When Did John Rankin Begin Helping Slaves Escape On The Underground Railroad? (Professionals recommend)

From 1822 to 1865, Rankin, along with his wife and children, assisted hundreds of escaped slaves in their trek to freedom. Located on the Ohio River, John Rankin’s home (and Ripley, Ohio in general) were considered one of the first stations on this route of the Underground Railroad.

How did the Underground Railroad help slaves escape?

  • Most of the enslaved people helped by the Underground Railroad escaped border states such as Kentucky, Virginia and Maryland. In the deep South, the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made capturing escaped enslaved people a lucrative business, and there were fewer hiding places for them.

What did John Rankin do for the Underground Railroad?

John Rankin (February 5, 1793 – March 18, 1886) was an American Presbyterian minister, educator and abolitionist. Upon moving to Ripley, Ohio, in 1822, he became known as one of Ohio’s first and most active “conductors” on the Underground Railroad.

How did John Parker help with the Underground Railroad?

Parker, who was African American, helped hundreds of slaves to freedom in the Underground Railroad resistance movement based in Ripley, Ohio. He saved and rescued fugitive slaves for nearly fifteen years. He was one of the few black people to patent an invention before 1900.

How did the Rankin Family help escaping slaves?

Rankin, his wife, Jean, and their 13 children gave refuge to more than 2,000 escaping slaves by hiding them in the cellar beneath the barn or in the attic, as many as 12 at one time, according to the Ohio History Connection, formerly the Ohio Historical Society, which has owned the site since 1938.

How many slaves were stayed with the Rankin Family?

Built in 1825, the Rankin House was home to abolitionist and Presbyterian minister John Rankin, his wife Jean, and their 13 children. It’s estimated that over 2,000 slaves seeking freedom stayed with the Rankins, sometimes as many as 12 at a time.

What happened to John Rankin because of his actions against slavery?

He helped establish the Free Presbyterian Church of America, which prohibited slave owners from becoming members. Rankin also helped form an anti-slavery society in New York and established the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society in 1835. In 1829, he established Ripley College. Rankin died on March 18, 1886, in Ironton, Ohio.

Was John Rankin a conductor on the Underground Railroad?

Aboard the Underground Railroad– John Rankin House. A National Historic Landmark, this was the home of Presbyterian minister John Rankin who is reputed to have been one of Ohio’s first and most active “conductors” on the Underground Railroad.

When did Parker escape slavery?

John Parker was born a slave. In 1845, he purchased his freedom and eventually made his way to Indiana and Ohio, settling in Ripley in 1850.

How long did it take John P Parker to buy his freedom?

For eighteen years he tried to escape slavery. Meanwhile, he learned the trade of iron molding. At length he managed to save enough money to buy his freedom. He made his way north, married, and settled in the town of Ripley, Ohio, across from Kentucky.

What did John P Parker do?

John Parker, inventor and businessman, was also a prominent Underground Railroad conductor before the Civil War. He was reputedly responsible for the rescue of nearly 1,000 enslaved people between 1845 and 1865.

Why was Ripley Ohio important to escaping slaves?

With its location along the banks of the Ohio River and proximity to the slaveholding state of Kentucky, Ripley became an early stop on the Underground Railroad – a network of people and places organized to help escaping slaves find freedom in the north. Rankin also published several important anti-slavery writings.

Who has Rankin worked with?

By the Royal Photographic Society, Rankin was awarded an Honorary Fellowship. He has photographed many celebrities such as Kate Moss, Spice Girls, Lily Allen, Britney Spears, Kevin Spacey, Cate Blanchett, Queen Elizabeth II, The Rolling Stones, Madonna, Juliette Binoche, Björ and more.

When did John Rankin get married?

On January 12, 1814 he married Jean Lowry and together created a family of nine sons and four daughters, all of who lived to have families of their own. In 1816 Rankin was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Abington, Virginia.

When was the John Rankin House built?

Born into slavery in Beaufort, South Carolina, he freed himself, his crew, and their families during the American Civil War by commandeering a Confederate transport ship, CSS Planter, in Charleston harbor, on May 13, 1862, and sailing it from Confederate-controlled waters of the harbor to the U.S. blockade that

John Rankin – Ohio History Central

According to Ohio History Central John and Jane Rankin were married in 1872. He was a Presbyterian clergyman who was also a significant part of the Underground Railroad network, which helped fleeing slaves in the years leading up to the American Civil War. John Rankin died in 1865. Rankin was born on the 4th of February, 1793, in the state of Tennessee. He received his education at Washington College in Virginia and went on to serve as a preacher in the Presbyterian Church. Rankin devoted his life to the abolition of slavery in the United States.

Because slavery was legal in Kentucky, Rankin’s opinions on the subject were widely dissented.

Slavery was prohibited in the state of Ohio.

Rankin was a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad in Ripley, and he welcomed African Americans seeking freedom into his home while living there.

  1. Rankin would use a lamp to notify escaped slaves in Kentucky that it was safe for them to cross the Ohio River, which they did.
  2. Because of the United States Constitution and the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, slave owners were able to retrieve fugitive slaves, even if they were living in a free state like Ohio at the time.
  3. From South Carolina to Canada, escaped slaves might find refuge at Underground Railroad sites along the journey.
  4. In her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe honored Rankin’s attempts to aid African Americans in the United States.
  5. Rankin was a Presbyterian clergyman who spent the most of his time in Ohio.
  6. He also assisted in the formation of an anti-slavery group in New York, which later became the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society, which was founded in 1835.
  7. The institution had a maximum enrollment of 250 students at its height.
  8. Many of the college’s students were from Kentucky, and they did not share Rankin’s abolitionist viewpoints on slavery.

Some students dropped out of Ripley College and never returned. Rankin also gave lectures for the American Anti-Slavery Society in the northern United States. He was frequently the target of gang-related violence. He died on March 18, 1886, in Ironton, Ohio, after a brief illness.

See Also

  1. OHIO’S WAR: THE CIVIL WAR IN DOCUMENTS, edited by Christine Dee, is available online. Ann Hagedorn’s book, Ohio University Press, Athens, 2007
  2. Hagedorn, Ann Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad is a book about the heroes of the Underground Railroad. Reid and Whitelaw (2002, 2002)
  3. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. Ohio’s Statesmen, Generals, and Soldiers in the War: A Portrait of the State. Clarke Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1895
  4. Roseboom, Eugene H. The period from 1850 to 1873 is known as the Civil War Era. The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society published the book in 1944.

John Rankin (abolitionist) – Wikipedia

OHIO’S WAR: THE CIVIL WAR IN DOCUMENTS, edited by Christine Dee, ed. ; Ann Hagedorn’s book, Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007. “Beyond the River” is a nonfiction book that tells the story of the Underground Railroad heroes who went undetected for decades. Reid and Whitelaw, 2002; New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. Ohio’s Statesmen, Generals, and Soldiers in the War: A Documentary History ; Roseboom, Eugene H., Cincinnati, OH: Clarke, 1895. Between 1850 until 1873, the United States was in the Civil War.

Early career

Rankin was born in Dandridge, Jefferson County, Tennessee, to Richard and Jane (Steele) Rankin, and grew up in a strictCalvinist family with his siblings and parents. His parents were well-educated, which was rare in such a rural section of the country. They were devout Presbyterians, and their children were brought up in a religious environment. Jane was a staunch opponent of slavery who would not back down. : 22–23 Beginning when he was eight years old, John’s perspective on the world and his religious beliefs were profoundly influenced by two events: the Second Great Awakening revivals that were spreading through the Appalachian area, and the emergence of a slave revolt headed by Gabriel Prosser in 1800.

  • The opportunity to study at Washington College, under the guidance of Rev.
  • Following graduation, he was appointed pastor of the Abingdon Presbytery, but because his anti-slavery ideas were not tolerated, he departed Tennessee in 1817 and never returned.
  • Within a few months, however, he mustered the fortitude to speak out against “all forms of injustice,” first broadly and then explicitly against slavery, despite Tennessee’s status as a slave state.
  • He was taken aback when his elders replied by advising him that if he wanted to ever speak out against slavery from the pulpit again, he should consider leaving Tennessee immediately.
  • When Rankin stopped to preach at Lexington and Paris, Kentucky, he discovered of the need for a pastor at Concord Presbyterian Church in Carlisle, Kentucky, which he learned about while traveling north.
  • He stayed for four years and established a school for slaves; but, after a year, they were pushed from their schoolhouse to an empty home, and then to his friend’s kitchen, by club-wielding crowds, and the kids eventually ceased attending.

A rowing crew carried him and his family over the ice-cold river during the night of December 31 – January 1, 1822. In Ripley, he established a Presbyterian academy for boys, which the young Ulysses S. Grantonce went as a student in 1838.

Ripley and the Underground Railroad

His parents, Richard and Jane (Steele) Rankin, reared him in a strict Calvinist family in the town of Dandridge, Jefferson County, Tennessee. Even though his parents came from an impoverished neighborhood, they were well-educated. As devout Presbyterians, they instilled a religious education in their children as well. In her opposition to slavery, Jane was adamant. : 22–23 Beginning when he was eight years old, John’s perspective on the world and his religious faith were profoundly influenced by two events: the Second Great Awakening revivals that were sweeping through the Appalachian region at the time, and the emergence of a slave revolt led by Gabriel Prosser in 1801.

  • Washington College, directed by Rev.
  • Following graduation, he was appointed minister of the Abingdon Presbytery, but because his anti-slavery ideas were not tolerated, he departed Tennessee in 1817 and never returned.
  • Within a few months, however, he mustered the fortitude to speak out against “all forms of injustice,” first broadly and then explicitly against slavery, despite Tennessee’s standing as an abolitionist stronghold.
  • He was taken aback when his elders replied by advising him that if he wanted to ever fight slavery from the pulpit again, he should consider leaving Tennessee.
  • When Rankin stopped to preach in Lexington and Paris, Kentucky, he discovered that the Concord Presbyterian Church in Carlisle, Kentucky, was in desperate need of a preacher.
  • He stayed for four years and established a school for slaves; but, after a year, they were pushed from their schoolhouse to an empty home, and then to his friend’s kitchen, by club-wielding crowds, and the pupils eventually stopped coming.

His family had to row over the cold river during the night of December 31st and January 1st, 1822. A Presbyterian academy for boys was built by him in Ripley, where the young Ulysses S. Grantonce went in 1838.

The real Eliza

A tale of a lady the Rankins had kept in 1838 after she had fled by crossing the frozen Ohio River with her kid in her arms was related by Rankin during a visit to Lane Theological Seminary to see one of his sons. Professor Calvin Stowe was there at the time and heard the story. Stowe’s wife (Harriet Beecher Stowe) also heard the story and subsequently based the character Eliza in her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin on the woman in question.

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Film depiction

The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati has a permanent exhibit of Brothers of the Borderland, a video that recounts Rankin’s work in the Underground Railroad in Ripley and is available for viewing on demand.

Letters on Slavery

A copy of John Rankin’s book, Letters On Slavery, which was first published in 1826, is on display. It wasn’t long after Rankin arrived in Ripley that he found out that his brother Thomas, a trader in Augusta County, Virginia, had acquired some slaves. Eventually, he was prodded into writing a series of anti-slavery letters to his brother, which were later published in Ripley by the editor of the local newspaperThe Castigator. When the letters were collected and published in book form as Letters on Slavery in 1826, they were one of the earliest fully expressed anti-slavery viewpoints to be printed west of the Appalachian Mountains.

By the 1830s, Letters on Slavery had become required reading for abolitionists all throughout the United States, particularly in the South.

“His work on slavery was the catalyst for my involvement in the anti-slavery movement,” Garrison said later of Rankin, whom he referred to as his “anti-slavery father.”

Beyond the pulpit

When Theodore Weld and Rankin were involved in the formation of the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833, Rankin became acquainted with him. Originally fromConnecticut, Weld had traveled toCincinnati from Oneida County, New York, to attend Lane Theological SeminaryinCincinnati, Ohio. In February 1834, Rankin joined the discussions on slavery hosted by Weld at Lane, and he later wrote a booklet on the subject’s ramifications. Weld initiated a year-long series of talks throughout Ohio, beginning in November 1834 at Rankin’s Ripley church, which elevated the prominence of the abolitionist cause in the state; Rankin, at Weld’s encouragement, did the same.

  • Both Rankin and Weld were instrumental in the formation of the Ohio Anti-slavery Society, which met for the first time in Putnam, Ohio (now Zanesville) in April 1835 and was attended by a large number of people.
  • The moment he arrived in Chillicothe to speak at a church, stones were hurled through the open window.
  • In 1836, Weld requested Rankin to join the group known as “the Seventy.” Rankin’s commitment to the cause grew as he faced increasing criticism to his “dangerous” beliefs, even from those who opposed slavery but were concerned about igniting a slave insurrection.
  • A bounty of up to $3,000 was placed on his life, and in 1841, he and his sons were forced to defend their home and barn from assailants who arrived in the middle of the night and set them on fire.
  • Grant was a student at Rankin’s Presbyterian Academy in Ripley, South Carolina.
  • The enactment of the Fugitive Slave Law in 1850 increased the risk and public profile of anyone who assisted fugitive slaves because it was now unlawful to do so, even in free states, as a result of the law.
  • Chase, in which the two men were both present.
  • More than one-third of the church’s members accompanied him and assisted Rankin in establishing what would later become known as the Free Presbyterian Church, which may have had as many as 72 congregations before the outbreak of the American Civil War.

Following World War II, Rankin was pleased to see the Presbyterian churches in Ripley reunited.

“Freedom’s Heroes”

Rankin’s burial is located at Ripley’s Maplewood Cemetery. In May 1892, six years after John Rankin’s death, a monument commemorating Rankin and his wife, Jean Lowry Rankin, was dedicated on the grounds of the Maplewood Cemetery in Ripley, Ohio, and was appropriately called “Freedom’s Heroes.”

“National Abolition Hall of Fame”

As a result of his efforts, Rankin was inducted into the National Abolition Hall of Fame in Peterboro, New York, in 2013.

Writings

  • Peterboro, New York’s National Abolition Hall of Fame inducted Rankin as a member in 2013.
  • John Rankin is the author of this work (1833). Slavery in the United States of America: Letters to Mr. Thomas Rankin, a shopkeeper in Middlebrook, Augusta County, Virginia Rankin, John
  • Garrison and Knapp, Boston, Mass. (1836). letters about American slavery addressed to Mr. Thomas Rankin, merchant in Middlebrook, Augusta County (Virginia) (2nd ed.). Charles Whipple and John Rankin were born in Newburyport, Massachusetts (1838). letters about American slavery addressed to Mr. Thomas Rankin, merchant in Middlebrook, Augusta County (Virginia) (5th ed.). Isaac Knapp is a Boston-based writer.
  • John Rankin is the author of this work (1830). A discourse about the deity of our Lord and Savior. Rankin, John
  • West Union, Ohio.OCLC47153765
  • West Union, Ohio (1835). The statement made by the faculty of the Lane Seminary in response to the recent issues that the school has been experiencing is examined. The author’s home town of Ripley, Ohio
  • Rankin, John
  • And Thome, James A. (1836). It was held at Granville on April 27th and 28th in 1836 that the Ohio Anti-slavery Society celebrated its first anniversary, which was documented in this report. The Ohio Anti-Slavery Society is based in Cincinnati. OCLC224956762
  • Rankin, John (1836). An address to the churches on the subject of slavery, delivered at the first anniversary of the Ohio State Anti-slavery Society, was published in the journal The Ohioan. The Ohio Anti-Slavery Society is based in Medina, Ohio. In this instance, OCLC841409108 is associated with Rankin, John, and the Ohio Anti-slavery Society (1838). An account of the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society’s third anniversary celebration, which took place on May 30, 1838, in the town of Granville, Licking County, Ohio. Cincinnati
  • John Rankin (author) (1840). A practical work on the covenant of grace, as given to Abraham, is being presented as a gift to families. Designed to encourage the practice of family religion. C. Edwards & Company, Ripley, Ohio
  • Rankin, John (1841). Unitarianism has an antidote in the form of: Contains a thorough defense of the doctrine of the Trinity, the Divinity of Jesus Christ, the Personality and Deity of the Holy Spirit, the original and total depravity of man, the necessity of the agency of the Spirit to Renew the heart, the Substitution of Christ for his people, and Justification by his Righteousness, as well as a comprehensive defense of other Christian beliefs. Adapted to the reading abilities of all different types of readers. Weed and Wilson
  • Rankin, John (Cincinnati, Ohio) (c. 1854). A brief autobiography of Samuel Donnell, Esq. The American Reform Tract and Book Society is based in Cincinnati.

Archival material

Mr. John Rankin (1830). A discourse on the deity of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ The city of West Union in Ohio has an OCLC number of 47153765. (1835). The statement made by the faculty of the Lane Seminary in response to the recent issues that the school has been experiencing is reviewed. John Rankin and James A. Thome are the authors of this book which was published in Ripley, Ohio in 2007. (1836). It was held at Granville on April 27th and 28th in 1836 that the Ohio Anti-slavery Society celebrated its first anniversary, which is detailed in this report.

  • J.
  • (1836).
  • The Ohio Anti-Slavery Society is based in Medina, Ohio, and was founded in 1836.
  • An account of the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society’s third anniversary celebration, which took place on May 30, 1838, in the town of Granville in Licking County.
  • A practical work on the covenant of grace, as it was given to Abraham, is being presented as a gift to families.
  • C.

Unitarianism has an antidote in the form of Contains a thorough defense of the doctrine of the Trinity, the Divinity of Jesus Christ, the Personality and Deity of the Holy Spirit, the original and total depravity of man, the necessity of the agency of the Spirit to Renew the heart, the Substitution of Christ for his people, and Justification by his Righteousness, as well as a comprehensive defense of other doctrines.

Every reader’s ability has been taken into account.

1854).

American Reform Tract & Book Society, based in Cincinnati.

References

  1. Birney, William (informal) (1890). James G. Birney is an American businessman. His Day and Age. D. Appleton & Company of New York
  2. Abc.com Donna B. Jacobson is the author of this work (2018). “Biography”. Rev. John Rankin and the town of Ripley, Ohio, 1820-1850. Borderlander of Light. The original version of this article was published on October 24, 2019. Hagedorn, Ann (February 2, 2020)
  3. Retrieved February 2, 2020 (2001). Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad is a book about the heroes of the Underground Railroad. Waugh, 2009, p. 19
  4. “John Rankin – Ohio History Central.” Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-87065-7
  5. Waugh, 2009, p. 19
  6. “John Rankin – Ohio History Central.” Archived from the original on 2017-10-20
  7. Jacobson, The Rankin House
  8. Autobiography of John Rankin
  9. Andrew Ritchie’s full name is Andrew Ritchie (1870). The soldier, the struggle, and the victory: a brief summary of Rev. John Rankin’s contributions to the anti-slavery movement. “Brothers of the Borderland” at freedomcenter.org
  10. Cincinnati: Western Tract and Book Society
  11. Hagedorn, p. 139
  12. Cincinnati: Western Tract and Book Society Hagedorn, p. 58
  13. Rankin, John (2017-10-20)
  14. (1835). A critical examination of the faculty of Lane Seminary’s statement in light of the current issues that the school has experienced. The author lives in Ripley, Ohio. The Ohio Anti-Slavery Convention’s proceedings are available online. On the twenty-second, twenty-third, and twenty-fourth of April, 1835, a meeting was held in Putnam. There is no mention of a publisher. The year is 1835
  15. Hagedorn, pp. 99-100
  16. Hagedorn, 219
  17. Chernow, Ron (2017). John Rankin, Antislavery Prophet, and the Free Presbyterian Church,” American Presbyterians, 72:3 (Fall 1994), 167
  18. Larry G. Willey, “John Rankin, Antislavery Prophet, and the Free Presbyterian Church,” American Presbyterians, 72:3 (Fall 1994), 169
  19. “John Rankin – Ohio History Central”
  20. “John Rankin”
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Bibliography

  • ‘Beyond The River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad’ by Ann Hagedorn is out now. Waugh, Joan (2002, ISBN 0-684-87065-7)
  • SimonSchuster, 2002, ISBN 0-684-87065-7 (2009). US Grant is an acronym that stands for United States Grant. It is published by the University of North Carolina Press under the ISBN 978-0-8078-3317-9.

Further reading

  • John Rankin is the author of this work (1978). The life and times of Rev. John Rankin, an abolitionist. (Autobiography). Appalachian Press, based in Huntington, West Virginia. OCLC4702737
  • Ritchie, Andrew
  • OCLC4702737 (1870). The soldier, the struggle, and the victory: a brief summary of Rev. John Rankin’s contributions to the anti-slavery movement. The Western Tract and Book Society is based in Cincinnati.

External links

  • Rev. John Rankin and the town of Ripley, Ohio, 1820-1850, “Borderlander of Light” (reverendjohnrankin.org) Archived on the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine on October 24, 2019. John Rankin was an ardent abolitionist who died in prison. The African American Registry
  • John Rankin.Ohio History Central
  • The African American Registry The Rankin House.Ohio Historical Society
  • The Rankin House.Ripley, Ohio: Freedom’s Landing
  • John RankinatFind a Grave
  • National Abolition Hall of Fame
  • Aboard the Underground Railroad – John Rankin House.National Park Service Cultural Resources
  • The Rankin House.Ohio Historical Society

The Underground Railroad in Ohio – The Cleveland Civil War Roundtable

The following is written by Roundtable Historian Daniel J. Ursu. It is the Cleveland Civil War Roundtable’s 50th anniversary this year. Copyright & Intellectual Property Rights 2019-2020, All Rights Reserved Note from the editor: The following paper served as the historical brief for the Cleveland Civil War Roundtable’s meeting in December of 2019. Our speaker for this evening will be speaking on the Colored Troops who served throughout the American Civil War. In addition, as many of you are aware, he plays a character who is associated with the Underground Railroad.

  1. The Underground Railroad may be traced back to 1804 to its inception.
  2. Stephen was quickly pursued by his mother, who had fled to find her son in the ensuing chaos.
  3. The Boudes resisted, and when the rest of the town rallied to their cause, it was agreed that the community would take up the cause of escaped slaves from this point on forward.
  4. The term “Underground Railroad” first appeared in print in 1831.
  5. The Ohio River at Ripley, Ohio, southeast of Cincinnati was the scene of a scuffle between pursuers and a slave called Tice Davids at this period.
  6. As a result of his frustration, the owner gave up his hunt and concluded that Davids “must have gone off on a subterranean highway.” The Rankin home in Ripley, Ohio, is a historical landmark.
  7. This phrase has gained popularity.

The “tracks” were the routes that people took to get away. Helpers were referred to as “conductors” or “stationmasters” in the olden days. Groups of runaways were referred to as “trains,” and the places where they were hidden were referred to as “stations” or “depots.”

  • The Freedom Stairway, a stairway of 100 steps going from the Ohio River to the Rankin House, which was owned by John Rankin and was one of the most renowned stations on the Underground Railroad
  • The Rankin House in Ripley, Ohio, which was one of the most famous stations on the Underground Railroad

The Underground Railroad was founded by a grassroots movement, which is what we term today a “grassroots” movement. However, when professional slave catchers were dispatched to recover runaway slaves, the system evolved into an elaborate network of secret contacts between free blacks and white sympathizers, which enabled runaways to be transported safely and efficiently to the northern United States and eventually to Canada. Despite this, it was unable to establish itself as an organized business due to the fact that its actions were officially “illegal.” There were escape routes in every state, but Ohio had the most extensive networks because of its strategic location along the Mason-Dixon Line and its proximity to two significant slave states, Virginia and Kentucky.

  1. The Ohio River was particularly vital to runaways, with more than half of them relying on it for survival.
  2. One of the most effective programs for assisting runaways was operated by Ohioans, and it was particularly important for those in and passing through Kentucky.
  3. The total number of known voluntary railroad employees in the North was around 3,200, with approximately 1,500 of those working in Ohio – over half of the total!
  4. In Oberlin, Ohio, there is a monument dedicated to the Underground Railroad.
  5. In the city of Oberlin, no escaped slave was ever recaptured and returned to bondage.
  6. Travel was primarily done on foot, but as the number of women and children increased, escorts and cars were dispatched to assist them.
  7. One group was even packaged and delivered as freight by train or boat.

The North Star or one of the several northward tributaries of the Ohio River served as navigational aids for fugitives going on foot.

Cleveland, Ohio’s Cozad-Bates House is a historic building.

For example, roughly 16 abolitionists from Salem, Ohio, used their homes as stations to spread the word about their cause.

Several churches were substantially involved, however the churches themselves did not participate publicly due of the unlawful nature of the undertaking.

Members assisted black fugitives with shelter, clothes, food, medical attention, and transportation while on the run.

The “Anti-Slavery Bugle” was known for its motto, “No Union With Slaveholders.” It was founded in 1831.

The final edition of the magazine was published on May 4, 1861, exactly 22 days after the start of firing on Fort Sumter and the official start of the Civil War in the United States. The Underground Railroad in the Southbound Direction is a related link.

John Rankin

In the wake of the American Revolution and the Second Great Awakening, John Rankin (1793-1886), a white southerner by birth, was a leading figure in the first wave of antislavery agitation that erupted in the United States. In 1815, he became a member of the Manumission Society of Tennessee. Rankin became a licensed Presbyterian pastor in 1817, and he immediately began teaching that slaveholding was wrong. After Presbyterian authorities advised Rankin that he should never again express such views from the pulpit in Tennessee, Rankin made the decision to relocate with his family to a more liberated area.

  1. In 1822, Rankin was forced to transfer to Ripley, Ohio, due to a combination of increasing personal risk and financial difficulties.
  2. It was in 1824 when Rankin discovered that his brother Thomas, who was born in Virginia, had become a slaveholder.
  3. It was first published serially in Rankin’s local newspaper, the Castigator, but it was not until 1826 that the piece was published in book form by a Cincinnati publisher.
  4. It was one of the first publications published by the newly formed American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833, when it was first published.
  5. The Presbyterian Church split in 1838 into two groups, the New School and the Old School, on the issue of evangelicalism.
  6. Abolitionist sentiment among New School Presbyterians began in 1846, when their General Assembly reversed a minister’s suspension for advocating for slavery in the church.
  7. It was in November 1847 that the Presbyterian comeouters came together to create the Free Synod of Cincinnati, which was eventually called the Free Presbyterian Church.

John Rankin was one of the most well-known Underground Railroad conductors in the United States, and he was the inspiration for Harriet Beecher Stowe’s fictitious character, Eliza Harris, in Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which was based on a real-life incident.

They worked in conjunction with African-American John Parker to transform the little Ohio town of Ripley into one of the most important crossing locations for fugitives from slavery.

Rankin’s reputation among disgruntled Kentuckians rose to the point that a $3,000 reward was set on his head.

Despite this, the Underground Railroad conductors in Ripley’s stated that not a single slave who made it to their hamlet had ever been recaptured.

He served as a vital link between the first generation of opponents of slavery and the later immediate abolitionists of the nineteenth century.

Rankin also represents tens of thousands of antislavery Southerners who opted to flee the region in protest against human bondage, according to the organization.

Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad: Hagedorn, Ann: 9780684870663: Amazon.com: Books

More Than the Riverbrings to bright life the tragic narrative of the forgotten heroes who fought alongside the Underground Railroad on the Ripley, Ohio, route. Five bends of the Ohio River may be seen from the highest point above the town of Ripley, Ohio, which is located on a hill. You can see the hills of northern Kentucky, as well as the rooftops of Ripley’s riverside houses in the horizon. It’s also possible to view what abolitionist John Rankin observed from his home at the top of the hill, where he lived for over forty years and used to light his lantern each night to assist escaped slaves to freedom beyond the river.

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Even when a dramatic trial in Kentucky threatened to expose the Ripley “conductors,” Rankin and his family, as well as his fellow abolitionists—many of whom were former slaves themselves—risked their lives to safely transport hundreds of runaways across the river and into Ohio’s free state.

Rankin was the head of the Ripley line and one of the earliest leaders of the antislavery movement.

“Beyond the River” is an inspiring story of courage and heroism that transports us to a different era and deepens our understanding of the great social movement known as the Underground Railroad.

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Beyond the Riverbrings to vivid life the heroic narrative of the unsung heroes of the Ripley, Ohio, section of the Underground Railroad in a visually stunning production. It is possible to observe five bends of the Ohio River from the tallest hill above the town of Ripley in Ohio. You can see the hills of northern Kentucky, as well as the rooftops of Ripley’s riverside mansions in the distance. It’s also possible to view what abolitionist John Rankin observed from his home at the top of the hill, where he lived for over forty years and used to light his lantern every night to direct escaped slaves to freedom beyond the river.

Abolitionists Rankin and his family, as well as his fellow abolitionists (some of whom were former slaves themselves), risked their lives to guide thousands of runaways safely across the river into the free state of Ohio, even when a sensational trial in Kentucky threatened to expose the Ripley “conductors.” His Letters on American Slavery, a series of letters he wrote to persuade his brother in Virginia to reject slavery, made him a national figure once it was published in 1857.

He was the founder of Ripley’s Aquarium and one of the early leaders of the antislavery movement.

“Beyond the River” is an inspiring story of courage and heroism that transports us to another era and deepens our understanding of the great social movement known as the Underground Railroad.

John P. Parker Home Corner of Sycamore and Front StFar western edge of town just off US 52 – turn toward the riverBorn a slave in 1827, most likely the son of his master, John P. Parker learned several trades which enabled him to earn enough money to purchase his freedom by the age of 18. He first moved to the Cincinnati area, where he met and married his wife, but by 1849 he had relocated to Ripley where he established a foundry which employed both black and white workers. He was also an inventor who received several patents, and was awarded a bronze medal for his tobacco press at the 1888 Ohio Valley Centennial Exposition.But the primary motivation for his move to Ripley was to help rescue slaves fleeing to freedom. From his prime location on the Ohio River, he not only helped slaves who had made it across the river, but rowed across to the southern shore in search of them, and is credited with many daring rescues.Parker had told his life story to a journalist in the early 1880’s, but the manuscript was gathering dust in the Duke University Archives until the 1990’s when it was finally published asHis Promised Land: The Autobiography of John P. Parker. NY: Norton, 1996.Order at Amazon.comThere is also adigital versionavailable at the Duke University website.His home in Ripley had stood empty since the early 1900’s and was pretty much in shambles by the time his autobiography was published. Fortunately, it was dedicated a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service in 1997 and much of it has been restored, though the interior exhibits are still being developed. Trained docents provide tours during regular visiting hours, or by appointment.
Interior displays are currently under development, and include facsimiles of some of Parker’s inventions, narratives covering the many facets of Parker’s life from childhood to his foundry endeavors, etc. So at present, the bulk of your tour is seeing the house itself and hearing about Parker’s life, the restoration project, etc from the docent.Our enthusiastic and knowledgeable docent this day was Peggy Mills Warner, a descendent of the Gist Slave Settlement which was founded in 1819 when, as specified in his will, the slaves of Samuel Gist were freed and relocated to land purchased for their use. (There is a reunion of descendants each year on the third Saturday in July. More information can be obtained from Ms. Mills Warner by calling 937-446-3948.Read more.)


Here’s a shot of the restored border in the front room, overlooking the river. On the left you can see a remaining example of the original border which was used for the reconstruction. For the time period and the area, such quality would indicate that the home’s owner was a relatively affluent person.In the lower right corner you can see one of Parker’s original patent stencils.

There is no known photograph of John P. Parker, but this display showed images and documents relating to his children, all of whom were college educated and eventually moved out of the area. A view from the east side of the house. It’s easy to imagine Parker looking across the Ohio River at night, watching for a signal from a fugitive slave in need of his help.
John Rankin HouseBorn in 1793 in eastern Tennessee, as an adult John Rankin moved his family to the free state of Ohio and built a house on Liberty Hill in 1825. With its proximity to the river and its owner’s fierce opposition to slavery, the Rankin home became a stopping point on the Underground Railroad, and his family hid as many as 12 fugitive slaves at one time.As a writer and preacher, Rankin inspired others in the movement, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, who heard him tell the story of a woman who fled across the frozen Ohio carrying her children, and was saved when the ice broke before the bounty hunters could reach her.The Rankin House State Memorial interprets the work of Rankin and Ohio’s contribution to the antislavery movement. It stands on the hill almost directly above the John Parker House.
How To find the Rankin HouseThe road to the Rankin House is at the far western edge of Ripley. The sign is in the photo by the white car.unfortunately, by the time you see the sign (IF you see it) you’ve already passed it!The white car here is heading west out of Ripley on US 52, the red van is on Second Street, which is where you need to be.Coming from the West on US 52 – As soon as you see the big Welcome to Ripley sign, make an immediate hairpin left, then make an immediate right up the hill and follow the signs.Coming from the East: Follow US 52/Second Street through the town to the western edge. At this intersection, Second Street veers right up the hill. Follow Second Street when US 52 veers left, then make an immediate right to go up the hill.
Fugitive slaves used this “Freedom Stairway” to climb the hill to Rankin’s House. The wooden portion has been restored, with nameplates of donors on each step. It’s difficult to find where they start at the bottom, so I’d suggest that you first walk down, then back up. Plan 5-10 minutes down, and twice that back up.
An archeological dig to the west of the house is uncovering outbuildings on the site, and is part of the docent’s interpretation.

Clermont County is located in the state of Ohio.

New Richmond, OhioFormer Residence of Reverend George C. Light, 401 Front St This is one of 33 Underground Railroad and Abolitionist sites on theClermont County Underground Railroad Freedom Trail.Each site is marked by a green sign like the one you see hanging under the marquee to the right. The trail is outlined in a brochure with maps and historical summations. You’ll find a downloadable brochure of the Freedom Trail at their website under the menu itemAttractions Events, or call 800-796-4282 to request a copy. Be sure to tell them you want the full annotatedFreedom Trail Driving Tour Brochure, not just the map of sites.Rev. Light (1785-1860) was a Methodist minister and agent of the American Colonization Society, formed around 1817 to repatriate freed slaves to settlements in Africa. The movement was controversial; to some, it was a black nationalist movement which presumed free blacks could never be treated fairly in the US and should be provided the opportunity to build their own nations in their ancestral homeland. But some black leaders – including Frederick Douglass – believed African Americans should remain here and fight to build an equal and just society, and they suspected the colonization movement was more about removing black people from the Americas and less about providing better opportunities for freed slaves.Either way, in the early 1820’s the Society founded the settlement of Monrovia in West Africa, which in 1847 became Liberia. In all, about 15,000 freed slaves moved to Africa.

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