Organization. The Underground Railroad was created in the early 19th century by a group of abolitionists based mainly in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Within a few decades, it had grown into a well-organized and dynamic network. The term “Underground Railroad” began to be used in the 1830s.
Who invented the Underground Railroad?
In the early 1800s, Quaker abolitionist Isaac T. Hopper set up a network in Philadelphia that helped enslaved people on the run.
When did the Underground Railroad officially start?
system used by abolitionists between 1800-1865 to help enslaved African Americans escape to free states.
Does the Underground Railroad still exist?
It includes four buildings, two of which were used by Harriet Tubman. Ashtabula County had over thirty known Underground Railroad stations, or safehouses, and many more conductors. Nearly two-thirds of those sites still stand today.
Were there tunnels in the Underground Railroad?
Contrary to popular belief, the Underground Railroad was not a series of underground tunnels. While some people did have secret rooms in their houses or carriages, the vast majority of the Underground Railroad involved people secretly helping people running away from slavery however they could.
How did Harriet Tubman find out about the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad and Siblings Tubman first encountered the Underground Railroad when she used it to escape slavery herself in 1849. Following a bout of illness and the death of her owner, Tubman decided to escape slavery in Maryland for Philadelphia.
How far did the Underground Railroad go?
Because it was dangerous to be in free states like Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, or even Massachusetts after 1850, most people hoping to escape traveled all the way to Canada. So, you could say that the Underground Railroad went from the American south to Canada.
When was the Underground Railroad most active?
Established in the early 1800s and aided by people involved in the Abolitionist Movement, the underground railroad helped thousands of slaves escape bondage. By one estimate, 100,000 slaves escaped from bondage in the South between 1810 and 1850.
How long did the Underground Railroad take to travel?
The journey would take him 800 miles and six weeks, on a route winding through Maryland, Pennsylvania and New York, tracing the byways that fugitive slaves took to Canada and freedom.
What state ended slavery first?
In 1780, Pennsylvania became the first state to abolish slavery when it adopted a statute that provided for the freedom of every slave born after its enactment (once that individual reached the age of majority). Massachusetts was the first to abolish slavery outright, doing so by judicial decree in 1783.
How quilts were used in the Underground Railroad?
The seamstress would hang the quilts in full view one at a time, allowing the slaves to reinforce their memory of the pattern and its associated meaning. When slaves made their escape, they used their memory of the quilts as a mnemonic device to guide them safely along their journey, according to McDaniel.
How many Underground Railroad routes were there?
There were four main routes that the enslaved could follow: North along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers to the northern United States and Canada; South to Florida and refuge with the Seminole Indians and to the Bahamas; West along the Gulf of Mexico and into Mexico; and East along the seaboard into Canada.
Underground Railroad and freed slaves
Not a true railroad, but a network of underground tunnels and safe homes that allowed southern slaves to flee to Canda in search of freedom before the Civil War ended in 1865 were constructed.
Slavery has existed for hundreds of years, but it became particularly prominent in the United States around the early 1600s. The United States of America was officially created on July 4, 1776, with the signing of the Declaration of Independence by thirteen British colonies. Enslavement of African-Americans followed in the years that followed. It developed into a profitable enterprise, and many of African families were pushed into slavery as a result. RELATED: Kentucky’s Historical Must-See Attractions
Why the Underground Railroad was needed
The Underground Railroad was established in the early 1700s with the goal of emancipating slaves and bringing them to Canada. agents (or “shepherds”) would enter slave compounds and inform the slaves of their ability to flee the country. Conductors were those who guided slaves on the Underground Railroad, transporting them to various “stations” or “way stations,” according to the Underground Railroad’s terminology. slaves were hidden in the homes of “station masters,” who called the slaves “passengers” or “freight,” depending on the situation.
To get them to the north, they employed this method of compass navigation.
Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad
Harriet Tubman was perhaps the individual who had the greatest connections to the Underground Railroad. She was born a slave, but managed to elude capture in Maryland by using a secret passage. She returned home to find her spouse still there, refusing to leave. Then she describes having a vision of concealing slaves on the Underground Railroad and escorting them to freedom in Canada, which she believes to be true.
Northern African-Americans were not always safe
Individuals of African descent who were physically robust or who were in their prime child-bearing years were occasionally kidnapped and their “Certificates of freedom” papers (documents showing that they are free in the Union states) were destroyed. Canada was a safe haven against freedom, but it also had its own set of problems. They were nevertheless subjected to facial prejudice and had to fight for employment with a large number of other candidates.
How the Underground Railroad was used
To see a larger version of this image, click here. The Underground Railroad was first mentioned in 1831, when slave Tice Davids managed to escape from Kentucky into Ohio, and his master blamed a “underground railroad” for assisting Davids achieve his freedom. The “conductors” were the individuals in charge of escorting the slaves along the hidden path. Some sources claim that 30,000 slaves were set free, although it is possible that the number was closer to 100,000.
Capturing slaves a lucrative business
The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made it legal and profitable to capture fugitive slaves in the Deep South, where it was a thriving industry. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, which was passed by Congress on September 18, 1850, was a component of the Compromise of 1850.
Even if slaves were in a free state at the time of the act’s passage, they were compelled to be restored to their masters. The legislation also mandated that the federal government be in charge of locating, returning, and prosecuting fugitive slaves.
The Civil War begins
When the Confederate States of America (the South) seceded from the Union a month after Abraham Lincoln became president in 1890, a tremendous sense of hostility developed between the two sides. Lincoln (and the northern states) desired the abolition of slavery, while the southern states desired its institutionalization. In this way, the succession and further tension are created. The first fight took place at Fort Sumpter, when the Confederates opened fire on the Union forces there. As a result, a brutal four-year conflict erupted.
Learn about the history of this conflict, see reenactments, and learn about the preservation of this place.
It was a month after Abraham Lincoln became president that the southern (Confederate) states declared their independence from the Union, igniting fierce hostility between the two countries. Slavery was abolished by Lincoln (and the northern states), but slavery was entrenched by the southern states. It is this sequence that leads to the increased stress. It was at Fort Sumpter that the Confederates launched their first attack on the Union. In the end, a violent four-year battle broke out. Kentucky’s battle for independence was marked by fratricidal, neighbor-against-neighbor combat, which was exemplified by the Battle of Middle Creek.
‘Their stories need to be told’: the true story behind The Underground Railroad
Don’t be deceived by the railway carriage’s appearance. A railroad museum may be situated within one, however the content of the Washington Waterfront Underground Railroad Museum has nothing to do with railroads. Its original origins may be traced across the street to the Pamlico River, which was formerly utilized as a route of escape by enslaved African Americans seeking freedom in the 19th century. The museum’s cofounder and executive director, Leesa Jones, explains that after reading a slew of documents and old slave ads from Washington newspapers that would say things like, “My slave has escaped, they’re going to try to get to Washington in order to board a ship to get to their freedom,” they realized that they wanted to tell an accurate story about how freedom seekers left from the Washington waterfront.
- Jones points out that the first misconception many have about the underground railroad is that it was a system of subterranean trains, tunnels, and platforms that branched out like the London Underground or the New York subway.
- There actually existed a network of hidden routes and safe homes that thousands of enslaved persons used to travel from the southern United States to the free states and Canada during the early and mid-19th centuries.
- The Underground Railroad, a Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Colson Whitehead published in 2016, examined the divide between the real and the metaphorical by reimagining genuine trains booming beneath the soil.
- However, in addition to depicting cotton fields, plantations, and forests, it is as effective in depicting subterranean steam trains that provide a glimpse of light at the end of the tunnel.
- I don’t want a blue screen of death.
- It had everything to do with the time, the place, and the fact that they were chatting in code.
- For example, a depot may have been anything other than a railroad station; it could have been a graveyard, a river, a barn, or a location in the woods.
As a result, individuals were free to talk about it, and those who overheard the conversation may have assumed they were talking about a railroad line or a train station, which they were not talking about.
Tracks and trains aren’t the only thing that people have misconceptions about.
Political influence and legal help were provided by African-Americans with access to education and resources, such as Robert Purvis and William Whipper, both of whom were from Philadelphia.
Photograph courtesy of MPI/Getty Images “In many of the narratives that you read, the abolitionists appear to be the heroes, and, without taking anything away from their noble deeds, what the freedom seekers accomplished is underestimated,” Jones adds.
Their situation was not that of helpless slaves on a plantation, waiting for the white abolitionists to arrive and take them away.
Thinking about the freedom seekers and the stories they recounted after achieving freedom, it becomes clear who the true hero of the story was very fast.
A tear fell from Jones’s eye during the film Harriet, which was released in 2019 and starred Cynthia Erivo as Harriet Tubman, one of the most well-known conductors of the subterranean railroad.
While she is not a fan of Whitehead’s use of artistic license, she is looking forward to watching the Amazon version and participating in the discussion that it will elicit.
According to the National Museum of African American History and Culture at the Smithsonian Institution, the most organized networks were in Pennsylvania and New York, with many of them centered on local churches.
Free Black people who liberated enslaved individuals from plantations in Maryland and Virginia ran an underground railroad station near the US Capitol in Washington, which was managed by free Black people.
‘One has to pay particular attention to the Black communities in the northern hemisphere, since they are the foot troops of this movement,’ he explains.
Image courtesy of Kyle Kaplan/Amazon Studios It was they who ensured that people were securely hidden, who resisted attempts to apprehend fugitives, who showed up at court hearings, who spent cold nights standing outside these hearings to ensure that people were not sent away before the hearing was completed.” Understanding the underground railroad requires an understanding of the people who worked on the network.
We must also remember those whites, notably attorneys, who took the lead in defending these fugitive slaves in the courtrooms of the northern states.
The extent of the brutality and persecution, as well as the deliberate efforts to return freedom seekers to servitude, are still not completely appreciated by the international community.
It was a risky move on their part.
These individuals are fleeing their homes, their families, and the locations that they are familiar with in an attempt to gain their freedom. It dawned on me that one must understand their concept of freedom through their actions in order for freedom to become both a destination and an action.”
- A new episode of Amazon Prime’s The Underground Railroad is now available.
Did The Underground Railroad Actually Have Trains?
The Underground Railroad, available on Amazon, is a chilling look at one slave’s lengthy journey to freedom. In order to escape her horrible existence on a Georgia plantation, Cora (Thuso Mbedu) embarks on a genuine Underground Railroad journey that takes her to South Carolina, then North Carolina, and beyond. She soon arrives at an actual train station, courtesy of a luxurious carriage outfitted with all of the luxuries of a luxurious train journey. If you’re looking for an enthralling and romantic version of the Underground Railroad, go no further.
- Whether or not the Underground Railroad had trains is debatable.
- Director The epic ten-part miniseries is directed by Barry Jenkins and adapted from the slim 300-page novel.
- But there are a number of historical mistakes in Amazon’s The Underground Railroad, beginning with the depiction of that famous rail route.
- And, more importantly, did the genuine historic Underground Railroad contain trains?
The Underground Railroadon Amazon: Did the Real Underground Railroad Actually Have Trains?
Nope! Despite its name, the Underground Railroad was not a railroad in the traditional sense, such as Amtrak or commuter rail is today. It wasn’t even a true railroad in the traditional sense. Essentially, it was a metaphorical one, in which “conductors,” who were simply freed slaves and daring freedmen, would guide fugitive slaves from one “station,” or safe home, to another. It was only a loose network of safe homes and top-secret passageways to places where slavery was prohibited that was known as the Underground Railroad in historical times.
- Who is the most well-known conductor in the service?
- That is to say, everything in The Underground Railroad regarding the “actual” Underground Railroad is a fabrication.
- In addition to falling inside the period of America’s own Civil War, this occurs in a country that is an ocean away from Cora.
- And what else is a fabrication?
- Image courtesy of Amazon
Why Did Amazon’sThe Underground RailroadLie About Trains in the Real Underground Railroad?
Is it technically a “lying” if the show is a fictional production? Okay, bear with me as I explain that both Colson Whitehead’s novel and Barry Jenkins’ limited series begin with the historical tragedy of slavery as their foundation. However, Whitehead envisioned what may have been if the Underground Railroad was true. He employed a literary style called magical realism to establish a world that was quite like our own, but with sharp, metaphoric distinctions. Upon their arrival in South Carolina, Cora and Caesar (Aaron Pierre) are met with what looks to be an abolitionist utopia, as shown in the film.
- However it’s quickly evident that the white folks South Carolina are truly seeking to eliminate Black culture by sterilizing the women and doing covert medical exams on the males.
- Is there a general desire to have Black people behave “more whitely” than they do now?
- In the same way that the concept of a true Underground Railroad is hypothetical, the plot of this episode is as well.
- “The Underground Railroad” is a seminal work of science fiction and fantasy literature.
- The only part of Amazon’s The Underground Railroad that is puzzling is the fact that Jenkins is a director who bases his storytelling on reality, as is evident in the trailer.
He brings this magnificent Underground Railroad to life and makes it feel genuine. The Underground Railroad, on the other hand, is not a work of historical fiction, but rather a work of fiction. Where to watch The Underground Railroad on Netflix
The Underground Railroad’s Troubling Allure
After all, if the show is a work of fiction, can it be considered a “lie”? To be clear, both Colson Whitehead’s novel and Barry Jenkins’ limited series begin with the historical tragedy of slavery as their starting point. Whitehead, on the other hand, envisioned what would have happened if the Underground Railroad had actually existed. A literary device known as magical realism was employed by him to create a world that was eerily similar to our own, but with sharp, metaphorical distinctions.
- In a city that existed decades before skyscrapers were built, there is a community dedicated to “uplifting” Black brains.
- In some ways, these tests are reminiscent of the Tuskegee experiments conducted in the 1940s.
- In and of itself, this is a sort of racism.
- And so is North Carolina’s prohibition on Black people and its treatment of hunting them as some sort of pseudo-religious rite.
- By immersing fans in a fictitious voyage to invented nations, the program, like the other stories it recalls — such as Homer’s The Odyssey and Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels — shows something intrinsically true about human nature.
- The amazing Underground Railroad comes to life thanks to his efforts.
- Where to watch The Underground Railroad on the internet.
Black History: The Underground Railroad’s Route Through Florida
Florida’s black history is intertwined with its national history. You may learn a lot about writer Zora Neale Hurston in her hometown of Eatonville, Florida, if you go there while on vacation. In Miami’s Overtownneighborhood, you may retrace the steps of legends like as Louis Armstrong, Ella Fitzgerald, and Muhammad Ali, among others. In addition, Jackie Robinson Ballpark is a great place to watch a baseball game. However, until recently, one of Florida’s most significant contributions to African-American history went virtually unnoticed: the state’s participation in the original Underground Railroad network.
According to Thomas Jackson of Fort Mose, a significant monument on Florida’s Black Heritage Trail, “We tend to consign Black history to February.” “If you don’t get it by the end of February, you’re probably not going to get it.”
What was Florida’s role in the original Underground Railroad?
Floridians are steeped in African-American tradition. You may learn a lot about writer Zora Neale Hurston in her hometown of Eatonville, Florida, if you go there on your vacation. In Miami’s Overtownneighborhood, you may follow in the footsteps of legends like as Louis Armstrong, Ella Fitzgerald, and Muhammad Ali. In addition, Jackie Robinson Ballpark is a great place to watch a game. In contrast, one of Florida’s most significant contributions to African-American history, its involvement in the original Underground Railroad, has gone virtually unnoticed up until quite recently.
Why did enslaved people seek freedom in Florida?
In 1513, explorerJuan Ponce de Leónarrived near what is now the city of St. Augustine and claimed the island of La Florida for Spain. Spanish rulers had abused African labor in the New World for decades before the British famously sent enslaved individuals to Virginia in 1619, according to historians. However, there were brief moments during which Spanish Florida provided sanctuary to those seeking independence. A strategic maneuver on Spain’s side, in an effort to counter British armies and Protestantism in the New World, this was a successful one.
- Augustine, provided that they (1) swore allegiance to the Spanish crown, (2) converted to Catholicism, and (3) completed a period of military service, which was only required of men.
- There were no safe homes or conductors in place to protect people.
- “You had an area that was absolutely untamed, so once you went across the boundary, you were truly in a no-land,” man’s said Miami historian Paul George.
- “I couldn’t figure out how they accomplished it.” Despite this, they did.
- Augustine was home to the first known party of freedom seekers, which consisted of eight men, two women, and a three-year-old boy who arrived in 1687.
- The ladies were able to secure compensated jobs in and around St.
- Spain benefited from this movement since the newly liberated residents provided militia support and skilled labor to Florida, while at the same time hurting the British plantation economy and imperiling the British Empire.
Located in what would become the United States, Fort Mose was the first legally sanctioned colony of free blacks in the country’s history.
Augustine’s northern defense against invading British forces.
– FSP Living History Exhibits Fort Mose (pronounced mo-ZAY) was established in 1738 by Spanish Governor Manuel Montiano, who established it as the first legally sanctioned community for previously enslaved people in what is now the United States.
Augustine’s northern boundary against the British during the American Revolution.
you were free to live your life at Mose.” “St.
Augustine was a fairly cosmopolitan city,” says the author. However, not everyone made it to St. Augustine’s without dying on the way. Unknown numbers of freedom seekers killed in the process of escaping, while others founded maroon societies in isolated coastal locations.
Was St. Augustine the only destination for freedom seekers in Florida?
No, it wasn’t like that. The Battle of Fort Mose, also known as Bloody Mose, took place in 1740, and the British were victorious. Fort Mose was demolished. The fort was reconstructed in 1752, and Blacks were able to live freely in and around St. Augustine until the city was destroyed in 1763. In 1815, Spain gave Florida to Great Britain as part of the Treaty of Paris, which brought the French and Indian War to a successful conclusion. Former Fort Mose inhabitants and other freedom seekers, on the other hand, traveled further south, to what is now known as Miami.
- Blacks who established alliances with Seminoles or intermarried with them are referred to as “Black Seminoles.” It was the proximity to the Bahamas that drew people in, George explained.
- Another option was to seek shelter in the Bahamas, where they were welcomed into communities of previously enslaved people.
- It is estimated that around 200 Black Seminoles traveled from South Florida to Andros Island in the Bahamas between 1821 and 1837, when chattel slavery had been abolished.
- “They were hugged by others who had managed to endure the perilous journey.” They formed a strong relationship, and they were like an extended family.” This lineage continues to this day, with descendants of Black Seminoles still living on the island of Andros.
Where are some places in Florida that commemorate this history?
While the tale of Florida’s participation in the Underground Railroad is mostly fragmented, the following are some locations where you may learn more about this subject in greater depth. Africa: Between 1812 and 1821, freedom seekers established a maroon settlement in what is now Manatee County. Here you may learn about local landmarks and activities that are taking place. Apalachicola National Forest’s British Fort was a haven for African-Americans fleeing the oppression of slavery in the late 18th and early 19th centuries from Georgia and the Carolinas.
- During the American Revolutionary War, Major General Andrew Jackson ordered the devastation of Negro Fort, as it was also known.
- Lieutenant James Gadsden was ordered to construct a new fort on the location of the old Negro Fort, which was completed two years later by Jackson.
- Near the Cape Florida Lighthouse, in Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park, you’ll discover a simple wood-framed sign commemorating Key Biscayne’s involvement in the Saltwater Underground Railroad.
- The Castillo de San Marcos at St.
- You may walk around the limestone edifice at any time of year, or you can plan your visit around a specific event.
- Fort Jefferson is a historic fortification built in the late 1800s.
- Dry Tortugas, on the other hand, has a shady past.
- Enslaved Africans were forced to work on the construction of the fort.
- After a traumatic voyage, the guys were ultimately apprehended and transported back to Garden Key or Key West, where they were sold into slavery.
- Today, you may wander around the grounds of this huge stronghold, whose horrific past stands in stark contrast to the natural beauty that surrounds it.
- Augustine is located on the location of America’s first legally sanctioned colony of free Blacks, which took place in 1665.
Alternatively, schedule a visit during one of the yearly reenactments, such as the Flight to Freedom or the Battle of Bloody Mose, when history comes to life on the battlefield. Fort Pickens: Located in Pensacola, this antebellum fort gained a reputation as a “portal to freedom.”
Why didn’t I learn about this in history class?
For a variety of causes. The first Underground Railroad was less formal and had a shorter lifespan than its Northern-bound equivalent, which began operating in the mid-19th century. Second, history books are written by those who have achieved success. Stories of cross-cultural collaboration between the Spanish, African-Americans, and Native Americans were mostly forgotten once the United Kingdom gained possession of Florida in 1763. It’s critical to remember that the Anglo version of American history ignores half of the continent, from Florida to California, where the Roman legal system and Catholicism granted freedom to the enslaved who converted from Protestantism to Catholicism—long before anyone ever fled to Canada,” said historian Jane Landers, director of the Slave Societies Digital Archive at Vanderbilt University and one of the country’s foremost experts on the Underground Railroad.
While a small number of early scholars, notably Zora Neale Hurston, recorded Fort Mose, the original Underground Railroad was only recently recognized as a historical fact until recently.
Augustine who grew up in the shadow of the Castillo de San Marcos and only learned about it in college.
Underground Railroad: A Route of Escape
|Burlington Pharmacy, built in 1731 and established as a pharmacy in 1841.According to oral tradition, this Quaker-owned building was used frequently to harbor Underground RR fugitives and was the site of anti-slavery rallies.Photo courtesy CulturalHeritage Department, Burlington CountyDuring the Civil War (1863-1865), abolitionists in New Jersey assisted runaway slaves with their escape to northern free states.No New Jersey county has a richer black historical presence than Burlington Country. By 1790, the county had the largest free black population of any county in New Jersey. This can be attributed to its location in the Delaware Valley, known as the “cradle of emancipation,” where slaves were freed on a large scale. The sizeable presence and influence in the valley of Quakers, America’s first organized group to speak out against the evils of bondage, enabled this region to be the pacesetter regarding black emancipation.Underground railroad stations that belonged to whites provide examples of interracial cooperation and goodwill. Burlington served as a short stop, where horses were changed, after a rapid twenty-mile trip from Philadelphia to Princeton. The stop would be known as Station A. Bordentown, known a Station B, served as a continuous connection to the line from Philadelphia to Princeton. Another line ran east through Station B, which followed the northern route. Its southern route remained independent for sixty miles before it intersected with the Bordentown corridor. Another branch of the Philadelphia line extended through Bucks County, Pennsylvania, to Trenton, then followed a northern course to New York.Documentation includes a tour guide ofAfrican-America Historic Sites in Burlington County,a newspaper article from 1860, and photos.Originally submitted by: Christopher H. Smith, Representative (4th District).|
- Additional Local Legacies in New Jersey
- Local Legacies in every state in the United States
The Local Legacies project captures a “snapshot” of American culture as it was expressed in the spring of 2000, and it is available online. Because of this, it is not being updated with new or changed content, with the exception of “Related Website” links, which are updated on a regular basis.
Significant Events of the Underground Railroad – Women’s Rights National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)
1501—The Arrival of African Slaves in the New World Slaves from Africa are transported to Santo Domingo by Spanish colonizers. 1619 — Slaves arrive in Virginia. It is believed that the Africans transported to Jamestown were the first slaves to be taken into the British North American colonies. They were presumably released after a specified time of duty, similar to indentured labourers. 1700—Publication of the First Antislavery Pamphlet Samuel Seawell, a lawyer and printer from Massachusetts, is credited with publishing the first antislavery treatise in North America, The Selling of Joseph.
The same rule empowers masters to “kill and destroy” runaways if they do not comply with their orders.
Abolitionist association founded by Anthony Benezet of Philadelphia, who was the world’s first.
Declaration of Independence from Great Britain in 1776 “These United Colonies are, and by right ought to be, Free and Independent States,” the Continental Congress declares in its Declaration of Independence.
Any attempt to obstruct the apprehension of fugitive slaves is prohibited by the laws of the United States.
Although the importation of African slaves is prohibited, smuggling persists.
slavery is prohibited in all areas north of latitude 36d /30′, and in all territories south of latitude 36d /30′, slavery is prohibited.
The Liberator started publishing in 1831, with William Lloyd Garrison as the publisher.
The Philadelphia Feminist Anti-Slavery Society was founded in 1833.
1834-1838—Slavery in the United Kingdom.
Sarah and Angelina Grimke go on a speaking tour in 1836.
It was in New York that the first Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women was convened in 1837.
The site of the conference, Pennsylvania Hall, was set ablaze by a crowd on May 17.
Organizers of the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London have refused to seat any female delegates from the United States.
On October 18, 1842, at an American Anti-Slavery Society conference held in Rochester,New York, Thomasand Mary Ann M’Clintock are inducted as founding members of the Western New York Anti-Slavery Society.
1843—Rhoda Bement, a Presbyterian member in Seneca Falls, New York, demands that clergy broadcast Abby Kelley’s lecture across the city.
Frederick Douglass publishes his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, in 1845.
Henry became a member of the law practice of Samuel Sewall.
Seneca Falls, New York, hosts the first Women’s Rights Convention in 1848.
1850—The year of the 1850 Compromise In exchange for California’s admission into the Union as a free state, northern legislators agree to a stricter Fugitive Slave Act than the one that had been passed in 1793 before.
Accidents in the Life of a Slave Girl is the title of a book that was first published in 1861.
With the exception of the Missouri Compromise of 1820, Congress grants these two new territories the right to decide whether or not to legalize slavery in their territory.
The Dred Scott decision was reached in 1857.
1859—John Brown gathers slaves to take over the Armory at Harper’s Ferry, which they successfully do.
In Syracuse, New York, Jermaine Loguen has written a book titled A Narrative of Real Life.
Elected Abraham Lincoln of Illinois becomes the first Republican to be elected to the office of President of the United States.
The Emancipation Proclamation was issued in 1863.
The Proclamation only liberated slaves who were in open rebellion against the United States at the time of its issuance.
Slavery is abolished in 1865.
With revisions by Jamie Wolfe, the timeline was adapted from the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center.
African-American Involvement in the Underground Railroad is discussed.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Underground Railroad are two of the most well-known figures in American history. The Underground Railroad and the Convention “In Defense of Woman and Slave” The Underground Railroad and the Convention
5 Canadian stations of the Underground Railroad
One of the re-enactments of the Freedom Crossing (Wikimedia/Lynn DeLearie/ CC BY-SA 4.0). While there was no genuine railroad, there was a covert network of people — known as abolitionists — who assisted between 30,000 and 40,000 African Americans in their attempts to flee from slavery in the United States. Slaves who had been freed would find refuge in Canada, as well as in other northern states that had abolished slavery.
John Freeman Walls Underground Railroad MuseumLakeshore, Ontario
During the American Civil War, former slave John Freeman Walls and his white wife escaped from North Carolina and settled in Canada, where they established a family and constructed a log house. This cabin would go on to become one of Canada’s most renowned stations on the subterranean railroad, and it is still in use today.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin Historic SiteDresden, Ontario
The abolitionist Josiah Henson served as the basis for the character Uncle Tom in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, and his renowned cabin was based on a house in Ontario, where he lived at the time of the novel’s publication. Henson was also an abolitionist, and his New Dawn Settlement served as a safe haven for other fugitives fleeing the law. In 1830, he managed to flee to Canada from Kentucky.
Sandwich First Baptist ChurchWindsor, Ontario
The abolitionist Josiah Henson served as the basis for the character Uncle Tom in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, and his renowned cabin was based on a house in Ontario, where Henson lived at the time of the novel’s publication. Henson was also an abolitionist, and his New Dawn Settlement served as a safe haven for other fugitives from slavery. In 1830, he made his way across the border to Canada.
Buxton National Historic SiteChatham, Ontario
The Elgin Settlement, which was one of the last sites on the Underground Railroad, is commemorated at the Buxton National Historic Site Museum, which is located on the grounds of the site. This village, founded in 1849 by Rev. William King, was noted for its exceptional educational system and eventually developed into a self-sufficient community of around 2,000 people. Families descended from the first settlers who chose to remain in Canada continue to reside in Buxton today.
Birchtown National Historic SiteBirchtown, Nova Scotia
Long before the Underground Railroad was established, African-American settlers from both French and English backgrounds established themselves in towns such as Annapolis Royal and Birchtown, New Brunswick. After the American Revolutionary War, these cities not only became a haven for freed slaves looking for refuge north of the border, but also for former Black soldiers in the British colonial military forces, known as Black Loyalists, who were looking to relocate north to Canada after the war.