If they were caught, any number of terrible things could happen to them. Many captured fugitive slaves were flogged, branded, jailed, sold back into slavery, or even killed. Not only did fugitive slaves have the fear of starvation and capture, but there were also threats presented by their surroundings.
What were the dangers of the Underground Railroad?
- They traveled mainly on foot and did not have the proper footwear. Runaway slaves carried little to no food, and would become weak. Injury and illness was a danger on the Underground Railroad, as well as wild animals. 2 Despite such risks and dangers, the journeys were braved by fugitives to escape from a life Slavery.
What dangers did Harriet Tubman face?
When she was about 12 years old she reportedly refused to help an overseer punish another enslaved person, and she suffered a severe head injury when he threw an iron weight that accidentally struck her; she subsequently suffered seizures throughout her life.
What physical obstacle did the railroad have to go through?
The railroads builders faced the challenge of physical features such as mountains and rivers to cross.
What happened to the Underground Railroad?
End of the Line The Underground Railroad ceased operations about 1863, during the Civil War. In reality, its work moved aboveground as part of the Union effort against the Confederacy.
What challenges did Harriet Tubman face in the Underground Railroad?
A runaway slave, Harriet Tubman faced the prospect of imprisonment and re-enslavement. Tubman risked her life each time she ventured back south to
What were the conditions faced by the railroad workers?
They had to face dangerous work conditions – accidental explosions, snow and rock avalanches, which killed hundreds of workers, not to mention frigid weather. “All workers on the railroad were ‘other’,” said Liebhold. “On the west, there were Chinese workers, out east were Irish and Mormon workers were in the center.
What were some challenges when building the transcontinental railroad?
Each company faced unprecedented construction problems— mountains, severe weather, and the hostility of Native Americans. On May 10, 1869, in a ceremony at Promontory, Utah, the last rails were laid and the last spike driven.
What impact did the Underground Railroad have on slavery?
The work of the Underground Railroad resulted in freedom for many men, women, and children. It also helped undermine the institution of slavery, which was finally ended in the United States during the Civil War. Many slaveholders were so angry at the success of the Underground Railroad that they grew to hate the North.
How did the Underground Railroad affect the Civil War?
The Underground Railroad physically resisted the repressive laws that held slaves in bondage. By provoking fear and anger in the South, and prompting the enactment of harsh legislation that eroded the rights of white Americans, the Underground Railroad was a direct contributing cause of the Civil War.
Who ended slavery?
In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation declaring “all persons held as slaves… shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free,” effective January 1, 1863. It was not until the ratification of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, in 1865, that slavery was formally abolished ( here ).
Did Harriet Tubman have brain damage?
When Tubman was a child, an overseer hit her in the head with a heavy weight after she refused to restrain a field hand who had left his plantation without permission. She suffered severe trauma from the event and experienced headaches and seizures for the rest of her life.
How old would Harriet Tubman be today?
Harriet Tubman’s exact age would be 201 years 10 months 28 days old if alive. Total 73,747 days. Harriet Tubman was a social life and political activist known for her difficult life and plenty of work directed on promoting the ideas of slavery abolishment.
Why did Harriet Tubman help slaves escape?
The Underground Railroad and Siblings Following a bout of illness and the death of her owner, Tubman decided to escape slavery in Maryland for Philadelphia. She feared that her family would be further severed and was concerned for her own fate as a sickly slave of low economic value.
Underground Railroad was a network of people, both black and white, who helped escaped enslaved persons from the southern United States by providing them with refuge and assistance. It came forth as a result of the convergence of numerous separate covert initiatives. Although the exact dates of its inception are unknown, it was active from the late 18th century until the Civil War, after which its attempts to weaken the Confederacy were carried out in a less-secretive manner until the Civil War ended.
The Society of Friends (Quakers) is often regarded as the first organized group to actively assist escaped enslaved persons. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with Quakers for attempting to “liberate” one of his enslaved servants. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved persons who were on the run from slavery. Abolitionist organisations founded by Quakers in North Carolina lay the basis for escape routes and safe havens for fugitive slaves during the same time period.
What Was the Underground Railroad?
According to historical records, the Quakers were the first organized organization to actively assist fugitive slaves. When Quakers attempted to “liberate” one of Washington’s enslaved employees in 1786, George Washington took exception to it. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved people who were fleeing their masters’ hands. Abolitionist groups founded by Quakers in North Carolina laid the groundwork for escape routes and safe havens for fugitives at the same time.
How the Underground Railroad Worked
The majority of enslaved persons aided by the Underground Railroad were able to flee to neighboring states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made catching fugitive enslaved persons a lucrative industry in the deep South, and there were fewer hiding places for them as a result of the Act. The majority of fugitive enslaved people were on their own until they reached specific places farther north. The escaping enslaved people were escorted by individuals known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were also used as hiding places throughout the war.
The personnel in charge of running them were referred to as “stationmasters.” There were several well-traveled roads that ran west through Ohio and into Indiana and Iowa.
While some traveled north via Pennsylvania and into New England, or through Detroit on their route to Canada, others chose to travel south. The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.
Fugitive Slave Acts
The Fugitive Slave Acts were a major cause for many fugitive slaves to flee to Canada. This legislation, which was passed in 1793, authorized local governments to catch and extradite fugitive enslaved individuals from inside the borders of free states back to their places of origin, as well as to penalize anybody who assisted the fleeing enslaved people. Personal Liberty Laws were introduced in certain northern states to fight this, but they were overturned by the Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was intended to reinforce the preceding legislation, which was perceived by southern states to be insufficiently enforced at the time of passage.
The northern states were still considered a danger zone for fugitives who had managed to flee.
Some Underground Railroad operators chose to station themselves in Canada and sought to assist fugitives who were arriving to settle in the country.
Harriet Tubman was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad during its heyday. When she and two of her brothers fled from a farm in Maryland in 1849, she was given the name Harriet (her married name was Tubman). She was born Araminta Ross, and she was raised as Harriet Tubman. They returned a couple of weeks later, but Tubman fled on her own again shortly after, this time making her way to the state of Pennsylvania. In following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and other individuals.
Tubman was distraught until she had a vision of God, which led her to join the Underground Railroad and begin escorting other fugitive slaves to the Maryland state capital.
In his house in Rochester, New York, former enslaved person and celebrated author Frederick Douglasshid fugitives who were assisting 400 escapees in their journey to freedom in Canada. Reverend Jermain Loguen, a former fugitive who lived in the adjacent city of Syracuse, assisted 1,500 escapees on their journey north. The Vigilance Committee was established in Philadelphia in 1838 by Robert Purvis, an escaped enslaved person who later became a trader. Josiah Henson, a former enslaved person and railroad operator, founded the Dawn Institute in Ontario in 1842 to assist fugitive slaves who made their way to Canada in learning the necessary skills to find work.
Agent,” according to the document.
John Parker was a free Black man living in Ohio who worked as a foundry owner and who used his rowboat to ferry fugitives over the Ohio River.
William Still was a notable Philadelphia citizen who was born in New Jersey to runaway slaves parents who fled to Philadelphia as children.
Who Ran the Underground Railroad?
The vast majority of Underground Railroad operators were regular individuals, including farmers and business owners, as well as preachers and religious leaders. Some affluent individuals were active, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who stood for president on two separate occasions. Smith acquired a full family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841 and freed them from their captivity. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, is credited with being one of the first recorded individuals to assist escaped enslaved persons.
Coffin stated that he had discovered their hiding spots and had sought them out in order to assist them in moving forward.
Coffin eventually relocated to Indiana and then Ohio, where he continued to assist fugitive enslaved individuals no matter where he was.
Ordinary individuals, farmers and business owners, as well as pastors, were the majority of those who operated the Underground Railroad. Several millionaires, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who campaigned for president twice, were involved. For the first time in his life, Smith purchased and freed a whole family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, was one of the earliest recorded individuals to assist fleeing enslaved persons. Beginning in 1813, when he was 15 years old, he began his career.
They eventually began to make their way closer to him and eventually reached him.
End of the Line
Operation of the Underground Railroad came to an end in 1863, during the American Civil War. In actuality, its work was shifted aboveground as part of the Union’s overall campaign against the Confederate States of America. Once again, Harriet Tubman made a crucial contribution by organizing intelligence operations and serving as a commanding officer in Union Army efforts to rescue the liberated enslaved people who had been freed. MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman led a daring Civil War raid after the Underground Railroad was shut down.
Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad is a book about the Underground Railroad. Fergus Bordewich is a Scottish actor. A Biography of Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom Catherine Clinton is the first lady of the United States. Who Exactly Was in Charge of the Underground Railroad? ‘Henry Louis Gates’ is a pseudonym for Henry Louis Gates. The Underground Railroad’s History in New York is a little known fact. The Smithsonian Institution’s magazine. The Underground Railroad’s Dangerous Allure is well documented.
Kids History: Underground Railroad
Civil War is a historical event that occurred in the United States. During the American Civil War, the phrase “Underground Railroad” was used to describe a network of persons, residences, and hiding places that slaves in the southern United States used to flee to freedom in the northern United States and Canada. Is it possible that there was a railroad? The Underground Railroad wasn’t truly a railroad in the traditional sense. It was the moniker given to the method by which individuals managed to flee.
- Conductors and stations are two types of conductors.
- Conductors were those who were in charge of escorting slaves along the path.
- Even those who volunteered their time and resources by donating money and food were referred to as shareholders.
- Who was employed by the railroad?
- Some of the Underground Railroad’s conductors were former slaves, such as Harriet Tubman, who escaped slavery by way of the Underground Railroad and subsequently returned to assist other slaves in their escape.
- They frequently offered safe havens in their houses, as well as food and other supplies to those in need.
What mode of transportation did the people use if there was no railroad?
Slaves would frequently go on foot during the night.
The distance between stations was generally between 10 and 20 miles.
Was it a potentially hazardous situation?
There were those trying to help slaves escape, as well as those who were attempting to aid them.
In what time period did the Underground Railroad operate?
It reached its zenith in the 1850s, just before the American Civil War.
How many people were able to flee?
Over 100,000 slaves are said to have fled over the railroad’s history, with 30,000 escaping during the peak years before the Civil War, according to some estimates.
This resulted in a rule requiring that fugitive slaves who were discovered in free states be returned to their masters in the south.
Slaves were now had to be carried all the way to Canada in order to avoid being kidnapped once more by the British.
The abolitionist movement began with the Quakers in the 17th century, who believed that slavery was incompatible with Christian principles.
Ducksters’ Lewis Hayden House is located in the town of Lewis Hayden. The Lewis Hayden House functioned as a station on the Underground Railroad during the American Civil War. Information on the Underground Railroad that is both interesting and educational
- Civil War (History) During the American Civil War, the phrase “Underground Railroad” was used to describe a network of persons, residences, and hiding places that slaves in the southern United States used to flee to freedom in the Northern United States and Canada. Is it possible that that was a train? In reality, the Underground Railroad was not a railroad at all. A term was given to the method by which individuals managed to get away from their situation. No one knows how it obtained its name in the beginning, but the “underground” portion of the name comes from the secrecy with which it operated, and the “railroad” half of the name comes from the manner it was utilized to carry people. Conductors and stations are two types of people that work in the transportation industry. In its organization, the Underground Railroad made use of railroad slang. Conductors were those who were in charge of leading slaves along the journey. Stations or depots were the names given to the hideouts and dwellings where slaves took refuge while traveling. In other cases, shareholders included those who donated money or food in order to assist others. Located within the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Levi Coffin House is a historic structure. Is it true that the railroad employed thousands of people? Conductors and secure locations for slaves to stay along the route were given by a large number of individuals from a variety of backgrounds. Former slaves, such as Harriet Tubman, who escaped slavery through the Underground Railroad and then returned to assist other slaves in their escape, served as conductors on the Underground Railroad. Many white people who believed that slavery was immoral, like as Quakers from the north, lent their assistance as well. Aside from hiding places in their houses, they frequently offered food and other supplies to those in need. Harriet Tubman was a pioneering woman who H. B. Lindsley was an American author and poet who lived during the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. It’s unclear how people got about without a train system. A arduous and risky journey, traveling on the Underground Railroad was an experience. When slaves were traveling on foot at night, they were called “night runners.” Their plan was to slip from one station to the next in the hopes of not being discovered. A typical distance between stations was 10 to 20 miles. They would sometimes have to wait for a long period of time at one station before they were confident that the next station was secure and ready for them to go. What made you think it was risky? It was quite risky, to be honest with you. Both for the slaves attempting to flee and for those attempting to aid them in their endeavors Assisting fugitive slaves was against the law, and conductors were subject to execution by hanging in several southern states. Was the Underground Railroad operational at any point in time? From around 1810 through the 1860s, the Underground Railroad was active. As recently as the 1850s, it reached its zenith just prior to the American Civil War. Eastman Johnson’s A Ride for Liberty – The Fugitive Slaves is a historical novel about fugitive slaves who escape from their captors. The number of those who made it out is unknown. There is no way to know exactly how many slaves fled because they lived in obscurity. More than 100,000 slaves may have fled over the railroad’s history, with 30,000 of them making their escape during the peak years preceding the Civil War, according to some estimates. The Fugitive Slave Act was enacted in the United States in 1850, making slaves fugitives. Because of this, escaped slaves who were discovered in free states were required by law to be returned to their southern masters. For the Underground Railroad, this made things even more difficult. Slaves were now had to be carried all the way to Canada in order to avoid being seized once more by the British Empire. Abolitionists Those who believed that slavery should be abolished and that all present slaves should be freed were known as abolitionists. Abolitionist movements began with the Quakers in the 17th century, who believed that slavery was incompatible with Christian principles. When slavery was abolished in the United States in 1780, Pennsylvania was the first state. By the Ducksters, Lewis Hayden House is named after the author Lewis Hayden House. A station on the Underground Railroad, the Lewis Hayden House was built in 1836. The Underground Railroad: Interesting Facts and Myths
HistoryCivil WarHistoryCivil War Works Cited
When describing a network of meeting spots, hidden routes, passages, and safehouses used by slaves in the United States to escape slave-holding states and seek refuge in northern states and Canada, the Underground Railroad was referred to as the Underground Railroad (UR). The underground railroad, which was established in the early 1800s and sponsored by persons active in the Abolitionist Movement, assisted thousands of slaves in their attempts to escape bondage. Between 1810 and 1850, it is estimated that 100,000 slaves escaped from bondage in the southern United States.
Facts, information and articles about the Underground Railroad
Aproximate year of birth: 1780
The beginnings of the American Civil War occurred around the year 1862.
Estimates range between 6,000 and 10,000.
Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. William Still is a well-known author and poet. Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by author Levi Coffin. John Fairfield is a well-known author.
Harriet Tubman is a historical figure who lived during the American Civil War. She was a pioneer in the fight against slavery. William Still is an American author and poet. Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by the author Levi Coffin in the fictional world of the novel Levi Coffin John Fairfield is a well-known author and illustrator.
The Beginnings Of the Underground Railroad
Harriet Tubman was a pioneer in the United States. William Still is a well-known author. Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by writer Levi Coffin. John Fairfield is a well-known author and poet.
The Underground Railroad Gets Its Name
Owen Brown, the father of radical abolitionist John Brown, was a member of the Underground Railroad in the state of New York during the Civil War. An unconfirmed narrative suggests that “Mammy Sally” designated the house where Abraham Lincoln’s future wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, grew up and served as a safe house where fugitives could receive food, but the account is doubtful. Routes of the Underground Railroad It was not until the early 1830s that the phrase “Underground Railroad” was first used.
Fugitives going by water or on genuine trains were occasionally provided with clothing so that they wouldn’t give themselves away by wearing their worn-out job attire.
Many of them continued on to Canada, where they could not be lawfully reclaimed by their rightful owners.
The slave or slaves were forced to flee from their masters, which was frequently done at night. It was imperative that the runaways maintain their eyes on the North Star at all times; only by keeping that star in front of them could they be certain that they were on their trip north.
Conductors On The Railroad
A “conductor,” who pretended to be a slave, would sometimes accompany fugitives to a plantation in order to lead them on their journey. Harriet Tubman, a former slave who traveled to slave states 19 times and liberated more than 300 people, is one of the most well-known “conductors.” She used her shotgun to threaten death to any captives who lost heart and sought to return to slavery. The Underground Railroad’s operators faced their own set of risks as well. If someone living in the North was convicted of assisting fugitives in their escape, he or she could face fines of hundreds or even thousands of dollars, which was a significant sum at the time; however, in areas where abolitionism was strong, the “secret” railroad was openly operated, and no one was arrested.
His position as the most significant commander of the Underground Railroad in and around Albany grew as time went on.
However, in previous times of American history, the phrase “vigilance committee” generally refers to citizen organizations that took the law into their own hands, prosecuting and hanging those suspected of crimes when there was no local government or when they considered the local authority was corrupt or weak.
White males who were found assisting slaves in their escape were subjected to heavier punishments than white women, but both were likely to face at the very least incarceration.
The Civil War On The Horizon
Events such as the Missouri Compromise and the Dred Scott decision compelled more anti-slavery activists to take an active part in the effort to liberate slaves in the United States. After Abraham Lincoln was elected president, Southern states began to secede in December 1860, putting an end to the Union’s hopes of achieving independence from the United States. Abolitionist newspapers and even some loud abolitionists warned against giving the remaining Southern states an excuse to separate. Lucia Bagbe (later known as Sara Lucy Bagby Johnson) is considered to be the final slave who was returned to bondage as a result of the Fugitive Slave Law.
Her owner hunted her down and arrested her in December 1860.
Even the Cleveland Leader, a Republican weekly that was traditionally anti-slavery and pro-the Fugitive Slave Legislation, warned its readers that allowing the law to run its course “may be oil thrown upon the seas of our nation’s difficulties,” according to the newspaper.
Following her capture, Lucy was carried back to Ohio County, Virginia, and punished, but she was released at some time when Union soldiers took control of the region. In her honor, a Grand Jubilee was celebrated on May 6, 1863, in the city of Cleveland.
The Reverse Underground Railroad
A “reverse Underground Railroad” arose in the northern states surrounding the Ohio River during the Civil War. The black men and women of those states, whether or not they had previously been slaves, were occasionally kidnapped and concealed in homes, barns, and other structures until they could be transported to the South and sold as slaves.
The Underground Railroad
WGBHA For a number of reasons, African-Americans fled slavery in the South to the north. Many slaves were driven to risk their lives in order to escape plantation life because of brutal physical punishment, psychological torture, and countless hours of hard labor without remuneration. When a master passed away, it was customary for slaves to be sold as part of the estate and for familial links to be severed. However, while some slaves journeyed with families or friends, the vast majority traveled alone, relying on the charity of fellow African Americans or abolitionist whites they met along the road for help.
- African American men and women of all ages escaped from the plantation and travelled north in search of liberty and opportunity.
- Escape from the deep South and make it north to New York, Massachusetts, or Canada required a trek of hundreds of miles, much of which was done on foot, to get there.
- Runaway slave advertising in local newspapers were routinely issued by plantation owners whose slaves had gotten away.
- Not all fugitive slaves made their way to the North.
- Some runaways created freedmen’s encampments in harsh rural places where they could remain concealed from slave catchers and local law enforcement agencies, while others chose urban settings.
- The trip to freedom for slaves who resided in border states such as Maryland, Kentucky, and Virginia may be short and less terrifying if they lived in one of these states.
- Slaves who resided in areas where they had access to freshwater and saltwater ports were frequently stowed away or employed as crew members on Northbound boats.
After the enactment of the second Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, escaping from bondage became more difficult than it had ever been.
Federal marshals who failed to enforce the law against fugitive slaves, as well as anybody who assisted them, were subjected to harsh punishment.
Hicksite Quakers and other abolitionists in the North were among those who supplied some of the most organized assistance for the Underground Railroad.
The vast majority of the thousands of slaves who attempted to flee the plantations each year were unsuccessful.
Others were escorted back to their homes in chains after being apprehended by law enforcement or professional slave catchers.
In 1791, a statute was established in Upper Canada, which is now Ontario, to progressively phase out slavery over a period of time.
The Underground Railroad thrived in communities such as Rochester and Buffalo, which were close to the boundaries of Upper Canada and were hotbeds of activity. Canada represented the Promised Land for those who had braved the long voyage and all of its difficulties.
OurStory : Activities : Slave Live and the Underground Railroad : More Information
The Underground Railroad’s historical context Harriet Tubman was a conductor on the Underground Railroad. The Library of Congress has provided permission to use this image. During the 1800s, nearly one hundred thousand slaves attempted to gain their freedom by fleeing their masters’ possessions. These courageous Black Americans walked north toward free states and Canada via hidden routes known as the Underground Railroad, or south into Mexico on routes known as the Underground Railroad. Through their assistance to the runaways, free Blacks, Whites, Native Americans, and former slaves served as “conductors.” The vast majority of those who contributed were everyday individuals, such as storekeepers, housewives, carpenters, clergy, farmers, and educators.
- Others, referred to as “agents,” sought to liberate the slaves by providing them with new clothing, collecting money for food and medication, training them to read and write, and giving lectures to persuade others that slavery was immoral.
- A slave grinding grain with a mortar and pestle.
- Smithsonian Institution |
- View a bigger version Passengers were the term used to refer to slaves who traveled on the Underground Railroad.
- A group of volunteers called “agents” tried to free the slaves by providing them with new clothes, collecting money for food and medication, training them to read and write, and giving lectures to persuade people that slavery was immoral.
- Everyone who took part in the Underground Railroad shown incredible bravery.
- The people who assisted slaves were likewise in grave risk, yet they persisted in their efforts because they regarded slavery to be unconstitutional.
- With Minty, a novel created by Alan Schroeder, you may learn more about Harriet Tubman when she was a tiny girl who dreamed of independence.
The Underground Railroad Route
Students will learn how to distinguish between slave states and free states during the time of the Underground Railroad, as well as the difficulties of escaping and choosing the path they would have chosen. Geography, Human Geography, and Physical Geography are the subjects covered. Students should be able to distinguish between slave and free states throughout the time of the Underground Railroad. Each pupil should be given a copy of the map titled “Routes to Freedom.” Inform pupils that the Underground Railroad aided enslaved individuals as they traveled from the South to the North during the American Civil War.
Students should be instructed on how to use the map key. Afterwards, instruct pupils to locate each slave state on the map as you pronounce its name:
- sMontana This state does not display on the map since it is not included in the list. Make use of a wall map of the United States to instruct children on where Montana is located.) North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia are among the states represented.
Explain to pupils that enslaved individuals did not have access to maps, compasses, or GPS systems throughout their time in slavery. The majority of enslaved individuals were never permitted to get an education, and as a result, they were unable to read or write. Consider the following question: How do you suppose enslaved people knew they were heading in the correct direction? Students should be informed that enslaved individuals resorted to guides on the Underground Railroad, as well as memory, visuals, and spoken communication to survive.
- Talk about the difficulties you’ve encountered on your path.
- Instruct pupils to examine the map and make note of any physical characteristics of the region that made the voyage challenging.
- In order to demonstrate proper shading techniques, students should go to Alabama, then northeast via Maine and into Canada to see how the Applachian Mountains are shaded.
- Ask:Can you think of anything else that made the journey difficult?
- In the winter, being cold and outdoors
- Not having enough food
- Being exhausted yet unable to relax
- Having to swim or traverse bodies of water
- Having to travel great distances
- Evading or avoiding people or animals
In the winter, being cold and outdoors; not having enough food; being exhausted but unable to relax; having to swim or traverse bodies of water; having to travel great distances; etc. the act of escaping from humans or animals
Students should discuss what they believe to be the most difficult obstacles to fleeing enslaved people, such as distance, weather, mountains, wildlife, bodies of water, or densely inhabited places, among other things. Inquire as to how their chosen method might have assisted enslaved individuals in avoiding the difficulties they were faced with.
Students will be able to:
- The student will be able to identify slave states and free states during the time period when the Underground Railroad was active
- Describe the difficulties encountered throughout the voyage
- Indicate the path they would have followed, and explain their reasons.
- Common Core Standard 1: How to interpret and share information via the use of maps and other geographic representations, geospatial technology, and spatial thinking
- Standard 17: How to use geography to understand and interpret the past.
What You’ll Need
- Standard 1: How to comprehend and share information by utilizing maps and other geographic representations, geospatial technology, and spatial thinking. The application of geography in the interpretation of the past is covered in Standard 17.
- Internet access is optional
- Technological setup includes one computer per classroom and a projector.
With the exception of promotional graphics, which normally link to another page that carries the media credit, all audio, artwork, photos, and videos are attributed beneath the media asset they are associated with. In the case of media, the Rights Holder is the individual or group that gets credited.
Naomi Friedman holds a Master’s degree in political science.
Professor of Political Science, Naomi Friedman, M.A.
Jessica Wallace-Weaver is a certified educational consultant.
- Based on the National Geographic Xpeditions lesson “Finding Your Way: The Underground Railroad,” this activity was created. Permissions Granted to Users Users’ permissions are detailed in our Terms of Service, which you can see by clicking here. Alternatively, if you have any issues regarding how to reference something from our website in your project or classroom presentation, please speak with your instructor. They will be the most knowledgeable about the selected format. When you contact them, you will need to provide them with the page title, URL, and the date on which you visited the item.
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Underground Railroad – Ohio History Central
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- “The Hippocrene Guide to the Underground Railroad,” by Charles L. Blockson, et al. Hippocrene Books, New York, NY, 1994
- Levi Coffin, Hippocrene Books, New York, NY, 1994. Levi Coffin’s recollections of his time as the rumored President of the Underground Railroad. Arno Press, New York, NY, 1968
- Dee, Christine, ed., Ohio’s War: The Civil War in Documents, New York, NY, 1968. Ohio: A Four-Volume Reference Library on the History of a Great State (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007)
- Fess, Simeon D., ed. Ohio: A Four-Volume Reference Library on the History of a Great State (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007). Gara, Larry, and Lewis Publishing Company, 1937
- Chicago, IL: Lewis Publishing Company. The Liberty Line: The Legend of the Underground Railroad is a documentary film about the Underground Railroad. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1961
- Ann Hagedorn, ed., Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1961. Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad is a book about the heroes of the Underground Railroad. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002
- Roseboom, Eugene H. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002
- The period from 1850 to 1873 is known as the Civil War Era. The Underground Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom (Columbus, OH: Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1944)
- Siebert, Wibur H. “The Underground Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom.” RussellRussell, New York, 1898
- Siebert, Wilbur Henry, New York, 1898. Ohio was a stop on the Underground Railroad. Lesick, Lawrence Thomas
- Arthur W. McGraw, 1993
- McGraw, Arthur W. The Lane Rebels: Evangelicalism and Antislavery in Antebellum America is a book about the Lane family who were antislavery activists in the antebellum era. Roland M. Baumann’s book, The Scarecrow Press, was published in 1980 in Metuchen, NJ. The Rescue of the Oberlin-Wellington Train in 1858: A Reappraisal Oberlin, OH: Oberlin College Press, 2003
- Levi Coffin and William Still, editors. Fleeing for Freedom: Stories of the Underground Railroad is a collection of short stories about people fleeing for freedom. Ivan R. Dee Publishers, Chicago, Illinois, 2004.
Safe Harbor: The Maritime Underground Railroad in Boston (U.S. National Park Service)
Introduction to Boston’s Maritime Underground Railroad with Ranger Shawn Quigley, who will be speaking on the subject. 1 minute and 50 seconds in length. A fugitive slave’s escape from a ship in Boston Harbor is depicted in this painting. The Liberator published an article on December 31, 1858. Several Boston newspapers published an article in December 1858 with the heading “Escape of a Fugitive Slave from a Ship in Boston Harbor,” which enthralled residents of the city. Phillip Smith, a stowaway onboard a ship sailing from Wilmington, North Carolina, was discovered by the captain of the ship.
Philip Smith, however, leaped overboard and swam to the adjacent Lovells Island before he could get a chance to try his luck.
Smith, like many other freedom seekers, managed to escape slavery by boarding a ship destined for the North.
“The sailors.proposed to me that they leave a hole or a location large enough for me to stow myself in, in the center of the cotton bales on deck, with my essential rations.” As William Grimes points out in his book from 1855, escape via ship frequently included hiding in cramped, unpleasant quarters in the hopes of avoiding detection.
- Because of these dangers, those seeking independence had to be inventive.
- Enslavers would go to tremendous lengths to avoid the loss of their “property,” and they would frequently examine ships or smoke them out if they suspected an enslaved person had stowed away aboard their ship.
- (This sailboat was used to conceal twenty-eight fugitives.) “Nonetheless, William.
- Dickinson College provided the image.
- Ship captains who were apprehended with a fugitive on board were subjected to ruined reputations in the southern United States, severe penalties, and, on rare cases, cruel treatment.
For example, Jonathan Walker, a resident of Harwich, Massachusetts, was branded with the letters “S.S.” for “Slave Stealer” on his hand after an unsuccessful attempt to aid fugitives fleeing via the Maritime Underground Railroad in the early 1900s.
Safe Harbor: George
A fugitive slave’s escape from a ship in Boston Harbor is the subject of this story. It was published on the 31st of December in The Liberator. Several Boston newspapers published an article in December 1858 with the heading “Escape of a Fugitive Slave from a Ship in Boston Harbor,” which electrified the city. In the early 1900s, a stowaway called Phillip Smith was discovered on a ship sailing out of Wilmington, North Carolina. The captain, who was determined to return Smith to North Carolina, threatened to kill anyone who attempted to rescue Smith.
He managed to hail a passing ship and make his way to the abolitionists in Boston, despite being severely frostbitten by the time he arrived.
For example, according to a reporter for a Wilmington, North Carolina newspaper who wrote some years ago, “it is nearly an everyday occurrence for our negro slaves to take passage and travel to the North.” On the Maritime Underground Railroad, many enslaved people, particularly those who came from coastal regions, boarded ships bound for northern ports in order to escape their enslavement.
- Escape via ship was typically associated with concealing out in cramped quarters in order to evade detection, as William Grimes explains in his 1855 memoir.
- Liberation seekers were forced to be inventive as a result of these dangers.
- Enslavers would go to tremendous lengths to avoid the loss of their “property,” and they would frequently examine ships or smoke them out if they suspected an enslaved person had stowed away aboard their ships.
- Twenty-eight wanted fugitives were hidden within this yacht.
- The Underground Railroad is a term used to describe a network of tunnels and passageways that transport people and goods from one location to another.
- Likewise, ship commanders were exposed to dangers, regardless of whether they were transporting fugitives north on purpose or not.
Following an unsuccessful attempt to aid fugitives fleeing on the Maritime Underground Railroad, Jonathan Walker, a native of Harwich, Massachusetts, had the letters “S.S.” (for “Slave Stealer”) tattooed on his hand.
Captain Hannum to the Slave Holders, a message for you! The Emancipator, published on October 7, 1846.
The Case of George
Many ship captains that dealt with the South, in contrast to Walker, made it a point to repatriate stowaways at all expenses. Consider the discovery of a stowaway named George by the crew of the Ottoman, a ship from New Orleans, in Boston Harbor during the month of September 1846. Following this finding, the captain of the Ottoman, James Hannum, sent George to Spectacle Island under strict guardianship. When Captain Hannum arrived on the island, he stopped in one of the hotels for a “drop of comfort.” While the captain sipped his drink, George managed to get away from the guards and steal Hannum’s tiny boat, which he used to sail to South Boston.
After first pursuing him by boat and then on foot, Hannum described the hunt as follows: “we took off after him, across corn-fields and over fences, till eventually after a chase of two miles I captured him just as he reached the bridge.” Following George’s arrest, news of his detention went fast across Boston’s abolitionist society, and they were successful in obtaining a warrant for Hannum’s arrest on accusations of abduction.
- Knowing he had to act swiftly, Hannum tracked down the Niagara, a ship destined for New Orleans and intended to transport George back to slavery in the United States.
- Hannum described the event as follows: “No sooner had I left the bark than I noticed a steamship heading right towards us.” Knowing she could only chase one thing, I chose a path that was the polar opposite of the Niagara.
- Unfortunately, the abolitionists chose to follow Hannum’s ship rather than the Niagara, and they were unable to obtain George’s freedom.
- Adams informed those in attendance that he would only make brief remarks due to his advanced age.
- It is an issue of whether your and my own country’s commonwealth is capable of defending the males who fall under its jurisdictional jurisdiction.
It was this 1846 group that served as a precursor to the much bigger Boston Vigilance Committee, which was established in the wake of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Law.
Austin Bearse was a member of The Vigilance Committee of Boston, and his name was found in their account book. (See the entry from October 9th.) The Vigilance Committee of Boston’s Account Book, kept by Francis Jackson, Treasurer Thanks to Cape Cod Community College for their assistance.
It had already been established that Boston was a critical station on the Underground Railroad by the time of the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law in 1850. The account book of the Boston Vigilance Committee, an institution that served as the financial backbone of the Underground Railroad in Boston, is one of the most valuable resources accessible for furthering our understanding of this event. It is not only possible to identify people and their levels of engagement in the Vigilance Committee records, but the entries in the Vigilance Committee records also give insight into the Maritime Underground Railroad in Boston.
- Austin Bearse, who was born in Barnstable, Massachusetts, rose to prominence as a key figure in Boston’s Maritime Underground Railroad system.
- Austin Bearse had direct knowledge of the horrors of slavery as a result of his involvement in this trade, which involved the transportation of enslaved persons.
- By the 1830s, Austin Bearse had established himself as a passionate abolitionist, and he used his maritime expertise to aid others seeking freedom.
- The Liberator published an article on June 18th, 1852.
- Among his possessions was a boat known as theMoby Dick, which could be rented out by residents of Boston for daylong fishing expeditions and port cruises.
- Consider the case of a stowaway aboard the Sally Anne, which was moored at Castle Island in September 1854.
- Bearse rushed into action and commandeered the Moby Dick in order to apprehend the fugitive.
- Bearse took aggressive action after reassembling at Long Wharf and failing to locate anyone who could instantly aid him.
- After a short period of deliberation, he decided to place the slave in my vessel.
Austin Bearse, on the night of July 18, 1853.”Reminiscences of the Fugitive Slave Law Days courtesy of Harvard University
Committees of Reception
Although Bearse acted alone in the aforementioned case because of necessity, he was part of a larger network of activists in Boston who were dedicated to supporting persons traveling on the Maritime Underground Railroad on a regular basis. In Boston’s antislavery culture, when word of a stowaway reached the antislavery community, a “Committee of Reception” was typically created to welcome them. Abolitionist George Putman wrote that these “Committees of Reception” would have “the food and clothing necessary-even at midnight-and have on the wharf-a carriage ready to take the slaves well toward the Canadian border-long hours before the enraged captain of the ship could swear out the necessary warrants and have the officers on the trail” of the slaves.
According to Vigilance Committee member Thomas Wentworth Higginson, “the habit was to take along a colored lady with fresh fruit, pies,c – she simply climbed on board while there, generally found out if there was any fugitive on board; then he was often hauled away by night.” Black women were not viewed as a threat by captains, allowing them to perform critical roles as operatives on the Maritime Underground Railroad during the era of slavery.
“Betsy took refuge on a coast guard vessel.” The Brownies Book was published in November 1920.
Enslaved women also made use of the Maritime Underground Railroad to escape themselves from slavery. The tale of Elisabeth Blakeley, a freedom seeker from North Carolina, is a dramatic illustration of this. Escaped from a life of unfathomable terror, she sneaked onto an unmarked boat and concealed herself in a small hole. In retelling the Blakeley story, Wendell Philips explains that the woman “laid there, while her inhuman lord, who had a strong suspicion that she was on board the vessel,” shouted out to her, “You had best come out!” ‘I’m going to put some smoke on the vessel!’ She explains: “I heard him call, but I was preoccupied with the choice between liberty and death.” After failing to locate her, the ship sailed away from Wilmington and took four weeks to reach Boston.
When she arrived in the city after escaping in the winter, her feet were severely frostbitten and she could scarcely stand.
Her narrative, as well as the stories of others, illustrates the tremendous dangers and great rewards of the Maritime Underground Railroad.
He might end up losing his life, and he could miss out on the freedom he so desperately wants to have.
Shawn Quigley, Park Guide, has contributed to this article.
“Escape of a Fugitive Slave from a Vessel in Boston Harbor,” a play by William Shakespeare. The Liberator (London, England), December 31, 1858, p.2. Wilmington Journal, October 19, 1849, p.3, Wilmington, Delaware In David Cecelski’s “The Shores of Freedom: The Maritime Underground Railroad in North Carolina 1800-1861,” The North Carolina Historical Review, vol. 71, no. 2 (APRIL 1994), p.1, the Maritime Underground Railroad in North Carolina 1800-1861 is discussed. William Grimes is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom.
Written entirely by himself.
grime51.* “The Shores of Freedom: The Maritime Underground Railroad in North Carolina 1800-1861” by David Cecelski provides further information on the dangers that freedom seekers encountered when attempting to stowaway aboard a ship during this time period.
Slaveholders, “Captain Hannum to the Rescue!” The Emancipator published an article on October 7, 1846.
The author, Warren Richardson (2008), on page 20.
Ibid., page 36.
36 of the same publication.
Ohiomemory.org, p.69, cited above.
2008, page 31; Warren Richardson, 2008, page 31.
Frederick Douglass was a famous American author. My Obligation and My Liberation The University of Auburn Press (Auburn, Kentucky, 2017), page 284 Archive.orgarchive.org/details/DKC0119/page/n283/mode/2up/search/intense+agony.