Did Levi Coffin run a railroad station on the Underground Railroad?
- Excerpt from Reminiscences of Levi Coffin – Levi‘s own words tell you about the experience of running a station on the Underground Railroad. Manumission papers that were witnessed by Levi Coffin – these are legal documents showing the purchase of slaves by Quakers who would then care for them until they could be transported into a free state.
When was the Underground Railroad was created?
system used by abolitionists between 1800-1865 to help enslaved African Americans escape to free states.
Who actually started the Underground Railroad?
William Still, sometimes called “The Father of the Underground Railroad”, helped hundreds of slaves escape (as many as 60 a month), sometimes hiding them in his Philadelphia home.
Did Levi Coffin start the Underground Railroad?
Levi Coffin, (born October 28, 1798, New Garden [now in Greensboro], North Carolina, U.S.—died September 16, 1877, Cincinnati, Ohio), American abolitionist, called the “President of the Underground Railroad,” who assisted thousands of runaway slaves on their flight to freedom.
What year does Underground Railroad take place?
The Underground Railroad takes place around 1850, the year of the Fugitive Slave Act’s passage. It makes explicit mention of the draconian legislation, which sought to ensnare runaways who’d settled in free states and inflict harsh punishments on those who assisted escapees.
Does the Underground Railroad still exist?
It includes four buildings, two of which were used by Harriet Tubman. Ashtabula County had over thirty known Underground Railroad stations, or safehouses, and many more conductors. Nearly two-thirds of those sites still stand today.
Was there ever a real Underground Railroad?
Nope! Despite its name, the Underground Railroad wasn’t a railroad in the way Amtrak or commuter rail is. It wasn’t even a real railroad. The Underground Railroad of history was simply a loose network of safe houses and top secret routes to states where slavery was banned.
How did Harriet Tubman find out about the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad and Siblings Tubman first encountered the Underground Railroad when she used it to escape slavery herself in 1849. Following a bout of illness and the death of her owner, Tubman decided to escape slavery in Maryland for Philadelphia.
Who ended slavery?
In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation declaring “all persons held as slaves… shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free,” effective January 1, 1863. It was not until the ratification of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, in 1865, that slavery was formally abolished ( here ).
Is Levi Coffin black or white?
He was a white-American abolitionist and unofficial president of the Underground Railroad. Levi Coffin, from New Garden, N.C., was the only son among seven children. The young Levi received the bulk of his education at home, which proved to be good enough for Coffin to find work as a teacher for several years.
How many slaves did Levi Coffin save?
Historians have estimated that the Coffins helped approximately 2,000 escaping slaves during their twenty years in Indiana and an estimated 1,300 more after their move to Cincinnati. (Coffin didn’t keep records, but estimated the number to be around 3,000.)
When did Levi Coffin get married?
End of the Line The Underground Railroad ceased operations about 1863, during the Civil War. In reality, its work moved aboveground as part of the Union effort against the Confederacy.
Who is Arnold Ridgeway?
Arnold Ridgeway, the slave catcher who dedicates himself to finding Cora, has been a slave catcher since age 14. He spent most of his time in New York City, strategizing ways to identify and capture former slaves without being stopped by abolitionists. Ridgeway gained a reputation as both effective and brutal.
When was the Underground Railroad most active?
Established in the early 1800s and aided by people involved in the Abolitionist Movement, the underground railroad helped thousands of slaves escape bondage. By one estimate, 100,000 slaves escaped from bondage in the South between 1810 and 1850.
When describing a network of meeting spots, hidden routes, passages, and safehouses used by slaves in the United States to escape slave-holding states and seek refuge in northern states and Canada, the Underground Railroad was referred to as the Underground Railroad (UR). The underground railroad, which was established in the early 1800s and sponsored by persons active in the Abolitionist Movement, assisted thousands of slaves in their attempts to escape bondage. Between 1810 and 1850, it is estimated that 100,000 slaves escaped from bondage in the southern United States.
Facts, information and articles about the Underground Railroad
When describing a network of meeting spots, hidden routes, passages, and safehouses used by slaves in the United States to escape slave-holding states and seek refuge in northern states and Canada, the Underground Railroad was referred to as the Underground Railroad. The underground railroad, which was established in the early 1800s and sponsored by persons active in the Abolitionist Movement, assisted thousands of slaves in their attempts to flee their bonds of slavery. Between 1810 and 1850, it is estimated that 100,000 slaves escaped from slavery in the South.
When describing a network of meeting locations, hidden routes, passages, and safehouses used by slaves in the United States to escape slave-holding states and seek refuge in northern states and Canada, the Underground Railroad was employed. The Underground Railroad, which was established in the early 1800s and sponsored by persons active in the Abolitionist Movement, assisted thousands of slaves in their attempts to escape bondage. Between 1810 and 1850, it is estimated that 100,000 slaves escaped from bondage in the Southern United States.
Estimates range between 6,000 and 10,000.
Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. William Still is a well-known author and poet. Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by author Levi Coffin. John Fairfield is a well-known author.
The Story of How Canada Became the Final Station on the Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman’s Legacy as a Freedom Fighter and a Spion is well documented.
The Beginnings Of the Underground Railroad
Even before the nineteenth century, it appears that a mechanism to assist runaways existed. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with the assistance provided to one of his escaped slaves by “a organization of Quakers, founded for such purposes.” The Religious Society of Friends, or Quakers as they are more officially known, were among the first abolitionist organizations to emerge. Their influence may have played a role in Pennsylvania becoming the first state to abolish slavery, which was home to a large number of Quakers.
In recognition of his contributions, Levi is often referred to as the “president of the Underground Railroad.” In Fountain City, Ohio, on Ohio’s western border, the eight-room Indiana home they bought and used as a “station” before they came to Cincinnati has been preserved and is now a National Historic Landmark.
“Eliza” was one of the slaves who hid within it, and her narrative served as the inspiration for the character of the same name in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s abolitionist classic Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
The Underground Railroad Gets Its Name
Owen Brown, the father of radical abolitionist John Brown, was a member of the Underground Railroad in the state of New York during the Civil War. An unconfirmed narrative suggests that “Mammy Sally” designated the house where Abraham Lincoln’s future wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, grew up and served as a safe house where fugitives could receive food, but the account is doubtful. Routes of the Underground Railroad It was not until the early 1830s that the phrase “Underground Railroad” was first used.
Fugitives going by water or on genuine trains were occasionally provided with clothing so that they wouldn’t give themselves away by wearing their worn-out job attire.
Many of them continued on to Canada, where they could not be lawfully reclaimed by their rightful owners.
The slave or slaves were forced to flee from their masters, which was frequently done at night.
Conductors On The Railroad
A “conductor,” who pretended to be a slave, would sometimes accompany fugitives to a plantation in order to lead them on their journey. Harriet Tubman, a former slave who traveled to slave states 19 times and liberated more than 300 people, is one of the most well-known “conductors.” She used her shotgun to threaten death to any captives who lost heart and sought to return to slavery. The Underground Railroad’s operators faced their own set of risks as well. If someone living in the North was convicted of assisting fugitives in their escape, he or she could face fines of hundreds or even thousands of dollars, which was a significant sum at the time; however, in areas where abolitionism was strong, the “secret” railroad was openly operated, and no one was arrested.
His position as the most significant commander of the Underground Railroad in and around Albany grew as time went on.
However, in previous times of American history, the phrase “vigilance committee” generally refers to citizen organizations that took the law into their own hands, prosecuting and hanging those suspected of crimes when there was no local government or when they considered the local authority was corrupt or weak.
White males who were found assisting slaves in their escape were subjected to heavier punishments than white women, but both were likely to face at the very least incarceration.
The most severe punishments, such as hundreds of lashing with a whip, burning, or hanging, were reserved for any blacks who were discovered in the process of assisting fugitive fugitives on the loose.
The Civil War On The Horizon
Events such as the Missouri Compromise and the Dred Scott decision compelled more anti-slavery activists to take an active part in the effort to liberate slaves in the United States. After Abraham Lincoln was elected president, Southern states began to secede in December 1860, putting an end to the Union’s hopes of achieving independence from the United States. Abolitionist newspapers and even some loud abolitionists warned against giving the remaining Southern states an excuse to separate. Lucia Bagbe (later known as Sara Lucy Bagby Johnson) is considered to be the final slave who was returned to bondage as a result of the Fugitive Slave Law.
Her owner hunted her down and arrested her in December 1860.
Even the Cleveland Leader, a Republican weekly that was traditionally anti-slavery and pro-the Fugitive Slave Legislation, warned its readers that allowing the law to run its course “may be oil thrown upon the seas of our nation’s difficulties,” according to the newspaper.
In her honor, a Grand Jubilee was celebrated on May 6, 1863, in the city of Cleveland.
The Reverse Underground Railroad
A “reverse Underground Railroad” arose in the northern states surrounding the Ohio River during the Civil War. The black men and women of those states, whether or not they had previously been slaves, were occasionally kidnapped and concealed in homes, barns, and other structures until they could be transported to the South and sold as slaves.
It was an informal network of individuals and residences across the United States that assisted runaway slaves – slaves who had fled from plantations in the South – in their attempts to seek safety in the northern tier of the country, Canada, and to a lesser degree, Mexico and the Caribbean It was not a railroad in the traditional sense, but rather a network of roads that slaves used to go from one place to another.
- However, in line with the image of a railroad, the persons who assisted the escape slaves were referred to as “conductors” or “station masters,” and their residences were referred to as “stations” or “depots,” respectively.
- Although the escaped slave was occasionally escorted by a conductor, in most cases the station master merely handed the fugitive slave with directions to the next station.
- fugitives, slave hunters, and abolitionists are all represented.
- Before the American Revolution, when slavery was legal in all of the colonies, the majority of escaped slaves sought refuge in communities in marshes, forests, and mountains.
- Abolitionists in the South who crossed the Mississippi River to the North, notably in the cities of New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, could live as free men and women by the year 1810.
- The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made it a federal criminal for any free person to aid a fugitive slave in his or her escape.
- However, several northern states enacted legislation that either overrode or undercut the federal legislation.
Juries in the Northern United States frequently found in favor of fleeing slaves regardless of the evidence, thereby awarding them emancipation.
By the 1830s, there was a burgeoning abolitionist movement in the northern United States.
While the majority of abolitionist organizations were based in the North, a small number of Southerners thought that slavery was immoral and created abolitionist groups in their own localities as well.
Despite the fact that many individuals opposed slavery, only a small number of people were committed enough to the cause to assist runaway slaves in escaping their owners.
Sectional tensions and the Fugitive Slave Act are two issues that need to be addressed.
Abolitionist organisations were illegal in the South, and their publications were prohibited.
Individuals who hide fugitives may be subject to fines or imprisonment.
It was a shock to thousands of African Americans who had been living in freedom in the North that they were now at risk of being seized and returned to slavery in the South.
The Fugitive Slave Act, on the other hand, had a negative impact on most of the northern states.
Northerners who had previously turned a blind eye to the reality of slavery were now witnessing them play out in their own backyards and neighborhoods.
People were becoming more ready to aid fleeing slaves and provide them safe passage to Canada, where they would be out of reach of federal marshals and slave hunters, despite the hazards.
No single individual was familiar with all of the participants; each station master was simply aware of the location of the next station, who lived there, and whether or not there were any more stations in the vicinity.
The Underground Railroad’s informal and private character has left much of its history unknown to historians, who have only recently discovered it.
Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by author Levi Coffin.
He and his wife Catherine claimed to have assisted around 3,000 men and women in their attempts to escape slavery.
His ancestors were members of the Society of Friends (Quakers), who were abolitionists against slavery.
Coffin was given the opportunity to aid escaped slaves when he was a young man.
Indiana was a free state, and Newport was home to a large number of Quakers as well as escaped slaves during the American Revolution.
The town’s strategic position, as well as the fact that it was populated by black and white people who were opposed to slavery, made it a popular destination for men and women fleeing enslavement.
In 1847, the Coffins relocated to Cincinnati, where he established a warehouse to enable him to sell items produced by free employees rather than slaves.
Following the Civil War, Coffin worked to gather funds in Europe and the United States’ northern states to assist African Americans in establishing businesses and farms following their freedom.
Levi Coffin was only one of many men and women who worked persistently to aid escaped slaves, and some historians believe that Levi Coffin inflated his achievements and that his celebrity was not wholly earned.
A free black man from New Jersey, William Still, acquired a similar title – “Father of the Underground Railroad” – and, in his own memoirs, commended the fortitude of the fugitives themselves, who took far more risks than the white abolitionists who assisted them.
A story of the Underground Railroad
Levi Coffin wrote about his experiences assisting escaped slaves in his memoirs, which was released after the Civil War. He also shared his story of how he initially became involved in assisting slaves in their escape to freedom.
Levi Coffin House – Wikipedia
|Levi Coffin House|
|U.S. National Register of Historic Places|
|U.S. National Historic Landmark|
|Location||Fountain City, Indiana|
|Coordinates||39°57′22.5″N84°55′2.5″W / 39.956250°N 84.917361°WCoordinates:39°57′22.5″N84°55′2.5″W / 39.956250°N 84.917361°W|
|Area||less than one acre|
|Added to NRHP||October 15, 1966|
|Designated NHL||June 23, 1965|
This National Historic Landmark is located in the present-day community of Fountain Cityin Wayne County, Indiana, and is designated as a National Historic Landmark. The Federal style was used in the construction of the two-story, eight-room brick house, which was built about 1838–39. Because of its location at the intersection of three major slave escape routes to the North, as well as the large number of fleeing slaves who passed through it, the Coffin residence became known as the “Grand Central Station” of the Underground Railroad system.
While the Coffins resided in Indiana for twenty years (1826-1847), it is estimated that they assisted as many as 2,000 slaves in their escape to freedom in the northern United States and Canada.
The Levi Coffin House Association manages the site in accordance with an agreement with the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, which is the current owner of the historic structure.
Visitors over the age of six will be required to pay admission.
Catharine and Levi Coffin, the home’s original owners, moved from Guilford County, North Carolina, to Wayne County, Indiana, with the first of their six children in order to join other relatives of the Coffin family who had already settled in the area. In 1826, the Coffins moved to Newport (the present-day town of Fountain City) in Wayne County and built a house there. Levi Coffin (1798–1877) was a Quaker abolitionist, merchant, and humanitarian who rose to prominence as a pioneer in the Underground Railroad in Indiana and Ohio during the late nineteenth century.
- Catharine White Coffin was born in 1879.
- When the Underground Railroad was established, their home became one of numerous stations in a broader network of places that gave assistance to fugitive slaves as they headed north to freedom in Canada.
- Many of the runaway slaves were escorted to the Coffin House when they made it across the river.
- Coffin subsequently estimated that they were responsible for the emancipation of one hundred slaves every year on average.
- Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a fictitious novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, recounts the lives of slaves who managed to escape on the Underground Railroad.
- Stowe was born in Cincinnati and raised in Cincinnati.
- Harris resumed her path to freedom in Canada after receiving assistance from the Hallidays, including food, clothes, new shoes, and housing.
- Coffin sold the firm in 1857 after concluding that it would be difficult to maintain a profit, but the Coffins continued to serve as local leaders in the Underground Railroad until their deaths in the Civil War.
The Western Freedman’s Aid Society hired Coffin as an agent, and the Freedmen’s Bureau was established as a result of his efforts. Coffin later served as a delegate to the International Anti-Slavery Conference in Paris, and he retired from public life after that.
Residence and Underground Railroad stop
The Coffin family’s house, which was subsequently designated as a state historic monument, was initially constructed between 1838 and 1839. A combination of the home’s geographic location at the confluence of three different escape routes leading to freedom in the North, as well as the large number of runaway slaves that went through it, led to it being referred to as the “Grand Central Station” of the Underground Railroad. Because Coffin would insist on seeing a search warrant and slave-ownership papers before authorizing entrance for suspected runaway slaves, the house was never examined.
After the Coffins relocated to Ohio in 1847, the Coffin house in Indiana continued to serve as a stopover for the Underground Railroad to the present day.
Hotel and apartment building
A hotel operated in the house for a period of time in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. As a result of the conversion, it became an apartment building that went through a number of owners until being restored in the 1960s. Fortunately, the home has been maintained in good shape, with some of its original windowpanes and woodwork still there.
This home was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1965, and it was the first property in the state to be listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966, making it the state’s first historic landmark. The home was purchased by the state of Indiana in 1967 and leased to the Wayne County Historical Society until it was demolished in 2008. The house has been meticulously restored to its original appearance from the 1840s, when the Coffins resided there. Himelick Construction, based in Fountain City, was responsible for the repair.
The historic home is under the management of the Indiana State Museum and Historic Sites.
to 5 p.m., Wednesday through Sunday, weather permitting.
In present-day Fountain City, Indiana, the house is located at 113 U.S. Route 27 in the heart of town. The two-story, modified Federal-stylebrick house is painted red, and it has a two-story rear wing on the northwest corner of the main structure. The house was built in the early 1900s. The house is oriented eastward, with its main entrance located on Main Cross Street (U.S. Route 27). A second door on Mill Street offers access to the back wing of the building. Throughout the eight-room interior, furniture are in the manner of an Indiana Quaker family that lived there in the 1840s.
- The main entry enters onto a central corridor with a room on either side and a staircase leading to the second story, which is accessible from either side.
- North room on main floor was used as the home’s parlor and connects to a dining room in the rear wing of the house.
- Fresh water was given via a spring-fed well in the basement, which served the entire house.
- The interior of the Coffin residence featured many alterations that may have been utilized as hiding places for fugitive slaves in the event that the house was examined by the authorities.
- In the maids’ quarters on the second floor, a secret entrance placed in the rear extension allowed for as many as fourteen escaped slaves to hide in a tight tunnel between the walls of the house.
Extra guests might be accommodated in the rooms on the second and third floors. A huge attic and storage garrets are also included in the property.
- The Levi Coffin House in Fountain City
- The front and southern sides of the Levi Coffin House
- The Levi Coffin House in Fountain City
- “National Register Information System.” The National Register of Historic Places is a database of historic places. The National Park Service published a summary listing of National Historic Landmarks on January 23, 2007: “Coffin, Levi, House.” The National Park Service is part of the United States Department of the Interior. The original version of this article was published on June 5, 2011. Retrieved2008-07-23
- s^ Mary Ann Yannessa is a woman who lives in the United States (2001). Levi Coffin, Quaker: Breaking the Bonds of Slavery in Ohio and Indiana, published by the Ohio Historical Society. Publisher: Friends United Press, p. 12.ISBN: 978-0-944350-54-2
- Linda C. Gugin and James E. St. Clair are the editors of this volume (2015). In Indiana’s 200, we look at the people who have shaped the state of Indiana. p. 65.ISBN 978-0-87195-387-2.CS1 maint: additional text: authors list (link)
- Abc”Notable Hoosiers: Levi and Catharine Coffin”. Indiana Historical Society. p. 36.Yannessa, p. 36
- Abc”Notable Hoosiers: Levi and Catharine Coffin”. Indiana Historical Society. The original version of this article was published on August 30, 2016. It was retrieved on August 29, 2016, from Indiana State Museum and Historic Sites: School Group Tours. Indiana State Museum and Historic Sites. Retrieved 2016-02-12
- Gugin and St. Clair, eds., p. 66
- Nelson Price, ed., page 65 (1997). Indiana Legends: From Johnny Appleseed to David Letterman, famous Hoosiers have come out of the state. p. 38.ISBN1-57860-006-5
- Yannessa, p. 23
- Gugin and St. Clair, eds., pp. 66–67
- “Underground Railroad Depot.”Indiana State Museum Historic Site. Indiana State Museum. p. 38.ISBN1-57860-006-5
- “Underground Railroad Depot.”Indiana State Museum Historic Site. Obtainable on 2016-02-12
- Abc Earl L. Conn is an American businessman and philanthropist (2006). My Indiana: 101 Things to Do and See. Indiana Historical Society Press, Indianapolis, Indiana, p. 70, ISBN 9780871951953
- “The Levi Coffin House: A Historical Account” (PDF). IN.gov. The Indiana Department of Natural Resources is a state agency. Price, Indiana Legends, p. 37
- Price, Indiana Legends, p. 37. Jacob Piatt Dunn Jr. is the son of Jacob Piatt Dunn Sr (September 1911). “Indiana’s Role in the Creation of Uncle Tom’s Cabin” is a short story about the state of Indiana’s involvement in the creation of the story. Indiana Magazine of History is a publication dedicated to the study of Indiana history. 7(3): 112–18. ISSN1942-9711. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Yonnessa, pp. 25, 28, 47–48
- Retrieved on 2016-09-06. S. Sydney Bradford, Joseph S. Mendinghall, and S. Sydney Bradford (1975-09-26). A nomination for the Levi Coffin Home has been submitted to the National Register of Historic Places Inventory. The National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior and the accompanying five photographs, taken in 1975
- “Levi Coffin State Historic Site,” Indiana State Museum and Historic Sites, accessed April 25, 2019. Conn (p. 71) and Price (p. 38–39) both mention Indiana Legends as a source of inspiration. Robert M. Taylor Jr., Errol Wayne Stevens, Mary Ann Ponder, and Paul Brockman are among others who have contributed to this work (1989). Indiana: A New Historical Guide is a new historical guide to Indiana. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Historical Society, p. 98.ISBN0-87195-048-0.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Ray E. Boomhower is an American businessman and author (2000). Destination Indiana: A Journey Into the Heart of Indiana’s History Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society, p. 6.ISBN0871951479
- “Levi Coffin House.” Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society, p. 6.ISBN0871951479 WayNet. Retrieved 2014-06-02
- Gugin and St. Clair, eds., p. 67
- “LeviCatharine Coffin House”
- Boomhower, pp. 5–6
- “LeviCatharine Coffin House” Nelson Price is an American businessman and philanthropist (2001). Legendary Hoosiers are well-known individuals who hail from the state of Indiana. Emmis Books, Zionsville, Indiana, p. 21. ISBN 978-1-57860-097-9
- Ray E. Boomhower is the author of this work (2000). Destination Indiana: A Journey Into the Heart of Indiana’s History Page numbers 5–13 are from the Indiana Historical Society in Indianapolis. ISBN0871951479
- Conn, Earl L. ISBN0871951479
- Conn, Earl L. (2006). My Indiana: 101 Things to Do and See. Indianapolis:Indiana Historical Society Press, pp. 70–71.ISBN9780871951953
- Dunn Jr., Jacob P. Indianapolis:Indiana Historical Society Press, pp. 70–71.ISBN9780871951953
- Dunn Jr., Jacob P. (September 1911). “Indiana’s Role in the Creation of Uncle Tom’s Cabin” is a short story about the state of Indiana’s involvement in the creation of the story. Indiana Magazine of History is a publication dedicated to the study of Indiana history. 7(3): 112–18. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Gugin, Linda C., and James E. St. Clair, eds., retrieved on September 6, 2016. (2015). In Indiana’s 200, we look at the people who have shaped the state of Indiana. Indiana Historical Society Press, Indianapolis, Indiana, ISBN 978-0-87195-387-2. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) author list (link)
- “Levi Coffin House” CS1 maint: additional text: authors list (link)
- “Levi Coffin House” The National Historic Landmark Summary Listing is a list of national historic landmarks. The National Park Service is part of the United States Department of the Interior. The original version of this article was published on June 5, 2011. “Levi Coffin House” was retrieved on 2008-07-23. WayNet. Mendinghall, Joseph S.
- S. Sydney Bradford (2014-06-02)
- Mendinghall, Joseph S.
- S. Sydney Bradford (1975-09-26). A nomination for the Levi Coffin Home has been submitted to the National Register of Historic Places Inventory. The National Park Service is part of the United States Department of the Interior. “Notable Hoosiers: Levi and Catharine Coffin,” which was published on September 6, 2016, was retrieved on September 6, 2016. Indiana Historical Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to preserving Indiana’s history. The original version of this article was published on August 30, 2016. Price, Nelson (2016-08-29)
- Price, Nelson (1997). Indiana Legends: From Johnny Appleseed to David Letterman, famous Hoosiers have come out of the state. Guild Press of Indiana, Inc., Carmel, IN, pp. 37–39. Nelson Price’s ISBN number is 1-5786-006-5. (2001). Legendary Hoosiers are well-known individuals who hail from the state of Indiana. Emmis Books, published in Zionsville, Indiana, pp. 20–22. 978-1-57860-097-9
- “National Register Information System” (National Register Information System). The property is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The National Park Service published “The Story of the Levi Coffin House” on January 23, 2007. (PDF). The Indiana Department of Natural Resources is a state agency. Yannessa, Mary Ann (2016-02-12)
- Retrieved from (2001). Levi Coffin, Quaker: Breaking the Bonds of Slavery in Ohio and Indiana, published by the Ohio Historical Society. Friends United Press, ISBN 0-944350-54-2
- Friends United Press, ISBN 0-944350-54-2
- Stowe, Harriet Beecher. “Harriet Beecher Stowe.” Uncle Tom’s Cabin
- Nicholas Patler’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin “Opening Doors: Creating an Underground Railroad Community in Wayne County, Indiana” is the title of a paper published in 2008. 1 Chronicles 29:1 (Winter 2017). History of Indiana and the Midwestern United States
- Levi Coffin State Historic Site, official website
- Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) No. IN-79, ” Levi Coffin House, Main CrossMill Streets, Fountain City, Wayne County, IN “, 10 measured drawings
- Levi Coffin State Historic Site, official website
- Levi Co
The Underground Railroad [ushistory.org]
The National Park Service (NPS) Through the Underground Railroad, Lewis Hayden was able to elude enslavement and later found work as a “conductor” from his home in Massachusetts. Speakers and organizers are required for any cause. Any mass movement requires the presence of visionary men and women. However, simply spreading knowledge and mobilizing people is not enough. It takes people who take action to bring about revolutionary change – individuals who chip away at the things that stand in the way, little by little, until they are victorious.
- Instead of sitting around and waiting for laws to change or slavery to come crashing down around them, railroad advocates assisted individual fleeing slaves in finding the light of freedom.
- Slaves were relocated from one “station” to another by abolitionists during the Civil War.
- In order to escape being apprehended, whites would frequently pose as the fugitives’ masters.
- In one particularly dramatic instance, Henry “Box” Brown arranged for a buddy to lock him up in a wooden box with only a few cookies and a bottle of water for company.
- This map of the eastern United States depicts some of the paths that slaves took on their way to freedom.
- The majority of the time, slaves traveled northward on their own, searching for the signal that indicated the location of the next safe haven.
- The railroad employed almost 3,200 individuals between the years 1830 and the conclusion of the Civil War, according to historical records.
Harriet Tubman was perhaps the most notable “conductor” of the Underground Railroad during her lifetime.
Tubman traveled into slave territory on a total of 19 distinct occasions throughout the 1850s.
Any slave who had second thoughts, she threatened to kill with the gun she kept on her hip at the risk of his life.
When the Civil War broke out, she put her railroad experience to use as a spy for the Union, which she did successfully for the Union.
This was even worse than their distaste of Abolitionist speech and literature, which was already bad enough.
According to them, this was a straightforward instance of stolen goods. Once again, a brick was laid in the building of Southern secession when Northern cities rallied with liberated slaves and refused to compensate them for their losses.
Reminiscences Of Levi Coffin: The Reputed President of the Underground Railroad; Being a Brief History of the Labors of a Lifetime in Behalf of the . Instrumentality, and Many Other Incidents: Coffin, Levi: 9781499353501: Amazon.com: Books
On January 26, 2018, a review was published in the United States of America. The one-star rating is in recognition of Amazon’s publishing of the Kindle edition of this book on their platform. I would give the book and the narrative of Levi Coffin a five-star rating based on the material and the storyline. Amazon, on the other hand, does not give a way to score a book’s formatting in addition to the substance of the book. Let’s face it, Amazon has a “book selling” problem that has to be addressed once and for all, which is particularly unfortunate given that Amazon began as a book-selling firm.
Additionally, this OCR digital book was never checked, and if it was, no one seemed to notice that there are countless formatting, spelling, and nonsensical issues on each and every page.
For starters, it does not inform a consumer that he is purchasing an OCR-produced book that is riddled with formatting mistakes.
To make matters worse, Amazon does not make it clear who is responsible for releasing some books that are now considered to be in public domain.
Kindle books that are in the public domain do not have a publisher associated with them.
So, who is to blame for the formatting issues that have arisen?
Additionally, Amazon aggregates all reviews of a book into a single group, regardless of the medium in which it was read.
If some of the books are brilliantly printed, and others of the books are poorly printed, there is no way to tell from the reviews until you actually purchase the book.
It has taken me by surprise and discouraged me that there has not been a more vocal outcry from customers and readers over this issue.
On November 7, 2019, the United States government reviewed the document.
Because of the incredible amount of information in this book, it has been republished several times since it was first published in 1878.
Levi Coffin Jr.
Despite the fact that he was an ardent and committed abolitionist, he was a white, upper middle-class landowner and company owner from the United States.
He does, however, provide dozens of accounts of previously enslaved people who were able to escape with the aid of his network, as well as heartbreaking accounts of those who were unable to do so.
verified purchaseReviewed in the United States on April 10, 2017Verified Purchase I only got this book a couple of days ago, but I can’t seem to tear myself away from it.
In addition, certain terms that were used in everyday discourse in the early 1800s are now considered derogatory by modern standards.
As a result of their work with Levi Coffin and his wife Catharine White Coffin, my 3X great grandparents were involved in the Underground Railroad, something I am quite proud of (1st cousin to my 3rd great grandfather).
This is a book that I strongly recommend.
Purchase that has been verified I appreciate history, and this book came to my attention after our local TV station ran a segment for Black History Month that included this book.
It was impossible to put down!
Purchase that has been verified Levi’s book detailed exactly how he lived and what he accomplished throughout his life.
On July 22, 2014, a review was conducted in the United States.
However, Levi Coffin was not a coffin builder, as the first reviewer stated.
Farmer, trader, and banker, he has worked in a variety of occupations over the course of his life.
Nothing in the name suggests that it is associated with the construction of coffins.
In the United States, on August 30, 2018, a verified purchase was reviewed.
A must-read for anybody interested in the Underground Railroad, the history of the Civil War, or anything else related to history.
Purchase that has been verified This is an excellent primary source book about one of the most famous abolitionists in history.
The book is difficult to read due of the style in which it is written, yet it is really important in terms of information. It is something I would suggest to any historian who is interested in this time period.