In frontier Iowa, James Jordan fearlessly helped Freedom Seekers gain safe passage on the Underground Railroad route that passed near his farm in the area that would become West Des Moines. The Underground Railroad ran across the southern and central regions of Iowa, a state where slave ownership was never legal.
What did James Wood do on the Underground Railroad?
- James Wood, a prosperous and industrious Quaker, owned the 800-acre farm. Wood dealt in hay, kept bees and surveyed land. Wood’s involvement as the station keeper for New Hampshire’s Hillsborough County on the Underground Railroad had scant documentation.
Where did the Underground Railroad take place?
These were called “stations,” “safe houses,” and “depots.” The people operating them were called “stationmasters.” There were many well-used routes stretching west through Ohio to Indiana and Iowa. Others headed north through Pennsylvania and into New England or through Detroit on their way to Canada.
Where in Maryland is the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad | Cambridge, MD.
Where was the Underground Railroad in Massachusetts?
It so happened that the Underground Railroad passed through Lowell and towns east of the Merrimack River. Many local families and businesses supporting abolitionism in the north created and used these hideaway places to provide safe lodging for runaway slaves on their escape to Canada.
What areas of NY were part of the Underground Railroad?
9 Incredible Places Around New York That Were Once Part Of The Underground Railroad
- Starr Clark Tin Shop – Mexico.
- Lewiston – Niagara County.
- John Brown Farm Historic Site – Lake Placid.
- Mother AME Zion Church – New York City.
- Rogues Harbor Inn – Lansing.
- Murphy Orchards – Burt.
- Mission Restaurant – Syracuse.
Were there tunnels in the Underground Railroad?
Contrary to popular belief, the Underground Railroad was not a series of underground tunnels. While some people did have secret rooms in their houses or carriages, the vast majority of the Underground Railroad involved people secretly helping people running away from slavery however they could.
Does the Underground Railroad still exist?
It includes four buildings, two of which were used by Harriet Tubman. Ashtabula County had over thirty known Underground Railroad stations, or safehouses, and many more conductors. Nearly two-thirds of those sites still stand today.
Where in Maryland did Harriet Tubman live?
The most famous “conductor” on the Underground Railroad, Harriet Tubman was born and lived in Dorchester County, Maryland, for her first 27 years or so. After she escaped slavery, she returned to the area, risking her life again and again, to lead dozens of friends and family out of slavery to freedom.
Did Harriet Tubman live in Cambridge Maryland?
Her owner, Edward Brodess, rented Tubman out over and over again while she lived on his farm, which lies on what is now Greenbrier Road in Cambridge, Maryland. The stillness in this agrarian-rich part of the country has changed little, save for the occasional car or tractor passing through.
Is Harriet Tubman from Maryland?
Harriet Tubman, born Araminta Ross(1822-1913) Araminta “Minty” Ross was born into slavery on the Eastern Shore of Maryland in Dorchester County in 1822. Tubman returned to Maryland many times to rescue her family and dozens of others who were enslaved.
Was Boston part of the underground railroad?
Boston’s Underground Railroad Boston served as a destination for many people escaping slavery on the underground railroad. Freedom seekers arriving in the city found that Boston’s tightly knit free Black community provided support and a welcome sanctuary as they began their new lives.
Did the underground railroad operate in New England?
The Underground Railroad was a network of people who hid fugitives from slavery in their homes during the day. At night they moved them north to free states, Canada or England. Here, then, are six New England stops on the Underground Railroad, one for each of the New England states.
Is the underground railroad in Massachusetts?
There are fourteen recognized National Underground Railroad sites in Massachusetts. The Network to Freedom is a program administered by the National Park Service to recognize and tell the story of resistance against the institution of slavery in the United States through escape and flight.
Was Staten Island part of the Underground Railroad?
STATEN ISLAND, N.Y. — Staten Island has a rich history revolving around people of African descent who were freed from enslavement – from Sandy Ground to stops along the Underground Railroad.
Did the Underground Railroad go through upstate New York?
Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad. As Foner details in his new book, Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad, New York was a crucial way station from the Upper South through Pennsylvania and onward to upstate New York, New England and Canada.
Was New York the Underground Railroad?
Abolitionists employed a vast network of churches, safe houses, and community sites in New York, as well as the 445-mile border with Canada, to help emancipate enslaved people.
Missing Journal Reveals Underground Railroad Site
|James Wood Served with the New Hampshire Militia in 1845|
|James Wood ran on the Constitutional Union Ticket in NH|
|Rebecca Pillsbury was from Boscawon where the journal was found|
All Rights Reserved, Copyright 2008, All Rights Reserved Steve Restelli is a successful businessman. In 1862, the discovery of a notebook authored by a prominent New Hampshire farmer has provided new light on the presence of the very covert Underground Railroad in a tiny New Hampshire village, which had previously been unknown. According to Charles Blockson, a professor at Temple University and a well-known expert on the Underground Railroad, “there are no previously known New Hampshire Underground Railroad locations that have been recorded.” Mr.
- When I opened the book, the year 1862 was printed on the cover, and as I read the first few pages, it became clear that it was very detailed, nicely written, and really engaging.
- In the end, it was this entry that proved to be of critical value in establishing that the journal’s author had been harboring a fugitive slave.” This item is written in capital letters: “A fleeing slave, perhaps?
- this evening and plan to remain the entire night.
- I suddenly understood that I was in possession of evidence relating to a federal offense.
- I immediately went out on a journey to find out who had written this notebook and what their name was.
- It took almost a month before I received a call from Richard Henderson, a historian from Enfield, New Hampshire, who wanted to speak with me.
- Because of his efforts and knowledge, it was possible to discover who wrote the diary and who was the author.
Henderson was going to be the one to solve this puzzle from our very first encounter.
James Wood was born on March 2, 1823, in Lebanon, New Hampshire, to James and Elizabeth Wood.
This was a beekeeping, hay-making, and sheep-marketing enterprise in Lebanon.
Besides that, he was a member of the Constitutional Union Party, and he campaigned for office under that banner prior to the outbreak of the American Civil War.
James Wood wrote journals almost every year, as evidenced by the fact that his family descendants have a large number of them, as well as all of the photographs I have save for the 1862 diary.
120 just before the East Plainfield town border, is still in existence.
Following the 1938 storm, which destroyed the majority of the valuable standing wood, the land was sold out of the family’s possession.
It was until a few years later that I came upon The Underground Railroad, a book authored by Wilbur Siebert in 1898 and published by Random House.
As a result, the evidence in support of his indictment for breaking federal fugitive slave statutes is strengthened even more.
It would be wonderful if a memorial could be built at the James Wood property to honor his heroic and unseen labor in assisting his fellow man in escaping the chains of slavery and the bindings of injustice.
New Databases Offer Insights Into the Lives of Escaped Slaves (Published 2016)
When slaves attempted to flee from American and British plantations and mansions, their owners frequently put detailed newspaper advertisements offering incentives to anybody who could bring the fugitives back to their owners. They described the runaway slaves’ demeanors, clothing and hairstyles, as well as their facial and body markings, teeth, and abilities. They also included information about plantations that the escapees might have attempted to reach in the hopes of reuniting with family members or less cruel former owners.
- These searchable entries include information on how frequently slaves were able to escape with their children, how successfully some were able to pass for white, and how many recaptured slaves continued to attempt to flee.
- The subject matter can be quite distressing.
- Some advertisements offered rewards for the bodies or severed heads of the fugitives who were apprehended.
- In addition to other states, regional databases have concentrated on advertisements for fugitive slaves from areas like as Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Louisiana, and Mississippi.
- Approximately 200,000 of these advertisements were printed in the United States, reflecting only a small proportion of the overall fugitive population in the country at the time.
- Freedom on the Move is overseen by Edward E.
- It was unusual to see advertisements for people in such condition, according to the expert.
- However, because white folks would have been told about the appearance of the fugitives through the media, blacks on the streets would have been closely inspected.
- Mitchell, “it’s a network of rumor and surveillance that exists.” A senior researcher at the New England Historic Genealogical Society in Boston, Meaghan E.
Siekman, said the proprietors penned ads “describing individuals like a jacket that they’d misplaced,” which she described as “demeaning.” She claims that by mentioning the slaves’ abilities, which ranged from carpentry to violin playing, the advertisements made it more difficult for them to obtain work in free states.
- The genealogy society is increasing its records pertaining to African-American family trees, making it feasible to link names to advertisements for runaways in the future.
- In addition, courthouse records regarding fugitives who fought legal fights to remain free have survived.
- Newman, a professor at the University of Glasgow, looked into the case of Jamie Montgomery, a young slave who was transported from Virginia to Scotland in the 1750s.
- In order to avoid being transferred to Virginia, Mr.
- He died while in the custody of the authorities before a court could rule on his case.
- Newman pointed out, it has been a long time since the extent to which slavery was practiced in England and Scotland, in both rural and urban areas, has been widely recognized.
- This “entire lost universe” is now becoming available to us, he explained.
Michelle Arnosky Sherburne, author of the new book “Slavery: The Underground Railroad in New Hampshire,” has discovered hundreds of advertisements for runaway slaves that were published in Vermont and New Hampshire, as well as anecdotes about white residents who assisted runaway slaves in their escape.
- He had a bed made up for him in the wool room, as Mr.
- Historic Hudson Valley, an educational and preservation group situated in Pocantico Hills, New York, has developed a school curriculum module based on runaway slave advertisements, and it is also working on compiling a database of slaves in the Northern colonies.
- The lecture will feature Colonel Tye, a runaway slave from New Jersey who fought for the British during the Revolutionary War.
- Artifacts associated with the subject have begun appearing in museums and at auctions.
- The portrait was donated to the National Museum of African American History and Culture, which will display documentation of escaped slaves when it opens in September.
- (estimated at a few thousand dollars each).
- The fugitive galloped away on a horse that he had stolen from a local doctor, and he abandoned the animal once he reached some nearby mountains.
Only a few years after the runaway’s courageous deed, John Brown launched his unsuccessful revolt not far from the Botelers’ property, where both Union and Confederate forces ended up slaying one another.
Places to Go-Graue Mill-Underground-Railroad
DuPage County was a prominent player in a critical chapter in the history of slavery in the United States. When freshly constructed steam railways captured the public’s interest, slaves were exploiting an underground network to evade capture and escape from their captors. The Underground Railroad played a significant role in the abolition of slavery and the abolition of slavery. Runaway slaves (passengers) proceeded to their destinations by night, either alone or in small groups, according to historical records.
- Wheaton, Glen Ellyn, Glendale Heights, Wayne Center, Warrenville, West Chicago, Lombard, Naperville, Downers Grove, Hinsdale, Lyons, and Oak Brook all had Underground Railroad stations in the 1800s.
- DuPage County served as a hub for passengers traveling from the state’s southern, southwest, and western regions.
- It is still possible to visit Graue Mill and Museum, which is one of the preserved stops.
- Its position on Salt Creek, a branch of the Des Plaines River, provided Graue Mill a perfect place for sheltering slaves during the American Civil War.
- The Underground Railroad was still in operation until the end of the Civil War in 1865.
- This theatrical experience begins with a sketch in which passengers are introduced to the renowned Harriet Tubman and her daughter, Sarah.
- To book a ticket, call the Graue Mill box office at 630-655-2090.
The Underground Railroad
It was far-reaching in scope, covering the whole United States and beyond, and profound in significance for a nation whose very existence was intertwined with the sale of human life. However, because of its secrecy, that history has proven to be a tough one to uncover.
What was the Underground Railroad?
For enslaved persons seeking freedom, Western Pennsylvania served as a key corridor via which they might travel. They traveled largely on foot, with the odd trip in secret compartments of wagons and other modes of conveyance. They followed paths that had been sculpted by nature through rivers, streams, and mountains, and they did it mostly on foot. It is impossible to know how many there were because no formal records were kept and just a few informal ones have survived. Some writings written by people who aided in this subterranean process—sometimes referred to as “conductors”—have survived, providing some indication of the hardships suffered by those going on the railroad.
- Affected by the Fugitive Slave Laws were also free individuals of African descent who resided in the region.
- Even more were transformed into the voice of social transformation and self-empowerment for all Blacks of the time period and beyond.
- From Slavery to Freedom, an exhibition at the Senator John Heinz History Center, will take you on a journey through more than 250 years of African-American history.
- One of the several Underground Railroad routes in western Pennsylvania entered through Uniontown in Fayette County, proceeded through Blairsville in Indiana County, and then continued on into Mercer, Venango, and Erie Counties before coming to an end in the city of Pittsburgh.
There are tours of the town and cemetery offered by The Blairsville Area Underground Railroad Project, which also offers tours to UGRR-related locations, such as the Underground Railroad Museum.
Western Pennsylvania Underground Railroad Sites
Mt. Washington, PA 15211 Chatham Village Olympia Road Mt. Washington, PA 15211 Building constructed in 1849 that served as a station on the Underground Railroad inside the boundaries of Chatham Village T. James Bigham was an abolitionist barrister and the editor of The Commercial Journal Anti-Slavery Newspaper, which was published in London in 1848. Lucinda Bigham, the Black family nurse of Bigham, is said to have kept a vigilant eye out from the Bigham home’s tower for escaped slaves or professional slave hunters.
More information may be found in this wesa.fm story.
Third Street between Market and Ferry Streets in downtown Pittsburgh is home to a barbershop and safehouse that serves the community. Slaves were given a fresh appearance as well as a head start on their escape to the United States. Using lists of famous hotel visitors and advertisements made by persons seeking for escaped slaves, historians have confirmed the hotel’s role in the abolitionist movement. Daytime: A economic, social, and political club for the city’s white elites; nighttime: a station on the Underground Railroad for slaves fleeing to the United States.
Freedom Road Cemetery
Mercer County Historical Society 119 South Pitt St. Mercer, PA 16137 (724.662.3490) Mercer County Historical Society The Stoneboro Fairgrounds Cemetery is located on the right side of the road, directly across from the entrance gate. Liberia was a runaway slave settlement founded by the Travis family, who were themselves free Blacks. All that is left of Liberia is a cemetery. For many years, this town served as a haven for tired travelers on their journey. A popular target of slave catchers, it was also a frequent target of their raids.
Only a handful of people remained in the region, including one entrepreneur who sold cigars and alcohol to his neighbors.
Gibson House (Mark Twain Manor)
The Jamestown Future Foundation is located at 210 Liberty St. in Jamestown, Pennsylvania 16134 and can be reached at 724.932.5455. Dr. William Gibson, a well-known Jamestown physician, accompanied Samuel Clemens on his journey to Russia. Clemens authored a book on their adventures, titled Innocents Abroad, which is available on Amazon. It has been speculated that the home served as a halt on the Underground Railroad. There is evidence of a tiny chamber that was utilized as a station on the Underground Railroad in the basement.
The Gibson House is a historic structure that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
John C. Peck Oyster House
Fourth Street between Wood and Market Streets in downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania A station halt on the Underground Railroad.
Plaque Honoring Jane Gray Swisshelm
600 Grant St., in the heart of downtown Pittsburgh In downtown Pittsburgh, on Sixth Avenue, at the Heinz headquarters is the Heinz Museum.
Jane Grey Swisshelm had direct experience with slavery and became committed to the abolitionist fight for the Underground Railroad as a result. She started publishing an abolitionist weekly in Pittsburgh in 1848, called the Pittsburgh Saturday Visitor.
Private homes in Arthurville and Hayti
Pittsburgh’s Lower Hill neighborhood It is believed that the fugitives were hiding out in private homes in the predominantly African-American neighborhoods of Arthurville and Hayti, where they were assisted by agents and conductors such as the Rev. Lewis Woodson, Samuel Bruce, George Gardner and Bishop Benjamin Tanner, the father of the noted black artist Henry Ossawa Tanner, who is depicted on a United States postage stamp.
St. Matthew’s A.M.E. Church in Sewickley
Sewickley is located at 345 Thorn St. Built in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, in 1857, they functioned as Underground Railroad operators. One common technique of providing food to escaped slaves in the Pittsburgh region was for conductors to disguise as hunters at night and carry a game bag full with foodstuffs to their destination.
Wylie A.M.E. Church
Hill District, 2200 Wylie Avenue, 2200 Wylie Avenue On July 11, 1850, a group of African American residents gathered at the church and passed resolutions criticizing the recently proposed Fugitive Slave Bill, which had been sponsored by the United States Congress. A request was made at this assembly for the complete amalgamation of their organizations in order to secure protection against slave hunters who come into Pittsburgh in search of fugitives.
Avery Memorial A.M.E. Zion Church, at the corner of Nash and Avery Streets, was afterwards known as Avery College and then as Avery Memorial A.M.E. Zion Church. In 1812, Charles Avery moved to Pittsburgh from New York. His interest in the cotton industry led him on purchasing excursions to the southern United States, where he became interested in the situation of the Negro slaves. He became a member of the abolitionist movement and assisted slaves in their escape from the South to Canada via the underground railroad.
- Avery’s riches enabled him to build the Allegheny Institute and Mission Church, which became known as Avery College.
- The basement, which was only accessible by concealed trap doors, was most likely a “station” (hiding spot) on the Underground Railroad’s secret underground network.
- During the night, a rowboat was employed to transport them up the canal to the tunnel entrance in secrecy.
- When Avery passed away, his net worth was estimated to be $800,000.
- Workmen dismantled the red brick structure of Avery College in Old Allegheny’s Dutchtown to make room for the East Street Valley Expressway, which has been a source of contention for years.
With the exception of a few nostalgic old-timers, hardly one seemed to notice the demolition of the ancient building. Old-timers, on the other hand, believed that demolition of the structure signaled the end of a notable Pittsburgher’s dream.
In the Hill District, this was a hub of Black social life where performers such as Art Blakey, Mary Lou Williams, and John Coltrane drew a racially diverse and international audience. Founded by William “Gus” Greenlee, a major person in Pittsburgh’s Black community who was also the owner of the Pittsburgh Crawfords, the city’s Negro League baseball club, the Pittsburgh Crawfords was founded in 1903.
Formerly located at the junction of Water and Smithfield Streets, this hotel has been demolished. One of the city’s most luxurious hotels, as well as a hotbed of anti-slavery activities. It had a staff of 300 free Blacks who were in regular touch with a steady stream of affluent Southern merchants who arrived from the north and east.
Point View Hotel
On Brownsville Road in Brentwood, there is a family-owned historic pub and restaurant that was originally used as a stopping point on the Underground Railroad. Slaves who had escaped were housed in the basement.
Underground Railroad Sites in Hudson, Ohio – Hudson Library
|William Hanford House145 Aurora Street Rev. William Hanford spoke out publicly against slavery even before his arrival in Hudson. Later, this house would be occupied by the Rev. Beriah Green, an outspoken Abolitionist and a key figure in the controversy between the Colonizationalists and the Abolitionists, which tore Hudson apart in the early 1830s. Green would later go on to head the Oneida Institute. Subsequently, the house was owned by Martin Luther Edwards, an anti-slavery advocate and a member of the Free Congregational Church of Hudson.Learn more|
|Whedon-Hinsdale House2727 Hudson-Aurora Road When Owen Brown married the widow Lucy Hinsdale in 1841, he moved from his nearby farm to this house and called it his favorite. Brown was one of the principle anti-slavery figures in Hudson and was the town’s “stationmaster” on the Underground Railroad.|
|Spring Hill Farm2827 Hudson-Aurora Road Owen Brown lived here from 1835 until moving next door in 1841. Brown was heavily involved in the Underground Railroad and passed his hatred of slavery on to his son, John.|
|Asahel Kilbourne House1213 Barlow Road Deacon Kilbourne was an associate of Owen Brown and a member of the Free Congregational Church. His anti-slavery convictions were well-known in Hudson.|
|Case-Barlow Farm1931 Barlow Road This was the boyhood home of Lora Case, a well-known Underground Railroad activist and childhood friend of John Brown. Family tradition says that Lora’s parents, Chauncey and Cleopatra Case, hid fugitives in the wood lot at the edge of the farm.|
|Harvey Coe House92 College Street While not a known Underground Railroad agent, Rev. Coe was heavily involved in the American Colonization Society and was one of the figures who precipitated the ideological crisis within the anti-slavery community in Hudson in the early 1830s.|
|Norman Baldwin House30 Division Street This house originally stood at the present location of 35 East Main Street. In the early 1830s it was the home of prominent local abolitionist William Dawes.|
|John Brown Tannery House1842 Hines Hill Road This home was built on the grounds of the tannery John Brown ran in Hudson. Originally, the Brown family lived in a log cabin on this site. By 1825, John Brown had completed construction on this house. In 1826, he sold the house to his brother Oliver and moved to Pennsylvania. John Brown Jr. recalled that as a child, he observed his father and mother aiding fugitive slaves here.|
|Elizur Wright, Jr. House120 Hudson Street One of the most prominent Abolitionists in America, Wright lived in this house while he was a professor at Western Reserve College. A member of one of Summit County’s strongly anti-slavery families, the Wrights of Tallmadge, he later went on to edit the anti-slavery magazine, Human Rights, become secretary of the Anti-Slavery Society of America, and edit the anti-slavery newspaper, the Massachusetts Abolitionist.|
|Titus Hand House220 North Main Street Titus Hand was the son-in-law of Owen Brown, married to Owen’s daughter, Sally Marian Brown. Active in anti-slavery activities, they lived in this house in the 1830’s. The Hands would later move to Kent and then Lorain County. Both attended the 1839 Abolitionist convention in Cleveland.|
|Brown-Strong House258 North Main Street Owen Brown had this house built for his son, Oliver. The Browns later sold the house to Ephraim Strong, another prominent abolitionist in Hudson.|
|John MarkillieThe House was at the site of the Western Reserve Telephone Company offices, 245 North Main Street John Markillie, a photographer and an ardent Abolitionist, lived in a wood-framed house that once stood on this site. Lora Case names Markillie as an agent to whom he often took his passengers in the center of Hudson.|
|David Hudson House318 North Main Street David Hudson, the town’s founder, was an early anti-slavery advocate. On January 5, 1826, his son, David Hudson, Jr. wrote in his diary: “Two men came this evening in a sleigh, bringing a Negro woman, a runaway slave, and her two children.” While a believer in the Colonization movement, Hudson remained an active Underground Railroad agent.|
|Old Western Reserve College Now the home of Western Reserve Academy, the first college in northern Ohio was an active area for anti-slavery activity. It was the center of debate between the Colonizationalists and the Abolitionists in 1832-1833. On November 11, 1834, John Buss writes in his diary “A runaway slave, his wife, and child.” arrived on the Western Reserve College campus The boys at the college scraped up $5.00 to send the family on to Cleveland. In the 1850s, Frederick Douglass gave the commencement speech at the college.|
|George Holcomb / Timothy Hudson House356 North Main Street David Hudson’s son, Timothy Hudson, was a prominent anti-slavery figure in Ohio. Previous to moving into this house in 1842, he was the editor of an anti-slavery newspaper in Medina, Ohio and attended the Putnam Anti-Slavery Convention in Muskingum County in 1834. He was married to Katherine Brown, a first cousin of John Brown of Harpers Ferry fame.|
|Original First Congregational Church Building Now the site of Hudson Visitor’s CenterGift Shop,27 East Main Street The church used a wooden structure on this site from 1820-1865, when the congregation moved to a new building on Aurora Street. The original church building was removed in 1878. In 1837, John Brown gave his first public speech opposing slavery in the church upon hearing of the murder of anti-slavery newspaperman Elijah Lovejoy in Illinois.|
|Kilbourne-Oviatt House151 South Main Street George Kilbourne was a member of the Free Congregational Church and an anti-slavery activist in Hudson. This house was moved here from 5735 Darrow Road.|
|Thirty AcresSouth Main Street This was the home of John B. Clark, a prominent Abolitionist in Hudson. Traces of an escape tunnel led from this house.|
|Free Congregational Church5 East Streetsboro Street Owen Brown established the Free Congregational or “Oberlin” Church in 1842 and paid to have this building constructed for the congregation. Members had to swear they would fight against slavery. John Brown made his last appearance in Hudson in front of this building in the summer of 1859 on his way to Harpers Ferry.|
|Jeremiah Root Brown House204 Streetsboro Street John Brown’s brother, Jeremiah, ran a station at his farmhouse. He stored weapons for his brother on this site. Local tradition says that the dry cistern in the building was often used to hide fugitives.|
|Lora Case The Cabin was at the intersection of Streetsboro Street and Stone Road.While it has been gone for over a century, Lora Case’s cabin on the south side of Streetsboro Street was an active Underground Railroad station. Lora Case wrote in “It was a rare thing that a passenger attempted itor got through on our road.” July 1859.|
Loudoun and Frederick Farms Linked by Underground Railroad
ByEugene Scheel, Ph.D. A historian and mapmaker from the town of Waterford. Ezra (1813-1886) and Margaret (1823-1897) Michael are featured on the Cold Springs Farm website. Huntland Farm in Loudoun County, Virginia, and Cooling Springs Farm in Frederick County, Maryland, both 30 miles apart, have played a significant role in African American history. For decades before and during the Civil War, they served as stations on the Underground Railroad, a term that became popular once railways were widely available in the late 1840s and were used to refer to routes traveled by fleeing slaves.
- In 1831, the property was divided down the middle by its track.
- More than 1,000 slaves made their way through Loudoun and Frederick, its northern neighbor, on their way to seek freedom in the northern states and Canada.
- This is what the freedom seekers saw: the Spring House, which was concealed under a bridge, past the streams of Cooling Springs Farm, on their journey.
- The six were believed to have escaped from Oak Hill Plantation, which was 15 miles south of Cooling Springs and where they had been held as slaves.
- After being held at gunpoint, the Wanzers and Grigbys managed to flee to Canada, where they lived out the remainder of their lives.
- Even after the war, escapes from the Piedmont were not discussed in the media or on television.
- The trek for runaway slaves took two to three days from Huntland, north of Middleburg, to Cooling Springs, across the Potomac in Frederick County.
Federal rules that required the return of fugitive slaves were made unenforceable in that state in 1847, according to the state constitution.
Anti-slavery groups such as the Brethren, Mennonites, and Quakers found their way to Philadelphia, the City of Brotherly Love, through the many Brethren, Mennonites, and Quakers who lived in Pennsylvania, among other places.
Canada’s government passed a rule in 1826 banning the return of runaway slaves to their owners, and slavery was officially abolished in the country in 1833.
The estate was then visited by my history class, which was comprised of Loudoun County teachers, in the fall.
A caretaker had informed me that there was a pre-Civil War tunnel beneath the iron gate in the serpentine brick wall enclosing the front yard, which I had discovered on my own.
She informed me that the route was utilized by fleeing slaves.
Later, I came upon a scrap of paper in the Huntland file in the Thomas Balch Library, which I immediately recognized.
Huntland was owned by brothers George and Herman Brown throughout the 1950s and 1960s.
Johnson at the Huntland estate during Johnson’s days as U.S.
Johnson suffered a heart attack while hunting in Huntland in 1955, and Middleburg physician James “Jimmy” Gibson was the first medical practitioner to arrive at the site.
Prior to the addition of the Huntland wings in 1912, the inner end of the tunnel terminated on a grassy downhill sloping into the tunnel.
Those who managed to flee took refuge in outbuildings, where the aromas of animals and feed helped to hide the stink of people.
Due to the fact that the Benton family owned five virtually continuous farms totaling more than 2,000 acres, the clan could adopt a “live and let live” approach.
Benton wrote the following in a 1962 letter to a relative about her great-grandfather, William Benton, who was the architect and builder of Huntland (then known as New Lisbon) in 1837.
I recently chatted with William Benton, the great-great-grandson of the builder, about his family’s history.
He explicitly referred to the McQuay family of St.
Before the Civil War, its members were Benton slaves, and subsequently, they worked as agricultural laborers.
When Grace Benton, the present William Benton’s aunt, writes about the first William Benton, she gives us a hint about the first William Benton.
Quakers and Germans resided to the west of the mountain, where they were non-slaveholding and generally amicable.
Then there’s the mountain again, this time with Hall Town, a community of free blacks on the east slope of the mountain, about two miles from the Mississippi River.
Aside from that, the Michaels owned a timber lot on Catoctin Mountain near Hall Town and were among the founding members of adjacent St.
I first met Peter H.
Andrew Michael, his great-great-great-great-great grandpa, established the settlement in 1768.
Andrew Michael’s son, also Andrew Michael, was a slave owner, although he emancipated his slaves a year before his death in 1851, according to historical records.
Margaret Michael, Ezra Michael’s second wife, and a descendant of the abolitionist Dudderar family, is credited by Peter Michael as the person who may have persuaded her father-in-law to alter his views.
“They had to have relied on one another in some way or another.
According to the recollections of 16 Michael family members and other historians in Frederick County, a stone springhouse located a considerable distance away from the main house and 150 feet from the BaltimoreOhio Railroad lines served as a slave safe home.
In the Piedmont, such documentation is as near as one can get to the real thing.
Pathways to Freedom
|People||Museums/ Historical Sites||Events||Primary Source Documents|
Marylanders who were a part of the Underground Railroad To quickly navigate to a certain individual, use the links provided below: Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass, Thomas Garrett, and William Still are all historical figures. Samuel Burris is a fictional character created by author Samuel Burris. More Individuals » Harriet Tubman, who was born a slave in Cambridge, Maryland, was a famous Underground Railroad conductor and one of the most well-known figures in the history of the Underground Railroad.
She was familiar with a number of paths through the woods and fields.
It was safer at night and when there were less people outdoors working or traveling from one location to another, according to the study.
When she was with her gang, she always had weapons on her person to defend them in case they were assaulted.
Her reputation is built on the fact that she never lost a single passenger.
We believe he was born around 1818, but we do not have any documentation to support this assumption.
Douglass had a sneaking suspicion that his white owner, Captain Aaron Anthony, was his father.
The death of Douglass’s mother occurred when he was around seven years old.
Douglass, who was eight years old at the time, was finally assigned to live with the Auld family in Baltimore by Captain Anthony.
Auld assisted the little child in his efforts to learn to read and write.
They would eventually provide their support to Douglass in his fight against the scourge of slavery.
Douglass was returned to the Eastern Shore, where he was placed with Thomas Auld, who happened to be Captain Anthony’s son-in-law.
He came to the conclusion that he must find his path to freedom.
He found employment at a shipyard in Fells Point, where he was surrounded by free Black men.
Douglass made the decision to try to go to the north in search of freedom.
He chose to dress in the manner of a free Black seaman, similar to the ones he worked with at the Shipyard.
Douglass departed Baltimore on September 3, 1838, according to historical records.
Once he had reached in the North, Douglass changed his last name from Bailey to Johnson in order to escape being recaptured by slavehunters from the southern United States.
Pennington, who was also Frederick’s best man.
Douglass changed his last name for the second and last time at that location.
He went throughout the northern United States, sharing firsthand tales of slavery, abolition, segregation, and prejudice with an audience of thousands.
He was terrified that he would be apprehended and returned to the slave trade.
Douglass was eventually and formally set free from his captivity.
There, he began publishing an abolitionist newspaper known as The North Star, which he named after his hometown.
He continued to contribute to national and international initiatives aimed at achieving freedom for all people, including himself.
He was 78 years old.
Several conductors, including Tubman, led the way to Garrett’s mansion.
He conveyed a large number of persons to Philadelphia, where there was a thriving Abolition Society and a large number of people who were involved with the Underground Railroad at the time.
He took in a large number of fugitives from Maryland, the state where his mother was born.
He made arrangements for a large number of fugitive slaves to continue their trek to Canada.
It includes descriptions of the fugitives he received as well as letters from fugitives and Underground Railroad aids such as Thomas Garrett and Frances Ellen Watkins Harper.
Several biographies of men and women who were involved in the Underground Railroad are also included in the book.
Take a look at an extract from William Still’s autobiography.
He was a free black guy at the time.
He became involved in the Underground Railroad’s operations as a result of his experiences.
He collaborated with Benjamin Still and Thomas Garrett on a number of projects.
If they are apprehended, they may be sold as slaves to make money.
He was arrested and taken to jail, where he remained for several months.
The judge ruled that he be sold and sentenced to serve seven years in prison.
They gathered funds and dispatched an abolitionist called Isaac Flint to the auction where Burris would be sold, where he was successful.
This is the narrative of that auction written by William Still. Burris then relocated to California, where he continued to send contributions to support formerly enslaved people in need. return to the beginning More Individuals »