What are some myths about the Underground Railroad?
- Just because some of the stories about the Underground Railroad are myths does not undermine the fact that thousands of slaves escaped to freedom. Many people put their own lives and their own freedoms at risk by helping slaves escape, and their only reward was the happiness of seeing a person free.
What was the reality of the Underground Railroad?
In reality, the underground was never static. As new routes were opened, old ones were often abandoned. When new technology was available, the underground adapted to it. For instance, as steamboats proliferated on American rivers, overland routes sometimes fell into disuse as fugitives were sent by water.
What was the problem with the Underground Railroad?
A Dangerous Path to Freedom. Traveling along the Underground Railroad was a long a perilous journey for fugitive slaves to reach their freedom. Runaway slaves had to travel great distances, many times on foot, in a short amount of time.
What did the Underground Railroad lead to?
The work of the Underground Railroad resulted in freedom for many men, women, and children. It also helped undermine the institution of slavery, which was finally ended in the United States during the Civil War. Many slaveholders were so angry at the success of the Underground Railroad that they grew to hate the North.
Did Harriet Tubman marry a white man?
Tubman’s owners, the Brodess family, “loaned” her out to work for others while she was still a child, under what were often miserable, dangerous conditions. Sometime around 1844, she married John Tubman, a free Black man.
How many runaway slaves were there?
Approximately 100,000 American slaves escaped to freedom.
Does the Underground Railroad still exist?
It includes four buildings, two of which were used by Harriet Tubman. Ashtabula County had over thirty known Underground Railroad stations, or safehouses, and many more conductors. Nearly two-thirds of those sites still stand today.
What made slavery illegal in all of the United States?
Passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified on December 6, 1865, the 13th amendment abolished slavery in the United States and provides that “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or
Who started Juneteenth?
In 1945, Juneteenth was introduced in San Francisco by a migrant from Texas, Wesley Johnson. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Civil Rights Movement focused the attention of African Americans on expanding freedom and integrating.
Is the Underground Railroad on Netflix?
Unfortunately, The Underground Railroad is not currently on Netflix and most likely, the series will not come to the streaming giant any time soon.
What was life like in the Underground Railroad?
African Americans fled slavery in the South for a variety of reasons. Brutal physical punishment, psychological abuse and endless hours of hard labor without compensation drove many slaves to risk their lives to escape plantation life.
How many slaves were on the Underground Railroad?
The total number of runaways who used the Underground Railroad to escape to freedom is not known, but some estimates exceed 100,000 freed slaves during the antebellum period. Those involved in the Underground Railroad used code words to maintain anonymity.
How many slaves did Harriet Tubman save?
Fact: According to Tubman’s own words, and extensive documentation on her rescue missions, we know that she rescued about 70 people —family and friends—during approximately 13 trips to Maryland.
Is Gertie Davis died?
Despite working tirelessly to establish a new nation founded upon principles of freedom and egalitarianism, Jefferson owned over 600 enslaved people during his lifetime, the most of any U.S. president.
Myths About the Underground Railroad
When it comes to teaching African-American Studies today, one of the great delights is the satisfaction that comes from being able to restore to the historical record “lost” events and the persons whose sacrifices and bravery enabled those events to take place, never to be lost again. Among our ancestors’ long and dreadful history of human bondage is the Underground Railroad, which has garnered more recent attention from teachers, students, museum curators, and the tourism industry than any other institution from the black past.
Nevertheless, in the effort to convey the narrative of this magnificent institution, fiction and lore have occasionally taken precedence over historical truth.
The sacrifices and valor of our forefathers and foremothers, as well as their allies, are made all the more noble, heroic, and striking as a result.
I think this is a common misconception among students.
As described by Wilbur H.
Running slaves, frequently in groups of up to several families, were said to have been directed at night on their desperate journey to freedom by the traditional “Drinking Gourd,” which was the slaves’ secret name for the North Star.
The Railroad in Lore
Following is a brief list of some of the most frequent myths regarding the Underground Railroad, which includes the following examples: 1. It was administered by well-intentioned white abolitionists, many of whom were Quakers. 2. The Underground Railroad was active throughout the southern United States. Most runaway slaves who managed to make their way north took refuge in secret quarters hidden in attics or cellars, while many more managed to escape through tunnels. Fourteenth, slaves made so-called “freedom quilts,” which they displayed outside their homes’ windows to signal fugitives to the whereabouts of safe houses and safe ways north to freedom.
When slaves heard the spiritual “Steal Away,” they knew Harriet Tubman was on her way to town, or that an ideal opportunity to run was approaching.
scholars like Larry Gara, who wrote The Liberty Line: The Legend of the Underground Railroad and Blight, among other works, have worked tirelessly to address all of these problems, and I’ll outline the proper answers based on their work, and the work of others, at the conclusion of this piece.
First, a brief overview of the Underground Railroad’s history:
A Meme Is Born
As Blight correctly points out, the railroad has proven to be one of the most “enduring and popular strands in the fabric of America’s national historical memory.” Since the end of the nineteenth century, many Americans, particularly in New England and the Midwest, have either made up legends about the deeds of their ancestors or simply repeated stories that they have heard about their forebears.
It’s worth taking a look at the history of the phrase “Underground Railroad” before diving into those tales, though.
Tice Davids was a Kentucky slave who managed to escape to Ohio in 1831, and it is possible that the phrase “Underground Railroad” was invented as a result of his successful escape.
According to Blight, he is believed to have said that Davids had vanished as though “the nigger must have gone off on an underground railroad.” This is a fantastic narrative — one that would be worthy of Richard Pryor — but it is improbable, given that train lines were non-existent at the time.
- The fleeing slave from Washington, D.C., who was tortured and forced to testify that he had been taken north, where “the railroad extended underground all the way to Boston,” according to one report from 1839, was captured.
- constructed from Mason and Dixon’s to the Canada line, upon which fugitives from slavery might come pouring into this province” is the first time the term appears.
- 14, 1842, in the Liberator, a date that may be supported by others who claim that abolitionist Charles T.
Myth Battles Counter-Myth
Historically, the appeal of romance and fantasy in stories of the Underground Railroad can be traced back to the latter decades of the nineteenth century, when the South was winning the battle of popular memory over what the Civil War was all about — burying Lost Cause mythology deep in the national psyche and eventually propelling the racist Woodrow Wilson into the White House. Many white Northerners attempted to retain a heroic version of their history in the face of a dominant Southern interpretation of the significance of the Civil War, and they found a handy weapon in the stories of the Underground Railroad to accomplish this goal.
Immediately following the fall of Reconstruction in 1876, which was frequently attributed to purportedly uneducated or corrupt black people, the story of the struggle for independence was transformed into a tale of noble, selfless white efforts on behalf of a poor and nameless “inferior” race.
Siebert questioned practically everyone who was still alive who had any recollection of the network and even flew to Canada to interview former slaves who had traced their own pathways from the South to freedom as part of his investigation.
In the words of David Blight, Siebert “crafted a popular tale of largely white conductors assisting nameless blacks on their journey to freedom.”
Truth Reveals Unheralded Heroism
That’s a little amount of history; what about those urban legends? The answers are as follows: It cannot be overstated that the Underground Railroad and the abolitionist movement itself were possibly the first examples in American history of a truly multiracial alliance, and the role played by the Quakers in its success cannot be overstated. Despite this, it was primarily controlled by free Northern African Americans, particularly in its early years, with the most notable exception being the famous Philadelphian William Still, who served as its president.
- The Underground Railroad was made possible by the efforts of white and black activists such as Levi Coffin, Thomas Garrett, Calvin Fairbank, Charles Torrey, Harriet Tubman and Still, all of whom were true heroes.
- Because of the adoption of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, the railroad’s growth did not take place until after that year.
- After all, it was against the law to help slaves in their attempts to emancipate themselves.
- Being an abolitionist or a conductor on the Underground Railroad, according to the historian Donald Yacovone, “was about as popular and hazardous as being a member of the Communist Party in 1955,” he said in an email to me.
- The Underground Railroad was predominantly a phenomena of the Northern United States.
- For the most part, fugitive slaves were left on their own until they were able to cross the Ohio River or the Mason-Dixon Line and thereby reach a Free State.
- For fugitives in the North, well-established routes and conductors existed, as did some informal networks that could transport fugitives from places such as the abolitionists’ office or houses in Philadelphia to other locations north and west.
(where slavery remained legal until 1862), as well as in a few locations throughout the Upper South, some organized support was available.
I’m afraid there aren’t many.
Furthermore, few dwellings in the North were equipped with secret corridors or hidden rooms where slaves might be hidden.
What about freedom quilts?
The only time a slave family had the resources to sew a quilt was to shelter themselves from the cold, not to relay information about alleged passages on the Underground Railroad that they had never visited.
As we will discover in a future column, the danger of treachery about individual escapes and collective rebellions was much too large for escape plans to be publicly shared.5.
No one has a definitive answer.
According to Elizabeth Pierce, an administrator at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, the figure might be as high as 100,000, but that appears to be an overstatement.
We may put these numbers into context by noting that there were 3.9 million slaves and only 488,070 free Negroes in 1860 (with more than half of them still living in the South), whereas there were 434,495 free Negroes in 1850 (with more than half still living in the South).
The fact that only 101 fleeing slaves ever produced book-length “slave narratives” describing their servitude until the conclusion of the Civil War is also significant to keep in mind while thinking about this topic.
However, just a few of them made it to safety.
How did the fugitive get away?
John Hope Franklin and Loren Schweninger, as summarized by Blight, “80 percent of these fugitives were young guys in their teens and twenties who absconded alone on the majority of occasions.
Because of their household and child-rearing duties, young slave women were significantly less likely to flee than older slave women.
Lyford in 1896 reported that he could not recall “any fugitives ever being transported by anyone, they always had to pilot their own canoe with the little help that they received,” suggesting that “the greatest number of fugitives were self-emancipating individuals who, upon reaching a point in their lives when they could no longer tolerate their captive status, finally just took off for what had been a long and difficult journey.” 7.
What is “Steal Away”?
They used them to communicate secretly with one another in double-voiced discussions that neither the master nor the overseer could comprehend.
However, for reasons of safety, privacy, security, and protection, the vast majority of slaves who escaped did so alone and covertly, rather than risking their own safety by notifying a large number of individuals outside of their families about their plans, for fear of betraying their masters’ trust.
Just consider the following for a moment: If fleeing slavery had been thus planned and maintained on a systematic basis, slavery would most likely have been abolished long before the American Civil War, don’t you think?
According to Blight, “Much of what we call the Underground Railroad was actually operated clandestinely by African Americans themselves through urban vigilance committees and rescue squads that were often led by free blacks.” The “Underground Railroad” was a marvelously improvised, metaphorical construct run by courageous heroes, the vast majority of whom were black.
Gara’s study revealed that “running away was a terrible and risky idea for slaves,” according to Blight, and that the total numbers of slaves who risked their lives, or even those who succeeded in escaping, were “not huge.” There were thousands of heroic slaves who were helped by the organization, each of whom should be remembered as heroes of African-American history, but there were not nearly as many as we often believe, and certainly not nearly enough.
Approximately fifty-five of the 100 Amazing Facts will be published on the website African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross. On The Root, you may find all 100 facts.
5 Underground Railroad myths, debunked
Eric Foner’s novel “Gateway to Freedom” is set in the United States. Thanks to W.W. Norton & Company for their assistance. In American history, the Underground Railroad is a well-known topic; nonetheless, many of the stories that people tell about it are more myth than history: Sewn into quilts were secret codes, as were safe homes with lamps in the windows, and hundreds of thousands of slaves were able to escape to freedom by following a well-kept secret path. The truth, on the other hand, is far more intricate, but no less intriguing.
- It was discovered in 2007.
- He was in the midst of writing his book on Abraham Lincoln, “The Fiery Trail,” when he came upon the list, which went on to win the Pulitzer Prize.
- It was the first time I’d heard of or seen this paper quoted before.” He began to look at Gay’s documents in further depth.
- Foner spoke with Kerri Miller of Minnesota Public Radio on the actual history of the Underground Railroad.
1. The Underground Railroad contained actual underground tunnels or passages.
According to Foner, “I have never seen any evidence of tunnels in the eastern United States.” “Secret codes, secret tunnels, and other such enigmatic concepts are frequently brought up in conversation. The amusing thing is that, at least throughout the 1850s, the majority of slaves managed to escape above ground. They made their way out of the country using trains and ships.”
2. Slaves used quilted maps to navigate the route.
Unfortunately, historians are known for being downers, according to Foner. It’s a fantastic folklore, but it’s completely unrealistic. In the South, “the difficulty was that there were no defined paths for people to go on the Underground Railroad,” Foner explained. “It wasn’t a system like a railroad chart,” says the author.
3. Escaped slaves stayed in northern states.
When slaves reached the northern states, according to Foner, the majority of them altered their names. Based on the country’s census data, there is some indication that many of them ended up in Canada at some point along their voyage.
4. Slaves traveled the Underground Railroad alone.
The following is an excerpt from the book review in The New York Times: “Instead of the popular image of a lone fugitive running through the woods, Mr. Foner’s analysis of Gay’s notes suggests that a significant number escaped in groups, often traveling on trains or boats, and were assisted along the way by blacks working in the maritime industry, including some in Southern ports like Norfolk, Va.”
5. The Underground Railroad was primarily the work of white heroes.
FromNPR: In the South, we were assisted mostly by black people, both slave and free. When they arrived in Philadelphia or New York City, free blacks from the surrounding area aided them all the way up. The Underground Railroad was open to people of all races. When racial tensions might be particularly high nowadays, it’s important to remember that this was an example of black and white people uniting in a shared cause to advance the causes of liberty. You make it possible for MPR News to exist.
Contribute to ensuring that Minnesota Public Radio remains a resource that brings Minnesotans together. Make a donation today. A donation of $17 makes a significant effect.
Four myths about the Underground Railroad you need to stop believing
As a broad movement in North America, the Underground Railroad involved a number of individuals who banded together to assist enslaved men and women in their attempts to flee from their oppressors. The freedom network was established in the 1830s, and it consisted of homes, schoolhouses, churches, and businesses that were collectively referred to as “stations” along the road leading north. Fugitives were housed in these places until they could continue their trek to freedom elsewhere. People like Harriet Tubman who assisted enslaved Africans in moving from one station to another were referred to as “conductors,” while those in charge of maintaining the stations were referred to as “station masters.” The Underground Railroad was extended to Canada in 1834, following the country’s abolishment of slavery.
- William Still’s publications, which documented the actions of the network, are widely acknowledged to have saved the tales of those who participated in the movement from extinction.
- When historian and Columbia University professor Eric Foner came across the paper, he understood that Gay had compiled a list of runaway slaves’ names, where they came from, how they managed to escape, and who assisted them in their endeavors.
- As a result of Foner’s and other researchers’ investigations, it was discovered that a slew of myths had surrounding the subject of the Underground Railroad.
- Slave women made “freedom quilts” and hung them outside their homes to warn fugitives of safe routes north to freedom and the whereabouts of safe houses, according to a popular myth.
- “It wasn’t a system like a railroad chart,” says the author.
- Underground tunnels were part of the Underground Railroad system.
- Foner, on the other hand, claims that he has never found any evidence of tunnels in the eastern part of the country.
The amusing thing is that, at least throughout the 1850s, the majority of slaves managed to escape above ground.
The Underground Railroad was the only means of escape for enslaved people.
Foner, however, discovered from Gay’s records that a large number of them had escaped in groups, either by rail or boat.
Frequently, one would encounter family groupings who had managed to get away together.
White individuals who labored on behalf of “helpless Blacks” were often credited with making the Underground Railroad a success, and this was universally accepted.
According to a report by NPR, “in the South, we were aided mostly by black folks, both slave and free.” “When they arrived in Philadelphia or New York City, local free blacks accompanied them on their journey all the way up.
“The Underground Railroad was a non-racial organization. Indeed, it’s something to keep in mind today, when racial tensions may be rather high: “This was an example of black and white people coming together in a shared cause to support the cause of liberty.”
The Secret History of the Underground Railroad
Diseases and Peculiarities of the Negro Race was the title of a series published by De Bow’s Review, a leading Southern periodical, a decade before the Civil War. The series was deemed necessary by the editors because it had “direct and practical bearing” on 3 million people whose worth as property totaled approximately $2 billion. When it comes to African Americans’ supposed laziness (“deficiency of red blood in the pulmonary and arterial systems”), love of dancing (“profuse distribution of nervous matter to the stomach, liver, and genital organs”), and extreme aversion to being whipped (“skin.
- However, it was Cartwright’s discovery of a previously undiscovered medical illness, which he coined “Drapetomania, or the sickness that causes Negroes to flee,” that grabbed the most attention from readers.
- Despite the fact that only a few thousand individuals, at most, fled slavery each year—nearly all of them from states bordering the free North—their migration was seen by many Southern whites as a portent of a greater calamity.
- How long do you think it will take until the entire cloth begins to unravel?
- Rather, it was intentionally supported and helped by a well-organized network that was both large and diabolical in scope.
- The word “Underground Railroad” brings up pictures of trapdoors, flickering lamps, and moonlit routes through the woods in the minds of most people today, just as it did in the minds of most Americans in the 1840s and 1850s.
- At least until recently, scholars paid relatively little attention to the story, which is remarkable considering how prominent it is in the national consciousness.
- The Underground Railroad was widely believed to be a statewide conspiracy with “conductors,” “agents,” and “depots,” but was it really a fiction of popular imagination conjured up from a succession of isolated, unconnected escapes?
- Which historians you trust in will determine the solutions.
One historian (white) questioned surviving abolitionists (most of whom were also white) a decade after the Civil War and documented a “great and complicated network” of agents, 3,211 of whom he identified by name, as well as a “great and intricate network” of agents (nearly all of them white).
- “I escaped without the assistance.
- “I have freed myself in the manner of a man.” In many cases, the Underground Railroad was not concealed at all.
- The journal of a white New Yorker who assisted hundreds of runaway slaves in the 1850s was found by an undergraduate student in Foner’s department at Columbia University while working on her final thesis some years ago, and this discovery served as the inspiration for his current book.
- One of the book’s most surprising revelations is that, according to the book’s subtitle, the Underground Railroad was not always secret at all.
- The New York State Vigilance Committee, established in 1850, the year of the infamous Fugitive Slave Act, officially declared its objective to “welcome, with open arms, the panting fugitive.” Local newspapers published stories about Jermain W.
Bazaars with the slogan “Buy for the sake of the slave” provided donated luxury items and handcrafted knickknacks just before the winter holidays, and bake sales in support of the Underground Railroad, no matter how unlikely it may seem, became popular fund-raisers in Northern towns and cities.
- Political leaders, especially those who had taken vows to protect the Constitution — including the section ordering the return of runaways to their proper masters — blatantly failed to carry out their obligations.
- Judge William Jay, a son of the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court, made the decision to disregard fugitive slave laws and contributed money to aid runaway slaves who managed to flee.
- One overlooked historical irony is that, up until the eve of Southern secession in 1860, states’ rights were cited as frequently by Northern abolitionists as they were by Southern slaveholders, a fact that is worth noting.
- It was not recognized for its abolitionist passion, in contrast to places like as Boston and Philadelphia, which had deep-rooted reformer traditions—as well as communities in upstate New York such as Buffalo and Syracuse.
Even before the city’s final bondsmen were released, in 1827, its economy had become deeply intertwined with that of the South, as evidenced by a gloating editorial in the De Bow newspaper, published shortly before the Civil War, claiming the city was “nearly as reliant on Southern slavery as Charleston.” New York banks lent money to plantation owners to acquire slaves, while New York merchants made their fortunes off the sale of slave-grown cotton and sugar.
- Besides properly recapturing escapees, slave catchers prowled the streets of Manhattan, and they frequently illegally kidnapped free blacks—particularly children—in order to sell them into Southern bondage.
- The story begins in 1846, when a man called George Kirk slipped away aboard a ship sailing from Savannah to New York, only to be discovered by the captain and shackled while awaiting return to his owner.
- The successful fugitive was escorted out of court by a phalanx of local African Americans who were on the lookout for him.
- In this case, the same court found other legal grounds on which to free Kirk, who rolled out triumphantly in a carriage and made his way to the safety of Boston in short order this time.
- In addition to being descended from prominent Puritans, Sydney Howard Gay married a wealthy (and radical) Quaker heiress.
- Co-conspirator Louis Napoleon, who is thought to be the freeborn son of a Jewish New Yorker and an African American slave, was employed as an office porter in Gay’s office.
- Gay was the one who, between 1855 and 1856, maintained the “Record of Fugitives,” which the undergraduate discovered in the Columbia University archives and which chronicled more than 200 escapes.
One first-person narrative starts, “I ate one meal a day for eight years.” “It has been sold three times, and it is expected to be sold a fourth time.
Undoubtedly, a countrywide network existed, with its actions sometimes shrouded in secrecy.
Its routes and timetables were continually changing as well.
As with Gay and Napoleon’s collaboration, its operations frequently brought together people from all walks of life, including the affluent and the poor, black and white.
Among others who decamped to Savannah were a light-skinned guy who set himself up in a first-class hotel, went around town in a magnificent new suit of clothes, and insouciantly purchased a steamship ticket to New York from Savannah.
At the height of the Civil War, the number of such fugitives was still a small proportion of the overall population.
It not only played a role in precipitating the political crisis of the 1850s, but it also galvanized millions of sympathetic white Northerners to join a noble fight against Southern slaveholders, whether they had personally assisted fugitive slaves, shopped at abolitionist bake sales, or simply enjoyed reading about slave escapes in books and newspapers.
- More than anything else, it trained millions of enslaved Americans to gain their freedom at a moment’s notice if necessary.
- Within a few months, a large number of Union soldiers and sailors successfully transformed themselves into Underground Railroad operatives in the heart of the South, sheltering fugitives who rushed in large numbers to the Yankees’ encampments to escape capture.
- Cartwright’s most horrific nightmares.
- On one of the Union’s railway lines, an abolitionist discovered that the volume of wartime traffic was at an all-time high—except on one of them.
- The number of solo travelers is quite limited.” And it’s possible that New Yorkers were surprised to open their eyes in early 1864.
The accompanying essay, on the other hand, soon put their worries at ease. It proposed a plan to construct Manhattan’s first subway line, which would travel northward up Broadway from the Battery to Central Park. It was never built.
Myths and mix-ups with the Underground Railroad
The Underground Railroad in Cass County has raised several concerns, and we have attempted to address them all in this book, which is the most full and authentic narrative available. In regards to some of these questions, the following is our present understanding: On our website, you may find further information. One of the functions of the Bonine House tower was to search for slave catchers. The Bonine House is really two residences. The initial structure, constructed around 1845, was a typical Greek Revival design.
- Immediately following the Civil War, James E.
- As a result, the tower wasn’t utilized as a lookout for slave catchers because it didn’t exist during the UGRR period.
- There has been a lot of chatter, but no evidence has been discovered thus yet.
- Basement construction began after the Civil War, although it is not currently being used.
- There is, however, evidence of a tunnel beneath Penn Road that has been discovered.
- The Carriage House was erected in the early 1850s and is a National Historic Landmark.
- This was a relatively secure shelter for anyone seeking political independence.
The URSCC, on the other hand, is dedicated to finding a solution to this age-old issue.
(3) Two lions in front of the Bonine House—While multiple witnesses claim to have seen two lions in front of the Bonine House, we have yet to see a photograph of two lions.
The Wright siblings can recall just one lion from their childhood.
It’s possible that this is the source of the assertion.
In the case of Howell Lawson vs.
It has long been considered that this individual is the ancestor of the large Lawson family that still exists today.
However, he is not listed in any other source in the same manner.
Lawson Howell served as a trustee for Mt.
A long paper train runs from Lawson Howell to Howell Lawson, but there is none at all for the reverse.
Because of this, he has no connection to the Lawson family.
Bonine bought Sec.
He welcomed freedom seekers and free blacks to reside on 5-10 acre parcels in this area.
Ramptown was given its name because of the abundance of wild leeks that flourished in the area surrounding the village of approximately 30 cottages.
The existence and location of Ramptown were confirmed by an archeological study conducted by Western Michigan University in 2002, which confirmed that the town was located on Section 33 of James E.
Incorrect interpretation of this conclusion resulted in the mistaken idea that Ramptown was a scattered community spanning multiple townships and Quaker farms.
Many of the citations may be found on our website, urscc.org, which you can peruse.
The sixth matchup is Penn versus Calvin, with the winner taking the title.
A very early Quaker pioneer, William Jones (no middle initial) was linked to the large Jones family in Cass County and was a descendant of the family.
He was the nephew of UGRR conductor Stephen Bogue, and he played a major role in the Kentucky Raid of 1847, which was chronicled by eyewitness Perry Sanford and is now known as the Kentucky Raid of 1847.
His house, which still remains on Gards Prairie Road, is part of the URSCC Driving Tour and may be visited.
In 1840, he relocated to Indiana and later to Calvin Township.
Calvin Township treasurer William H.
Despite the fact that the matter was resolved and dropped, Jones was forced to abandon his land and relocate to Kansas in 1857, according to his obituaries.
The Kentucky Raid legal suit, launched by Kentuckians in Detroit in 1849, was lost by Quakers and other defendants— This is not correct.
Although much of the trial record has been destroyed, it is likely that the original case was dismissed because the 1850 Fugitive Slave Legislation supplanted the 1793 law under which the complaint was launched in the first place.
This is a question that affects not only Cass County, but the whole globe as well.
Despite the fact that it is a romantic concept, there is no evidence to support it.
With the exception of this novel, which is based on a true event told by a single lady, there is no other historical reference to quilts being used on the UGRR.
The URSCC has received numerous exquisite quilts based on this tale, which it will cherish and display as works of art in its collection. Cathy LaPointe serves as the treasurer for the Underground Railroad Society of Cass County, a nonprofit organization.
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The following is an excerpt from the book “Hidden in Plain View” by Raymond Dobard:” Some consider this quilt, which has a “Evening Star” design on it, to be a secret code that slaves used to navigate their way to freedom through the Underground Railroad. While researching a family legend that messages encoded in quilts assisted slaves escaping to freedom on the Underground Railroad for their book Hidden in Plain View: A Secret Story of Quilts and the Underground Railroad (Random House), Jacqueline Tobin and Raymond Dobard had no idea that their hypothesis would spark controversy from scholars who declared it false.
For Tobin, a writer and educator, “Hidden in Plain Viewis the tale of one woman’s family,” says the book’s title character, Ozella McDaniel Williams, who she met in a Charleston, South Carolina market in 1994 and who told her about the codes that she had never heard of before.
With no historical evidence to support Williams’ claim, Tobin enlisted her friend Raymond Dobard, a quilter and art history professor affiliated with Howard University, to assist her with the research and writing of the book, which is now in its sixth printing and has sold more than 200,000 copies to date.
Although I am unsure as to whether or not it is fully valid, the quantity of research we conducted leads me to believe it is.
As he points out, “the Underground Railroad is filled with inaccuracies and disinformation, and this is just one more case where someone stumbles across folklore and believes it to be genuine.” Historians like Wright are working hard to correct the record whenever the opportunity presents itself.
- In their belief, this is a myth analogous to George Washington cutting down the cherry tree, and they spend pages and pages on websites denying it.
- Even more recently, quilt historian Barbara Brackman wrote her own book, Facts and Fabrications: Unraveling the History of Quilts and Slavery (C T Publishing), in which she attempted to provide what she believes to be an accurate appraisal of slavery, quilts, and the Underground Railroad.
- Approximately 6,500 students from local schools have visited the exhibit, which demonstrates the thesis of the patchwork code.
- In addition, the narrative has appeared in lesson plans and textbooks (TIME For Kidseven published an article aboutHidden in Plain Viewin a middle school art book published by McGraw Hill in 2005).
- Although some people, such as Anna Lopez, an education coordinator at the Plymouth Historical Museum, believe that the concept of quilt codes is a fabrication, others, like as Lopez, believe that it is a true story.
- Men are the ones who do it.
- Then I inquire as to who produced the quilts.
- Who knows what happened since no one wrote down their history.” Activist and photographer Roland Freeman, who has been photographing and documenting African American quilters for almost 30 years, offers a different view on why the subject has gained so widespread attention.
- We’re sending messages and symbols right under the noses of white people, and they haven’t even realized it.
- As a result, we are inclined to accept such stories because they are what we want to hear.” Laurel Horton, a folklorist and quilt historian who has taught and published papers on the quilt code, has stated that she has given up on attempting to dispel the idea about the code.
- “This entire situation has made me realize that it is not a question of one group knowing the truth and another not.
In this case, it comes down to two separate sets of beliefs. It’s made me understand that believing doesn’t have much to do with accurate portrayal of the world around us. People have a gut feeling that something is real, and no one can persuade them differently in their heads.”
Misconceptions about the Underground Railroad
The following is an excerpt from the book “Hidden in Plain View” written by Raymond Dobard. A quilt with a “Evening Star” design, which some believe to be a secret code used by slaves to direct them down the Underground Railroad, was discovered in a library. While researching a family legend that messages encoded in quilts assisted slaves escaping to freedom on the Underground Railroad for their book Hidden in Plain View: A Secret Story of Quilts and the Underground Railroad (Random House), Jacqueline Tobin and Raymond Dobard had no idea that their hypothesis would be met with scorn by scholars who declared it incorrect.
For Tobin, a writer and educator, “Hidden in Plain Viewis the tale of one woman’s family,” says the book’s title character, Ozella McDaniel Williams, who she met in a Charleston, South Carolina market in 1994 and who told her about the codes she had learned about from her.
With no historical evidence to support Williams’ claim, Tobin enlisted her friend Raymond Dobard, a quilter and art history professor affiliated with Howard University, to assist her with the research and writing of the book, which is now in its sixth printing and has sold more than 200,000 copies worldwide.
As he points out, “the Underground Railroad is filled with inaccuracies and disinformation, and this is just one more case where someone comes across folklore and thinks it to be factual.” Historicians like Wright are working hard to correct the historical record whenever they get an opportunity.
In their belief, this is a myth analogous to George Washington cutting down the cherry tree, which they disprove on pages and pages of web pages.
Even more recently, quilt historian Barbara Brackman published her own book, Facts and Fabrications: Unraveling the History of Quilts and Slavery (C T Publishing), in which she attempted to present what she believes to be an accurate assessment of slavery, quilts, and the Underground Railroad (among other topics).
- The exhibit, which proposes the theory of a patchwork code, has been observed by over 6,000 school pupils.
- The narrative has also made it into lesson plans and textbooks as well as other publications (TIME For Kidseven published an article aboutHidden in Plain Viewin a middle school art book published by McGraw Hill in 2005).
- The story of the quilt codes, according to women like as Anna Lopez, education coordinator at the Plymouth Historical Museum, can’t be made up if it’s true.
- Men are the ones who do it, though.
- Who created the quilts, I inquire.
- Who knows what happened since no one recorded it.” Activist and photographer Roland Freeman, who has been photographing and documenting African American quilters for almost 30 years, offers a different view on why the topic has gained so much attention.
- Although it seems silly to me, African Americans are famished for stories of this nature inside their cultures.
- According to Laurel Horton, a folklorist and quilt historian who has taught and published papers on the quilt code, she has given up on attempting to refute the urban legend.
- “This entire situation has made me realize that it is not a case of one group knowing the truth and another not.
” Essentially, it is a conflict between two opposite sets of beliefs. Because of this, I’ve come to recognize that belief has very little to do with accurate portrayal of reality. The majority of people believe that is true in their guts, and no one can persuade them differently in their minds.”
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A position in the elite group of American historians has been earned by Eric Foner via volumes that seem to sift through all available materials in order to offer innovative new interpretations of the country’s reckoning with the major concerns of slavery and freedom. His most recent venture, on the other hand, began with a little monetary contribution from his dog-walker. Madeline Lewis, an undergraduate history major who also looked after the family’s cocker spaniel, was looking through the papers of a little-known 19th-century abolitionist editor named Sydney Howard Gay, which were held at Columbia University, when she came across a small notebook labeled Record of Fugitives, which she promptly labeled as such.
- Foner, who was in the midst of writing ” The Fiery Trial,” his Pulitzer Prize-winning account of Abraham Lincoln’s evolving views on slavery, was overheard by a colleague.
- The professor, who has been at Columbia University since 1982, claimed he was “amazed” when asked about the experience during an interview in his office last week.
- This was the first time it had happened in the opposite direction.” Mr.
Because of its significance as an inspiring story of interracial cooperation, the Underground Railroad is incorporated into school curricula and children’s books, and it is commemorated in museums such as the National Underground Railroad Freedom Centerin Cincinnati, as well as a growing number of local tourism destinations.
It was Wilbur Siebert who published the first scholarly study of the Underground Railroad in 1898, in which he identified approximately 3,200 “agents,” virtually all of whom were white men, who presided over an elaborate network of fixed routes, illustrated with maps that looked very similar to those of a conventional railroad.
A significant amount of scholarly work on the subject has been lost as historians have increasingly emphasized the agency of African-Americans in claiming their own freedom.
Abolitionist biographies have been written about black abolitionists such as David Ruggles, a member of the biracial Committee of Vigilance for the Protection of People of Color, which was founded in New York City in 1835 and studied the Underground Railroad in various locations, including Washington, southern Pennsylvania, and New Bedford, Massachusetts, among others.
Foner’s book, “Gateway to Freedom,” brings much of his previous work together while also delving into the history of the eastern corridor’s most important gateway, New York City.
The most notable of them is Gay’s Record of Fugitives, which Mr.
Until recently, historians knew little about the railroad’s operations in New York City, where pro-Southern sentiments emanating from the city’s tight links to the cotton trade, as well as the execution of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act, had further shrouded its operations in secret.
Foner discovered scraps of paper that Gay, the editor of the American Anti-Slavery Society’s newspaper, had used to keep meticulous, vivid notes on his clandestine aid to fugitives, including the exact amounts of money he spent.
Foner discovered elsewhere in the papers.
A group of four people had arrived from Philadelphia, according to one of his journal entries.
Foner embarked on a search for more obscure figures in census data, municipal directories, newspapers, and other sources in order to identify them.
This suggests a very genuine, though loose, coordination among locales.
“Gateway to Freedom” debunks some of the myths that have been perpetuated.
Foner reveals that a considerable number of fugitives escaped in groups, typically traveling by rail or boat, with the assistance of blacks employed in the maritime sector, including those in Southern ports like as Norfolk, Va., according to the report.
Foner unearths the stories of unsung black heroes such as Louis Napoleon, a porter in Gay’s office who began searching New York’s ports for runaways as early as the 1830s and is now considered a national hero.
New York (1852), in which abolitionists disputed the right of slave owners to move their goods through a free state, which Napoleon supported.
Foner explained, “was illiterate yet went to court and was granted writs of habeas corpus.” “He serves as a vital connection between the overt and covert parts of antislavery agitation in New York,” says the New York Times.
Out of a total slave population of over four million, Mr.
However, he contends that the railroad had a significant political influence, contributing to the outbreak of the Civil War.
And it wasn’t the Underground Railroad that compelled the problem; rather, it was the escaped slaves themselves who pressed the issue.
“It’s possible that they were fleeing for personal reasons, in order to improve their condition,” he stated. “However, in doing so, they altered the tone of the political debate in the country.”