past for the really American responses. Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.
The Underground Railroad
At the time of slavery, the Underground Railroad was a network of routes, locations, and individuals that assisted enslaved persons in the American South in their attempts to flee to freedom in the northern states. Subjects History of the United States, Social StudiesImage
Home of Levi Coffin
A network of routes, locations, and individuals existed during the time of slavery in the United States to assist enslaved persons in the American South in their attempts to go north. Subjects Social Studies, History of the United States of America
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Myths About the Underground Railroad
When it comes to teaching African-American Studies today, one of the great delights is the satisfaction that comes from being able to restore to the historical record “lost” events and the persons whose sacrifices and bravery enabled those events to take place, never to be lost again. Among our ancestors’ long and dreadful history of human bondage is the Underground Railroad, which has garnered more recent attention from teachers, students, museum curators, and the tourism industry than any other institution from the black past.
Nevertheless, in the effort to convey the narrative of this magnificent institution, fiction and lore have occasionally taken precedence over historical truth.
The sacrifices and heroism of our forefathers and foremothers, as well as their allies, are made all the more noble, heroic, and impressive as a result.Sometimes when I hear our students talk about the Underground Railroad, it appears to me that they are under the impression that it was akin to a black, Southern Grand Central Station, with regularly scheduled routes that hundreds of thousands of slave “passengers” used to escape from Southern plantations, aided by that irrepress The “railroad” itself, according to this legend, was composed of “a chain of stations leading from the Southern states to Canada, with a few stations in between.” The slaves were hidden in secret rooms hidden in attics or basements, or behind the staircases of numerous “safe houses,” the locations of which were coded in “freedom quilts” sewn by the slaves and hung in their windows as guideposts for fugitives on the run.
Running slaves, frequently in groups of up to several families, were said to have been directed at night on their desperate journey to freedom by the traditional “Drinking Gourd,” which was the slaves’ secret name for the North Star.
The Railroad in Lore
Following is a brief list of some of the most frequent myths regarding the Underground Railroad, which includes the following examples: 1. It was administered by well-intentioned white abolitionists, many of whom were Quakers. 2. The Underground Railroad was active throughout the southern United States. Most runaway slaves who managed to make their way north took refuge in secret quarters hidden in attics or cellars, while many more managed to escape through tunnels. Fourteenth, slaves made so-called “freedom quilts,” which they displayed outside their homes’ windows to signal fugitives to the whereabouts of safe houses and safe ways north to freedom.
When slaves heard the spiritual “Steal Away,” they knew Harriet Tubman was on her way to town, or that an ideal opportunity to run was approaching.
scholars like Larry Gara, who wrote The Liberty Line: The Legend of the Underground Railroad and Blight, among other works, have worked tirelessly to address all of these problems, and I’ll outline the proper answers based on their work, and the work of others, at the conclusion of this piece.
A Meme Is Born
Following is a brief list of the most popular misconceptions regarding the Underground Railroad, which includes the following: There were several reasons for this. 1. It was run by well-intentioned white abolitionists, many of whom were Quakers. In addition, there were Underground Railroad stations all across the Southern states. fugitive slaves who made their way north sought refuge in secret quarters hidden in attics or cellars, while many more managed to escape through underground passageways.
- In addition, the Underground Railroad was a large-scale operation that enabled hundreds of thousands of individuals to flee from their slavery.
- Seventh, the spiritual “Steal Away” was chanted to warn slaves that Harriet Tubman was on her way to town or that an ideal opportunity to run had arrived.
- First, a brief overview of the Underground Railroad’s historical development.
Myth Battles Counter-Myth
Historically, the appeal of romance and fantasy in stories of the Underground Railroad can be traced back to the latter decades of the nineteenth century, when the South was winning the battle of popular memory over what the Civil War was all about — burying Lost Cause mythology deep in the national psyche and eventually propelling the racist Woodrow Wilson into the White House. Many white Northerners attempted to retain a heroic version of their history in the face of a dominant Southern interpretation of the significance of the Civil War, and they found a handy weapon in the stories of the Underground Railroad to accomplish this goal.
Immediately following the fall of Reconstruction in 1876, which was frequently attributed to purportedly uneducated or corrupt black people, the story of the struggle for independence was transformed into a tale of noble, selfless white efforts on behalf of a poor and nameless “inferior” race.
Siebert questioned practically everyone who was still alive who had any recollection of the network and even flew to Canada to interview former slaves who had traced their own pathways from the South to freedom as part of his investigation.
In the words of David Blight, Siebert “crafted a popular tale of largely white conductors assisting nameless blacks on their journey to freedom.”
Truth Reveals Unheralded Heroism
That’s a little amount of history; what about those urban legends? The answers are as follows: It cannot be overstated that the Underground Railroad and the abolitionist movement itself were possibly the first examples in American history of a truly multiracial alliance, and the role played by the Quakers in its success cannot be overstated. Despite this, it was primarily controlled by free Northern African Americans, particularly in its early years, with the most notable exception being the famous Philadelphian William Still, who served as its president.
- The Underground Railroad was made possible by the efforts of white and black activists such as Levi Coffin, Thomas Garrett, Calvin Fairbank, Charles Torrey, Harriet Tubman and Still, all of whom were true heroes.
- Because of the adoption of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, the railroad’s growth did not take place until after that year.
- After all, it was against the law to help slaves in their attempts to emancipate themselves.
- Being an abolitionist or a conductor on the Underground Railroad, according to the historian Donald Yacovone, “was about as popular and hazardous as being a member of the Communist Party in 1955,” he said in an email to me.
- The Underground Railroad was predominantly a phenomena of the Northern United States.
- For the most part, fugitive slaves were left on their own until they were able to cross the Ohio River or the Mason-Dixon Line and thereby reach a Free State.
- For fugitives in the North, well-established routes and conductors existed, as did some informal networks that could transport fugitives from places such as the abolitionists’ office or houses in Philadelphia to other locations north and west.
(where slavery remained legal until 1862), as well as in a few locations throughout the Upper South, some organized support was available.
I’m afraid there aren’t many.
Furthermore, few dwellings in the North were equipped with secret corridors or hidden rooms where slaves might be hidden.
What about freedom quilts?
The only time a slave family had the resources to sew a quilt was to shelter themselves from the cold, not to relay information about alleged passages on the Underground Railroad that they had never visited.
As we will discover in a future column, the danger of treachery about individual escapes and collective rebellions was much too large for escape plans to be publicly shared.5.
No one has a definitive answer.
According to Elizabeth Pierce, an administrator at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, the figure might be as high as 100,000, but that appears to be an overstatement.
We may put these numbers into context by noting that there were 3.9 million slaves and only 488,070 free Negroes in 1860 (with more than half of them still living in the South), whereas there were 434,495 free Negroes in 1850 (with more than half still living in the South).
The fact that only 101 fleeing slaves ever produced book-length “slave narratives” describing their servitude until the conclusion of the Civil War is also significant to keep in mind while thinking about this topic.
However, just a few of them made it to safety.
How did the fugitive get away?
John Hope Franklin and Loren Schweninger, as summarized by Blight, “80 percent of these fugitives were young guys in their teens and twenties who absconded alone on the majority of occasions.
Because of their household and child-rearing duties, young slave women were significantly less likely to flee than older slave women.
Lyford in 1896 reported that he could not recall “any fugitives ever being transported by anyone, they always had to pilot their own canoe with the little help that they received,” suggesting that “the greatest number of fugitives were self-emancipating individuals who, upon reaching a point in their lives when they could no longer tolerate their captive status, finally just took off for what had been a long and difficult journey.” 7.
What is “Steal Away”?
They used them to communicate secretly with one another in double-voiced discussions that neither the master nor the overseer could comprehend.
However, for reasons of safety, privacy, security, and protection, the vast majority of slaves who escaped did so alone and covertly, rather than risking their own safety by notifying a large number of individuals outside of their families about their plans, for fear of betraying their masters’ trust.
Just consider the following for a moment: If fleeing slavery had been thus planned and maintained on a systematic basis, slavery would most likely have been abolished long before the American Civil War, don’t you think?
According to Blight, “Much of what we call the Underground Railroad was actually operated clandestinely by African Americans themselves through urban vigilance committees and rescue squads that were often led by free blacks.” The “Underground Railroad” was a marvelously improvised, metaphorical construct run by courageous heroes, the vast majority of whom were black.
Gara’s study revealed that “running away was a terrible and risky idea for slaves,” according to Blight, and that the total numbers of slaves who risked their lives, or even those who succeeded in escaping, were “not huge.” There were thousands of heroic slaves who were helped by the organization, each of whom should be remembered as heroes of African-American history, but there were not nearly as many as we often believe, and certainly not nearly enough.
Approximately fifty-five of the 100 Amazing Facts will be published on the website African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross. On The Root, you may find all 100 facts.
Resistance and Abolition
In 1838, a $150 prize was offered. Despite the fact that it had been the law of the country for more than 300 years, American slavery was opposed and rejected on a daily basis by its victims, by its survivors, and by people who believed it to be morally wrong and immoral. It took decades of organizing and agitation on the part of African Americans and their European American supporters for the protracted effort to abolish the trade in human beings to be successful, and it was one of the great moral crusades in American history to achieve victory.
Negotiations and Insurrections
Everyday existence in a slave workplace was punctuated by a slew of little actions of everyday resistance. In spite of the fact that they were denied their freedom under the law, enslaved African Americans employed a number of techniques to challenge the authority of slaveholders and demand their right to direct their own lives. For the most part, slaveholders relied on involuntary labor to keep their enterprises running, and enslaved laborers took advantage of work slowdowns and absences to bargain for better working conditions.
- A large number of enslaved African Americans rebelled against the slave system by fleeing.
- Nonetheless, thousands of enslaved individuals fled to free states or territories every year.
- By 1860, an estimated 400,000 persons had escaped from slavery, according to historical estimates.
- Slave Africans and enslaved African Americans have taken up weapons and fought back against their oppressors throughout the history of the slave trade, including during the American Revolution.
- A large-scale rebellion was a constant worry for slaveholders, and they disseminated vivid reports of the Turner uprising and other, often fake, plots in the expectation that this would raise public awareness of the threat to their property rights.
- Visit African American Odyssey: Liberation Strategies for a more in-depth look at revolts and insurrections in the United States.
Calls for Abolition
Everyday life in a slave workplace was punctuated by a slew of little acts of rebellion. Despite the fact that they were forbidden freedom by the law, enslaved African Americans employed a broad range of techniques to challenge the authority of slaveholders and demand their right to direct their own lives and destiny. Slaveholders relied on involuntary labor to keep their companies afloat, while enslaved employees took advantage of work slowdowns and absences to negotiate some of the terms of their labor with their employers.
- Slave African Americans rejected the slave system by escaping from it in large numbers.
- Nonetheless, thousands of enslaved persons fled to free states or territories each year.
- The number of persons who fled slavery by 1860 was estimated to be 400,000.
- Slave Africans and enslaved African Americans have taken up arms and fought back against their oppressors throughout the history of the slave trade.
- A large-scale rebellion was a constant worry for slaveholders, and they disseminated vivid reports of the Turner uprising and other, often fake, plots in the hope that this would raise public awareness of the threat to their livelihoods.
They encountered a far different response in the North, however, than they had anticipated. Visit African American Odyssey: Liberation Strategies for a more in-depth look at revolts and insurrections.
Underground Railroad Bibliography
Herbert Aptheker is the author of this work. Ideology of Abolitionism, Revolutionary Political Movement G.K. Hall & Company, Boston, 1989. Lerone Bennett is a fictional character created by author Lerone Bennett. Before the Mayflower: A Brief History of Black America is a collection of essays about the history of black people in America before the Mayflower. Johnson Publishing Company, Chicago, Illinois, 1982. Ira Berlin is a fictional character created by author Ira Berlin. Hundreds of Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America.
- The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press published the book in 1998 in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- The Hippocrene Guide to the Underground Railroad is a guide to the Underground Railroad written by Hippocrene.
- Charles Blockson is the author of this work.
- Prentice Hall Publishing Company, New York, 1987.
- The Underground Railroad: Dramatic First-Hand Accounts of Daring Escapes to Freedom is a collection of dramatic first-person accounts of daring escapes to freedom.
- Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California, 1971.
Harriet Tubman, “The Moses of Her People,” was published in 1869.
Frederick Douglass was a famous American author.
Knopf Publishing Group, New York, 1994.
Frederick Douglass’s Thoughts and Feelings are explored in this book.
Cromwell & Company, New York, 1968.
Slavery as Seen from the North Side.
Ericson, David F., “The Debate Over Slavery: Antislavery and Proslavery Liberalism in Antebellum America,” in The Debate Over Slavery: Antislavery and Proslavery Liberalism in Antebellum America, edited by David F.
The New York University Press published a book in 2000 titled Paul Finkelman, ed., Slavery and the Law.
Madison, WI: Madison House Publishers, 1997.
Larry Gara is the author of this work.
The University Press of Kentucky published this book in 1996.
Between Slavery and Freedom: The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1925 Vintage Books, a division of Random House, published the book in 1976 in New York.
1831-1861: The Abolitionists and the Southern Confederacy The University Press of Kentucky published this book in 1995.
is a member of the Hornsby family.
From 1619 until the present, significant events and people have occurred.
Harriet Jacobs is a writer who lives in New York City.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1987.
In the United States, there are several underground railroad resources.
The National Park Service is a federal agency.
The United States Department of the Interior published this publication in 1998 in Washington, D.C.
The Department of the Interior of the United States of America published this publication in 1995.
The Department of the Interior of the United States of America published this book in 1996 in Washington, D.C.
His Promised Land: The Autobiography of John P.
Parker, a former slave and conductor on the Underground Railroad.
Norton & Company, New York, 1996.
Facts about the Underground Railroad, as well as authentic narratives, letters, and other materials PorterCoates Publishing Company, Philadelphia, 1872.
“Hidden in Plain View: A Secret Story of Quilts and the UGRR,” by Jacqueline Tobin and Raymond G. Dobard, is available online. Doubleday Publishing Company, New York, 1999.
Ronald Baker is the author of this work. Homeless, friendless, and penniless: The WPA conducts interviews with former slaves who are now residents of Indiana. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, 2000. Maxine Brown is the author of this work. A Study of Free Blacks’ Participation in the Underground Railroad Activities of Central Indiana The DNR-DHPA published a report in 2001 titled COL. WILLIAM Cockrum’s obituary. The Anti-Slavery League’s investigation into the Underground Railroad’s history was published in the book The History of the Underground Railroad.
- Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by author Levi Coffin.
- Mark Coomer is the author of this work.
- The DNR-DHPA published a report in 2001 titled Xenia, you have a cord.
- The Indiana Historical Society published this book in 1993.
- Bury me in a Free Land: The Abolitionist Movement in Indiana, 1816-1865, is a book on the Abolitionist Movement in Indiana, 1816-1865.
- Slavery and the Law, edited by Paul Finkelman, is available online.
Madison, WI: Madison House Publishers, 1997.
Associated with the Underground Railroad in the Indianapolis Area: Interpretive Narratives The DNR-DHPA published a report in 2001 titled Furlong, Patrick J., ed., The South Bed Fugitive Slave Case (The South Bed Fugitive Slave Case).
Goodall, Hurley C.
Goodall Publishing Company, Muncie, Indiana, 2000.
Underground Railroad: The Invisible Road to Freedom Through Indiana is a project of the Works Progress Administration’s Writers Project.
The Anti-Slavery Movement in Henry County, Indiana: A Study of the Local Abolitionists is a study of the anti-slavery movement in Henry County, Indiana.
Marlene Lu is the author of this article.
The DNR-DHPA published a report in 2001 titled George Olshausen is a writer who lives in New York City.
Originally published by McFarlandCompany, Inc.
The Underground Railroad and the Antislavery Movement in Fort Wayne and Allen County, Indiana, by Angela M.
Fort Wayne, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000.
The Indiana Negro Registers, 1852-1865 are available online.
Emma Lou Thornbrough’s Indiana in the Civil War Era 1850-1880 is available online.
Emma Lou Thornbrough is a fictional character created by author Emma Lou Thornbrough. Before 1900, there were a lot of black people in Indiana. The Indiana Historical Bureau published this book in 1957 in Indianapolis.
Theodore Baker. WPA meets former slaves living in Indiana who are “homeless, friendless, and penniless.” Indiana University Press published a book in Bloomington in 2000 titled Maxine Brown is a writer who lives in the United States of America. Freedom Blacks’ Contribution to the Underground Railroad Activities in Central Indiana Indiana Department of Natural Resources and the Indiana Department of Health and Human Services Publishing, 2001. COL. WILLIAM Cockrum, author. The Anti-Slavery League’s investigation into the Underground Railroad’s history is presented here.
- Levi Coffin’s Recollections, 1876.
- The Underground Railroad Activity in Southwestern Indiana is the subject of this investigation.
- Indiana Department of Natural Resources and the Indiana Department of Health and Human Services Publishing, 2001.
- Coon’s Underground Railroad Routes and Operations in Southeastern Indiana.
- Xenia, you’ve got a cord on you.
- The Indiana Historical Society published a book in 1993 titled “Indiana History.” Gwendolyn Crenshaw is a writer who lives in the United States of America.
The Indiana Historical Bureau published this book in Indianapolis in 1993.
Slavery and the Law (Paul Finkelman, ed.) Publish by Madison House Publishers in Madison, Wisconsin, in 1997.
Affair of the South Bed Fugitive Slave Case, by Patrick J.
In Indiana and the United States Constitution, we are called “We the People.” The Indiana Historical Society published this book in 1987 in Indianapolis.
Voices from the past: a collection of references to the African American community in the state of Indiana (Voices from the past: a collection of references to the African American community in the state of Indiana, 1930).
the year 2000: H.
Underground Railroad: The Invisible Road to Freedom Through Indiana is a Writers Project for the Works Progress Administration.
Anti-Slavery Movement in Henry County, Indiana: A Study of the Local Abolitionists is a book written by a group of people who want to abolish slavery in Henry County, Indiana.
Marlene Lu is the author of this work.
Indiana Department of Natural Resources and the Indiana Department of Health and Human Services Publishing, 2001.
Before and After the Slave Trade in the United States of America The Olema Press published this book in 1983 in San Francisco.
The Underground Railroad and the Antislavery Movement in Fort Wayne and Allen County, Indiana, by Angela M.
Fort Wayne, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2001.
1852-1865, Indiana’s Negro Registers.
Bowie is a small town on the eastern shore of the state of Maryland.
Published by the Indiana Historical Society in Indianapolis in 1965; revised and republished in 1995. Emmi Lou Thornbrough is a writer who lives in the town of Thornbrough. Pre-Civil War African-Americans in Indiana The Indiana Historical Bureau published this book in Indianapolis in 1957.
Patricia Beatty is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom. Who is it that is bringing the cannons? Originally published in 1992 by Morrow Junior Books in New York. Judith Bentley is a writer and editor who lives in New York City. The Underground Railroad was a collaboration between Thomas Garrett and William Still, who were friends for years. Cobblehill Books published the book in 1997 in New York. Raymond Bial is a writer who lives in New York City. Life in the Slave Quarters is a testament to the strength of these arms.
- Raymond Bial is a writer who lives in New York City.
- Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1997.
- Allen Jay and the Underground Railroad are two of the most well-known characters in American history.
- Sylviane A.
- Growing up in Slavery is a difficult experience.
- Brookfield, Conn.: Brookfield Publishing Company, 2001.
- I’m going to make something out of this Nettle.
Fradin, Dennis Brindell, and others.
Peter Still’s Biography is a fictionalized account of his life.
New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2001.
Get aboard the bus.
Harriet Jacob is a fictional character created by author Harriet Jacob.
A Slave Family is defined as follows: Crabtree Publishing Company, New York, 2002.
True North: A Novel of the UGRR is a novel about the Underground Railroad of the Great Plains.
Frank Latham is a writer who lives in New York City.
Franklin Watts, Inc.
Ellen Levine is a writer who lives in New York City.
Scholastic Publishing Company, 1988.
The Herald Press, Scottdale, Pennsylvania, published this book in 1975.
Harriet Tubman: The Runaway Slave is a biography of Harriet Tubman.
Meyer, Linda D., et al.
The Parenting Press published this book in 1988.
The Last Days of Slavery, written by Frederick Douglass.
“The Drinking Gourd,” says Monjo in his book F.N.
Kay Moore is the author of this work.
Scholastic Publishing Company, 1994.
Freedom River is a river in the United States of America.
Anita Riggio is a writer living in New York City.
Boyds Mills Press published this book in 1997.
Athenaeum Books for Young Readers published the book in 1997 in New York.
Minty: A Story of Young Harriet Tubman is a fictionalized account of Harriet Tubman’s childhood.
The Underground Railroad: A Historical Account The Children’s Press of Chicago published this book in 1981.
North to Liberty: The Story of the Underground Railroad is a book about the Underground Railroad.
The World Book Encyclopedia is a collection of books published by the World Book Company.
“The Underground Railroad,” as it is known. The World Book Encyclopedia was published in 1997. Sharon Dennis Wyeth is the author of this work. Freedom’s Wings: A Diary of Corey’s Adventures. Scholastic, Inc. (New York, 2001) published the book.
Linda Jacobs and Altman, Linda Slavery and Abolition in the History of the United States Enslow Publishers, Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, 1999. Judith Bentley is a writer and editor who lives in New York City. Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. Franklin Watts Publishing Company, New York, 1990. Charles Charlers and Blockson “The Underground Railroad,” as they say in the United States. National Geographic magazine published an article in July 1984 titled Budda Records is a record label based in New York City.
- Buddha Records released the album in 2001.
- Fiery Vision: The Life and Death of John Brown is a book about the life and death of John Brown.
- Dennis B.
- Clarion Books, New York, published in 2000.
- North Star to Freedom: The Story of the Underground Railroad is a book on the Underground Railroad.
- It is a partnership between Kim and Reggie Harris.
- Ascension Records released the album in 1984 in Philadelphia.
The Underground Railroad was a dangerous place to be.
Patricia McKissack and Frederick McKissack are the authors of this work.
Scholastic Books, New York, 1996.
Stowe, Harriet Beecher.
According to ABC News. Taking a Journey to Africa: A Return to the Slave Pens of Ghana Films for the Humanities and Sciences, a division of Films for the Humanities and Sciences, was founded in 2002 in Princeton, New Jersey. Orlando Bagwell is a fictional character created by the author of the novel The Hunger Games. Roots of Resistance: A Story of the Underground Railroad is a book on the Underground Railroad. Raja Productions is a production company based in India. In 1990, a film on the American experience was made.
Africans in America: America’s Journey Into the Heart of Africa Boston, Massachusetts, 1998.
Susan Michaels is the author of this work.
A E Network/The History Channel published a book in New York in 1999. Scott Paddor is the author of this work. Frederick Douglass was an American civil rights leader. Greystone Communications, Inc. is a communications company based in the United States. A E Home Video, New York, New York, 1999.