What is the Underground Railroad monument in Battle Creek?
- When visiting Battle Creek, pay homage to those who passed through the Underground Railroad here by visiting the Underground Railroad Monument. This bronze sculpture, built in 1993 by Ed Dwight, is the largest monument dedicated to remembering the Underground Railroad.
Did the Underground Railroad go through Battle Creek Michigan?
The ‘underground railroad’ had several stations in Michigan, one of the most prominent being Dr. Thomas’ home in Schoolcraft. The route usually taken to this stopping point passed through Schoolcraft, Battle Creek, Marshall, Jackson and Detroit. Other routes crisscrossed Michigan.
Where is the Underground Railroad in Michigan?
Cassopolis and Vandalia are two small towns in southwestern Michigan, not far from the Indiana border. These towns are some of the first stops in Michigan escaped slaves stopped at if they traveled north through Indiana. Many of Michigan’s Underground Railroad stationmasters in southwestern Michigan were Quakers.
Are there underground railroads in Michigan?
There are at least seven known paths that led freedom seekers from various points in Michigan to the Canadian shore and it is estimated that 200 Underground Railroad stops existed throughout Michigan between the 1820s and 1865.
Where were the stations on the Underground Railroad?
These were called “stations,” “safe houses,” and “depots.” The people operating them were called “stationmasters.” There were many well-used routes stretching west through Ohio to Indiana and Iowa. Others headed north through Pennsylvania and into New England or through Detroit on their way to Canada.
Where did the Underground Railroad stop in Michigan?
Because of its proximity to Canada, Michigan was a hotspot for freedom fighters from the South, and Walled Lake’s very own farmhouse was one stop along the way. The stop in Walled Lake was added to National Park Service’s National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom.
Where did the Underground Railroad end?
After the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act as part of the Compromise of 1850 the Underground Railroad was rerouted to Canada as its final destination.
Were there slaves in Michigan?
1787. The Northwest Ordinance makes slavery illegal its territories and states. Although Michigan is part of the Northwest Territory, there are enslaved people living in Michigan until 1837.
Did the Underground Railroad go through Grand Rapids Michigan?
The underground steam system has been in continuous use in Grand Rapids since the original system began in 1897.
Why was Detroit an important stop on the Underground Railroad?
Detroit’s unique geographical location, coupled with its radicalized black community and abolitionist sympathizers made the city a prime crossing location for freedom seekers. Code named “Midnight” by Underground Railroad “conductors,” the city provided access to Canada across the Detroit River.
Who was Seymour Finney?
Seymour Finney, a business owner and Underground Railroad stationmaster, was born in Orange County, New York, where he worked as a tailor. He moved to Detroit in 1834, where he became an active supporter of the abolitionist movement in the area.
How many stops were there on the Underground Railroad?
6 Stops on the Underground Railroad. The Underground Railroad was a network of people who hid fugitives from slavery in their homes during the day. At night they moved them north to free states, Canada or England. Refugees naturally headed for New England.
How many slaves escaped on the Underground Railroad?
The total number of runaways who used the Underground Railroad to escape to freedom is not known, but some estimates exceed 100,000 freed slaves during the antebellum period.
What happened to Cesar in the Underground Railroad?
While the show doesn’t show us what happens after their encounter, Caesar comes to Cora in a dream later, confirming to viewers that he was killed. In the novel, Caesar faces a similar fate of being killed following his capture, though instead of Ridgeway and Homer, he is killed by an angry mob.
Travel the Underground Railroad in Michigan
An allegory for the Underground Railroad was used. Despite this, many textbooks refer to it as the official name of a hidden network that previously assisted fugitive slaves in their escape from the plantation. The pupils who are more literal in their thinking begin to wonder whether these set escape routes were genuinely beneath the surface of the earth in the first place. Rather, the phrase “Underground Railroad” should be seen as a rhetorical technique that was used to illustrate a point by comparing two things that were diametrically opposed.
Being aware of the phrase’s historical context alters its meaning in significant ways.
As long as the American public was unfamiliar with railways, there could be no such thing as a “underground railroad”–that is, until the mid- to late-nineteenth century.
A certain geographic direction is also highlighted by the term.
- Slaves fled in every direction, but the metaphor had the greatest impact in the villages that were nearest to the nation’s busiest railroad stations and train stations.
- And why would they want to compare and inexorably link a large-scale operation to assist runaway slaves with a well-organized network of hidden railways in the first place?
- It was the goal of abolitionists, or those who advocated for the quick abolition of slavery, for the number of slave escapes to be publicized and, in some cases, exaggerated, as well as the depth of the network that existed to help those fugitives.
- This appeared to be a risky game to some of the participants.
According to his Narrativein 1845, “I have never approved of the very public manner in which some of our western friends have conducted what they call theunderground railroad,” warning that these mostly Ohio-based (“western”) abolitionists were establishing a “upperground railroad” through “their open declarations.” Exodus stories and open disobedience of federal law gained widespread attention in the years that followed, particularly following the contentious Fugitive Slave Act of 1850.
- Fugitives and their accomplices fought back with increased intensity now that they were no longer on the run from authorities.
- A former slave called William Parker was aided to escape to Canada by him in September 1851 after Parker had lead a resistance movement in Christiana, Pennsylvania, that resulted in the death of a Maryland slaveholder and the confusion of federal officials.
- The infamously strict statute was used to prosecute just around 350 fugitive slave cases between 1850 and 1861, with none occurring in abolitionist-friendly New England states after 1854.
- Many students have the impression that escaped slaves are cowering in the shadows, while cunning “conductors” and “stationmasters” have constructed complex hidden hiding spots and coded communications to aid spirit fugitives on their route to liberty.
- An alternative explanation for the Underground Railroad should be offered in terms of sectional divisions as well as the approaching Civil War.
- Every time a community felt endangered in the nineteenth century, it turned to extra-legal “vigilance” groups for help.
- The protection services provided by these organizations to escaped slaves were extended almost immediately.
Many now-forgotten personalities such as Lewis Hayden, George DeBaptiste, David Ruggles, and William Still were instrumental in organizing the most active vigilance committees in cities such as Boston, Detroit, New York, and Philadelphia during the Great Depression.
It was through these vigilance groups that the Underground Railroad began to be regarded as the organized core of the movement.
When William Parker established a “mutual protection” group in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, or when John Brown established his League of Gileadites in Springfield, Massachusetts, in the 1840s, they were following in the footsteps of this vigilante concept.
Their secrets were well guarded, but they were not clandestine operators in the way of France’s Resistance.
vigilance agents in Detroit crammed newspaper pages with statistics on their monthly traffic flow.
“Underground Railroad Agent,” stated the business card of one industrious individual who spread it.
In addition to being available for classroom use, a surprising amount of this concealed evidence may also be found.
Visitors to the site maintained by social studies teacher Dean Eastman and his pupils at Beverly High School may learn how much it cost to assist runaways by seeing the account books of the Boston vigilance committee, which have been transcribed and uploaded online.
The question is, how could these northern vigilance groups get away with such blatant insubordination?
The answer assists in moving the plot into the 1840s and 1850s and provides a novel approach for teachers to engage students in discussions on the legal and political history of the sectional issue.
Or to put it another way, it was all about states’ rights—and particularly the rights of the northern states to exist.
These laws were intended to protect free black residents from kidnapping, but they had the unintended consequence of making enforcement of federal fugitive slave laws difficult (1793 and 1850).
Pennsylvania (1842) and Ableman v.
In the mid-1850s, the Wisconsin supreme court asserted the theory of nullification, which may come as a surprise to students who are accustomed to linking states’ rights with South Carolina.
These northern legislators and juries were, for the most part, unconcerned with black civil rights, but they were eager about protecting their own states’ rights in the years leading up to the American Civil War.
That is also why virtually none of the Underground Railroad operatives in the North were apprehended, convicted, or subjected to physical assault during their time in the country.
The renowned late-night arrests, long jail terms, torture, and, in some cases, lynchings that made the underground operation so deadly were really experienced by agents operating throughout the South.
It just did not happen in the North to subject people to such brutal punishment.
In the meantime, the battle of words continued to escalate.
Following that, the outcomes affected the responses that ultimately led to the war in Iraq.
As a significant catalyst for the national war over slavery, the pursuit of fugitives and those who assisted them was a major source of inspiration.
By comparison, the “Underground Railroad” proved to be a metaphor that contributed to bring about the American Civil War when measured in words—through the antebellum newspaper articles, sermons, speeches, and resolutions that arose in response to the fugitive-detention situation.
In his speech to the National Free Soil Convention in Pittsburgh on August 11, 1852, Frederick Douglass referred to the Fugitive Slave Law as “The Fugitive Slave Law” ().
Campbell’s book, The Slave Catchers: Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law, 1850–1860 (New York: W.
Norton, 1970), contains an appendix that discusses this topic.
The book David Ruggles: A Radical Black Abolitionist and the Underground Railroad in New York City, by Graham Russell Gao Hodges, is a good example of this (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010).
To learn more about this, see Fergus M.
Douglass, Frederick, “Life and Times of Frederick Douglass,” in Park Publishing’s Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (Hartford, CT: 1881), p.
At Dickinson College, he is the co-director of House Divided: The Civil War Research Engine and the author of Lincoln’s Sanctuary: Abraham Lincoln and the Soldiers’ Home (2003).
What is the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad served as a symbol for the abolitionist movement. Despite this, many textbooks consider it as the official name of a secret network that formerly assisted fugitive slaves in their escape. The more literal-minded pupils begin to wonder if these set escape routes were indeed located under the surface of the land. However, the phrase “Underground Railroad” is best understood as a rhetorical technique that was used to illustrate a point by contrasting two things that were diametrically opposed to one another.
- Understanding the history of the term has a significant impact on its meaning.
- There could be no “underground railroad” until the general public in the United States became aware with genuine railways, which occurred in the 1830s and 1840s.
- In addition, the term emphasizes a certain geographic direction.
- Slaves fled in every direction, but the metaphor had the biggest impact in the towns that were closest to the nation’s bus stations.
- And why would they wish to compare and inexorably link a large-scale operation to assist runaway slaves with a well-organized network of hidden railroads?
- Abolitionists, or those who pushed for the abolition of slavery as soon as possible, desired to publicize, and possibly even inflate, the number of slave escapes and the depth of the network that existed to help those fugitives.
- This appeared to be a risky game to several of the participants.
HisNarrativein 1845 warned that “by their open declarations” these mostly Ohio-based (“western”) abolitionists were establishing a “upperground railroad.” “I have never approved of the very public manner in which some of our western friends have conducted what they call theunderground railroad,” he wrote.
Anxious fugitives and their accomplices retaliated with even greater force this time.
A former slave named William Parker was helped to escape to Canada by him in September 1851 after Parker had spearheaded a resistance movement in Christiana, Pennsylvania that left a Maryland slaveholder dead and federal authorities in disarray.
The next year, in a heated address in Pittsburgh, the legendary orator escalated the rhetorical onslaught, declaring, “The only way to make the Fugitive Slave Law a dead letter is to manufacture half a dozen or more dead kidnappers.” Throughout the anti-slavery North, this degree of resistance was not unusual, and it quickly put the federal legislation as well as the national union in danger of being overturned.
- The famously strict statute was used to prosecute just around 350 fugitive slave cases between 1850 and 1861, with none occurring in the abolitionist-friendly New England states after 1854.
- Students sometimes appear to image escaped slaves crouching in the dark while cunning “conductors” and “stationmasters” constructed complex hidden hiding spots and coded communications to aid spirit fugitives on their road to freedom.
- Instead, the Underground Railroad should be interpreted in terms of sectional tensions and the onset of the Civil War, as has been done previously.
- When communities in nineteenth-century America felt endangered, they turned to extra-legal “vigilance” clubs for assistance.
- Almost immediately, though, these organizations began providing protection to fugitive slaves.
- In Boston, Detroit, New York, and Philadelphia, the most active vigilance committees were overseen by individuals who are now practically forgotten, such as Lewis Hayden, George DeBaptiste, David Ruggles, and William Still.
- A network of vigilance groups formed the organizational core of what was later dubbed the Underground Railroad.
The vigilance concept was imitated during the 1840s, when William Parker established a “mutual protection” group in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, and when John Brown established his League of Gileadites in Springfield, Massachusetts.
Their secrets were well guarded, but these were not clandestine operators in the way of France’s Resistance.
vigilance agents in Detroit crammed newspaper pages with stories regarding their monthly traffic volume.
One entrepreneurial individual circulated a business card with the words “Underground Railroad Agent” written on the front.
In addition to being available for classroom use, a surprising amount of this hidden material may also be obtained.
Visitors to the site maintained by social studies teacher Dean Eastman and his pupils at Beverly High School may see how much it cost to assist runaways by visiting the account books of the Boston vigilance committee, which have been transcribed and put online.
But how could these northern vigilance organizations get away with such blatant defiance of the authorities?
The answer assists in moving the tale into the 1840s and 1850s and provides a novel opportunity for teachers to engage students in discussions on the legal and political history of the sectional crises in the nineteenth century.
In other words, it was all about states’ rights, namely the rights of the northern states.
The Supreme Court ruled in two important instances, Prigg v.
Booth (1859), that these northern personal liberty guarantees were unconstitutional.
The fact that a federal jury in Philadelphia acquitted the key defendant in the Christiana treason trial in less than fifteen minutes may also surprise them.
Using public feeling, northern vigilance groups were able to keep their problematic efforts on behalf of fugitives going.
No well-known Underground Railroad agent was ever killed or sentenced to a considerable amount of time in prison for assisting fugitives once they crossed the Mason-Dixon Line or the Ohio River in the United States.
The branding of Jonathan Walker, a sea captain convicted of transporting runaways, with the mark “S.S.” (“slave-stealer”) on his hand was ordered by a federal marshal in Florida in 1844.
What did occur, though, was an increase in rhetorical aggression.
Threats have increased in intensity.
The outcomes then determined the responses that eventually led to war.
The hunt for fugitives and those who assisted them served as a major catalyst for the nation’s debate over slavery.
When measured in words, however, as seen by the antebellum newspaper articles, sermons, speeches, and resolutions prompted by the fugitive-hunting problem, the “Underground Railroad” proved to be a metaphor that helped spark the American Civil War.
In Frederick Douglass’s Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave, published by the Anti-Slavery Office in Boston in 1845, page 101 is cited ().
Campbell’s book, The Slave Catchers: Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law: 1850–1860 (New York: W.
Norton, 1970), contains an appendix that discusses the subject.
See, for example, Graham Russell Gao Hodges’s David Ruggles: A Radical Black Abolitionist and the Underground Railroad in New York City (David Ruggles: A Radical Black Abolitionist and the Underground Railroad in New York City) (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010).
See, for example, Fergus M.
Douglass, Frederick, “Life and Times of Frederick Douglass,” in Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (Hartford, CT: Park Publishing, 1881), p.
He is the author of Lincoln’s Sanctuary: Abraham Lincoln and the Soldiers’ Home (2003) and the co-director of House Divided: The Civil War Research Engine at Dickinson College.
Map of the Underground Railroad in Michigan
Located near the Indiana border in southern Michigan, the little communities of Cassopolis and Vandalia are a great place to visit. These towns are some of the first stops in Michigan that escaped slaves made on their way north through Indiana, if they were traveling north. Many of Michigan’s Underground Railroad stationmasters were Quakers, particularly in southern Michigan. Stephen Bogue, William Jones, Ishmael Lee, and James E. Bonine were among the famous stationmasters who worked in this area.
Zachariah Shugart and Henry Shepherd were the conductors in charge of the train service between Cassopolis and Schoolcraft.
During this time period, the Underground Railroad Society of Cass County set developed an extremely comprehensive website that has historical facts and specifics on the roles that these two communities performed.
As these villages have some historic residences and churches to visit, they may easily be covered in a single day trip.
Following their escape from Cassopolis or Vandalia, freedom seekers continued their journey northeast to Schoolcraft, which is roughly 30 miles distant. Once in Kalamazoo, they lived with Dr. Nathan M. Thomas and his wife Pamela, who were the city’s first physicians. More than 1,000 people were saved by the Thomas family throughout their more than two decades of engagement. More information on the Thomas’ may be found here! The Schoolcraft Historical Society can provide you with further information about the Thomas house, which is now a museum.
Clomax is the next station on the Underground Railroad’s route through Michigan. In order to meet with Isaac Davis, Dr. Thomas led the group of freedom searchers to Climax. The freedom seekers were subsequently transported to Battle Creek by Isaac Pierce, who lived next door. Unfortunately, there are no memorials or historical markers left in Climax today.
The next stop is Battle Creek, where the fugitives came upon Erastus and Sarah Hussey, another husband and wife combination who helped them. As a result of their Quaker connections, this couple got active in the Underground Railroad movement. What is currently known as the Kellogg Foundation’s parking ramp was formerly home to the Hussey family. In August 1847, a raid conducted by around 40 slave-owning Kentuckians took place in the state. Mr. Hussey was in charge of a squad of locals who were tasked with driving the Kentuckians out town.
- All of the fugitive slaves who were hiding in Battle Creek at the time were apprehended.
- The Kentuckians as well as the freedom seekers were both imprisoned.
- In the end, the court determined that the escaped slaves were not considered property in Michigan.
- Ed Dwight erected this bronze sculpture in 1993 to commemorate the Underground Railroad, which is the world’s biggest monument dedicated to the subject.
- Other recommended sights to see include the Sojourner Truth Monument in Monument Park, as well as her mural on the junction of Jackson and Capital Avenues, which faces southwest.
Truth was an abolitionist, despite the fact that she did not participate in the Underground Railroad. The Oak Hill Cemetery serves as the final resting place for both her and the Hussey.
Following their escape from Battle Creek, fugitive slaves continued their journey to the adjacent city of Marshall. For example, the National House Inn Bed and Breakfast is a potential historic location to check out. You may learn more about their B&B by visiting their website. They think their B&B served as a station on the Underground Railroad in Michigan. When I was unable to locate the identities of the Conductors or Stationmasters from Marshall, I did read about the Crosswhite Case while on a recent trip to the United Kingdom.
Pay a visit to the Crosswhite Marker, which is located on the corner of Lincoln and Michigan Avenues, in honor of the Crosswhite family’s legacy.
The exact position may be found on the map located here.
When researching the Underground Railroad in the Jackson region, I came across the work of local author Linda Hass, who had done extensive study on the subject. Hass not only authored more than three historical books on Jackson County, but she also built this phonemical website about the county. A wealth of information may be found on this page about the local Conductors and Stationmasters in the region. She’s also prepared maps and slideshows, as well as scheduled bus excursions of the area’s most notable attractions.
While I haven’t visited Jackson yet, this is the resource I want to utilize when we do visit there in the future.
After Jackson, the freedom seekers made their way to Ann Arbor or Ypsilanti, where they slept for the night. The Underground Railroad is commemorated by a docent-led bus tour that travels across Washtenaw County, stopping at several places along the route. The African American Cultural and Historical Museum of Washtenaw County is guiding this Journey to Freedom Tour around the county. Student and elderly citizens pay a reduced rate of $10, while adults pay $25. Because of COVID, tours are not being offered at this time.
If you’re interested in taking a self-guided tour of several of the places covered on the trip, the locations are given below.
The Wall Street Parking Structure is the first stop. This inconspicuous parking garage has inscriptions on its walls that tell the story of Ann Arbor’s anti-slavery newspaper, The Signal of Liberty, which was founded in 1848. This journal was published on Broadway Street in New York City between 1841 and 1846. The Ann Arbor District Library has around 350 copies of the book, which was founded by abolitionists Theodore Foster and the Rev. Guy Beckley. Take a look at the digital version by clicking here.
The Perry House, located at 1317 Pontiac Trail, the old integrated schoolhouse, located at 1202 Traver Road, and the Guy Beckley House, located at 1425 Pontiac Trail are all worth seeing.
Beckley Park, which is located behind the home and borders the land, may be found there.
Harwood Farm is another place that has seen a great deal of Underground Railroad activity.
This mansion has an incredible amount of history, which you can learn more about by visiting this website. On their land, William and Polly Harwood, as well as their free Black neighbors Asher and Catherine Aray, protected and housed freedom seekers.
Millie and George McCoy, stationmasters and conductors, lived in a cabin on the Starkweather Farm, located at 1266 Huron River Drive in Ypsilanti, during the mid-nineteenth century. Millie and George were born into slavery in the United States, but managed to flee to Canada. The couple then returned to the United States with their children and settled in Ypsilanti, Michigan. They were part in the Underground Railroad when they were there. George came to Detroit on a regular basis to exchange cigars and to hide runaways among the merchandise.
The city of Detroit served as the final destination on the Underground Railroad in Michigan before freedom seekers made their way to Canada. In the mid-1800s, more than 50,000 individuals passed through Detroit, often known as “midnight,” on their way to or from the city. Because of this, there are several “stations” and historic sites to visit in Detroit. As a result, I divided this part into two sections: genuine places along the Underground Railroad and the museum and sculptures that have been created following abolition.
Sites Along the Underground Railroad in Detroit
All of the present and historic locations mentioned below were formerly part of the Underground Railroad’s path through America:
- A.M.E. Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church– The church’s original locations were near Fort Street and Beaubien Boulevard on Lafayette Street. This church, which was founded in 1839 by Black Detroiters and had two early sites that served as stations on the Underground Railroad, was formed by African-Americans. Founded in 1836, the Second Baptist Church of Chicago is the oldest African-American church in the Midwest and the oldest Black church in the country. It also served as the final Station in the United States for nearly 5,000 people
- The original site of Mariner’s Church, which is today located at Hart Plaza. During the relocation of the Mariner’s Church to its current position in the 1950s, a bricked-up tunnel was discovered in the basement of the building. Former slaves hid in the tunnel until nightfall, when rowboats picked them up and transported them across the river to Canada
- George deBaptiste House– George deBaptiste, a freeborn Black American, made significant contributions to the Underground Railroad in Kentucky, Indiana, and Michigan
- And George deBaptiste House– In 1846, he and his family relocated to the city of Detroit, Michigan. Once he had established himself, he went on to become a successful businessman, owning and running a barbershop, bakery, and steamer, among other enterprises. The T. Whitney was a ship that transported freedom seekers from the United States to Canada. He also had a role in the formation of two secret organizations that oversaw the Underground Railroad in Detroit: Finney Barn Site– In the 1850s, Finney owned a stable at this area, which served as a hiding place for numerous escaped slaves. At the same time, he ran a hotel and tavern a block away, where many slave catchers went to vent their frustration at not being able to locate the persons they were looking for. He made use of this information to assist in keeping the people safe.
Museums, Monuments and More
In addition, make sure to check out the exhibits listed below to acquire a better appreciation of how significant Detroit was in the struggle for freedom:
- Marker for the Gateway to Freedom– There are two statues that represent the Gateway to Freedom. Detroit has a statue of George deBaptiste with a group of freedom seekers pointing across the Detroit River, and another is in New Orleans. A map of the Underground Railroad is inscribed into the stone underneath the sculpture, as well as the names of some of the best-known Underground Railroad Conductors. The second sculpture, which is located in Windsor, Canada, depicts a group of emancipated slaves who are enjoying their freedom. The Doorway to Freedom exhibit at the Detroit Historical Museum is a permanent exhibit dedicated to preserving the legacy of the Underground Railroad that can be found at the Detroit Historical Museum. Within the exhibit, there is an interactive trail as well as stories from families who have remained in the city of Detroit. It is now open Thursday through Sunday and costs $10 for adults and $6 for children to enter
- It is currently closed on Mondays. “Exploring and appreciating the rich cultural history of African Americans” is the mission of the Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History, which features both permanent and rotating exhibitions. The Wright Museum is open Thursday through Sunday and charges $10 for adults, $7 for children, and is free for children under the age of three. The Henry Ford Museum– The With LibertyJustice for AllExhibit at the Henry Ford Museum showcases items and discusses individuals associated with the antislavery and civil rights movements. Elmwood Cemetery is the oldest integrated cemetery in the Midwest, having been established in 1846. Elmwood Cemetery is home to the graves of more than a dozen Underground Railroad participants, including George deBaptiste.
Finally, for anyone interested in taking a guided tour of some of the locations, the following programs are available:
- Underground Railroad Living Museum Flight to Freedom Tour at First Congregational Church
- Underground Railroad Walking Tour by City Tour Detroit
- Underground Railroad Living Museum Flight to Freedom Tour at First Congregational Church
Finally, any additional notable stops along the Underground Railroad outside of the above-mentioned towns and cities are shown on the Google map seen above. ~~~ Have you ever been to any of the locations listed above? What was your takeaway from the experience? Having spent some time with my family at the Underground Railroad Sculpture and the Crosswhite Grave, I’m looking forward to returning in the future to explore more of these sites. If you can get up up and personal with history by visiting a site where something significant occurred, viewing a monument or sculpture on the grounds, or interacting with exhibits at a museum, learning about it becomes much more important.
with affection, from Michigan Jackie
Risking everything for freedom: Underground Railroad was a gamble for runaway slaves and those who helped them
File from the Kalamazoo Gazette The residence of Dr. Nathan Thomas and his wife, Pamela, in Schoolcraft, functioned as a station on the Underground Railroad during the Civil War. The house, which was built in 1835, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a historic landmark. Thomas, the county’s first physician, believed that he and his wife assisted between 1,000 and 1,500 fugitive slaves in their escape to Canada. MICHIGAN’S SOUTHWESTERN PART — Stephen Bogue, Zachariah Shugart, Dr.
These Southwest Michigan residents from the mid-19th century, as well as many of their contemporaries, played a significant role in assisting hundreds of fugitive slaves find their way to freedom, whether their journey ended here in Michigan or in Canada, according to the Michigan Historical Society.
- According to Michigan historian Larry Massie, who lives in Allegan, the route through Michigan was planned by John Cross, a Quaker from Indiana.
- When it came to the recruits, Massie claimed they were prepared to go out of their way and risk their own property.
- Nathan Thomas, a replica of which hangs in the front parlor of the Schoolcraft mansion where Thomas and his wife, Pamela, live, is on display.
- This meant that freedom seekers could walk between stations in a night’s time, or that horses could pull wagons full of hiding runaways and still be able to return home the same night they were discovered.
- “They (conductors) used to take the horses there and bring them back,” Martich says.
- It was a natural stop on the Underground Railroad, which functioned mostly between 1840 and 1860, shortly before the American Civil War began, because to the large number of Quakers who lived in the area.
- In Cass County, the Underground Railroad Society of Cass County’s education chairperson Carol Bainbridge said that not everyone was a member of the Society of Friends.
- They were anti-slavery abolitionists who fought the institution of slavery.” Because there were so many individuals in Cass County who were sympathetic to the cause of the freedom seekers, the runaways had an unlimited number of places to stay after they were transported to Michigan.
- “I’d say Stephen Bogue was the most prominent, but they all had significant roles to play,” I said.
Kentucky slave owners and their representatives appeared in court on a couple of occasions to reclaim their slaves, the most well-known of which was the Kentucky Raid of 1847, in which the raiders, after apprehending approximately 40 fleeing slaves, were taken to Cassopolis, where they were ordered to return home without the fugitives.
- “However, you had a long period of time during which this type of thing did not occur.” She believes that the number of former slaves who made Cass County their home, and whose descendants still remain there, is more significant for the county’s history.
- to clear it, farm it, and build their cabins,” Bainbridge explained.
- The option to establish oneself provided them with a sense of belonging, she explained.
- The people there had a school, and they had a church.
- and certainly not in this region.” “I don’t believe there was anything like this (elsewhere).
They got along well and were a valued member of the neighborhood.” According to Michael Nassaney, an anthropology professor at Western Michigan University who led an artifact-collecting contingent through the fields west of Vandalia where Ramptown was located in 2002, while evidence of Ramptown’s existence was clear, he did not know how many people lived there, although he estimated it to be in the hundreds.
- The land was supplied to them in the form of five to ten acres on which they could farm.
- Ramptown, according to him, did not appear on property records from the 1800s because it was made up of “habitations affiliated with persons who were not formally residing on the land,” according to the historian.
- Between 1,000 and 1,500 freedom seekers were fed, their clothing was repaired, their wounds were treated, and they were held overnight by Thomas and his wife, Pamela, during a period of around 20 years.
- “I’m under the assumption that the biggest number arrived between 1845 and 1852,” says the author.
- “We don’t know precisely how many individuals were aware of what Nathan and Pamela were doing,” Rafferty said.
- Cass St.
“We’re confident that some individuals were aware of the situation since Pamela has stated that neighbors came in and assisted with food.” Because the entire (Underground Railroad) system was able to function well because it was not generally understood, she speculated that Nathan may have kept the information a secret.
Rafferty said she was unaware of any slave hunters who traveled as far as Schoolcraft in pursuit of runaway slaves.
According to her, “Word came in that there was a pretty large number of slaves on their way and that they should not remain in Schoolcraft.” Because of this, the moment Zachariah Shugart arrived with them from Cass County, Thomas took them straight to Erastus and Sarah Hussey’s house in Battle Creek.
There, a blacksmith named Isaac Davis served as “passenger agent and general manager” of the Underground Railroad, and a neighbor named Isaac Pierce acted as conductor, not only to assist in concealing the freedom seekers, but also to transport them on to their next stop, Battle Creek, following a day of hiding out.
Vicksburg’s involvement, on the other hand, is only vaguely described, according to him.
When it came to his hometown of Battle Creek, which played an essential part in the Underground Railroad, Martich recalled: “We were one of the key arteries on the central Michigan route.” A husband and wife partnership, Erastus and Sarah Hussey were akin to Nathan and Pamela Thomas in that they shared a love for assisting fugitive slaves escape.
- In describing the two ladies, Massie stated, “They were gutsy and loyal to the cause.” It was not uncommon to hear about Erastus Hussey, who resided near the current Kellogg Foundation parking ramp and was well-known in Battle Creek and the surrounding areas of Michigan.
- However, when John Cross personally recruited Hussey to serve as the Battle Creek agent for the Underground Railroad, he was unaware of his subsequent interests, which had not yet shown.
- Butler, reported in Heritage Battle Creek magazine that Hussey’s first experience with the Underground Railroad occurred when John Cross of Indiana passed through town in 1840, according to his own narrative.
- The reason for Cross’ selection of Hussey, who had no prior experience in the abolitionist cause, is not known.
In subsequent writings, Hussey explained his decision to serve as an Underground Railroad agent: “It was all out of sympathy for the African people and for principle.” “We were doing our part for mankind.” The Husseys’ efforts in assisting runaway slaves find their way to freedom were recognized in 1993 when a statue of Erastus and Sarah Hussey was erected near the Kellogg House and Battle Creek River in Battle Creek.
- Harriet Tubman, a runaway slave who was credited with helping other slaves during nearly 20 trips over the Underground Railroad (although she never came to Michigan), was also erected near the Kellogg House and Battle Creek River in 1993.
- Despite the fact that Truth did not join in the Underground Railroad, she was an abolitionist who is credited with assisting a large number of other freed slaves who did participate.
- WHETHER IN KALAMAZOO OR ELSEWHEREWhile Kalamazoo was not on an Underground Railroad route, it did have allies who assisted fugitive slaves in the area.
- Shafter, the father of General William R.
- According to Massie, “Kalamazoo wasn’t truly on the course.” “It’s probable that there were one or two incidences.”, says the investigator.
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Memorial to the Underground Railroad (Battle Creek, MI) · Contemporary Monuments to the Slave Past
Associated Press File from the Kalamazoo Gazette Schoolcraft’s Dr. Nathan Thomas and his wife, Pamela, were responsible for a stop on the Underground Railroad at their residence in Schoolcraft. Built in 1835, the house is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a National Historic Landmark. Tom Thomas, the county’s first physician, believed that he and his wife assisted between 1,000 and 1,500 fugitive slaves in their escape to Canada. MICHIGAN’S SOUTHWESTERN PARTY — Isaac Davis, Erastus and Sarah Hussey, Dr.
Nathan and Pamela Thomas, Zachariah Shugart In the mid-nineteenth century, these Southwest Michigan people, as well as many of their contemporaries, played a significant part in aiding hundreds of fugitive slaves on their journeys to freedom, whether they ended up here in Michigan or across the border in Canada.
- According to Michigan historian Larry Massie, from Allegan, the route through Michigan was devised by John Cross, a Quaker from Indiana who lived in the area.
- It’s possible that if they had been discovered, their possessions would have been seized under the current legal system.
- Nathan Thomas sits in the front parlor.
- This meant that freedom seekers could walk between stations in a night’s time, or that horses could pull wagons full of hidden runaways and yet be able to return home that night.
- “They (conductors) used to take the horses there and bring them back,” he says.
- It was a natural stop on the Underground Railroad, which functioned mostly between 1840 and 1860, shortly before the American Civil War began, because to the large number of Quakers who lived in the region.
- In Cass County, the Underground Railroad Society of Cass County’s education chairperson Carol Bainbridge said that not everyone was a member of the Society’s religious denomination.
Stephen Bogue, Ishmael Lee, the Osborn brothers — Josiah, Jefferson, Ellison, and Parker — the Osborns’ in-laws Isaac Bonine and Joel East, and Zachariah Shugart were among those who were killed.
Two instances in which slave owners and their representatives appeared to reclaim their slaves are known.
‘Two years later, there was another attack,’ Bainbridge said.
According to Bainbridge, there was a place called Ramptown (named after the wild onion known as the ‘ramp’ that grew abundantly in the area) where Stephen Bogue, James Bonine (and) other people set aside land so that families could settle there.
The ability to establish themselves provided them with a sense of belonging,” she explained.
The people there had a school, and they also had a church.” It was unlike anything I’d seen (elsewhere).
Even though all of the raids were dramatic, what was most astonishing was that the vast majority of the population was not averse to having these fugitives stay and live among them.
Nassaney, an anthropology professor at Western Michigan University who led a team of researchers through the fields west of Vandalia where Ramptown was discovered in 2002, said that while evidence of Ramptown’s existence was clear, he did not know how many people lived there, but he estimated that the number was in the hundreds to thousands.
According to Nassaney, who did the landscape archaeology research at the request of the Michigan Freedom Trail Commission for its Network to Freedom initiative, “They weren’t actually granted the property; they were just given the right to utilize the land.” In fact, some people may have stayed for only five or ten years before moving on, making it appear as though there was a continually changing population.
- Because it was made up of “habitations affiliated with persons who were not formally residing on the land,” he claims, Ramptown does not appear on property records from the 1800s.
- He was also Kalamazoo County’s first and, for a long time, sole physician.
- In subsequent years, Nathan Thomas stated in the Winter 1999 edition of Heritage Battle Creek, “The number of slaves that fled along this route has been estimated at between 1,000 and 1,500,” according to the magazine.
- In total, the line had been in operation for almost 20 years.” The Thomases’ labor, like those of others on the Underground Railroad, was done at night and in secrecy.
- Nathan Thomas Underground Railway House in Schoolcraft, where escaping slaves took refuge, was the subject of a Schoolcraft Historical Society tour led by Nancy Rafferty.
- When the house was transferred from its original position at the corner of Cass and Centre streets in 1868, it became known as the Schoolcraft House.
Because the entire (Underground Railroad) system was able to function well because it was not generally understood, she speculated that Nathan may have kept the information hidden.
Rafferty said she was unaware of any slave hunters who traveled as far as Schoolcraft in pursuit of runaway slaves.
According to her, “Word came in that there was a rather large number of slaves on their way and that they should not remain in Schoolcraft.” When Zachariah Shugart arrived with them from Cass County, Thomas immediately conducted them to Erastus and Sarah Hussey’s residence in Battle Creek.
Martich, the Battle Creek historian, noted that the journey from Schoolcraft to Climax was exceptionally long, and that in researching if there were any other stops along the route, he has discovered some activity in Vicksburg, where some free blacks were residing at the time.
BATTLE CREEK is a tributary of the Missouri River that flows through the town of Battle Creek, Pennsylvania.
As was the case with Pamela Thomas, Sarah Hussey provided food and clothing for the slaves as well as medical attention for their wounds, all of which may have put the Thomases and Husses and their families, including children, in danger.
The former state senator and mayor of Battle Creek also served as Calhoun County clerk, and he was a key figure in the establishment of the Republican Party in Michigan, with Nathan Thomas.
The Battle Creek Historical Society’s historian Mary G.
The Underground Railroad was being established by Cross, who was on the lookout for Hussey at the time.” The reason for Cross’ selection of Hussey, who had no prior experience in the abolitionist cause, is unclear.
As Hussey subsequently said, his motivation for volunteering as an Underground Railroad agent was “entirely out of pity for the African people and out of principle.” “We were doing our part for the greater good of mankind.” Located near the Kellogg House and Battle Creek River in Battle Creek, a statue of Erastus and Sarah Hussey, as well as the runaway slave Harriet Tubman, who is credited with helping other slaves during nearly 20 trips over the Underground Railroad (although she never came to Michigan), were dedicated to honor the Husseys’ efforts in assisting runaway slaves on their journey to freedom.
- In Battle Creek, there is also a statue dedicated to Sojourner Truth.
- Battle Creek, Michigan, was the site of her death, which occurred in 1883.
- One of these individuals was Henry Montague, of Oshtemo Township, who hosted a freedom-seeking couple from Alabama before transporting them to Hugh M.
- William R.
- According to Massie, “Kalamazoo wasn’t really on course.” There might have been one or two incidences, but it’s probable that there were more.” In terms of being actively involved, though, it’s debatable.
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The Kalamazoo Gazette has a file on The residence of Dr. Nathan Thomas and his wife, Pamela, in the town of Schoolcraft, served as a station on the Underground Railroad. The house, which was built in 1835, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Thomas, the first physician in Kalamazoo County, believed that he and his wife assisted between 1,000 and 1,500 fugitive slaves in their escape to Canada. AREA OF SOUTHWEST MICHIGAN Stephen Bogue, Zachariah Shugart, Dr. Nathan and Pamela Thomas, Isaac Davis, and Erastus and Sarah Hussey are among the students who will be honored.
They were the local faces of the Underground Railroad, a series of secret checkpoints for runaway slaves, also known as freedom seekers, who came up through Illinois and Indiana on what became known as the Quaker Line, one of seven Underground Railroad routes in Michigan, into Cass County, up to Schoolcraft, and eastward to Climax, Battle Creek, and so on until they reached their destination of safety across the Detroit River into Canada.
- According to Michigan historian Larry Massie of Allegan, the route across Michigan was devised by John Cross, a Quaker from Indiana.
- When it came to the recruits, Massie said they were prepared to go out of their way and risk their own belongings to help.
- Nathan Thomas and his wife, Pamela, is decorated with a replica of an oil picture of Thomas.
- Battle Creek historian Michael Martich, who has conducted research on the Underground Railroad station in the city, said that the horses were taken there and brought back, and then they had to work them (in the fields) the next day.
- THE COUNTY OF CASS Young’s Prairie, in the neighborhood of Cass County’s Cassopolis and Vandalia, was the first halt for freedom seekers traveling down the Quaker Line in Michigan.
- However, the pacifist Quakers were not the only ones in attendance who stood in favor of the freedom fighters.
- They were anti-slavery abolitionists who resisted slavery.” Runaways had a plethora of options for lodging once they were transported to Michigan since there were so many sympathetic citizens in Cass County who supported their cause.
“I’d say Stephen Bogue was the most prominent, but they all had significant parts to perform.” “They were all conductors, and they all had persons on their land that they provided refuge for,” Bainbridge explained.
“Two years later, there was another raid,” Bainbridge explained.
“There was Ramptown (named for a wild onion known as a ‘ramp’ that grew abundantly in the region) where Stephen Bogue, James Bonine (and) other individuals set aside property so that the families may dwell on it.
The opportunity to establish oneself provided them with a sense of belonging, she said.
The people there had a school, and they had a church.
They got along well and assimilated into the society.” According to Michael Nassaney, an anthropology professor at Western Michigan University who led an artifact-collecting contingent through the fields west of Vandalia where Ramptown was located in 2002, while evidence of Ramptown’s existence was clear, he did not know how many people lived there, though he estimated it to be in the hundreds.
- Ramptown, according to him, did not appear on property records from the 1800s because it was made up of “habitations affiliated with persons who were not formally residing on the land,” according to him.
- Over the course of roughly two decades, Thomas and his wife, Pamela, are reported to have fed, fixed clothing for, treated injuries of, and housed between 1,000 and 1,500 freedom seekers.
- “We don’t know precisely how many individuals were aware of what Nathan and Pamela were doing,” Rafferty said.
- Cass St.
“We’re confident that some individuals were aware of what was going on since Pamela has written that neighbors came in and assisted with food.” Because the entire (Underground Railroad) system was able to function well because it was not generally recognized, “I would assume Nathan maintained it a secret,” she added.
Rafferty said she was unaware of any slave hunters who traveled as far as Schoolcraft in pursuit of runaway slaves.
According to her, “Word got in that there was a very large party of slaves on their way and that they should not stay in Schoolcraft.” As a result, as soon as Zachariah Shugart delivered them from Cass County, Thomas took them straight to Erastus and Sarah Hussey’s house in Battle Creek.
There, a blacksmith named Isaac Davis served as “passenger agent and general manager” of the Underground Railroad, and a neighbor named Isaac Pierce acted as conductor, not only to assist in concealing the freedom seekers, but also to transport them on to their next stop, Battle Creek, after a day of hiding out.
According to him, there are little specifics on Vicksburg’s participation.
When it came to his hometown of Battle Creek, which played an essential part in the Underground Railroad, Martich recalled: “We were one of the key arteries on the Central Michigan route.” Erastus and Sarah Hussey were a husband and wife pair who had a love for assisting fugitive slaves, much to Nathan and Pamela Thomas.
- In describing the two ladies, Massie stated, “They were gutsy and dedicated to the cause.” Erastus Hussey, who lived near the current location of the Kellogg Foundation parking ramp, was a well-known figure in Battle Creek and the surrounding areas of Michigan.
- However, when John Cross personally recruited Hussey to serve as the Battle Creek agent for the Underground Railroad, his subsequent emotions had not yet manifested themselves.
- Butler, reported in Heritage Battle Creek magazine that Hussey’s first experience with the Underground Railroad occurred when John Cross of Indiana passed through town in 1840.
- The reason why Cross picked Hussey, who had no prior experience in the abolitionist cause, is not known.
In subsequent writings, Hussey explained his decision to work as an Underground Railroad agent: “It was all out of sympathy for the brown people and for principle.” “We were doing our part to save mankind.” Located near the Kellogg House and Battle Creek River in Battle Creek, a statue of Erastus and Sarah Hussey, as well as the runaway slave Harriet Tubman, who is credited with helping other slaves during nearly 20 trips over the Underground Railroad (although she never came to Michigan), were dedicated to honor the Husseys’ efforts in assisting runaway slaves find their way to freedom.
- Battle Creek is also home to a statue of Sojourner Truth.
- In 1883, she passed away in Battle Creek.
- In Oshtemo Township, Henry Montague hosted a freedom-seeking couple from Alabama before transporting them to Hugh M.
- Shafter, in Galesburg, where they were escorted to freedom.
“However, as far as actively participating in it goes, maybe, maybe not.” In addition, the following people are listed as being involved in efforts to provide runaway slaves with free passage in early 20th century copies of the Kalamazoo Gazette: William Wheeler of Flowerfield, Orrin Snow of Kalamazoo, Benjamin Fox of Yorkville, Uriah Upjohn (father of W.E.
Upjohn, founder of The Upjohn Co.), Simeon Mills of Richland, and the Mays family of Gull Prairie. Readers should be aware that if they make a purchase after clicking on one of our affiliate links, we may receive a commission.
In addition to Harriet Tubman, the monument has pictures of Erastus and Sarah Hussey, who were abolitionists and Underground Railroad conductors in southern Michigan, as well as an image of Harriet Tubman.
Edwin Dwight (born 1933) is an American author and educator.
Date of dedication: October 24, 1993
The W. K. Kellogg Foundation and the Glenn A. Cross Estate in Battle Creek, Michigan, are the sponsors of this event.
The W. K. Kellogg Foundation is located at 1 Michigan Avenue East in Battle Creek, Michigan, 49017, in the United States of America.
In the United States, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation may be found at 1 Michigan Avenue East in Battle Creek.
Kellogg House Park is located at 2-10 N Monroe Street in Battle Creek, Michigan, 49017 in the United States of America.
Underground Railroad Sculpture; Underground Railroad Monument; Underground Railroad Sculpture
Monument to the Underground Railroad; Underground Railroad Sculpture
Dimensions: 168 x 336 in (426.72 x 853.44 cm.)
Still Image Item Type Metadata
Inches (inches) 162 x 336 (426.72 x 853.44 cm.)
Dimensions: 168 x 336 inches (426.72 x 853.44 cm.)
Henry Montague was a British politician who was born in the town of Montague in the county of Suffolk in the United Kingdom. The Underground Railroad was never the nonstop stream of people that many people believe it to have been at one point in time. It was in operation for a total of 20 years, during which time the number of slaves housed here was estimated to be between 1,000 and 1,500, or an average of less than one slave per week. However, it meant that those large numbers of individuals were able to achieve freedom through Kalamazoo County, and the railroad would have been worth the effort even if it had only been for one of those people.
Two men stand out as early enablers of the railroad: Thomas Edison and John D. Rockefeller. Dr. Nathan M. Thomas, the first practicing physician in this area, established his practice in Prairie Ronde in 1830. He was the county’s first active outspoken abolitionist, and he was also the first to speak out against slavery. Another was Henry Montague, who lived in the 17th century. He began his abolitionist career in Massachusetts before relocating to New York in 1836 to continue his work. The abolitionist settled in Oshtemo and was a delegate to the state’s first abolitionist convention, which took place in Ann Arbor in 1848.
- They were a guy and his wife who had fled in Alabama and were making their way up the Mississippi River.
- They were handed over to Hugh M.
- In Kalamazoo County, this marked the beginning of the Underground Railroad.
- Nathan M.
Dr. Nathan M. Thomas is a physician who practices in the United States. Dr. Thomas’ residence in Schoolcraft was one of the most significant stations on the ‘underground railroad,’ which had multiple stops across Michigan. Routes via Schoolcraft, Battle Creek, Marshall, Jackson, and Detroit were commonly used to get to this halting place from other locations. Michigan was crossed by a number of other roads. There were seven routes that were the most often used. The routes were as follows: Toledo to Detroit; Toledo to Adrian to Detroit; St.
The Honorable Nathan M. Thomas, M.D., Ph.D. Dr. Thomas’ residence in Schoolcraft was one of the most significant stations on the ‘underground railroad,’ which had multiple stations across Michigan. Routes via Schoolcraft, Battle Creek, Marshall, Jackson, and Detroit were commonly used to get to this halting point from other places. Michigan was crossed by a variety of other routes. It was found that the most frequently utilized routes were seven. The routes were as follows: Toledo to Detroit; Toledo to Adrian to Detroit; St.
This group of slave hunters offered some frightening moments, such as the time a slave was concealed in the bottom of an apple box and then covered with apples. When the slave hunters searched the home and were unable to locate anyone, they ended up near the container and made remarks about how delicious the apples were. As a result, the slave hunters each stole a couple apples from the owner of the house, who conceded that they were in fact nice apples.
Notable Mention, Michigan and Beyond
Routes of the Underground Railroad, around 1848 In the ‘underground railroad’, Erastus Hussey of Battle Creek, Michigan, was a well-known figure, as was his father. He held a variety of leadership roles, including Michigan state senator, Battle Creek mayor, and Calhoun County clerk, to mention a few of his achievements. He was instrumental in the founding of the Republican Party, the nomination of Abraham Lincoln for president, and the passage of Michigan’s revolutionary Personal Liberty Bill, which granted runaway slaves the right to habeas corpus, a jury trial, and the possibility of a high court appeal in their cases.
- Tubman, also known as the Black Moses, was born a slave in 1820 in Dorchester County, Maryland, on the Chesapeake Bay.
- It was thought that, like Moses, she communicated with God on a regular basis and was destined to guide slaves to a promised land, probably Canada or the northern United States.
- He knew it would be the first of many adventures ahead of him.
- The Underground Railroad allowed her to make up to 19 voyages while assisting 300 fellow slaves reach freedom.
- Her skill became well-known around the world.
- She was never apprehended and went on to serve as a Union scout, spy, and nurse throughout the Civil War.
She remained in Auburn, New York, for the rest of her life, where she lived a meager existence for the rest of her life. Written by Fred Peppel, a member of the Kalamazoo Public Library’s staff, in February 2006.
Circa 1848, routes of the Underground Railroad Erastus Hussey of Battle Creek, Michigan, was another significant figure in the ‘underground railroad.’ He held a variety of leadership positions, including Michigan state senator, Battle Creek mayor, and Calhoun County clerk, to mention a few positions. He was instrumental in the formation of the Republican Party, the nomination of Abraham Lincoln for president, and the passage of Michigan’s revolutionary Personal Liberty Bill, which granted runaway slaves the right to habeas corpus, a jury trial, and the possibility of a high court appeal in their cases.
- Tubman was born as a slave in 1820 in Dorchester County, Maryland, on the Chesapeake Bay and was known as the Black Moses.
- The successful escape of Tubman from her Maryland farm led her to Pennsylvania in 1849.
- She returned to the south on several occasions.
- She even managed to rescue her elderly parents and transport them to Canada while doing so.
- When she was captured in 1860, the bounty offered for her arrest exceeded $60,000.
- The remainder of Tubman’s life was spent in obscurity in the town of Auburn, New York, where she had settled after the war.
Nathan M. Thomas: Birthright Member of the Society of Friends, Pioneer Physician, Early and Earnest Advocate of the Abolition of Slavery, Friend and Helper of the Fugitive Slave
Nathan M. Thomas, Cassopolis, MI: Stanton B. Thomas, 1925H 921 T459; Thomas, Nathan M.
African Americans in Michigan
Walker, Lewis, and colleaguesEast Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2001H 977.400496 W1818 Walker, Lewis, and colleagues
The Rural Black Heritage between Chicago and Detroit, 1850-1929: a photograph album and random thoughts
Wilson, Benjamin C.Kalamazoo, MI: New Issues Press, 1985H 973.0496 W7468 Wilson, Benjamin C.Kalamazoo, MI: New Issues Press, 1985H 973.0496 W7468
Underground Railroad is the subject of this file. The Underground Railroad File (also known as the Orange Dot File)
Posted on the 4th of July, 2017 In honor of the Fourth of July, we would want to commemorate all of the wonderful American heritage that our county has to offer! Here are some of the most significant facts about Calhoun County that have played a role in the development of our wonderful nation. The Underground Railroad is a term used to describe a system of transportation that allows people to flee their homes. Marshall, Battle Creek, and Albion were all major sites on the Underground Railroad during the American Civil War.
- He aided a large number of slaves in their escape to freedom in Canada.
- More information about these locations may be found in our geocaching guide.
- ( Sojourner Truth was a woman who lived in the United States during the Civil War.
- She was illiterate, but she was an outspoken advocate for human rights, and she was well-liked and respected for it.
- She was laid to rest in Oakhill Cemetery.
- ( History of Cereals Battle Creek is widely acknowledged as the origin of cereal.
- Kellogg and his brother W.K.
They were looking for a healthy breakfast choice for Seventh-day Adventists when they came up with this one.
( Is Marshall going to be the state capital?
The city finally lost out to Lansing in the bidding process, but not before constructing a Governor’s Mansion.
More information about the Governor’s Mansion may be found here.
Taking over the pulpit for the Rev.
Because of an anti-termperance group’s insistence that his kid spend the night in a saloon, he was furious.
Mrs. Blakely brought it up in her sermon and said something about it. Her boys expressed their appreciation for their mother and pledged to return every year on the second Sunday in May. Mother’s Day was first observed at the Albion Methodist Church in the 1880s.
Aboard the Underground Railroad- Dr. Nathan Thomas House
|Dr. Nathan Thomas HousePhotograph taken by Donald H. Sanborn,courtesy of the Michigan Historical Center.1910 postcard of the Thomas House. Caption at the bottom reads, “Original Home of Dr. Nathan Thomas, Kalamazoo County’s first doctor and friend of the slaves.”Photographer unknown, courtesy of the Michigan Historical Center.|
Underground Railroad Monument, Battle Creek, MI
Battle Creek, Michigan is home to the Underground Railroad Monument. Posted by:WrightStuffN 42° 19.131 W 085° 10.76716T E 650020 N 4686783N 42° 19.131 W 085° 10.76716T E 650020 N 4686783N 42° 19.131 W 085° 10.76716T Description in a nutshell: The Underground Railroad Monument, located on Michigan Avenue in Battle Creek, Michigan, commemorates the Underground Railroad. Michigan, United States of America is the location of this event. Posted at 8:27:04 p.m. on July 7, 2007. WM1THH is the waymark code.
- Slave “conductors” like as Battle Creek’s Erastus and Sara Hussey, whose likenesses are preserved on this memorial, put their lives in danger to assure the safety of escaping slaves through the secret network.
- Dedicated to the tenacity of the human spirit in the search for freedom, this memorial pays tribute to the Underground Railroad while also honoring the Underground Railroad.
- It was designed by sculptor Ed Dwight and constructed with monies granted to Battle Creek by the W.K.
- The 28-foot-long, 14-foot-high bronze statue serves as a reminder of the city’s significance in the Underground Railroad.
Michigan Trails/Genealogy Trails
George N. Fuller was in charge of the editing. Lewis Publishing Company was founded in 1939. In the nineteenth century, the underground railroad was an unofficial, informal network that assisted runaway slaves in their escape from slave states south of the Ohio River to safe havens in the northern United States or Canada. It did not have a charter and did not keep any records of its operations. The “higher law” to which the Federal rules regulating the repatriation of fugitive slaves were regarded subservient was used by its operators to justify their actions.
- The records of the organization’s history are, with few exceptions, assertions made from memory.
- The reason for this was because the Ohio River, which served as the northern frontier of slave states until the Civil War, is closer to the Canadian border through Ohio than it is at any other point along its route.
- The Underground Railroad’s Michigan lines transported fleeing slaves from Indiana all the way to the Canadian border.
- Battle Creek served as a crossroads for both of the routes that came out of the state of Indiana.
- The main line from Battle Creek headed east to Detroit, roughly following the path of the Michigan Central Railroad.
- Another route from Battle Creek led northeast through Lansing and Flint to Port Huron, from whence it was a short ferry ride across the St.
- South Bend, which was only a few miles from the Michigan border, served as the meeting place for two major roads that ran through Indiana.
There were numerous welcoming stop-over stations in Cass County, and the route continued northeast through Kalamazoo and Battle Creek until ending in Battle Creek.
The actual activities were dependent on the level of alertness displayed by each individual station and by the station’s operator.
However, as soon as he completed that assignment, his responsibility was terminated.
However, there is no evidence that he, or any general manager or board of directors, issued any written directives or maintained any accounting records to demonstrate that any of the hundreds of divisions were encompassed in a “system” of management.
In Michigan, there was a strong anti-slavery stance that was widely expressed.
The majority of the population was unconcerned about slaveowners and their possessions.
Because of this, when that agent requested assistance from local courts and law enforcement officers to assist him in apprehending fugitive blacks, he received at best only half-hearted cooperation.
The ordinary Michigan citizen was not inclined to enquire into the negro’s legal status, such as whether he was a freedman or a runaway, since he did not believe it was necessary.
The counties with the highest numbers outside of Detroit were Washtenaw (62), Monroe (35), and Calhoun (24).
In 1830, a negro called Blackburn and his wife escaped from their owner in Kentucky and settled in Detroit, Michigan, where they lived peacefully for several years.
The runaways were brought to trial and imprisoned in preparation for their eventual repatriation to the United States.
While being transported to the boat, Blackburn himself was saved by a group of brown men and white companions who had come to his aid.
The declaration of martial law was followed by the dissemination of information indicating that the local blacks were in rebellion.
The presence of the negro, whether free or enslaved, was considered to be a provocation of trouble by the general public.
Although Michigan was not a safe refuge for black people, whether free or slave, who had previously resided in the South, it was really second only to Canada in terms of their safety.
The impartial attitude of the people of Michigan toward slaves and slaveowners facilitated the development of operations on the Underground Railroad that passed through Michigan during the Civil War.
There was a basic path between the Quaker villages that the subterranean railroad always followed.
He later asserted that important inhabitants of Battle Creek were opposed to his attempts at outwitting law enforcement officials who were dispatched to apprehend runaway slaves.
An underground railroad historian has developed a list of 47 “operators” in the state of Michigan, according to the Michigan Underground Railroad Museum.
Joseph with 7, Calhoun with 4, and Cass with 3; there were two in Oakland and one each in Kalamazoo and Genesee counties.
Cass County was the site of the first fugitive’s capture in 1836.
Not only did this negro colony comprise escaped slaves, but it also had a group of freed blacks who had arrived from North Carolina around the year 1846 and formed the community’s foundation.
When looking for a runaway slave, slave hunters would naturally turn their attention to the negro colony in Cass County.
The “Kentucky Raid” was the name given to this failed operation.
The Kentuckians concentrated their efforts across a wide area and continued their activities for a long length of time, involving a large number of individual excursions, as evidenced by the following: In August of 1847, one of the most important groups of raiders from Kentucky came in the area.
Nonetheless, they were obviously in possession of the laws of the United States to assist them in reclaiming their slaves, and they were only driven to act discreetly as a result of the widespread animosity toward the slave system among Americans.
One or more slaves were apprehended at each of the residences that were visited.
A large throng had assembled in front of the courthouse.
After a verdict was reached in favor of the Kentuckians, the nine formerly enslaved people were freed and transported out of the state through the underground railroad the same night.
In reality, nearly the whole cash went toward court costs and attorneys’ fees and costs of litigation.
The ultimate result of this, as well as other comparable situations, was, of course, a denial of justice for the victims.
At addition to Albion and Parma, there were stations in Jackson and Michigan Center, Leoni and Grass Lake, Francisco and Dexter as well as Ann Arbor, Ypsilanti, and Plymouth.
Finney’s Hotel is still in operation today.
Because of the significant Quaker population in Lenawee County, although being off the major subterranean route, the county played a vital role.
Quaker Valley is a charming rural village that has survived the passage of time.
Aunt Laura, as she was lovingly called, was a native of Ontario who had immigrated to Lenawee County in 1829.
She was one of the founding members of Michigan’s first abolition club, and she was so well-known in the cause that slave interests in the South offered a $3,000 reward for her capture, dead or alive, if she could be found.
The Crosswhite case marked the culmination of the underground railroad’s actions in Michigan, as well as the abolitionist movement as a whole.
Crosswhite is supposed to have been the prototype for the character “George Harris” in Uncle Tom’s Cabin, according to popular belief.
Crosswhite, fearful that he may be kidnapped, made arrangements for the discharge of a gun to serve as a signal to his neighbors to alert them of his whereabouts.
Four Kentuckians, accompanied by a deputy sheriff, had arrived at the Crosswhite residence to pay a visit.
During this time, friends and neighbors were woken by the signal and quickly gathered around the small group of kidnappers and prisoners, encircling them within minutes.
To the cheering crowd, the attorney for the Kentuckians delivered a legal argument based on the Federal Constitution and State laws.
It had been several hours.
The Kentuckians were taken into custody because they had used violence.
A poignant argument was presented during the preliminary hearing by John Van Arman, one of Michigan’s most known lawyers, who stressed the vicious attack at night, the curse of slavery, the gift of freedom, and the spectacle of a tiny child being snatched from the breast of its mother.
While everything was going on, the Crosswhite family was removed from the community and hidden somewhere for the night. They were put on a train that left early in the morning towards Detroit, and by the end of the day, they had crossed the border into Canada.