How did people participate in the Underground Railroad?
- The decision to assist a freedom seeker may have been spontaneous. However, in some places, especially after the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, the Underground Railroad was deliberate and organized. Despite the illegality of their actions, people of all races, class and genders participated in this widespread form of civil disobedience.
How did the government respond to the Underground Railroad?
In response to southerners forcibly removing blacks from the North (including free blacks), most of the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic states passed personal liberty laws which required state judges to hold hearings on the status of any blacks who might be claimed as fugitive slaves.
How did the Underground Railroad affect politics?
The Underground Railroad physically resisted the repressive laws that held slaves in bondage. By provoking fear and anger in the South, and prompting the enactment of harsh legislation that eroded the rights of white Americans, the Underground Railroad was a direct contributing cause of the Civil War.
Was the Underground Railroad against the law?
The Underground Railroad was a secret system developed to aid fugitive slaves on their escape to freedom. Involvement with the Underground Railroad was not only dangerous, but it was also illegal.
What states was the Underground Railroad in?
Most of the enslaved people helped by the Underground Railroad escaped border states such as Kentucky, Virginia and Maryland. In the deep South, the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made capturing escaped enslaved people a lucrative business, and there were fewer hiding places for them.
Does the Underground Railroad still exist?
It includes four buildings, two of which were used by Harriet Tubman. Ashtabula County had over thirty known Underground Railroad stations, or safehouses, and many more conductors. Nearly two-thirds of those sites still stand today.
Why was the Underground Railroad illegal?
After the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act as part of the Compromise of 1850 the Underground Railroad was rerouted to Canada as its final destination. The Act made it illegal for a person to help a run away, and citizens were obliged under the law to help slave catchers arrest fugitive slaves.
When was the Underground Railroad most active?
Established in the early 1800s and aided by people involved in the Abolitionist Movement, the underground railroad helped thousands of slaves escape bondage. By one estimate, 100,000 slaves escaped from bondage in the South between 1810 and 1850.
Was there real trains in the Underground Railroad?
Nope! Despite its name, the Underground Railroad wasn’t a railroad in the way Amtrak or commuter rail is. It wasn’t even a real railroad. The Underground Railroad of history was simply a loose network of safe houses and top secret routes to states where slavery was banned.
Is there a second season of Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad Season 2 won’t come in 2021 Whether the series is renewed or not, we’ve got some bad news when it comes to the release date. The Underground Railroad Season 2 won’t come in 2021. There simply isn’t enough time to get through all the stages of production now.
When did Harriet Tubman start the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad and Siblings Tubman first encountered the Underground Railroad when she used it to escape slavery herself in 1849. Following a bout of illness and the death of her owner, Tubman decided to escape slavery in Maryland for Philadelphia.
How long was the Underground Railroad journey?
The journey would take him 800 miles and six weeks, on a route winding through Maryland, Pennsylvania and New York, tracing the byways that fugitive slaves took to Canada and freedom.
Were there tunnels in the Underground Railroad?
Contrary to popular belief, the Underground Railroad was not a series of underground tunnels. While some people did have secret rooms in their houses or carriages, the vast majority of the Underground Railroad involved people secretly helping people running away from slavery however they could.
Is the Underground Railroad really underground?
The escape network was neither literally underground nor a railroad. (Actual underground railroads did not exist until 1863.) According to John Rankin, “It was so called because they who took passage on it disappeared from public view as really as if they had gone into the ground.
The Constitution and the Underground Railroad: How a System of Government Dedicated to Liberty Protected Slavery (U.S. National Park Service)
A new clause for the draft constitution was proposed by Pierce Butler and Charles Pinckney, two South Carolina delegates to the Constitutional Convention that met on August 28, 1787 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It had been more than three months since the Convention had started considering the new structure of governance. Throughout the summer, there had been extensive and bitter disputes over the impact of slavery on the new form of government being established. Many safeguards to maintain the system of human bondage had been requested and achieved by Southerners throughout the years.
Unknown artist created this piece.
The Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-6088).
The three-fifths provision of the new Constitution included slaves in the calculation of congressional representation, resulting in an increase in the power of slave states in both the House of Representatives and the electoral college as a result.
- Exports were exempt from taxation by Congress and the states, which safeguarded the tobacco and rice farmed by slaves from being taxed.
- The Constitution also stated that the national government would suppress “domestic violence” and “insurrections.” When “fugitive slaves and servants” escaped into neighboring states, Butler and Pinckney asked that they be “given up like criminals,” as they had done in the past.
- The next day, without any further debate or even a formal vote, the Convention passed the Fugitive Slave Clause, which became law in 1850.
- Although the word slave was avoided, it appeared that if a slave managed to flee to a free state, that state would be unable to free that person, and any runaway who was apprehended would be turned over to the person who had claimed ownership of the slave in the first place.
- As a result, the phrasing of the sentence, as well as its structural placement, suggested that this was something that the states would have to figure out amongst themselves.
- Northerners were completely unaware of its capacity to cause harm to their neighbors or to disturb their culture.
During a speech to the South Carolina state assembly, General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (whose younger cousin had submitted the clause) boasted, “We have acquired the right to recapture our slaves in wherever part of America they may seek sanctuary, which is a right we did not have before.” In a similar vein, Edmund Randolph used this phrase to demonstrate that slavery was protected by the Constitution in the Virginia convention.
The author stated that “everyone is aware that slaves are obligated to serve and labor.” Using the Constitution, he contended that “power is granted to slave owners to vindicate their property” since it permitted a Virginian citizen to travel to another state and “take his fugitive slave” and bring “him home.” At the Convention, no one seems to have considered the possibility that the new government might operate as an agent for slaveowners.
- However, only a few years after the Constitution was ratified, the subject of fugitive slaves and the extradition of felons was brought before Congress for consideration.
- However, Virginia’s governor rejected, claiming that the free black had in reality been captured and that thus no crime had been committed.
- As a result, a legislation was passed in 1793 that governed both the return of fugitive felons and the return of runaway slaves.
- Fugitive slave harborers may be fined up to $500 (a large sum of money at the time), and they could also be sued for the value of any slaves that were not recaptured.
- People who did not obey the regulations under these state laws were subject to severe penalties under the law.
- Pennsylvania, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that all of these statutes were unconstitutional because, according to the Court, Congress had the only authority to govern the return of fugitive slaves to their homelands.
- Many northern governments responded by passing legislation prohibiting the use of state property (including jails) for the repatriation of runaway slaves, as well as prohibiting state personnel from taking part in fugitive slave cases.
This landmark anti-slavery ruling mobilized the whole federal government in support of attempts to apprehend runaway slaves in the aftermath of the Civil War.
Fugitive slaves would be extremely difficult to repatriate if they did not have the help of the northern states.
Federal commissioners were appointed in every county around the country as part of the new national law enforcement system.
The commissioners were given the authority to utilize state militias, federal marshals, as well as the Army and Navy, to bring fugitive slaves back to their owners.
The punishment for anybody who assists a slave in fleeing might be six months in jail and a fine of up to a whopping thousand dollars.
It also interfered with the right of the northern states to defend their free black inhabitants from being claimed as fugitives by the federal government.
The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 had a variety of consequences.
Between 1850 and 1861, around 1,000 African-Americans would be deported to the South as a result of this statute.
In state legislatures, courtrooms, and on the streets, there was fierce opposition to the bill throughout the northern United States.
“The Oberlin rescuers at Cuyahoga County prison, c.1859,” says the artist.
The Oberlin-Wellington Rescue became renowned as a result of this incident.
During this time of year when we commemorate Constitution Day, it is important to remember that this document protected slavery and laid the groundwork for the federal government to hunt down and arrest people whose only crime was the color of their skin and their desire to enjoy “the Blessings of Liberty” that the Constitution claimed it was written to achieve.
In some areas, such as upstate New York and northern Ohio, the 1850 law was virtually unenforceable because the average, usually law-abiding citizens participated in the Underground Railroad, choosing to support human liberty and fundamental justice even when the laws of the United States and the Constitution itself criminalized such activities.
Paul Finkelman, Ph.D. He has written more than 50 books and hundreds of articles, and he is a prolific writer. His most recent book, Supreme Injustice: Slavery in the Nation’s Highest Court, was released by Harvard University Press in 2018 and is about slavery in the United States Supreme Court.
A new clause for the draft constitution was proposed by Pierce Butler and Charles Pinckney, two South Carolina delegates to the Constitutional Convention that met on August 28, 1787, in Philadelphia. It had been more than three months since the Convention began considering the new style of governance. There had been extensive and heated arguments during the summer over how slavery would effect the new type of government that was being established. Many safeguards to maintain the system of human bondage had been requested and gained by Southerners.
- Unknown artist has created this piece of art.
- This approach was not extended to any other social or economic organization.
- According to the Constitution, Congress was given the authority to control all foreign trade, with the exception of the African slave trade, which could not be abolished by Congress until at least twenty years after it was established.
- “Domestic Violence” and “Insurrections” were defined as “domestic violence” and “insurrections,” respectively, in the United States Constitution, which for slaveowners meant only one thing: slave revolts.
- It was the next day that the Convention passed the Fugitive Slave Clause, without any further debate or even a formal vote.
- Although the word slave was avoided, it appeared that if a slave managed to flee to a free state, that state would be unable to free that person, and any runaway who was apprehended would be handed over to the person who had claimed ownership of the slave in the first place.
- The phrasing of the sentence, as well as its structural placement, suggested that this was something that the states would have to figure out between them.
- Northerners were completely unaware of its ability to cause harm to their neighbors or to undermine their own social structure.
During a speech to the South Carolina state assembly, General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (whose younger cousin had submitted the clause) boasted, “We have acquired the right to collect our slaves in whatever portion of America they may seek sanctuary, which is a privilege we did not have before.” In a similar vein, Edmund Randolph used this phrase to demonstrate that slavery was protected by the Constitution in the Virginia Convention.
- “Everyone is aware that slaves are obligated to serve and labor,” he explained.
- However, only a few years after the Constitution was ratified, the subject of fugitive slaves and the extradition of felons was brought before Congress for discussion.
- However, Virginia’s governor declined, claiming that the free black had in reality been mistreated and that no crime had been committed as a result of this.
- It was this legislation that resulted in the passage of a statute in 1793 that governed the return of fugitive felons as well as runaway slaves.
- Fugitive slave harborers may be fined up to $500 (a substantial sum of money at the time), and they could also be sued for the value of any slaves that were not captured.
- People who did not obey the regulations under these state laws faced severe penalties under the law.
- Pennsylvania, the United States Supreme Court ruled that all of these statutes were unconstitutional because, according to the Court, Congress had the only authority to govern the return of fugitive slaves to their homelands.
Many northern governments responded by passing legislation prohibiting the use of public property (including jails) for the return of runaway slaves, as well as prohibiting state personnel from taking part in fugitive slave investigations.
Prigg was a landmark anti-slavery ruling that mobilized the whole federal government in support of attempts to apprehend runaway slaves in the South.
Returning fugitive slaves would be extremely difficult without the aid of the northern states.
Federal commissioners were appointed in every county in the country as part of the new national law enforcement system.
Federal marshals, state militias, and the Army and Navy were permitted to assist the commissioners in bringing runaway slaves back to their homelands.
The punishment for anybody who assists a slave in fleeing might be six months in prison and a fine of up to a whopping $1000.
The right of the northern states to safeguard their free black inhabitants from being claimed as fugitives was also infringed upon by this act.
Fugitive Slave Law, 1850, and Its Consequences Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-1286).
In the event that they assisted freedom seekers in their escape through the Underground Railroad, a large number of abolitionists would face fines and imprisonment.
It was only in 1864 that Congress overturned the statute that the deployment of soldiers to execute it was outlawed.
During the 1858 rescue of a freedom seeker called John Price, twenty men were apprehended in Ohio under the 1850 Fugitive Slave Law as a result of their cooperation.
Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-73349).
Because of the Constitution and two fugitive slave laws, thousands of northerners, both black and white, surreptitiously assisted in the protection of blacks from slave collectors during the American Civil War.
In these areas, the average, usually law-abiding citizens participated in the Underground Railroad, choosing to support human liberty and fundamental justice even when the laws of the United States and the Constitution themselves prohibited such activities.
Over 50 books and hundreds of articles have been written on him by other authors. Slavery in the Nation’s Highest Court was the title of his most recent book, which was released by Harvard University Press in 2018.
National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Act of 1998 (1998 – H.R. 1635)
In order to establish the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom program within the United States National Park Service, among other things, the following legislation was passed:
H.R. 1635 (105th) was a bill in the United States Congress.
To become law, a bill must be passed by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in exactly the same form, and then signed by the President. Every two years, the bill numbers are reset. This implies that there are further legislation with the number H.R. 1635. This is the one from the 105thCongress of the United States. This measure was submitted in the 105thCongress, which ran from January 7, 1997, to December 19, 1998, and was passed by unanimous consent. If a piece of legislation does not pass by the conclusion of a Congress, it is struck from the books.
How to cite this information.
When utilizing the material you find on this site in an academic paper, we recommend that you use the MLA citation style as follows: Act to establish a National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Act of 1998 (H.R. 1635 — 105th Congress). The year is 1997. The day is January 5, 2022.
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H.R.1635 – 105th Congress (1997-1998): National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Act of 1998
|Sponsor:||Rep. Stokes, Louis(Introduced 05/15/1997)|
|Committees:||House – Resources | Senate – Energy and Natural Resources|
|Committee Reports:||H. Rept. 105-559|
|Latest Action:||07/21/1998 Became Public Law No: 105-203. (TXT|PDF)(All Actions)|
|Roll Call Votes:||There has been1 roll call vote|
Using a mix of official and non-governmental sources, GovTrack automatically gathers legislative information. Congress.gov, the official gateway of the United States Congress, has been used as the primary source for this page. Congress.gov is normally updated one day after events take place, therefore the legislative action displayed here may be one day behind the actual event date. According to theCongress project, the following information:
- Passed through the House
- Passed through the Senate
- Sent to the President
- Became law.
Subject — Policy Area:
Act establishing a program known as the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom within the National Park Service (NPS), which requires the Secretary of the Interior to:(1) develop and disseminate educational materials about slavery; (2) provide technical assistance to other government agencies, private entities, or governments of Canada, Mexico, or any appropriate Caribbean country; and (3) establish a national underground railroad network to freedom website at www.nationalundergroundrailroadnetworktofreedom.org.
The Network includes: (1) National Park Service units or programs pertaining to the Railroad; (2) Federal, State, local, or privately-owned properties pertaining to the Railroad that have a verifiable connection to it and that are listed on or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places; and (3) governmental or nongovernmental facilities or programs of an educational, research, or interpretive nature that are directly related to such Railroad; Appropriations are authorized.
Except for amounts appropriated to the Secretary for the purpose of carrying out his or her responsibilities, amounts cannot be appropriated for the objectives of this Act.
Fugitive Slave Acts
Act establishing a program known as the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom within the National Park Service (NPS), which requires the Secretary of the Interior to:(1) develop and disseminate educational materials about slavery; (2) provide technical assistance to other government agencies, private entities, or governments of Canada, Mexico, or any appropriate Caribbean country; and (3) establish a national underground railroad network to freedom website at www.nationalundergroundrailroadnetworktofreedom.com.
The Network includes: (1) National Park Service units or programs pertaining to the Railroad; (2) Federal, State, local, or privately-owned properties pertaining to the Railroad that have a verifiable connection to it and that are listed on or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places; and (3) governmental or nongovernmental facilities or programs of an educational, research, or interpretive nature that are directly related to such Railroad.
Approves the use of public funds Except for sums appropriated to the Secretary for the purpose of carrying out his or her responsibilities, no moneys may be appropriated to carry out the goals of the Act.
What Were the Fugitive Slave Acts?
Slave laws were implemented in some of the thirteen original colonies as early as 1643 and the New England Confederation, and slave laws were afterwards enacted in a number of the thirteen original colonies. Runaways were prevented from going to Canada by a 1705 statute established by New York, while Virginia and Maryland developed laws giving rewards for the apprehension and return of fugitive enslaved individuals in the United States and Canada, among other things. As at the time of the Constitutional Convention (in 1787), numerous northern states had abolished slavery.
Southern officials were afraid that these new free states might serve as safe havens for fugitive slaves and were relieved to discover that the Constitution had a “Fugitive Slave Clause.” According to this clause (Article 4, Section 2, Clause 3) in the case that a person confined to service or labor fled to a free state, he or she would not be liberated from their bondage obligations.
Fugitive Slave Act of 1793
However, even after the Fugitive Slave Clause was ratified into law in the United States Constitution, anti-slavery feeling persisted in most of the Northern United States during the late 1780s and early 1790s, with many petitioning Congress to abolish the institution entirely. Ultimately, Congress approved the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, in response to increased pressure from Southern legislators, who believed that the slave question was causing a wedge between the newly constituted states. Many of the provisions of this decree were identical to those of the Fugitive Slave Clause, but it offered a more thorough description of how the legislation was to be put into effect.
- In the case that they apprehended a suspected runaway, these hunters were required to take them before a judge and present documentation demonstrating that the individual was their property.
- A $500 fine was also levied on anybody who assisted in harboring or concealing fugitives under the terms of the statute.
- Northerners were outraged at the prospect of their states becoming a hunting ground for bounty hunters, and many contended that the law amounted to legalized kidnapping in the first instance.
- Most Northern states refused to be implicated in the system of slavery and, as a result, they purposefully ignored to enforce the legislation.
They even enacted “Personal Liberty Laws,” which granted alleged runaways the chance to stand trial in front of a jury and also safeguarded free blacks, many of whom had been seized by bounty hunters and sold into slavery.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
It wasn’t until the 1842 Supreme Court case Prigg v. Pennsylvania that the validity of Personal Liberty Statutes was called into question. After capturing a suspected slave in Pennsylvania, Edward Prigg, a Maryland man, was charged with kidnapped and sentenced to prison. The Supreme Court found in Prigg’s favor, establishing the precedent that federal law trumped any state actions that sought to interfere with the Fugitive Slave Act, as interpreted by the Court. Despite landmark judgements such as Prigg v.
As early as the mid-nineteenth century, thousands of enslaved individuals had fled to free states through networks such as the Underground Railroad.
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
Eventually, in the 1842Supreme Courtcase Prigg v. Pennsylvania, the validity of Personal Liberty Laws was questioned. After capturing a suspected slave in Pennsylvania, Edward Prigg, a Maryland man, was found guilty of abduction and sentenced to death. According to the Supreme Court’s decision in Prigg’s favor, state laws that sought to interfere with the Fugitive Slave Act were overruled by federal law, creating a precedent. However, despite landmark cases such as Prigg v. Pennsylvania, the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 was never fully implemented in its entirety.
Repeal of the Fugitive Slave Acts
Widespread resistance to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 resulted in the statute becoming essentially unenforceable in several Northern states by 1860, with only around 330 enslaved persons successfully returned to their Southern masters. Despite the fact that Republican and Free Soil members periodically filed measures and resolutions relating to the repeal of the Fugitive Slave Act, the statute remained in effect until after the outbreak of the Civil War. It wasn’t until a joint resolution of Congress passed on June 28, 1864, that both of the Fugitive Slave Acts were abolished.
The Congressional Cemetery: A Stop on the Underground Railroad Network to Freedom
Historic monuments and markers may be found in abundance around Washington, D.C. and its surrounding environs, as well as in the city itself. Several lesser-known memorials are featured today, with a particular emphasis on those buried in the Capitol Cemetery who have been recognized by the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom. Read on for more information. The Network to Freedom program, which was established by an act of Congress in 1998, brings together government entities with individuals and organizations in order to “honor, preserve, and promote the history of resistance to enslavement through escape and flight, which continues to inspire people throughout the world.” Researchers who are interested in knowing more about the hundreds of locations that have been declared under this program can use an interactive map built by the National Park Service to discover more about the sites, programs, and facilities that have been recognized.
- This is a screenshot of the National Park Service’s interactive map, which shows locations associated with the Underground Railroad Network to Freedom.
- This section contains information about where each person’s tombstone may be found in the Capitol Cemetery, as shown by the information in parentheses.
- (R5 S222) William Boyd was born in 1820 and died in 1884.
- On the Underground Railroad, William Boyd was referred to as a “conductor.” In a February 14, 1854 (col.
- and would make his way to the Pennsylvania line.” In November 1858, he was apprehended near Pennsylvania with two enslaved persons (col.
- President Abraham Lincoln pardoned Boyd in 1863, allowing him to continue his anti-slavery activism while staying in Washington, D.C.
- in 1865 when Boyd was struck in the face with a brick, which cracked his jaw and caused blindness in one eye.
John Dean was born in 1813 and died in 1863.
Anna Price captured this image.
As soon as he arrived, he began taking up instances in which the implementation of “fugitive slave laws,” namely the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, was being challenged.
2), but he was unsuccessful in all of them.
5) to escape being recaptured by the authorities.
Hall, 1795-1870 (R34 S63) David A.
Anna Price captured this image.
When Hall practiced law, he defended freedom-seekers in courts throughout the District of Columbia and Maryland.
Several years ago, Jones and Hall filed a petition with the United States Congress, which was presented to Congress by Rep.
The petition stated that Jones had been informed that he would be “sold as a slave by the marshal of the United States to pay the expenses of his imprisonment.” In addition, Hall represented persons who were charged with crimes in connection with the Pearlincident.
3), who was imprisoned for carrying two enslaved persons from Washington, D.C., to Philadelphia.
(R64 S75) Hannibal Hamlin was born in 1809 and died in 1862.
Hamlin was born in 1809 in New York City and moved to Washington, D.C.
As a result of rumors that President Lincoln was preparing to sign a bill emancipating enslaved individuals in Washington, D.C., numerous freedom-seekers from Maryland and Virginia were migrating to the region at this time.
in response to the surge of refugees (col.
This organization’s mission, according to a publication about it in The Evening Star, is to provide support and safety to the enormous number of ‘contrabands’ whofly to Washington as a city of sanctuary every day of the year.
Following his journey, he became unwell and died on November 14, 1862.
Rebecca Roberts tells us a story about the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D.C.
Fugitive Slave Acts
Historically, the Fugitive Slave Acts were two pieces of legislation established by Congress in 1793 and 1850 (and repealed in 1864) that allowed for the capture and return of fugitive slaves who escaped from one state into another or into a federally administered region. The 1793 legislation carried out Article IV, Section 2 of the United States Constitution by permitting any federal district judge or circuit court judge, as well as any state magistrate, to determine the legal status of an accused fugitive slave without the need for a trial by jury.
- These laws established that fugitives who challenged an initial ruling against them were entitled to a jury trial.
- The Underground Railroad is a term used to describe a system of transportation that allows people to flee their homes.
- Weber (c.1893).
- LC-USZ62-28860) Quiz on the Encyclopedia Britannica This quiz will examine the history of slavery and resistance.
- Who was the leader of the mutiny of 53 enslaved individuals on the Spanish slave ship Amistad that occurred in 1839?
- Take the quiz to find out.
Under this rule, fugitives were not permitted to testify in their own defense, nor were they given the opportunity to stand trial before a jury.
In addition, under the 1850 statute, special commissioners were to have concurrent jurisdiction with the United States courts in the enforcement of the law.
There was a rise in the number of abolitionists, the Underground Railroad activities grew more efficient, and new personal-liberty legislation were established in several Northern states during this period.
The attempts to put the law of 1850 into effect sparked a great deal of animosity and were almost certainly responsible for inciting sectional hostility as much as the debate over slavery in the territories.
The Library of Congress’s Printed Ephemera Collection is located in Washington, D.C.
Portfolio 22, Folder 12b) A period of time during the American Civil War was regarded to be a period of time during which the Fugitive Slave Acts were still in effect in the instance of Blacks fleeing from masters in border states that were loyal to the Union authority.
It wasn’t until June 28, 1864, that the acts were finally overturned by the legislature. Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Adam Augustyn was the author of the most recent revision and update to this article.
TOPN: National Underground Railroad Freedom Center Act
What exactly is in a well-known moniker? As legislation progresses through the legislative process in Congress, it is given popular titles. Sometimes the titles of laws provide information about the substance of the legislation (as in the case of the ‘2002 Winter Olympic Commemorative Coin Act’). Sometimes they are used to recognize or celebrate the sponsor or inventor of a certain legislation (as in the case of the ‘Taft-Hartley Act’). As well as garnering political support for a legislation by giving it an appealing name (such as the “Take Pride in America Act”) or by inciting widespread public indignation or compassion, occasionally they are used to sway public opinion against a particular law (as with any number of laws named for victims of crimes).
- Why can’t these well-known names be easily located in the United States Code?
- According to its creators, the United States Code is intended to be an orderly and logical collection of legislation established by Congress.
- At the most basic level, it divides the world of legislation into fifty topically organized Titles, each of which is further subdivided into any number of logical subtopics.
- The law on the other hand, is frequently composed of a collection of provisions that are not connected to one another but which together address a specific public need or problem.
- Each of these separate clauses would, presumably, have a different location in the Code if they were written as a whole.
- The process of putting a newly-passed piece of legislation into the Code is known as “classification,” and it is simply a process of determining where the various components of the particular law should be placed in the logical framework of the Code.
- And, as we previously stated, a given legislation may be small in scope, making it both straightforward and logical to relocate it wholesale into a specific space in the Code of Federal Regulations.
As a result, the law is rarely located in a single location that can be easily identified by its well-known name.
Instead, individuals who classify laws into the Code often provide a comment stating why a specific law has been classified into the Code in that particular instance.
Our Table of Popular Names is arranged alphabetically by popular name in the order in which they were submitted.
One, a reference to a Public Law number, is a link to the law as it was originally enacted by Congress, and it will direct you to either the LRC THOMAS legislative system or the GPO FDSYS website to see the document.
Lastly, while certain acts may be known by another title, and some others could be new, the links will lead you to the relevant section of the table where you can find out more about them.
Title I, Section 150 of Public Law 106-291, 114 Stat.
956 (October 11, 2000). See 54 U.S.C. 100101 for a brief summary of the statute. Title I, Section 150 of Public Law 106-291 While this act only pertains to a section of the Public Law, the tables that follow include information about the whole Public Law.
Underground Railroad Initiative
It is the responsibility of the Department of Health and Human Services to conduct a public outreach program to encourage study, identification, and protection activities for the state’s Underground Railroad materials. Identifying locations, individuals, and events related with Underground Railroad involvement in Indiana is the purpose of this initiative, which was established in 2008. To this aim, the DHPA collaborates with the National Park Service (NPS) to support their National Network to Freedom Program, as well as with local groups and people who donate many hours of volunteer research that are critical to the continuation of this program.
- The National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Act, approved by Congress in 1998, established a national underground railroad network to freedom.
- The Nationwide Park Service was tasked by Congress with developing a national program for the identification, interpretation, and preservation of sites and resources linked with the Underground Railroad throughout the United States.
- Following the passing of the Network to Freedom Act in 1998, the Department of Health and Human Services conducted a midwestern regional conference at which NPS employees began training states about the newly created program.
- We remain a significant partner of this community-based, statewide organization and are continuing to collaborate with IFT volunteers in order to finish the archival research required to identify the places, structures, and persons who were involved in the Underground Railroad.
- Education and outreach to the general public The Department of Homeland Security and Public Safety (DHPA) sponsors a number of educational, training, and outreach activities for the general public as part of the Underground Railroad Initiative.
Staff members also give guidance and assistance to local historical organizations and individuals in their research efforts, as well as technical assistance in the submission of nominations for the National Register of Historic Places and the National Network to Freedom.
- The following is a list of Underground Railroad Educational Resources:
It was established in 2001 as a forum for academics to network and share knowledge with one another. The Underground Railroad Summit is held annually and brings together researchers from across the world. DHPA Research Facilitation and Public PresentationsThe DHPA collaborates with institutions that house Underground Railroad collections and directs researchers to these repositories. Each year, the summit focuses on a different aspect of research while also highlighting different Indiana communities that were involved in Underground Railroad activities.
- Furthermore, the DHPA Underground Railroad Initiative staff offers lectures and presentations to a range of public and private organizations in order to enhance awareness of this significant aspect of state and national history.
- DHPA staff members manage a computerized database of sites and individuals associated with the Underground Railroad, which has been compiled from information provided by the Indiana Freedom Trails committee, historians, and members of the general public.
- Siebert’s Indiana papers are housed at the Indiana State Library.
- However, although the persons and sites included in the database are thought to have been involved in the Underground Railroad movement, it is possible that their link to the Underground Railroad has not been satisfactorily established at this time.
Underground Railroad Resources
- Underground Railroad Initiative, Network to Freedom, and Historic Markers are just a few examples. Underground Railroad Sites in Indiana
- History of the Underground Railroad in Indiana
- Indiana Freedom Trails Website
- Wilbur Siebert UGRR Index
- Underground Railroad Sites in Indiana
Congress enacts first fugitive slave law, Feb. 12, 1793
Among these are the Underground Railroad Initiative, the Network to Freedom, historic markers, and other initiatives. In addition to the Wilbur Siebert UGRR Index, the Underground Railroad Sites in Indiana website, the History of the Underground Railroad in Indiana website, and the Indiana Freedom Trails website are all worth checking out.
678 STAT. 112 STAT. 678 105-203 OF THE PUBLIC LAW THE 21ST OF JULY, 1998 Public Law 105-203, passed by the 105th Congress The date of the Act is July 21, 1998. Specifically, to construct the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom program within the United States National Park Service, as well as for other reasons. The Senate and House of Representatives of the United Statesof America, in Congress together, approve the following resolution: SECTION 1. SUMMARY OF THE WORK. The National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Act of 1998 may be referenced as the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Act.
Secondly, the Underground Railroadbridged the gaps created by racial, religious, sectional, and national divides; it crossed state lines and international borders; and it linked the American ideals of liberty and freedom, as expressed inthe Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, to the extraordinary actions of ordinary men and women working together in common purpose to free a people.
1a-5 note; 104 Stat.
(4) (3) The Underground Railroad Advisory Committee determined that (A) although a few elements of the Underground Railroad story are represented in existing National Park Service units and other sites, many sites are in imminent danger of being lost or destroyed, and many important resource types are not adequately represented and protected; and (B) there are many important sites with high potential for preservation and visitor use in 29 states, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Virginia.
(4) The Underground Railroad Advisory Committee determined that (3)The National Park Service has the potential to play a significant role in enabling the national remembrance of the Underground Railroad.
(c) THEIR PURPOSE.
The National Park Service is authorized to coordinate and facilitate Federal and non-Federal activities to commemorate, honor, and interpret the history of the Underground Railroad, its significance as a crucialelement in the evolution of the national civil rights movement, and its relevance in fostering the spirit of racial harmony and national reconciliation.
- (a) INTRODUCTION.
- In accordance with the program.
- (c) THE ELEMENTS Following are the aspects that must be included in the national network: (1) All National Park Service units and activities that have been designated by the Secretary to be related to the Underground Railroad are included.
- No amounts may be appropriated for the objectives of this Act, with the exception of amounts appropriated to the Secretary for the purpose of carrying out the Secretary’s obligations as set forth in section 3.
- H.R.1635 (S.887) was signed into law on July 21, 1998.
- on Energy and Natural Resources) SENATE REPORTS: No.105-217, which was attached to S.
144 (1998), contains the following passage: The House of Representatives considered and passed the bill on June 9.
The National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Act of 1998 is a piece of legislation.
Blockson, Chair of the Underground Railroad Advisory Committee, was presented with a signature pen by President Clinton at a signing ceremony held on July 21, 1998, in Washington, D.C.
Thomas Battle, Vivian Abdur-Rahim, Dr.
Ancella Bickley, Barbara Hudson, Glenette Tilley-Turner, Rose Powhatan (Pamunkey), Dr.
Robin Winks As a result of the passage of the historic law, The National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Act1998, (P.L.105-203), a comprehensive program of new Underground Railroad legislation and activities was launched, which included the following: Cincinnati FreedomCenter is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting freedom and equality in the city of Cincinnati.
Escapees from slavery travelled north in order to reclaim their freedom and escape harsh living conditions in their home countries. They required daring and cunning in order to elude law enforcement agents and professional slave catchers, who were paid handsomely for returning them to their masters’ possession. Southerners were extremely resentful of people in the North who helped the slaves in their plight. They invented the name “Underground Railroad” to refer to a well-organized network dedicated to keeping slaves away from their masters, which occasionally extended as far as crossing the Canadian border.
In 1850, Congress created the Fugitive Slave Law, which imposed severe fines on anybody found guilty of assisting slaves in their attempts to flee.
Underground Railroad “Stations” Develop in Iowa
Iowa shares a southern border with Missouri, which was a slave state during the American Civil War. The abolitionist movement (those who desired to abolish slavery) built a system of “stations” in the 1840s and 1850s that could transport runaways from the Mississippi River to Illinois on their route to freedom. Activists from two religious movements, the Congregationalists and the Quakers, played crucial roles in the abolitionist movement. They were also involved in the Underground Railroad’s operations in the state of New York.
- According to one source, there are more than 100 Iowans who are participating in the endeavor.
- The Hitchcock House, located in Cass County near Lewis, is another well-known destination on the Underground Railroad in one form or another.
- George Hitchcock escorted “passengers” to the next destination on his route.
- Several of these locations are now public museums that are available to the general public.
- Individual families also reacted when they were approached for assistance.
- When the Civil War broke out and the Fugitive Slave Law could no longer be enforced in the northern states, a large number of slaves fled into the state and eventually settled there permanently.
Iowa became the first state to offer black males the right to vote in 1868. It was determined that segregated schools and discrimination in public accommodations were both unconstitutional in Iowa by the Supreme Court.
Iowa: A Free State Willing to Let Slavery Exist
In the south, Iowa borders Missouri, which was a slave state at one time. The abolitionists (those who desired to abolish slavery) constructed a system of “stations” in the 1840s and 1850s that could transport runaways from the Missouri River to Illinois on their route to freedom. People affiliated with the Congregationalists and the Society of Friends played significant roles in the abolitionist movement. Besides that, they were involved in the state’s Underground Railroad network. The Underground Railroad in Iowa was kept a closely guarded secret, therefore there are little written documents regarding it.
- In southwest Iowa near Council Bluffs, a free black man named John Williamson aided others escape slavery on their journey to freedom, establishing a major route across the state.
- Passengers were directed to the next stop by the Rev.
- James Jordan in West Des Moines and Josiah Grinnell in Grinnell were also key players in the endeavor, as did others in the region.
- We will never know how many black people the Underground Railroad helped because it was impossible to count.
- Free blacks who lived in the state, particularly in southeast Iowa, were frequently involved in the crime scene investigation process.
- Many of these people eventually settled in the state and became citizens.
- Segregated schools and discriminatory treatment in public accommodations were declared unlawful by the Iowa Supreme Court.
- Iowa shares a southern border with Missouri, which was a slave state until the Civil War ended it. The abolitionists (those who desired to abolish slavery) devised a system of “stations” in the 1840s and 1850s that could transport runaways from the Mississippi River to Illinois on their journey to freedom. People affiliated with the Congregationalists and the Society of Friends played crucial roles in abolitionist movements. They were also involved in the Underground Railroad movement in the state of Georgia. Because the Underground Railroad had to be kept secret, we only have a few written records concerning it in Iowa. According to one report, more than 100 Iowans are engaging in the endeavor. In southwest Iowa, near Council Bluffs, a free black man named John Williamson assisted individuals escape slavery on their journey to freedom. The Hitchcock House, located in Cass County near Lewis, is another well-known destination on the Underground Railroad, but in a different capacity. Congregationalist clergyman Rev. George Hitchcock escorted “passengers” to the next stop. James Jordan in West Des Moines and Josiah Grinnell in Grinnell were also key players in the endeavor, as did others throughout the state. Several of these locations are now public museums that are available to the public. It is hard to determine how many black people were helped by the Underground Railroad. Individual families also reacted when they were approached for assistance. Free blacks who lived in the state, particularly in southeast Iowa, were frequently involved in the violence. When the Civil War broke out and the Fugitive Slave Law could no longer be enforced in the northern states, a large number of black people fled to the state and eventually became permanent residents. Iowa became the first state to offer African-American men the right to vote in 1868. It was determined that segregated schools and discrimination in public accommodations were both unconstitutional in Iowa by the state’s Supreme Court.
How did runaway slaves rely on the help of abolitionists to escape to freedom?
- Article from the Anti-Slavery Bugle titled “William and Ellen Craft,” published on February 23, 1849 (Document)
- Anti-Slavery Bugle Article titled “Underground Railroad,” published on September 16, 1854 (Document)
- “A Presbyterian Clergyman Suspended for Being Connected with the Underground Railroad” Article published on November 8, 1855 (Document)
- William Maxson Home in West Liberty, Iowa, circa 1890 (Image)
How did some runaway slaves create their own opportunities to escape?
- A newspaper article entitled “The ‘Running of Slaves’ – The Extraordinary Escape of Henry Box Brown” published on June 23, 1849 (Document)
- The Henry “Box” Brown Song and the Engraved Box, published in 1850 (Image, Document)
- “The Resurrection of Henry ‘Box’ Brown at Philadelphia” illustration published in 1850 (Image)
- Robert Smalls: “The Steamer ‘Planter’ and Her Captor,” published on June 14, 1862 (Do
$200 Reward: Poster for the Return of Formerly-Enslaved People, October 1, 1847
After escaping enslavement, many people depended on northern whites to guide them securely to the northern free states and eventually to Canadian territory. For someone who had previously been forced into slavery, life may be quite perilous. There were incentives for capturing them, as well as adverts such as the one seen below for a prize. More information may be found here.
“Effects of the Fugitive-Slave-Law” Illustration, 1850
Written in strong opposition to the Runaway Slave Act, which was approved by Congress in September 1850 and expanded federal and free-state duty for the return of fugitive slaves, this letter is full of anger. The bill called for the appointment of federal commissioners who would have the authority to enact regulations. More information may be found here.
Fugitive Slave Law, 1850
Written in strong opposition to the Runaway Slave Act, which was approved by Congress in September 1850 and expanded federal and free-state duty for the return of fugitive slaves, this letter is filled with anger.
According to the statute, federal commissioners with the authority to issue directives were to be appointed. More information may be found at.
Anti-Slavery Bugle Article – “William and Ellen Craft,” February 23, 1849
In this article from the abolitionist journal, The Anti-Slavery Bugle, the narrative of Ellen and William Craft’s emancipation from slavery is described in detail. Ellen disguised herself as a male in order to pass as the master, while her husband, William, claimed to be her servant as they made their way out of the building. More information may be found here.
Anti-Slavery Bugle Article – “Underground Railroad,” September 16, 1854
The Anti-Slavery Bugle article indicates the number of runaway slaves in northern cities in 1854, based on a survey conducted by the organization. This group contained nine slaves from Boone County, Kentucky, who were seeking refuge in the United States. Their captors were said to be on the lookout for them in Cincinnati, and they were found. More information may be found here.
“A Presbyterian Clergyman Suspended for Being Connected with the Underground Railroad” Article, November 8, 1855
This newspaper story was written in Fayettville, Tennessee, in 1855 and is a good example of historical journalism. When Rev. T. B. McCormick, a priest in Indiana, was suspended for his membership in the Underground Railroad, the article details his ordeal in detail. In the narrative, he is accused of supporting escaped slaves on their way to freedom. More information may be found here.
William Maxson Home in West Liberty, Iowa, 1890
It was published in the Fayetteville, Tennessee, newspaper in 1855, and is a good example of historical journalism. When Rev. T. B. McCormick, a clergyman in Indiana, was suspended for his membership in the Underground Railroad, the article tells what happened. In the narrative, he is accused of supporting fugitive slaves on their way out of the country. More information may be found at.
“Fugitive Slave Case Was Tried” – A Daily Gate City Article, April 13, 1915
This story, which was published in the Keokuk, Iowa, newspaper The Daily Gate City in 1915, is about a trial that took place in Burlington in 1850. Buel Daggs, the plaintiff, sought $10,000 in damages as recompense for the services of nine slaves who had fled from Missouri and had worked for him as slaves. More information may be found here.
“The ‘Running of Slaves’ – The Extraordinary Escape of Henry ‘Box’ Brown” Article, June 23, 1849
It was published in the Keokuk, Iowa newspaper The Daily Gate City in 1915 and is about a trial that took place in Burlington, Iowa, in 1850 and was published in The Daily Gate City. Buel Daggs, the plaintiff, sought $10,000 in damages as recompense for the services of nine slaves who had escaped from Missouri and had been working for him. More information may be found at.
Henry “Box” Brown Song and the Engraved Box, 1850
Image of the engraving on the box that Henry “Box” Brown built and used to send himself to freedom in Virginia. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. There is a label on the box that says “Right side up with care.” During his first appearance out of the box in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the attached song, Henry “Box” Brown sang a song that is included here. More information may be found here.
“The Resurrection of Henry ‘Box’ Brown at Philadelphia” Illustration, 1850
Henry “Box” Brown, a slave who escaped from Richmond, Virginia, in a box measuring three feet long, two and a half feet deep, and two and a half feet broad, is depicted in a somewhat comical but sympathetic manner in this artwork. In the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society’s administrative offices. More information may be found here.
Robert Smalls: “The Steamer ‘Planter’ and Her Captor,” June 14, 1862
The escape of Robert Smalls and other members of his family and friends from slavery was chronicled in detail in an article published in Harper’s Weekly.
Smalls was an enslaved African American who acquired freedom during and after the American Civil War and went on to work as a ship’s pilot on the high seas. More information may be found here.
“A Bold Stroke for Freedom” Illustration, 1872
The image from 1872 depicts African Americans, most likely fleeing slaves, standing in front of a wagon and brandishing firearms towards slave-catchers. A group of young enslaved persons who had escaped from Loudon by wagon are said to be shown in the cartoon on Christmas Eve in 1855, when patrollers caught up with them. More information may be found here.
- Harriet Tubman Day is observed annually on March 31. The statement issued by the State of Delaware on the observance of Harriet Ross Tubman Day on March 10, 2017 may be seen on the website. Governor John Carney and Lieutenant Governor Bethany Hall-Long both signed the statement. Harriet Tubman – A Guide to Online Resources A wide range of material linked with Harriet Tubman may be found in these digital collections from the Library of Congress, which include manuscripts, pictures, and publications. It is the goal of this guide to consolidate connections to digital materials about Harriet Tubman that are available throughout the Library of Congress website. Scenes from Harriet Tubman’s Life and Times The website, which is accessible through the Digital Public Library of America, contains portions from the novel Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman, written by Sarah Bradford in 1869 and published by the American Library Association.
Maryland’s Pathways to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in the State of Maryland On this page, you can find primary materials pertaining to Maryland and the Underground Railroad. This includes information from three former slaves, Samuel Green, Phoebe Myers, and their descendants today. “The Underground Railroad: A Secret History” by Eric Foner is a book on the history of the Underground Railroad. Among the topics covered in this piece from The Atlantic is the Underground Railroad’s “secret history,” which includes the reality that the network was not nearly as covert as many people believed.
Iowa Core Social Studies Standards (8th Grade)
Maryland’s Pathways to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in the state of Maryland On this website, you may find primary materials pertaining to Maryland and the Underground Railroad. Information from three former slaves, Samuel Green, Phoebe Myers, and others is included in this collection. ‘The Underground Railroad: A Secret History,’ by Eric Foner, is a book that delves into the history of the Underground Railroad. Among the topics covered in this piece from The Atlantic is the Underground Railroad’s “secret history,” which includes the reality that the network was not nearly as secretive as many people believed.
- S.8.13.Explain the rights and obligations of people, political parties, and the media in the context of a range of governmental and nonprofit organizations and institutions. (Skills for the twenty-first century)
- SS.8.19.Explain how immigration and migration were influenced by push and pull influences in early American history. SS.8.21.Examine the relationships and linkages between early American historical events and developments in the context of wider historical settings
- In your explanation of how and why prevalent social, cultural, and political viewpoints altered over early American history, please include the following information: SS.8.23.Explain the numerous causes, impacts, and changes that occurred in early American history
- And The Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights, the Constitution, Washington’s Farewell Address, the Louisiana Purchase Treaty with France, the Monroe Doctrine, the Indian Removal Act, the Missouri Compromise, Dred Scott v. Sanford, and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo are examples of primary and secondary sources of information that should be critiqued with consideration for the source of the document, its context, accuracy, and usefulness.