Contrary to legend, Tubman did not create the Underground Railroad; it was established in the late eighteenth century by black and white abolitionists. Tubman likely benefitted from this network of escape routes and safe houses in 1849, when she and two brothers escaped north.
When did Harriet Tubman start the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad and Siblings Tubman first encountered the Underground Railroad when she used it to escape slavery herself in 1849. Following a bout of illness and the death of her owner, Tubman decided to escape slavery in Maryland for Philadelphia.
How long did it take Harriet Tubman to build the Underground Railroad?
In the ten years she worked as a “conductor” on the Railroad, Harriet managed to rescue over 300 people. She had made 19 trips and never lost a passenger on the way. For Tubman’s safety, her friends took her to Canada.
Who started the Underground Railroad around 1780?
William Still, sometimes called “The Father of the Underground Railroad”, helped hundreds of slaves escape (as many as 60 a month), sometimes hiding them in his Philadelphia home.
Did Harriet Tubman marry a white man?
Tubman’s owners, the Brodess family, “loaned” her out to work for others while she was still a child, under what were often miserable, dangerous conditions. Sometime around 1844, she married John Tubman, a free Black man.
Who started Underground Railroad?
In the early 1800s, Quaker abolitionist Isaac T. Hopper set up a network in Philadelphia that helped enslaved people on the run.
Is Gertie Davis died?
Established in the early 1800s and aided by people involved in the Abolitionist Movement, the underground railroad helped thousands of slaves escape bondage. By one estimate, 100,000 slaves escaped from bondage in the South between 1810 and 1850.
What age did Harriet Tubman escape slavery?
By age five, Tubman’s owners rented her out to neighbors as a domestic servant. Early signs of her resistance to slavery and its abuses came at age twelve when she intervened to keep her master from beating an enslaved man who tried to escape.
How old would Harriet Tubman be today?
Harriet Tubman’s exact age would be 201 years 10 months 28 days old if alive. Total 73,747 days. Harriet Tubman was a social life and political activist known for her difficult life and plenty of work directed on promoting the ideas of slavery abolishment.
What year did the Underground Railroad begin and end?
system used by abolitionists between 1800-1865 to help enslaved African Americans escape to free states.
What year is Underground Railroad set in?
The Underground Railroad takes place around 1850, the year of the Fugitive Slave Act’s passage. It makes explicit mention of the draconian legislation, which sought to ensnare runaways who’d settled in free states and inflict harsh punishments on those who assisted escapees.
Why was the Underground Railroad started?
The Underground Railroad was established to aid enslaved people in their escape to freedom. The railroad was comprised of dozens of secret routes and safe houses originating in the slaveholding states and extending all the way to the Canadian border, the only area where fugitives could be assured of their freedom.
Did Harriet Tubman have epilepsy?
Her mission was getting as many men, women and children out of bondage into freedom. When Tubman was a teenager, she acquired a traumatic brain injury when a slave owner struck her in the head. This resulted in her developing epileptic seizures and hypersomnia.
How many slaves did Jefferson own?
Despite working tirelessly to establish a new nation founded upon principles of freedom and egalitarianism, Jefferson owned over 600 enslaved people during his lifetime, the most of any U.S. president.
Did Harriet Tubman really jump off a bridge?
Cornered by armed slave catchers on a bridge over a raging river, Harriet Tubman knew she had two choices – give herself up, or choose freedom and risk her life by jumping into the rapids. “I’m going to be free or die!” she shouted as she leapt over the side.
As an escaped enslaved woman, Harriet Tubman worked as a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad, guiding enslaved individuals to freedom before the Civil War, all while a bounty was placed on her head. But she was also a nurse, a spy for the Union, and a proponent of women’s rights. Tubman is one of the most well-known figures in American history, and her legacy has inspired countless individuals of all races and ethnicities around the world.
When Was Harriet Tubman Born?
Harriet Tubman was born in 1820 on a plantation in Dorchester County, Maryland, and became well-known as a pioneer. Her parents, Harriet (“Rit”) Green and Benjamin Ross, gave her the name Araminta Ross and referred to her as “Minty” as a nickname. Rit worked as a chef in the plantation’s “large house,” while Benjamin was a wood worker on the plantation’s “little house.” As a tribute to her mother, Araminta changed her given name to Harriet later in life. However, the reality of slavery pulled many of Harriet’s siblings and sisters apart, despite Rit’s attempts to keep the family united.
Harriet was hired as a muskrat trap setter by a planter when she was seven years old, and she was later hired as a field laborer by the same planter.
A Good Deed Gone Bad
On a plantation in Dorchester County, Maryland, Harriet Tubman was born some time before 1820. Harriet (“Rit”) Green and Benjamin Ross gave her the name Araminta Ross and affectionately referred to her as “Minty” as a child. Rit worked as a chef in the plantation’s “large house,” while Benjamin was a wood worker on the plantation’s “little house.” As a tribute to her mother, Araminta subsequently changed her given name to Harriet. The realities of slavery finally pulled many of Harriet’s siblings apart, despite Rit’s efforts to keep the family together.
During her early adolescence, Harriet was hired as a muskrat trap setter by a planter, and then as a field laborer by another planter.
Escape from Slavery
Harriet’s father was freed in 1840, and Harriet later discovered that Rit’s owner’s final will and testament had freed Rit and her children, including Harriet, from slavery. Despite this, Rit’s new owner refused to accept the will and instead held Rit, Harriett, and the rest of her children in bondage for the remainder of their lives. Harriet married John Tubman, a free Black man, in 1844, and changed her last name from Ross to Tubman in honor of her new husband.
Harriet’s marriage was in shambles, and the idea that two of her brothers—Ben and Henry—were going to be sold prompted her to devise a plan to flee. She was not alone in her desire to leave.
Harriet Tubman: Underground Railroad
On September 17, 1849, Harriet, Ben, and Henry managed to flee their Maryland farm and reach the United States. The brothers, on the other hand, changed their minds and returned. Harriet persisted, and with the assistance of the Underground Railroad, she was able to journey 90 miles north to Pennsylvania and freedom. Tubman got employment as a housekeeper in Philadelphia, but she wasn’t content with simply being free on her own; she desired freedom for her family and friends, as well as for herself.
She attempted to relocate her husband John to the north at one time, but he had remarried and preferred to remain in Maryland with his new wife.
Fugitive Slave Act
The Runaway Slave Act of 1850 authorized the apprehension and enslavement of fugitive and released laborers in the northern United States. Consequently, Harriet’s task as an Underground Railroad guide became much more difficult, and she was obliged to take enslaved people even farther north into Canada by leading them through the night, generally during the spring or fall when the days were shorter. She carried a revolver for her personal security as well as to “encourage” any of her charges who might be having second thoughts about following her orders.
Within 10 years, Harriet became acquainted with other abolitionists like as Frederick Douglass, Thomas Garrett, and Martha Coffin Wright, and she built her own Underground Railroad network of her own.
Despite this, it is thought that Harriet personally guided at least 70 enslaved persons to freedom, including her elderly parents, and that she educated scores of others on how to escape on their own in the years following the Civil War.
The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.
Harriet Tubman’s Civil War Service
In 1861, as the American Civil War broke out, Harriet discovered new methods of combating slavery. She was lured to Fort Monroe to provide assistance to runaway enslaved persons, where she served as a nurse, chef, and laundress. In order to assist sick troops and runaway enslaved people, Harriet employed her expertise of herbal medicines. She rose to the position of director of an intelligence and reconnaissance network for the Union Army in 1863. In addition to providing Union commanders with critical data regarding Confederate Army supply routes and personnel, she assisted in the liberation of enslaved persons who went on to join Black Union battalions.
Despite being at just over five feet tall, she was a force to be reckoned with, despite the fact that it took more than three decades for the government to recognize her military accomplishments and provide her with financial compensation.
Harriet Tubman’s Later Years
Following the Civil War, Harriet moved to Auburn, New York, where she lived with her family and friends on land she owned. After her husband John died in 1867, she married Nelson Davis, a former enslaved man and Civil War soldier, in 1869. A few years later, they adopted a tiny girl named Gertie, who became their daughter. Harriet maintained an open-door policy for anyone who was in need of assistance. In order to sustain her philanthropic endeavors, she sold her homegrown fruit, raised pigs, accepted gifts, and borrowed money from family and friends.
- She also collaborated with famed suffrage activist Susan B.
- Harriet Tubman acquired land close to her home in 1896 and built the Harriet Tubman Home for Aged and Indigent Colored People, which opened in 1897.
- However, her health continued to deteriorate, and she was finally compelled to relocate to the rest home that bears her name in 1911.
- Schools and museums carry her name, and her life story has been told in novels, films, and documentaries, among other mediums.
Harriet Tubman: 20 Dollar Bill
The SS Harriet Tubman, which was named for Tubman during World War I, is a memorial to her legacy. In 2016, the United States Treasury announced that Harriet Tubman’s portrait will be used on the twenty-dollar note, replacing the image of former President and slaveowner Andrew Jackson. Later, Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin (who previously worked under President Trump) indicated that the new plan will be postponed until at least 2026 at the earliest. President Biden’s administration stated in January 2021 that it will expedite the design phase of the project.
Early years of one’s life. The Harriet Tubman Historical Society was founded in 1908. General Tubman was a female abolitionist who also served as a secret military weapon during the Civil War. Military Times is a publication that publishes news on the military. Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. Biography. Biography. Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. Thompson AME Zion Church, Thompson Home for the Aged, and Thompson Residence are all located in Thompson. The National Park Service is a federal agency.
- Myths against facts.
- Kate Clifford Larson, Ph.D.
- Harriet Tubman is a historical figure.
- National Women’s History Museum exhibit about Harriet Tubman.
Harriet Tubman, “The Moses of Her People,” is a fictional character created by author Harriet Tubman. The Harriet Tubman Historical Society was founded in 1908. Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. The Underground Railroad (Urban Railroad). The National Park Service is a federal agency.
Frequently Asked Questions
Who was Harriet Tubman?
In the United States, Harriet Tubman, née Araminta Ross, (born c. 1820 in Dorchester County, Maryland, U.S.—died March 10, 1913 in Auburn, New York) was an abolitionist who managed to escape from slavery in the South and rise to prominence before the American Civil War. As part of the Underground Railroad, which was an extensive covert network of safe homes built specifically for this reason, she was responsible for guiding scores of enslaved persons to freedom in the North. Araminta Ross was born into slavery and eventually assumed her mother’s maiden name, Harriet, as her own.
- When she was approximately 12 years old, she reportedly refused to assist an overseer in punishing another enslaved person; as a result, he hurled an iron weight that accidently struck her, causing her to suffer a terrible brain injury, which she would endure for the rest of her life.
- Tubman went to Philadelphia in 1849, allegedly on the basis of rumors that she was due to be sold.
- In December 1850, she made her way to Baltimore, Maryland, where she was reunited with her sister and two children who had joined her in exile.
- A long-held belief that Tubman made around 19 excursions into Maryland and assisted upwards of 300 individuals out of servitude was based on inflated estimates in Sara Bradford’s 1868 biography of Tubman.
- If anyone opted to turn back, putting the operation in jeopardy, she reportedly threatened them with a revolver and stated, “You’ll either be free or die,” according to reports.
- One such example was evading capture on Saturday evenings since the story would not emerge in the newspapers until the following Monday.
- It has been stated that she never lost sight of a runaway she was escorting to safety.
Abolitionists, on the other hand, praised her for her bravery.
Her parents (whom she had brought from Maryland in June 1857) and herself moved to a tiny farm outside Auburn, New York, about 1858, and remained there for the rest of her life.
Tubman spied on Confederate territory while serving with the Second Carolina Volunteers, who were under the leadership of Col.
Montgomery’s forces were able to launch well-coordinated attacks once she returned with intelligence regarding the locations of munitions stockpiles and other strategic assets.
Immediately following the Civil War, Tubman relocated to Auburn, where she began caring for orphans and the elderly, a practice that culminated in the establishment of the Harriet Tubman Home for IndigentAged Negroes in 1892.
Aside from suffrage, Tubman became interested in a variety of other issues, including the abolition of slavery.
A private measure providing for a $20 monthly stipend was enacted by Congress some 30 years after her contribution was recognized. Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Jeff Wallenfeldt was the author of the most recent revision and update to this article.
Abolitionist and social reformer who lived in the nineteenth century. In a Nutshell. I was able to go away to Philadelphia. She was the one who led her people. Civil War-related activities ActiveSources are still active. A letter from Frederick Douglass to Harriet Tubman, another ex-slave who was also actively involved in the struggle for black American freedom, was written in 1869: “The midnight sky and the silent stars have been the witnesses of your devotion to freedom and of your heroism.
- While working for the Underground Railroad, Tubman was part of a larger, loosely organized network known as theUnderground Railroad.
- On the Underground Railroad”stations,” as the safe places along the way were known, it is believed that up to 75,000 black people received assistance.
- Tubman fought in the Union Army of the North as a nurse, scout, and spy during the Civil War, and in her later years, she built a home for elderly and underprivileged black people.
- Tubman’s mother, Araminta Ross, was born about 1820 in Dorchester County, Maryland, and was one of eleven children born to Benjamin and Harriet Green Ross.
- It is usually assumed that her parents were Ashanti, a West African warrior race who lived in the Sahara Desert.
- Despite the fact that many of Harriet Tubman’s brothers and sisters were sold to plantations in the far south, Harriet and her parents were to maintain a home base with them throughout their lives.
- When Harriet was only five years old, Brodas began “renting” her to neighboring families, who hired her to do a variety of tasks such as winding yarn, checking muskrat traps, housekeeping, breaking fence rails, loading lumber, and nursing children.
The outdoor work gradually became more appealing to Tubman than household tasks. In her early life, she was usually in dissatisfaction with her employers, and she was regularly sent home in punishment.
At a Glance…
Originally known as Araminta Ross, she went by the name Harriet after changing her first name in 1820. She died of pneumonia on March 10, 1913, in Auburn, New York. She was the daughter of Benjamin Ross and Harriet Green (slaves); she married John Tubman, a free black, in c. 1844; she married Nelson Davis, a Union Army soldier, in 1869. As an Underground Railroad conductor and Civil War scout and spy, she also served as a Union Army medic. In Auburn, New York, she founded the Harriet Tubman Home for Aged and Indigent Colored People, which was established in 1903.
- Between employment, she is frequently sick and battered, and she relies on her mother, “Old Rit,” for nursing care.
- In the midst of a fight between an overseer and a man who was seeking to flee slavery, she got caught in the crossfire.
- Despite the best efforts of her mother, Tubman was in a coma for several weeks, and the dent and scar on her forehead stayed with her throughout her life.
- This episode caused her to experience “sleeping fits,” and for the rest of her life, she would fall asleep without notice, frequently multiple times a day.
- It was not uncommon for Tubman to have weird dreams while suffering from these narcoleptic episodes.
- Tubman ascribed his death to the prayers she had said.
- Around 1844, Harriet Ross married John Tubman, a free black man who resided close to the Brodas farm and was a free black man himself.
- Tubman’s lawyer, on the other hand, informed her that the courts would not consider her case because of the length of time that had transpired.
Escaped to Philadelphia
While married to a free man, Tubman was still obliged to maintain her slave status, and her husband threatened to send her “down the river” into the Deep South in 1849, a prospect that had haunted many of her nightmares and waking thoughts for years before. As a result of her fear that her husband would carry out his threat to betray her, Tubman fled in the middle of the night, and with the assistance of people involved in the Underground Railroad, she made her way to Philadelphia, which was second only to Boston in terms of the amount of abolitionist activity at the time.
I was a stranger in a new place.” Moreover, she informed Bradford of her determination to liberate her family and to establish a home for them in the North.
As a result of the enactment of the Fugitive Slave Law, no black person could be considered secure in the North, because the testimony of any white might send a black to the South and enslavement, regardless of his or her previous situation.
As The Underground Rail Road, William Still’s meticulous records of slaves who managed to flee their masters through the committee’s office were published in 1872 and are now widely regarded as one of the most important historical documents of this period in United States history.
Led Her People
Tubman made arrangements to aid in her initial escape from the Vigilance Committee while she was in the office of the Vigilance Committee. After some investigation, she discovered that the young lady and two children she had committed to assist from Baltimore to Philadelphia were actually her own sister Mary and Mary’s children. Tubman returned to her hometown in Dorchester County, Maryland, the next year, in the spring of 1851, and began the arduous task of bringing her family to freedom from slavery.
Catharines, Canada, a little city that had a significant colony of fugitive blacks who had been sheltered there.
Catharines, from 1851 to 1857, she made two excursions a year into the South, guiding individuals to safety on their journey.
One of the most noteworthy and inventive escapes that Tubman orchestrated was the one she orchestrated for her aged parents in the year 1857.
Her performance was that of an established artist as well as a bold revolutionary all at the same time.” But John Bell Robinson, a pro-slavery Philadelphian who wrote in 1860 on slavery and freedom, portrayed the same episode as “a devilish act of depravity and cruelty” in his bookPictures of Slavery and Freedom.
According to the New York Herald in 1907, a typical escape led by Tubman would take place on a “dark and propitious night” when “news would be spoken about the Negro quarters of a plantation that she had arrived to lead them forth.” At midnight, she would set up a meeting in the depths of a forest or a marsh, and her fugitives would sneak in discreetly, one by one, to the location she had chosen for them.
She only confided only a select few members of the party about her objectives.
She adopted the power of a military tyrant and imposed the discipline that came with it.” Among the many strategies Tubman used in order to keep her groups moving toward freedom were drugging crying babies with paregoric, an opium derivative; boarding South-bound trains to confuse slave hunters; donning various disguises; leading the weary and frightened fugitives in singing spirituals; and threatening to kill escapees who attempted to return to slavery by pulling out her revolver and shouting at them, “move or die!” At one point, a $12,000 reward had been issued for Tubman’s capture.
According to John Marszalek, in 1858, a group of Maryland slaveholders demanded $40,000 for her head, which she refused to pay.
Tubman came into touch with a number of prominent abolitionists throughout the 1850s, including Thomas Garrett, Wandell Phillips, Frank Sanborn, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, William Wells Brown, and John Brown, among others.
In the late 1850s, she spoke at a few anti-slavery rallies, and in 1860, she delivered a speech at a women’s rights conference, when her oratorical abilities were commended.
Civil War Activities
As early as 1861, Tubman was assisting John Brown in the planning of the “ill-starred” attack on the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, a vital site in Virginia where he imagined the revolution to eliminate slavery would begin in the United States. White abolitionist John Brown thought he had been sent by God to “strike at slavery.” Brown was assassinated in 1865. According to Brown’s biographer, Benjamin Quarless, Brown saw himself to be a “tool of the Almighty” for the “deliverance of those who are imprisoned.” The assistance of Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass, whom Brown believed to be the preeminent abolitionist personalities of the period, was requested by Brown.
- Tubman, on the other hand, became extremely ill and was unable to accompany Brown on the raid.
- A call from the Union Army brought her the next year, and she set out for the South Carolina port city of Beaufort, where she worked as a nurse and teacher to the numerous Gullah people who had been abandoned by their proprietors in the Sea Islands of South Carolina.
- Tubman created a scouting corps of black men in the spring of 1863, at the request of Union officials, and began leading missions into enemy territory in search of strategic information in the summer of the same year.
- Tubman was hailed as “the most amazing of all Union spies” by historian Lerone Bennett.
Although Tubman had repeatedly requested it and the intervention of then Secretary of State William Seward and other military officials including Colonel Thomas Wentworth Higginson and General Rufus Saxton, the United States government refused to pay Tubman her legally earned military wages or provide her with a military pension in recognition of her services to the country, which was a source of contention at the time.
Following the war’s conclusion, Tubman returned to her hometown of Auburn, New York, where she continued to care for her aged parents. Nelson Davis, a considerably younger man whom she had met at a South Carolina army camp, proposed to her in 1869 and they were married the following year. When she wasn’t working on her autobiography with the assistance of Sarah Bradford, Tubman spent her time in Auburn volunteering with groups for black women, such as the National Association of Colored Women and the National Federation of Afro-American Women.
- Anthony, who was one of the cause’s major personalities at the time.
- When she acquired 25 acres in 1896, she was well on her way to realizing her ambition.
- When the facility first opened its doors in 1908, the roughly 91-year-old Tubman moved there two years later, two years before her death.
- Auburn Civil War soldiers presented her with a medal for her wartime service.
- Washington presided over a memorial ceremony for her, and the municipality of Auburn dedicated a plaque in her honor in 1932, commemorating her contributions.
- The Harriet Tubman Historical and Cultural Museum, located in Macon, Georgia, was established in the 1980s.
BRADFORD, Sarah, “Harriet Tubman: The Moses of Her People,” published in 1886 and reissued in 1961 by Corinth Press. Carl Conrad’s biography of Harriet Tubman was published by Erickson in 1943. Mrs. Harriet Tubman’s Moses,” in Notable Black American Women, edited by Jessie Carney, Nancy A. Davidson’s biography of Harriet Tubman’s Moses Gale Smith published a book in 1992 with the same title. The book has 1151–155 pages. Epic Lives: 100 Black Women Who Made a Difference, published by Visible Ink Press in 1993, is a collection of 100 black women who made a difference.
- Heidish, Marcy, and others A Woman Called Moses was published by Houghton Mifflin in 1976.
- Romero, The Publisher Agency, Inc., 1976, p.
- International Library of Afro-American Life and History: I Too Am American, Documents from 1611 to the Present, edited by Patricia W.
- Quarles, Benjamin.
- In Black Leaders of the Nineteenth Century, edited by Leon Litwack and August Meier (University of Illinois Press, 1988), Benjamin Quarles writes on Harriet Tubman’s “Unlikely Leadership.” Quarles’ article appears on pages 42–57 of the book.
- Siebert’s The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom was first published in 1898 and reissued by Russell & Russell in 1967.
Corinth: Corinth Publishing Company, 1961. Bradford, Sarah. “Harriet Tubman: The Moses of Her People,” 1886; reissued in Corinth in 1961. Richard Erickson published a biography of Harriet Tubman in 1943, titled Conrad, Carl et al., “Harriet Tubman.” Mrs. Harriet Tubman’s Moses,” in Notable Black American Women, edited by Jessie Carney, Nancy A. Davidson’s “Moses,” Harriet Tubman’s Moses Gale Smith published a book in 1992 with the same title. The book contains 1151–155 pages. In Epic Lives: 100 Black Women Who Made a Difference, published by Visible Ink Press in 1993, there are 100 black women who made a difference in their lives.
- Heidish, Marcy, and the rest of the girls Houghton Mifflin published A Woman Called Moses in 1976.
- 164 in Patricia W.
- Romero for The Publisher Agency, Inc.
- 164 in I Too Am American: Documents from 1611 to the Present (International Library of Afro-American Life and History).
- Quarles, Benjamin.
Russel and Russell reissued Wilbur H. Siebert’s 1898 book The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom in 1967.
Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad
Taking a look at Harriet Tubman, who is considered the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, our Headlines and Heroes blog. Tubman and those she assisted in their emancipation from slavery traveled north to freedom, occasionally crossing the Canadian border. While we’re thinking about the Texas origins of Juneteenth, let’s not forget about a lesser-known Underground Railroad that ran south from Texas to Mexico. In “Harriet Tubman,” The Sun (New York, NY), June 7, 1896, p. 5, there is a description of her life.
- Prints Photographs Division is a division of the Department of Photographs.
- She then returned to the area several times over the following decade, risking her life in order to assist others in their quest for freedom as a renowned conductor of the Underground Railroad (also known as the Underground Railroad).
- Prior to the Civil War, media coverage of her successful missions was sparse, but what is available serves to demonstrate the extent of her accomplishments in arranging these escapes and is worth reading for that reason.
- Her earliest attempted escape occurred with two of her brothers, Harry and Ben, according to an October 1849 “runaway slave” ad in which she is referred to by her early nickname, Minty, which she still uses today.
- Photograph courtesy of the Bucktown Village Foundation in Cambridge, Maryland.
- Her first name, Harriet, had already been chosen for her, despite the fact that the advertisement does not mention it.
She had also married and used her husband’s surname, John Tubman, as her own.
Slaves from the Cambridge, Maryland region managed to evade capture in two separate groups in October 1857.
In what the newspapers referred to as “a vast stampede of slaves,” forty-four men, women, and children managed to flee the situation.
Tubman and the majority of her family had been held in bondage by the Pattison family.
While speaking at antislavery and women’s rights conferences in the late 1800s, Tubman used her platform to convey her own story of slavery, escape, and efforts to save others.
There are few articles about her speeches from this time period because she was frequently introduced using a pseudonym to avoid being apprehended and returned to slavery under the provisions of the Federal Fugitive Slave Act.
“Harriet Tribbman,” in “Grand A.
Convention in Auburn, New York,” Anti-Slavery Bugle (Salem, Ohio), January 21, 1860, p.
Convention in Auburn, New York,” Anti-Slavery Bugle (Salem, Ohio), January 21, 1860, p.
A description of Harriett Tupman can be found in “A Female Conductor of the Underground Railroad,” published in The Daily Dispatch (Richmond, VA) on June 6, 1860, page 1.
In addition, when Tubman’s speeches were mentioned in the press, they were only briefly summarized and quoted, rather than being printed in their entirety, as other abolitionists’ speeches were sometimes done.
With the rescue of Charles Nalle, who had escaped slavery in Culpeper, Virginia, but had been apprehended in Troy, New York, where Tubman was on a visit, Tubman’s rescue efforts moved from Maryland to New York on April 27, 1860, and continued until the end of the year.
At the Woman’s Rights Convention in Boston in early June 1860, when Tubman spoke about these events, the Chicago Press and Tribunereporter responded with racist outrage at the audience’s positive reaction to Tubman’s story of Nalle’s rescue as well as her recounting of her trips back to the South to bring others to freedom.
- Later media coverage of Tubman’s accomplishments was frequently laudatory and dramatic in nature.
- On September 29, 1907, p.
- This and several other later articles are included in the book Harriet Tubman: Topics in Chronicling America, which recounts her early days on the Underground Railroad, her impressive Civil War service as a nurse, scout, and spy in the Union Army, and her post-war efforts.
- In keeping with contemporary biographies such asScenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman(1869) and Harriet, the Moses of her People(1886), both written by Sarah H.
- Taylor, financial secretary at Tuskegee Institute, certain content in these profiles may have been embellished from time to time.
This request was made in an essay written by Taylor shortly before to the release of his book, “The Troubles of a Heroine,” in which he requested that money be delivered directly to Tubman in order to pay off the mortgage on her property so that she may convert it into a “Old Folks’ Home.” On March 10, 1913, Tubman passed away in the Harriet Tubman Home for Aged Negroes in Auburn, New York, where she had lived for the previous twelve years.
While these newspaper stories provide us with crucial views into Harriet Tubman’s amazing heroics, they also serve as excellent examples of the variety of original materials available inChronicling America. More information may be found at:
- Harriet Tubman: A Resource Guide
- Harriet Tubman: A Resource Guide
- Runaway! from Slavery in America: A Resource Guide
- Slavery in America: A Resource Guide Newspaper advertisements for fugitive slaves, as well as a blog called Headlines and Heroes Topics in Chronicling America: Fugitive Slave Advertisements
A Guide to Resources on Harriet Tubman Runaway! from Slavery in America: A Resource Guide; Runaway! from Slavery in America: A Resource Guide Newspaper advertisements for fugitive slaves, as well as a blog called Headlines and Heroes; Topics in Chronicling America: Fugitive Slave Advertisements
Escapees from slavery travelled north in order to reclaim their freedom and escape harsh living conditions in their home countries. They required daring and cunning in order to elude law enforcement agents and professional slave catchers, who were paid handsomely for returning them to their masters’ possession. Southerners were extremely resentful of people in the North who helped the slaves in their plight. They invented the name “Underground Railroad” to refer to a well-organized network dedicated to keeping slaves away from their masters, which occasionally extended as far as crossing the Canadian border.
In 1850, Congress created the Fugitive Slave Law, which imposed severe fines on anybody found guilty of assisting slaves in their attempts to flee.
Underground Railroad “Stations” Develop in Iowa
Iowa shares a southern border with Missouri, which was a slave state during the American Civil War. The abolitionist movement (those who desired to abolish slavery) built a system of “stations” in the 1840s and 1850s that could transport runaways from the Mississippi River to Illinois on their route to freedom. Activists from two religious movements, the Congregationalists and the Quakers, played crucial roles in the abolitionist movement. They were also involved in the Underground Railroad’s operations in the state of New York.
- According to one source, there are more than 100 Iowans who are participating in the endeavor.
- The Hitchcock House, located in Cass County near Lewis, is another well-known destination on the Underground Railroad in one form or another.
- George Hitchcock escorted “passengers” to the next destination on his route.
- Several of these locations are now public museums that are available to the general public.
- Individual families also reacted when they were approached for assistance.
- When the Civil War broke out and the Fugitive Slave Law could no longer be enforced in the northern states, a large number of slaves fled into the state and eventually settled there permanently.
Iowa became the first state to offer black males the right to vote in 1868. It was determined that segregated schools and discrimination in public accommodations were both unconstitutional in Iowa by the Supreme Court.
Iowa: A Free State Willing to Let Slavery Exist
Slavery has been a contentious topic in the United States since its inception, and it continues to be so today. As new states entered the Union, the early fights did not revolve over slavery in the South but rather its expansion. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 created an east-west line along the southern boundary of Missouri, which would remain in place for the rest of time, separating free and slave settlement. States to the south may legalize slavery, whilst states to the north (with the exception of slave state Missouri) were prohibited from doing so.
- The majority of Iowans were ready to allow slavery to continue in the South.
- They enacted legislation in an attempt to deter black people from settling in the state.
- Iowa did have a tiny community of abolitionists who believed that slavery was a moral wrong that should be abolished everywhere.
- This increased the likelihood that Nebraska, which borders Iowa on its western border, would become a slave state.
- The Republican Party has evolved as a staunch opponent of any future expansion of slavery into western areas in the United States.
- $200 Reward: Poster for the Return of Formerly-Enslaved People, October 1, 1847 (Document)
- “Effects of the Fugitive-Slave-Law” Print, 1850 (Image)
- Fugitive Slave Law, 1850 (Document)
- Poster for the Return of Formerly-Enslaved People, October 1, 1847 (Document)
- Poster for the Return of Formerly-Enslaved People, October 1, 1847 (Do
How did runaway slaves rely on the help of abolitionists to escape to freedom?
- Article from the Anti-Slavery Bugle titled “William and Ellen Craft,” published on February 23, 1849 (Document)
- Anti-Slavery Bugle Article titled “Underground Railroad,” published on September 16, 1854 (Document)
- “A Presbyterian Clergyman Suspended for Being Connected with the Underground Railroad” Article published on November 8, 1855 (Document)
- William Maxson Home in West Liberty, Iowa, circa 1890 (Image)
How did some runaway slaves create their own opportunities to escape?
- A newspaper article entitled “The ‘Running of Slaves’ – The Extraordinary Escape of Henry Box Brown” published on June 23, 1849 (Document)
- The Henry “Box” Brown Song and the Engraved Box, published in 1850 (Image, Document)
- “The Resurrection of Henry ‘Box’ Brown at Philadelphia” illustration published in 1850 (Image)
- Robert Smalls: “The Steamer ‘Planter’ and Her Captor,” published on June 14, 1862 (Do
$200 Reward: Poster for the Return of Formerly-Enslaved People, October 1, 1847
- After escaping enslavement, many people depended on northern whites to guide them securely to the northern free states and eventually to Canadian territory. For someone who had previously been forced into slavery, life may be quite perilous. There were incentives for capturing them, as well as adverts such as the one seen below for a prize. More information may be found here.
“Effects of the Fugitive-Slave-Law” Illustration, 1850
- Written in strong opposition to the Runaway Slave Act, which was approved by Congress in September 1850 and expanded federal and free-state duty for the return of fugitive slaves, this letter is full of anger. The bill called for the appointment of federal commissioners who would have the authority to enact regulations. More information may be found here.
Fugitive Slave Law, 1850
- As a result of the Fleeing Slave Law of 1850, it became unlawful for anybody in the northern United States to aid fugitive slaves in their quest for freedom. This statute supplemented the 1793 Fugitive Slave Act with additional clauses addressing runaways, and it imposed even harsher sanctions for interfering with their escape. More information may be found here.
Anti-Slavery Bugle Article – “William and Ellen Craft,” February 23, 1849
- In this article from the abolitionist journal, The Anti-Slavery Bugle, the narrative of Ellen and William Craft’s emancipation from slavery is described in detail. Ellen disguised herself as a male in order to pass as the master, while her husband, William, claimed to be her servant as they made their way out of the building. More information may be found here.
Anti-Slavery Bugle Article – “Underground Railroad,” September 16, 1854
- The Anti-Slavery Bugle article indicates the number of runaway slaves in northern cities in 1854, based on a survey conducted by the organization. This group contained nine slaves from Boone County, Kentucky, who were seeking refuge in the United States. Their captors were said to be on the lookout for them in Cincinnati, and they were found. More information may be found here.
“A Presbyterian Clergyman Suspended for Being Connected with the Underground Railroad” Article, November 8, 1855
- This newspaper story was written in Fayettville, Tennessee, in 1855 and is a good example of historical journalism. When Rev. T. B. McCormick, a priest in Indiana, was suspended for his membership in the Underground Railroad, the article details his ordeal in detail. In the narrative, he is accused of supporting escaped slaves on their way to freedom. More information may be found here.
William Maxson Home in West Liberty, Iowa, 1890
- It was published in the Fayetteville, Tennessee, newspaper in 1855, and is a good example of historical journalism. When Rev. T. B. McCormick, a clergyman in Indiana, was suspended for his membership in the Underground Railroad, the article tells what happened. In the narrative, he is accused of supporting fugitive slaves on their way out of the country. More information may be found at:
“Fugitive Slave Case Was Tried” – A Daily Gate City Article, April 13, 1915
- This story, which was published in the Keokuk, Iowa, newspaper The Daily Gate City in 1915, is about a trial that took place in Burlington in 1850. Buel Daggs, the plaintiff, sought $10,000 in damages as recompense for the services of nine slaves who had escaped from Missouri. Read more about this case.
“The ‘Running of Slaves’ – The Extraordinary Escape of Henry ‘Box’ Brown” Article, June 23, 1849
- The escape of Henry “Box” Brown from Northumberland County (Pennsylvania) in 1849 was the subject of a story published in The Sunbury American newspaper in Northumberland County. Brown transported himself in a wooden container from Richmond, Virginia, to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he was received by a group of abolitionists. More information may be found here.
Henry “Box” Brown Song and the Engraved Box, 1850
- Image of the engraving on the box that Henry “Box” Brown built and used to send himself to freedom in Virginia. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. There is a label on the box that says “Right side up with care.” During his first appearance out of the box in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the attached song, Henry “Box” Brown sang a song that is included here. More information may be found here.
“The Resurrection of Henry ‘Box’ Brown at Philadelphia” Illustration, 1850
- The etching on the box that Henry “Box” Brown built and used to send himself to freedom in Virginia may be seen in the photograph. “Right side up with care” is written on the package. During his exit from the box in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in, Henry “Box” Brown sang the song that is attached. More information may be found at:
Robert Smalls: “The Steamer ‘Planter’ and Her Captor,” June 14, 1862
- The escape of Robert Smalls and other members of his family and friends from slavery was chronicled in detail in an article published in Harper’s Weekly. Smalls was an enslaved African American who, during and after the American Civil War, acquired freedom and became a ship’s pilot, sea. More information may be found here.
“A Bold Stroke for Freedom” Illustration, 1872
- The escape of Robert Smalls and other members of his family and associates from slavery was chronicled in detail in an article published in Harper’s Weekly at the time. Smalls was an enslaved African American who acquired freedom during and after the American Civil War and went on to work as a ship’s pilot on the high seas. More information may be found at:
- Harriet Tubman Day is observed annually on March 31. The statement issued by the State of Delaware on the observance of Harriet Ross Tubman Day on March 10, 2017 may be seen on the website. Governor John Carney and Lieutenant Governor Bethany Hall-Long both signed the statement. Harriet Tubman – A Guide to Online Resources A wide range of material linked with Harriet Tubman may be found in these digital collections from the Library of Congress, which include manuscripts, pictures, and publications. It is the goal of this guide to consolidate connections to digital materials about Harriet Tubman that are available throughout the Library of Congress website. Scenes from Harriet Tubman’s Life and Times The website, which is accessible through the Digital Public Library of America, contains portions from the novel Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman, written by Sarah Bradford in 1869 and published by the American Library Association.
- Maryland’s Pathways to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in the State of Maryland On this page, you can find primary materials pertaining to Maryland and the Underground Railroad. Information from three former slaves, Samuel Green, Phoebe Myers, and others is included in this collection. “The Underground Railroad: A Secret History” by Eric Foner is a book on the history of the Underground Railroad. The author of this piece from The Atlantic discusses the “secret history” of the Underground Railroad, which he believes reveals that the network was not nearly as secretive as many people believe. Emancipation of William and Ellen Craft from Slavery According to “Documenting the American South,” this webpage focuses on how slaves William and Ellen Craft escaped from Georgia and sought asylum and freedom in the United States’ northern states.
Iowa Core Social Studies Standards (8th Grade)
Maryland’s Pathways to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in the state of Maryland On this website, you may find primary materials pertaining to Maryland and the Underground Railroad. Information from three former slaves, Samuel Green, Phoebe Myers, and others is included in this collection. ‘The Underground Railroad: A Secret History,’ by Eric Foner, is a book that delves into the history of the Underground Railroad. The author of this piece from The Atlantic discusses the “secret history” of the Underground Railroad, which he believes reveals that the network was not nearly as covert as many people believed.
- S.8.13.Explain the rights and obligations of people, political parties, and the media in the context of a range of governmental and nonprofit organizations and institutions. (Skills for the twenty-first century)
- SS.8.19.Explain how immigration and migration were influenced by push and pull influences in early American history. SS.8.21.Examine the relationships and linkages between early American historical events and developments in the context of wider historical settings
- In your explanation of how and why prevalent social, cultural, and political viewpoints altered over early American history, please include the following information: SS.8.23.Explain the numerous causes, impacts, and changes that occurred in early American history
- And The Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights, the Constitution, Washington’s Farewell Address, the Louisiana Purchase Treaty with France, the Monroe Doctrine, the Indian Removal Act, the Missouri Compromise, Dred Scott v. Sanford, and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo are examples of primary and secondary sources of information that should be critiqued with consideration for the source of the document, its context, accuracy, and usefulness.
Underground Railroad Bibliography
Herbert Aptheker is the author of this work. Ideology of Abolitionism, Revolutionary Political Movement G.K. Hall & Company, Boston, 1989. Lerone Bennett is a fictional character created by author Lerone Bennett. Before the Mayflower: A Brief History of Black America is a collection of essays about the history of black people in America before the Mayflower. Johnson Publishing Company, Chicago, Illinois, 1982. Ira Berlin is a fictional character created by author Ira Berlin. Hundreds of Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America.
- The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press published the book in 1998 in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- The Hippocrene Guide to the Underground Railroad is a guide to the Underground Railroad written by Hippocrene.
- Charles Blockson is the author of this work.
- Prentice Hall Publishing Company, New York, 1987.
- The Underground Railroad: Dramatic First-Hand Accounts of Daring Escapes to Freedom is a collection of dramatic first-person accounts of daring escapes to freedom.
- Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California, 1971.
Harriet Tubman, “The Moses of Her People,” was published in 1869.
Frederick Douglass was a famous American author.
Knopf Publishing Group, New York, 1994.
Frederick Douglass’s Thoughts and Feelings are explored in this book.
Cromwell & Company, New York, 1968.
Slavery as Seen from the North Side.
Ericson, David F., “The Debate Over Slavery: Antislavery and Proslavery Liberalism in Antebellum America,” in The Debate Over Slavery: Antislavery and Proslavery Liberalism in Antebellum America, edited by David F.
The New York University Press published a book in 2000 titled Paul Finkelman, ed., Slavery and the Law.
Madison, WI: Madison House Publishers, 1997.
Larry Gara is the author of this work.
The University Press of Kentucky published this book in 1996.
Between Slavery and Freedom: The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1925 Vintage Books, a division of Random House, published the book in 1976 in New York.
1831-1861: The Abolitionists and the Southern Confederacy The University Press of Kentucky published this book in 1995.
is a member of the Hornsby family.
From 1619 until the present, significant events and people have occurred.
Harriet Jacobs is a writer who lives in New York City.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1987.
In the United States, there are several underground railroad resources.
The National Park Service is a federal agency.
The United States Department of the Interior published this publication in 1998 in Washington, D.C.
The Department of the Interior of the United States of America published this publication in 1995.
The Department of the Interior of the United States of America published this book in 1996 in Washington, D.C.
His Promised Land: The Autobiography of John P.
Parker, a former slave and conductor on the Underground Railroad.
Norton & Company, New York, 1996.
Facts about the Underground Railroad, as well as authentic narratives, letters, and other materials PorterCoates Publishing Company, Philadelphia, 1872.
“Hidden in Plain View: A Secret Story of Quilts and the UGRR,” by Jacqueline Tobin and Raymond G. Dobard, is available online. Doubleday Publishing Company, New York, 1999.
Ronald Baker is the author of this work. Homeless, friendless, and penniless: The WPA conducts interviews with former slaves who are now residents of Indiana. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, 2000. Maxine Brown is the author of this work. A Study of Free Blacks’ Participation in the Underground Railroad Activities of Central Indiana The DNR-DHPA published a report in 2001 titled COL. WILLIAM Cockrum’s obituary. The Anti-Slavery League’s investigation into the Underground Railroad’s history was published in the book The History of the Underground Railroad.
- Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by author Levi Coffin.
- Mark Coomer is the author of this work.
- The DNR-DHPA published a report in 2001 titled Xenia, you have a cord.
- The Indiana Historical Society published this book in 1993.
- Bury me in a Free Land: The Abolitionist Movement in Indiana, 1816-1865, is a book on the Abolitionist Movement in Indiana, 1816-1865.
- Slavery and the Law, edited by Paul Finkelman, is available online.
Madison, WI: Madison House Publishers, 1997.
Associated with the Underground Railroad in the Indianapolis Area: Interpretive Narratives The DNR-DHPA published a report in 2001 titled Furlong, Patrick J., ed., The South Bed Fugitive Slave Case (The South Bed Fugitive Slave Case).
Goodall, Hurley C.
Goodall Publishing Company, Muncie, Indiana, 2000.
Underground Railroad: The Invisible Road to Freedom Through Indiana is a project of the Works Progress Administration’s Writers Project.
The Anti-Slavery Movement in Henry County, Indiana: A Study of the Local Abolitionists is a study of the anti-slavery movement in Henry County, Indiana.
Marlene Lu is the author of this article.
The DNR-DHPA published a report in 2001 titled George Olshausen is a writer who lives in New York City.
Originally published by McFarlandCompany, Inc.
The Underground Railroad and the Antislavery Movement in Fort Wayne and Allen County, Indiana, by Angela M.
Fort Wayne, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000.
The Indiana Negro Registers, 1852-1865 are available online.
Emma Lou Thornbrough’s Indiana in the Civil War Era 1850-1880 is available online.
Emma Lou Thornbrough is a fictional character created by author Emma Lou Thornbrough. Before 1900, there were a lot of black people in Indiana. The Indiana Historical Bureau published this book in 1957 in Indianapolis.
In their entirety, the original slave tales docsouth.unc.edu This project, Documenting the American South (DAS), brings together historical, literary, and cultural materials on the Southern United States from the colonial period through the early decades of the twentieth century. Throughout the nineteenth, twentieth, and early twentieth centuries, DAS chronicles the individual and communal stories of African Americans who fought for freedom and human rights in the United States. Slave Narratives: Excerpts from the Book It includes passages from early European voyage accounts to Africa, as well as passages from slave narratives.
- Those who survived slavery share their experiences in the documentary Remembering Slavery.
- Many of the interviews were recorded on paper, but other interviewers were able to capture the voices of the former slaves on tape.
- Interactive for PBS Online entitled “Africans in America: America’s Journey through Slavery.” The history of slavery in America is given in four sections, each of which includes a historical narrative, a resource book, and a teacher’s guide.
- Provide a history of the home, an overview of Coffin’s work, as well as a comprehensive connections page.
- With a range of presentation techniques and depths of coverage, the site is unique in its capacity to make the experience of the Underground Railroad accessible to students in elementary, middle, and early high school.
- Students in the upper grades can study “Routes to Freedom,” which includes a map that can be magnified, and “Timeline,” which provides accurate facts.
- In the “For Kids” section, young detectives may investigate some of the greatest and most imaginative hiding places utilized by tourists.
- The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting freedom from slavery and other forms of oppression.
- Among the resources available are an introduction, a map of the routes, a list of railroad sites organized by state, and a links page with a comprehensive bibliography.
- These pages provide a brief history of the home, farm, or church that is being featured, as well as a photo and information about whether or not the property is accessible to the general public.
It is concerned with more than simply the history of the Underground Railroad. Frederick Douglass was an American civil rights leader. Douglass, his life, and his mansion are all covered in detail. His abolitionist activities are described in detail.
Patricia Beatty is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom. Who is it that is bringing the cannons? Originally published in 1992 by Morrow Junior Books in New York. Judith Bentley is a writer and editor who lives in New York City. The Underground Railroad was a collaboration between Thomas Garrett and William Still, who were friends for years. Cobblehill Books published the book in 1997 in New York. Raymond Bial is a writer who lives in New York City. Life in the Slave Quarters is a testament to the strength of these arms.
- Raymond Bial is a writer who lives in New York City.
- Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1997.
- Allen Jay and the Underground Railroad are two of the most well-known characters in American history.
- Sylviane A.
- Growing up in Slavery is a difficult experience.
- Brookfield, Conn.: Brookfield Publishing Company, 2001.
- I’m going to make something out of this Nettle.
Fradin, Dennis Brindell, and others.
Peter Still’s Biography is a fictionalized account of his life.
New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2001.
Get aboard the bus.
Harriet Jacob is a fictional character created by author Harriet Jacob.
A Slave Family is defined as follows: Crabtree Publishing Company, New York, 2002.
True North: A Novel of the UGRR is a novel about the Underground Railroad of the Great Plains.
Frank Latham is a writer who lives in New York City.
Franklin Watts, Inc.
Ellen Levine is a writer who lives in New York City.
Scholastic Publishing Company, 1988.
The Herald Press, Scottdale, Pennsylvania, published this book in 1975.
Harriet Tubman: The Runaway Slave is a biography of Harriet Tubman.
Meyer, Linda D., et al.
The Parenting Press published this book in 1988.
The Last Days of Slavery, written by Frederick Douglass.
“The Drinking Gourd,” says Monjo in his book F.N.
Kay Moore is the author of this work.
Scholastic Publishing Company, 1994.
Freedom River is a river in the United States of America.
Anita Riggio is a writer living in New York City.
Boyds Mills Press published this book in 1997.
Athenaeum Books for Young Readers published the book in 1997 in New York.
Minty: A Story of Young Harriet Tubman is a fictionalized account of Harriet Tubman’s childhood.
The Underground Railroad: A Historical Account The Children’s Press of Chicago published this book in 1981.
North to Liberty: The Story of the Underground Railroad is a book on the Underground Railroad.
The World Book Encyclopedia is a collection of books published by the World Book Company.
“The Underground Railroad,” as it is known. The World Book Encyclopedia was published in 1997. Sharon Dennis Wyeth is the author of this work. Freedom’s Wings: A Diary of Corey’s Adventures. Scholastic, Inc. (New York, 2001) published the book.
Linda Jacobs and Altman, Linda Slavery and Abolition in the History of the United States Enslow Publishers, Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, 1999. Judith Bentley is a writer and editor who lives in New York City. Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. Franklin Watts Publishing Company, New York, 1990. Charles Charlers and Blockson “The Underground Railroad,” as they say in the United States. National Geographic magazine published an article in July 1984 titled Budda Records is a record label based in New York City.
- Buddha Records released the album in 2001.
- Fiery Vision: The Life and Death of John Brown is a book about the life and death of John Brown.
- Dennis B.
- Clarion Books, New York, published in 2000.
- North Star to Freedom: The Story of the Underground Railroad is a book on the Underground Railroad.
- It is a partnership between Kim and Reggie Harris.
- Ascension Records released the album in 1984 in Philadelphia.
The Underground Railroad was a dangerous place to be.
Patricia McKissack and Frederick McKissack are the authors of this work.
Scholastic Books, New York, 1996.
Stowe, Harriet Beecher.
According to ABC News. Taking a Journey to Africa: A Return to the Slave Pens of Ghana Films for the Humanities and Sciences, a division of Films for the Humanities and Sciences, was founded in 2002 in Princeton, New Jersey. Orlando Bagwell is a fictional character created by the author of the novel The Hunger Games. Roots of Resistance: A Story of the Underground Railroad is a book on the Underground Railroad. Raja Productions is a production company based in India. In 1990, a film on the American experience was made.
Africans in America: America’s Journey Into the Heart of Africa Boston, Massachusetts, 1998.
Susan Michaels is the author of this work.
A E Network/The History Channel published a book in New York in 1999. Scott Paddor is the author of this work. Frederick Douglass was an American civil rights leader. Greystone Communications, Inc. is a communications company based in the United States. A E Home Video, New York, New York, 1999.