Where Was The Underground Railroad For Kids?

The heaviest activities of the Underground Railroad were in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, New York, and the New England states. Most routes ended in Canada. Estimates of the number of enslaved people who “rode” the Underground Railroad range from 40,000 to 100,000.

Where does the Underground Railroad take place?

There were many well-used routes stretching west through Ohio to Indiana and Iowa. Others headed north through Pennsylvania and into New England or through Detroit on their way to Canada.

What was the Underground Railroad explanation for kids?

People who worked with the Underground Railroad cared about justice and wanted to end slavery. They risked their lives to help enslaved people escape from bondage, so they could remain safe on the route. Some people say that the Underground Railroad helped to guide 100.000 enslaved people to freedom.

Was the Underground Railroad in the North?

Underground Railroad, in the United States, a system existing in the Northern states before the Civil War by which escaped slaves from the South were secretly helped by sympathetic Northerners, in defiance of the Fugitive Slave Acts, to reach places of safety in the North or in Canada.

What was the Underground Railroad short answer?

The Underground Railroad— the resistance to enslavement through escape and flight, through the end of the Civil War—refers to the efforts of enslaved African Americans to gain their freedom by escaping bondage. Wherever slavery existed, there were efforts to escape.

Where were stations in Indiana that were part of the Underground Railroad?

Indiana’s Underground Railroad All three paths eventually led to Michigan, then to Canada. (Canada abolished slavery in 1833.) The routes in Indiana went from Posey to South Bend; from Corydon to Porter; and from Madison to DeKalb County, with many stops in between.

Where was the Underground Railroad located in Maryland?

The Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National Historical Park (HATU) memorializes this legacy not through physical structures, but by instead through the landscape in Tubman’s native Dorchester County, Maryland which has been preserved by private and public stewards.

How did slaves know where to go in the Underground Railroad?

The Underground Railroad was a secret system developed to aid fugitive slaves on their escape to freedom. The safe houses used as hiding places along the lines of the Underground Railroad were called stations. A lit lantern hung outside would identify these stations.

How did slaves escape for kids?

The Underground Railroad was a term used for a network of people, homes, and hideouts that slaves in the southern United States used to escape to freedom in the Northern United States and Canada.

Where did the Underground Railroad get its name?

(Actual underground railroads did not exist until 1863.) According to John Rankin, “It was so called because they who took passage on it disappeared from public view as really as if they had gone into the ground. After the fugitive slaves entered a depot on that road no trace of them could be found.

What year did the Underground Railroad begin and end?

system used by abolitionists between 1800-1865 to help enslaved African Americans escape to free states.

How did the South feel about the Underground Railroad?

Reaction in the South to the growing number of slaves who escaped ranged from anger to political retribution. Large rewards were offered for runaways, and many people eager to make money or avoid offending powerful slave owners turned in runaway slaves. The U.S. Government also got involved.

What role did the Underground Railroad play?

The Underground Railroad provided hiding places, food, and often transportation for the fugitives who were trying to escape slavery. Along the way, people also provided directions for the safest way to get further north on the dangerous journey to freedom.

Is the Underground Railroad on Netflix?

Unfortunately, The Underground Railroad is not currently on Netflix and most likely, the series will not come to the streaming giant any time soon.

Underground Railroad

The Underground Railroad was not a real railway in the traditional sense. The truth is that it was a clandestine organization that operated in the United States prior to the Civil War. The persons who worked on the Underground Railroad assisted fugitive slaves from the South in their efforts to reach safe havens in the North or Canada. The Underground Railroad utilized railroad terminologies as code phrases to communicate with one another. “Lines” were the names given to the roads leading to freedom.

“Conductors” were those who were in charge of transporting or concealing enslaved persons.

Because it was against the law, the Underground Railroad had to be kept a closely guarded secret.

The people who managed the Underground Railroad were abolitionists, meaning they intended to abolish, or at the very least bring slavery to an end, in every state.

  • It is thought that Thomas Garrett, a Quaker leader, assisted over 2,700 enslaved persons in their escape.
  • The abolitionist Harriet Tubman was a former enslaved lady who helped hundreds of enslaved people to freedom.
  • The majority of lines terminated in Canada.
  • The railroad’s operations came to a stop with the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.

The Underground Railroad Facts for Kids

  • The Underground Railroad was a network of people (both black and white) that assisted enslaved persons in their attempts to flee the southern United States. They did so by providing them with refuge and assistance. Although the specific date on which they began is unknown, it is most likely that they did so around the late 1800s. They persisted in their endeavors until the Civil War was concluded and slavery was abolished.

During the era of slavery in America, enslaved individuals were forced to flee to the northern United States. There were a variety of routes, locations, and persons that assisted them in doing this. Continue reading to find out more about the Underground Railroad. The Underground Railroad was the name given to this network. Although it was not a railroad in the traditional sense, it had the same purpose: it assisted enslaved individuals in escaping large distances from their owners.


The Quakers were the first religious group to assist fugitive slaves. Quakers were a religious sect in the United States that adhered to the principles of nonviolence. During the Revolutionary War, George Washington claimed that Quakers attempted to free one of his enslaved employees. Isaac T. Hopper, a Quaker abolitionist, established a network in Philadelphia in 1800 to assist slaves who were on the run from their masters.

At the same time, Quaker abolitionists founded societies in North Carolina that set the groundwork for routes and safe havens for runaway slaves. In 1816, the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AMEC) was founded in the United States. They also assisted fleeing enslaved individuals.

How did the Underground Railroad work

It was in 1831 when a slave called Tice Davids managed to escape his master and make his way into Ohio, thus beginning the history of the Underground Railroad. According to the proprietor, Davids was aided in his escape by a “underground railroad.” Someone named Jim who was enslaved revealed to people who tortured him that he intended to travel north along the “underground railroad” all the way to Boston in 1839, according to a Washington-based newspaper. It is not known whether or whether the Underground Railroad traveled via tunnels.

People who participated with the Underground Railroad were concerned about justice and wanted to see slavery put an end to its practice.

According to certain estimates, the Underground Railroad assisted in the emancipation of 100.000 enslaved individuals.

They started referring to it as the “Underground Railroad” after that.

The parts of the Underground Railroad

There was a hidden code that had something to do with the metaphor of the train:

  • A group of people known as “conductors” assisted fugitive slaves by leading them to safety. Stations were the locations where fugitive slaves were housed until they could be reunited with their families.
  • Individuals involved in the hiding of slaves were referred to as “station masters.”
  • ‘Passengers’ refer to people who are going along the routes and are also referred to as ‘travelers.’
  • Cargo: Those who had made it to the safe homes were referred to as the “cargo.”

Vigilance committees were organisations that were formed to defend fugitive slaves from bounty hunters who were pursuing them. They quickly began assisting other enslaved individuals in their attempts to elude capture by leading them down the Underground Railroad. People who worked on the Underground Railroad almost always did it on their own. They did not appear to be a part of any group. There were many people from many occupations and walks of life there, including those who had formerly been enslaved.

They were in danger of being apprehended since they were carrying out this operation at night and because there was a significant distance between safe places where the runaways might seek refuge from slave hunters and flee.

Fugitive Slave Acts

There were a set of federal statutes known as the Fugitive Slave Acts that allowed you to apprehend and return runaway enslaved persons. They were enacted in the year 1793. The first Fugitive Slave Act made it possible to return fugitive slaves to their masters while also imposing penalties on those who assisted them in their escape. Also noteworthy is that the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 strengthened regulations about runaways and increased the severity of penalties for interfering with the capture of fugitives.

Solomon Northup, a free black musician who was kidnapped in Washington, DC, was one of the most well-known cases.

Following the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, all people were required to assist in the apprehension of slaves.

The Underground Railroad provided assistance to the vast majority of enslaved individuals, but mainly those in border states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. Because of the Fugitive Slave Act, it was extremely difficult to flee in the deep south.

Helping the Underground Railroad

Across the country, bake sales were held to generate funds for the Underground Railroad in villages and cities. They raised money by selling meals, handcrafted trinkets, and items given by the public. A large number of individuals desire to purchase gifts for their family and friends during the Christmas season. It is possible that this tradition would not have begun without the assistance of abolitionists. They were able to assist by establishing exchange points where individuals could exchange gifts.

Some others, like as William Seward, encouraged others to flee, and he aided them in their efforts.

Having to juggle a variety of other responsibilities such as cooking, buying, and sewing was a positive thing for the women who had to do them because it made them feel like they were making a significant impact in the world by performing these modest actions.

Graceanna Lewis

Bake sales were held in villages and cities to collect funds for the Underground Railroad. They raised money by selling food, handcrafted trinkets, and items given by the public during their event. A large number of individuals desire to purchase Christmas gifts for their family and friends. Because to the efforts of abolitionists, this tradition may not have begun. By establishing exchange points where individuals could exchange presents, they were able to assist others. Not even elected officials, who were expected to carry out their responsibilities, were able to complete their work.

When it came to slaves, Judge Jay stated that he would not be bound by the law.

Cooking, shopping, and sewing were examples of such activities.

Harriet Tubman

She was an abolitionist who escaped from slavery and assisted other enslaved persons in their efforts to do the same. She also worked as a nurse and as a spy for the Union, and she was an advocate for women’s suffrage. Harriet Tubman is a well-known figure in American history because she accomplished so many remarkable things. Maryland was the place of Harriet Tubman’s birth. When she was a child, her given name was Araminta Ross. However, once her mother passed away, she changed her name to Harriet.

  1. When Harriet was five years old, she was forced to work as a nursemaid for a group of white people, who would occasionally beat her if they were upset about anything that happened at the facility or if she didn’t perform what they demanded of her.
  2. She took a step between the two and was struck instead.
  3. They had to carry me to the home because I was bleeding and fainting.
  4. However, the marriage was not going well, and Harriet’s brothers Ben and Henry were on the verge of being auctioned off.
  5. Harriet Tubman traveled to Philadelphia in 1849 and then returned to Maryland, where she was able to save her family’s lives.
  6. In the end, she was able to assist dozens of other individuals in their escape from slavery by going at night and in complete secrecy.
  7. After the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, Harriet Tubman assisted in guiding fugitives farther north into British North America, where she died (Canada).
  8. Harriet made a total of 19 journeys back to Maryland in order to obtain 300 slaves.
  9. She was successful in rescuing her parents in 1857.

The American Civil War began. Tubman was a member of the Union Army. She began her career as a chef and nurse, and then advanced to the position of armed scout and spy. She was in charge of the raid on Combahee Ferry, which resulted in the liberation of more than 700 enslaved persons.

Ellen Craft

Some slaves used disguises to avoid detection. William Craft and his wife, Ellen, were able to elude enslavement. They were born in Macon, Georgia, but they fled to Philadelphia on Christmas Day, when the city was closed. They claimed to be a white guy and his servant in order to keep their true identities hidden from the public. Because they were enslaved, neither William nor Ellen had the ability to read or write. When they wanted to sign something, Ellen would put her arm in a sling to protect her arm from injury.

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There were also other disguises used, such as slaves costumed as funeral procession groups.

Special codes in the Underground Railroad

The slaves communicated with one another using codes to let them know when they were safe. When someone was coming to the station, the folks in charge would send someone down to a separate residence so that they would be aware of the situation. When the slaves came, several of them tossed pebbles at the person’s window to let him or her know they were there.


Canada was an excellent destination to flee from the shackles of slavery. Black people were given the freedom to reside anywhere they want in Canada. They may serve on juries and run for public office, among other things. Some fugitive smugglers from the Underground Railroad settled in Canada and assisted newly arrived fugitives in their new home. Find out more about the Triangular Slave Trade.


To get away from being a slave, Canada was an excellent option. In Canada, black people were given the right to reside anywhere they wished, regardless of their race or national origin. Jury duty and running for public office are options for them. Fugitive fugitives arriving in Canada were assisted by persons who had worked on the Underground Railroad. Find out more about the Triangular Slave Trade in this document.

Underground Railroad Facts for Kids

Introduction: The Underground Railroad is the term given to a covert network that began in the early nineteenth century with the goal of assisting freed African slaves in their attempts to escape slavery. People from a range of backgrounds led the campaign, including white abolitionists, free blacks, freed slaves, and escaped slaves, among others. The movement was neither subterranean nor did it have any connection to the railroad. Actually, the name was a symbolic phrase that indicated the secrecy with which the movement operated as well as the convoluted pathways used by runaway slaves and their abettors in order to flee from southern slave states to northern free states or Canada.

  1. They were dissatisfied with the circumstances in which they were held and the manner in which they were treated by their ruthless white masters.
  2. Some slaves took it a step farther and managed to get away from their captors.
  3. Once they were out of the slave states, the fleeing slaves didn’t have much to worry about.
  4. The bulk of slaves opted to go to Canada, where slavery was prohibited, in order to avoid being seized by slave catchers who were on the lookout for them even in free states.
  5. The perpetrators of this movement utilized a variety of railway terms to characterize the many components of the system they were attempting to bring down.
  6. A slave who had gotten a ticket was referred to as ‘having purchased a ticket.’ A single conductor was in charge of carrying passengers from one station to another, after which the passengers were passed over to the next conductor in the line of duty.
  7. In order to avoid detection, fugitives and their conductors traveled exclusively at night, walking an average of 30 kilometers each night to reach a station where they could rest and conceal themselves during the day.
  8. Notable Leaders of the Movement: Harriet Tubman was one of the most famous and active leaders of the movement during its early years.
  9. After 13 journeys to the south, she was able to help more than 70 slaves be freed.
  10. The Civil War was triggered by the issue of slavery, which pitted the Union against the Confederacy.
  11. Slavery was proclaimed illegal by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution at the conclusion of the American Civil War.

Despite the fact that a large majority of escaped slaves decided to settle in Canadian territory, their experiences there were not particularly positive. Although slavery had been abolished in the country, racial inequality was still widespread in the community.

Teach Your Kids About . the Underground Railroad

It was a perilous voyage for slaves fleeing slavery in the southern states as they travelled north on the Underground Railroad, an underground network of people who opposed slavery and assisted the fugitives on their trek to Canada, where they could live free. Please see the list below for more study materials to learn more about this time of history. Lesson Plans are a type of plan that is used to teach a subject.

  • An interactive lesson plan based on the Underground Railroad Teacher’s Guide, published by Scholastic: the lesson plan contains four “stops” where students may learn about different parts of the Underground Railroad journey through audio, video, and other interactive activities
  • Instructional Materials on the Underground Railroad – Lesson plans organized by grade level Lessons are in.doc format, which means they will download to your PC. Digital Classroom for the Underground Railroad– Contains lesson plans, handouts, virtual field excursions, a digital book shelf with movies and worksheets, and much, much more. Educators can use the Fort Pulaski National Monument as a starting point for their investigations on the life of African-American slaves during the Civil War. National Park Service’s Quest for Freedom: The Underground Railroad is a documentary on the Underground Railroad. There are various lessons connected to the abolition of slavery and the Underground Railroad included in this book. In Motion’s Runaway Journeys is a piece of music. Lesson plans for students in grades 6 and up about the migration of African-Americans are available. The material offered on the Runaway Journeys website was used to create this report. This resource comes from the Institute for Freedom Studies and is titled Teaching the Underground Railroad. Heritage Minutes has created lesson materials for grades K–9 about the Underground Railroad. Underground Railroad Heritage Minute lesson ideas for secondary grades
  • Henry’s Freedom Box lesson plans for secondary grades according to Scholastic – lesson plans and activities based on the children’s book of the same name

Figures of Influence Notable Personae

  • Debbie Musiek created the Harriet Tubman Unit, and the Tarsus Literary and Library Consulting created the Harriet Tubman Research Pathfinder.

William Still: I’d want to thank you for your service.

  • The William Still Story, courtesy of Public Broadcasting Service. William Still, an abolitionist, is featured in a video, lesson materials, and other resources.

Public Broadcasting System (PBS) documentary, The William Still Story. The abolitionist William Still is featured in a video and lesson materials.

  • Site of John Freeman Wells’s historical significance The Underground Railroad Museum is located in New York City. This museum is located in Puce, Ontario, which served as the subterranean railroad’s terminus. Uncle Tom’s Cabin has an interesting personal tale as well as photographs. Dresden is a town in the province of Ontario. Located on the grounds of the historic site is Rev. Josiah Henson, who served as the basis for the novel “Uncle Tom’s Cabin.” On Black History Canada, there is an article about the Underground Railroad. Lists of references and resources from all around the internet
  • Internet Resources for the Underground Railroad on CyberBee– A list of websites and other resources

Historic Site of John Freeman Wells A museum dedicated to the Underground Railroad. This location is in Puce, Ontario – which served as the subterranean railroad’s terminus. Uncle Tom’s Cabin has an interesting personal tale and photographs. Dresden, Ontario, Canada is the location of this business venture. Located on the grounds of the historic site is Rev. Josiah Henson, who served as the model for the novel “Uncle Tom’s Cabin.” Black History Canada’s Underground Railroad exhibit. Refernces and resources from throughout the web are compiled in a database.

  • Site of John Freeman Wells’ historical significance The Underground Railroad Museum is located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Located in Puce, Ontario, which served as the subterranean railroad’s terminus. Uncle Tom’s Cabin has an interesting personal tale and photographs
  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Dresden, Ontario is the location of this business. Located on the grounds of the historic site is Rev. Josiah Henson, who served as an inspiration for the novel “Uncle Tom’s Cabin.” On Black History Canada, you may learn about the Underground Railroad. Lists of resources and references from around the web
  • Internet Resources for the Underground Railroad on CyberBee– A list of websites and other resources.
  • Mission US: Mission 2 – Flight to Freedom — an interactive online game in which you take on the role of 14-year-old Lucy King, who is attempting to flee slavery via the Underground Railroad
  • Mission US: Mission 2 – Flight to Freedom The Underground Railroad Interactive Game–a “choose your own adventure” style game in which you determine which steps to follow along your journey north
  • The Underground Railroad Interactive Game The Underground Railroad: Journey to Freedom is an interactive game in the manner of a 3D movie. This handbook is also accessible to educators in grades 6 through 10
  • Create a 3D representation of Harriet Tubman with Crayola Triarama
  • Create an Underground Railroad Lantern using Arkansas Civil War 150
  • And more.

A challenge presented by Ben and Me that will see bloggers publish their way through the alphabet over the course of 26 weeks will include a post on books. The letter U is represented here. Feel free to participate yourself, or simply to see what other people are writing about!

Underground Railroad Facts for Kids

The Underground Railroad was a secret network of routes and safe houses used by African slaves in the United States to flee to free states and Canada with the assistance of abolitionists and others sympathetic to their plight during the American Civil War. Additionally, the phrase is used to refer to abolitionists, both black and white, free and enslaved, who worked to free the slaves. Other routes led to Mexico or other parts of the world. The Underground Railroad, which was established in the early 1800s, reached its zenith between 1850 and 1860.

Because of its lengthy border and several points of entry, British North America, where slavery was prohibited, was a popular stopping spot for travelers.

The Underground Railroad Records contain the accounts of fugitives who took part in the Underground Railroad.

Images for kids

  • Photo taken by H. B. Lindsley about 1870 of Harriet Tubman Tubman was an Underground Railroad worker who made 13 journeys to the South, assisting in the liberation of more than 70 persons. She was a guide to the northern free states and Canada for those who followed her. In this way, Harriet Tubman earned the title “Moses of Her People.” The struggle for liberation took place in a barn in Maryland. Wood etching from William Still’s The Underground Railway, page 50

Unless otherwise specified, all information fromKiddle encyclopediaarticles (including the article graphics and facts) is available for free use under theAttribution-ShareAlikelicense unless otherwise noted. This item should be referenced as Underground Railroad Facts for Kids. The free encyclopedia Kiddle Encyclopedia

5 Canadian stations of the Underground Railroad

One of the re-enactments of the Freedom Crossing (Wikimedia/Lynn DeLearie/ CC BY-SA 4.0). While there was no genuine railroad, there was a covert network of people — known as abolitionists — who assisted between 30,000 and 40,000 African Americans in their attempts to flee from slavery in the United States.

Slaves who had been freed would find refuge in Canada, as well as in other northern states that had abolished slavery.

John Freeman Walls Underground Railroad MuseumLakeshore, Ontario

During the American Civil War, former slave John Freeman Walls and his white wife escaped from North Carolina and settled in Canada, where they established a family and constructed a log house. This cabin would go on to become one of Canada’s most renowned stations on the subterranean railroad, and it is still in use today.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin Historic SiteDresden, Ontario

The abolitionist Josiah Henson served as the basis for the character Uncle Tom in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, and his renowned cabin was based on a house in Ontario, where he lived at the time of the novel’s publication. Henson was also an abolitionist, and his New Dawn Settlement served as a safe haven for other fugitives fleeing the law. In 1830, he managed to flee to Canada from Kentucky.

Sandwich First Baptist ChurchWindsor, Ontario

The abolitionist Josiah Henson served as the basis for the character Uncle Tom in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, and his renowned cabin was based on a house in Ontario, where Henson lived at the time of the novel’s publication. Henson was also an abolitionist, and his New Dawn Settlement served as a safe haven for other fugitives from slavery. In 1830, he made his way across the border to Canada.

Buxton National Historic SiteChatham, Ontario

The Elgin Settlement, which was one of the last sites on the Underground Railroad, is commemorated at the Buxton National Historic Site Museum, which is located on the grounds of the site. This village, founded in 1849 by Rev. William King, was noted for its exceptional educational system and eventually developed into a self-sufficient community of around 2,000 people. Families descended from the first settlers who chose to remain in Canada continue to reside in Buxton today.

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Birchtown National Historic SiteBirchtown, Nova Scotia

Long before the Underground Railroad was established, African-American residents from both French and English backgrounds established themselves in communities such as Annapolis Royal and Birchtown, New Brunswick. Following the American Revolutionary War, these communities not only became a haven for freed slaves looking for refuge north of the border, but also for former Black soldiers in the British colonial military forces, known as Black Loyalists, who were hoping to transfer north to Canada after the war.

Underground Railroad for kids ***

Underground Railroad for kidsAndrew Jackson was the 7th American President who served in office from March 4, 1829 to March 4, 1837. One of the important events during his presidency was the emergence of the Underground Railroad in 1831.Underground Railroad for kids: Background HistoryWhat were the historical events that led to the start of the Underground Railroad? There were harsh penalties for fugitive slaves and their helpers.Slaves had been trying to escape from slavery for many years but “Underground Railroad” only started as an organization in 1831 followingthe religious revival of theSecond Great Awakeningwhich resulted in the1830 Abolitionist Movementwhich became active followingNat Turner’s Rebellionwhich led to the establishment of theUnderground Railroad.Why did the Underground Railroad start?Why did the Underground Railroad start? The Underground Railroad started because slaves wanted freedom from their harsh lives of unpaid toil in the plantations that were located in the slave states of the south. The rise of the Abolishment movement in 1830 provided money, safe houses and clothes to facilitate the escape of slaves. The life of a slave was dictated by their owner and the law of the United States that kept them in slavery.● Slaves had no legal rights ●Slaves were considered to be the property of their owners and as such could be bought and sold at slave auctions● Slaves needed travel passes to leave a plantation ● Slaves could not legally marry – instead slaves undertook a public mock marriage ceremony called “Jumping the Broom” ●S laves had no legal rights over their children or partners who could also be bought and sold at will ●S laves had no freedom of religion ●S laves were not educated, only very few were able to read or write ●Slaves worked from sunrise to sunset – their children started work at the age of six years old – slaves were not paid●Owners had the right to punish slaves as they saw fit including whipping and mutilationWhat was the Purpose of the Underground Railroad?What was the Purpose of the Underground Railroad? The purpose of the Underground Railroadwas to give assistance to fugitive slaves by organizing escape routes to freedom and providing safe houses, money, food and clothes for runaways.Who started the Underground Railroad?Who started the Underground Railroad? The Underground Railroad was started by Abolitionists who consisted of white people, freed slaves and fugitives.How did the Underground Railroad work?How did the Underground Railroad work? The Underground Railroad worked in complete secrecy – penalties for helping or sheltering runaway slaves were severe. There were slave catchers, called pattyrollers, who policed the plantations and formed posses with dogs to track and chase any runaways. In order to make plans for escape, secret codes, signs and signals were developed that were known to the slaves but appeared completely innocent to owners and slave catchersWords related to the American railways were used to avoid suspicion. Slaves were referred to as ‘passengers’ ‘baggage’, ‘cargo’ or ‘freight’. Guides along the escape routes were referred to as ‘Conductors’, ‘Operators or ‘Engineers’. The escape routes were called railroad lines.Refer toUnderground Railroad Codes and Symbolsfor facts and info about other secret codes.Underground Railroad for kids: Underground Railroad RoutesLong and arduous escape routes were established that stretched hundreds of miles across difficult terrain. Swamps and bayous and were favored for escape routes as few people inhabited such areas. Occasionally transportation was provided such as horses, wagons or boats. Refer toUnderground Railroad Mapsfor additional facts, maps and information.Why did the Underground Railroad end?Why did the Underground Railroad end? The critical need for the Underground Railroad ended when slavery was abolished. However, when slavery was abolished the Underground Railroad operated in reverse, as fugitives returned to live in the United States.●The establishment of the Underground Railway was one of theCauses of the Civil War●TheFugitive Slave Actwere officially repealed by an act of Congress on June 28, 1864●The13th Amendmentwas passed on January 31, 1865 abolishing slavery following theAmerican Civil war (1861-1865)Underground Railroad Facts for kidsInteresting Underground Railroad facts for kids are detailed below. The history of Underground Railroad is told in a sequence consisting of a series of short facts providing a simple method of relating the history of the Undergrounds Railway with timeline dates and the people involved in the organization.Underground Railroad Facts for kidsUnderground Railroad Fact 1:Travel – Fugitives usually traveled alone or with two or three others.Underground Railroad Fact 2:Transport – Transport was usually by foot but horse, wagons, boats and trains were also usedUnderground Railroad Fact 3:Mass escapes – Some mass escapes were attempted. The Pearl Incident in 1848 involved 75 slaves attempting to escape on a ship called the Pear. They were betrayed by one of their ownUnderground Railroad Fact 4:The failed Pearl Incident in 1848 inspired Harriet Beecher Stowe to writeUncle Tom’s Cabinthat was published in 1852Underground Railroad Fact 5:The destinations included the Free states of the North, Alaska, Canada, Mexico and the CaribbeanUnderground Railroad Fact 6:To reduce the risk of betrayal and infiltration the people involved only knew only their part of the operation and not of the whole networkUnderground Railroad Fact 7:There were code names for towns on the routes, for instance Cleveland was called “Hope” other towns were referred to as numbersUnderground Railroad Fact 8:The main ‘stations’ were Rochester, Albany, Syracuse and BuffaloUnderground Railroad Fact 9:Harriet Tubman was a slave who escaped in 1849 and then became the most famous of all the ‘conductors’. Harriet Tubman made 19 trips back to Southern plantations and helped nearly 300 slaves to escapeUnderground Railroad Fact 10:Quaker Levi Coffin, known as the “President of the Underground Railroad” helped over 1000 slaves to escape. His home had the code name of “Grand Central Station”Underground Railroad Fact 11:Terrible punishments were inflicted on black people caught helping fugitives including dozens of lashes with a whip, amputation of the foot, branding, burning or hangingUnderground Railroad Fact 12:$40,000 was offered as a reward for the arrest of Harriet TubmanUnderground Railroad Fact 13:Over 3,200 people are known to have worked on the railroad between 1830 and the end of the Civil WarUnderground Railroad Fact 14:In 1857,Dred Scott, an Illinois Freedom Seeker, sued to gain his freedom, but lost his caseUnderground Railroad Fact 15:Less than 1,000 slaves each year were able to escape from slave-holding statesUnderground Railroad Fact 16:Professional bounty hunters and federal marshals (slave catchers pursued fugitives as far as the Canadian borderUnderground Railroad Fact 17:The risk of aiding fugitives was never forgotten and the safety of all concerned called for the utmost secrecyUnderground Railroad Fact 18:In 1865 the Civil War ended and slavery was abolished in the 13th Amendment to the ConstitutionUnderground Railroad Fact 19:The14th Amendmentwas passed in 1868 requiring states to provide equal protection to protect civil rights of former slaves.Underground Railroad Fact 20:1870 The15th Amendmentwas passed in 1870 granting voting rights to all men, regardless of raceUnderground Railroad Facts for kidsBlack History for kids: Important People and EventsFor visitors interested in African American History refer toBlack History – People and Events.A useful resourcefor teachers, kids, schools and colleges undertaking projects for the Black History Month.Underground Railroad for kids – President Andrew Jackson VideoThe article on the Underground Railroad provides an overview of one of the Important issues of his presidential term in office. The following Andrew Jackson video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 7th American President whose presidency spanned from March 4, 1829 to March 4, 1837.Underground Railroad●Interesting Facts about Under ground Railroad for kids and schools●Key events and history of slavery for kids●The Under ground Railroad, a Important event in US history●Andrew Jackson Presidency from March 4, 1829 to March 4, 1837●Fast, fun, interesting timeline about Important events●ForeignDomestic policies of President Andrew Jackson●Under ground Railroad for schools, homework, kids and children

Underground Railroad

Underground Railroad was a network of people, both black and white, who helped escaped enslaved persons from the southern United States by providing them with refuge and assistance. It came forth as a result of the convergence of numerous separate covert initiatives. Although the exact dates of its inception are unknown, it was active from the late 18th century until the Civil War, after which its attempts to weaken the Confederacy were carried out in a less-secretive manner until the Civil War ended.

Quaker Abolitionists

The Society of Friends (Quakers) is often regarded as the first organized group to actively assist escaped enslaved persons. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with Quakers for attempting to “liberate” one of his enslaved servants. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved persons who were on the run from slavery. Abolitionist organisations founded by Quakers in North Carolina lay the basis for escape routes and safe havens for fugitive slaves during the same time period.

The African Methodist Episcopal Church, which was founded in 1816, was another religious organization that took a proactive role in assisting escaping enslaved persons.

What Was the Underground Railroad?

The Underground Railroad was first mentioned in 1831, when an enslaved man named Tice Davids managed to escape from Kentucky into Ohio and his master blamed a “underground railroad” for assisting Davids in his liberation. When a fugitive slave called Jim was apprehended in 1839 in Washington, the press said that the guy confessed his plan to travel north along a “underground railroad to Boston” while under torture. The Vigilance Committees, which were established in New York in 1835 and Philadelphia in 1838 to safeguard escaped enslaved persons from bounty hunters, rapidly expanded their duties to include guiding enslaved individuals on the run.

MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman and her fellow fugitives used the following strategies to escape through the Underground Railroad:

How the Underground Railroad Worked

The majority of enslaved persons aided by the Underground Railroad were able to flee to neighboring states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made catching fugitive enslaved persons a lucrative industry in the deep South, and there were fewer hiding places for them as a result of the Act. The majority of fugitive enslaved people were on their own until they reached specific places farther north. The escaping enslaved people were escorted by individuals known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were also used as hiding places throughout the war.

The personnel in charge of running them were referred to as “stationmasters.” There were several well-traveled roads that ran west through Ohio and into Indiana and Iowa.

The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.

Fugitive Slave Acts

The Fugitive Slave Acts were a major cause for many fugitive slaves to flee to Canada. This legislation, which was passed in 1793, authorized local governments to catch and extradite fugitive enslaved individuals from inside the borders of free states back to their places of origin, as well as to penalize anybody who assisted the fleeing enslaved people. Personal Liberty Laws were introduced in certain northern states to fight this, but they were overturned by the Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was intended to reinforce the preceding legislation, which was perceived by southern states to be insufficiently enforced at the time of passage.

The northern states were still considered a danger zone for fugitives who had managed to flee.

Some Underground Railroad operators chose to station themselves in Canada and sought to assist fugitives who were arriving to settle in the country.

Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad during its heyday. When she and two of her brothers fled from a farm in Maryland in 1849, she was given the name Harriet (her married name was Tubman). She was born Araminta Ross, and she was raised as Harriet Tubman. They returned a couple of weeks later, but Tubman fled on her own again shortly after, this time making her way to the state of Pennsylvania. In following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and other individuals.

Tubman was distraught until she had a vision of God, which led her to join the Underground Railroad and begin escorting other fugitive slaves to the Maryland state capital.

Frederick Douglass

In his house in Rochester, New York, former enslaved person and celebrated author Frederick Douglasshid fugitives who were assisting 400 escapees in their journey to freedom in Canada. Reverend Jermain Loguen, a former fugitive who lived in the adjacent city of Syracuse, assisted 1,500 escapees on their journey north. The Vigilance Committee was established in Philadelphia in 1838 by Robert Purvis, an escaped enslaved person who later became a trader. Josiah Henson, a former enslaved person and railroad operator, founded the Dawn Institute in Ontario in 1842 to assist fugitive slaves who made their way to Canada in learning the necessary skills to find work.

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Agent,” according to the document.

John Parker was a free Black man living in Ohio who worked as a foundry owner and who used his rowboat to ferry fugitives over the Ohio River.

William Still was a notable Philadelphia citizen who was born in New Jersey to runaway slaves parents who fled to Philadelphia as children.

Who Ran the Underground Railroad?

The vast majority of Underground Railroad operators were regular individuals, including farmers and business owners, as well as preachers and religious leaders. Some affluent individuals were active, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who stood for president on two separate occasions. Smith acquired a full family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841 and freed them from their captivity. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, is credited with being one of the first recorded individuals to assist escaped enslaved persons.

Coffin stated that he had discovered their hiding spots and had sought them out in order to assist them in moving forward.

Finally, they were able to make their way closer to him. Coffin eventually relocated to Indiana and then Ohio, where he continued to assist fugitive enslaved individuals no matter where he was.

John Brown

Abolitionist John Brown worked as a conductor on the Underground Railroad, and it was at this time that he founded the League of Gileadites, which was dedicated to assisting fleeing enslaved individuals in their journey to Canada. Abolitionist John Brown would go on to play a variety of roles during his life. His most well-known duty was conducting an assault on Harper’s Ferry in order to raise an armed army that would march into the deep south and free enslaved people at gunpoint. Ultimately, Brown’s forces were beaten, and he was executed for treason in 1859.

  • The year 1844, he formed a partnership with Vermont schoolteacher Delia Webster, and the two were jailed for assisting an escaped enslaved lady and her young daughter.
  • Charles Torrey was sentenced to six years in jail in Maryland for assisting an enslaved family in their attempt to flee through Virginia.
  • After being apprehended in 1844 while transporting a boatload of freed slaves from the Caribbean to the United States, Massachusetts sea captain Jonathan Walker was sentenced to prison for life.
  • John Fairfield of Virginia turned down the opportunity to assist in the rescue of enslaved individuals who had been left behind by their families as they made their way north.
  • He managed to elude capture twice.

End of the Line

Operation of the Underground Railroad came to an end in 1863, during the American Civil War. In actuality, its work was shifted aboveground as part of the Union’s overall campaign against the Confederate States of America. Once again, Harriet Tubman made a crucial contribution by organizing intelligence operations and serving as a commanding officer in Union Army efforts to rescue the liberated enslaved people who had been freed. MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman led a daring Civil War raid after the Underground Railroad was shut down.


Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad is a book about the Underground Railroad. Fergus Bordewich is a Scottish actor. A Biography of Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom Catherine Clinton is the first lady of the United States. Who Exactly Was in Charge of the Underground Railroad?

‘Henry Louis Gates’ is a pseudonym for Henry Louis Gates. The Underground Railroad’s History in New York is a little known fact. The Smithsonian Institution’s magazine. The Underground Railroad’s Dangerous Allure is well documented. The New Yorker is a publication dedicated to journalism.

The Underground Railroad

At the time of slavery, the Underground Railroad was a network of routes, locations, and individuals that assisted enslaved persons in the American South in their attempts to flee to freedom in the northern states. Subjects History of the United States, Social StudiesImage

Home of Levi Coffin

Levi Coffin’s residence in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he lived as an American Quaker and abolitionist. This was a station on the Underground Railroad, a network of routes, locations, and individuals that assisted enslaved persons in escaping to the North during the Civil War. Cincinnati Museum Center provided the photography. “> During the age of slavery, the Underground Railroad was a network of routes, locations, and individuals that assisted enslaved persons in the American South in escaping to the North, according to the Underground Railroad Museum.

Although it was not a real railroad, it fulfilled the same function as one: it carried passengers across large distances.

The people who worked for the Underground Railroad were driven by a passion for justice and a desire to see slavery abolished—a drive that was so strong that they risked their lives and jeopardized their own freedom in order to assist enslaved people in escaping from bondage and staying safe while traveling the Underground Railroad.

  1. As the network expanded, the railroad metaphor became more prevalent.
  2. In recent years, academic research has revealed that the vast majority of persons who engaged in the Underground Railroad did it on their own, rather than as part of a larger organization.
  3. According to historical tales of the railroad, conductors frequently pretended to be enslaved persons in order to smuggle runaways out of plantation prisons and train stations.
  4. Often, the conductors and passengers traveled 16–19 kilometers (10–20 miles) between each safehouse stop, which was a long distance in this day and age.
  5. Patrols on the lookout for enslaved persons were usually on their tails, chasing them down.
  6. Historians who study the railroad, on the other hand, find it difficult to distinguish between fact and fiction.
  7. Eric Foner is one of the historians that belongs to this group.
  8. Despite this, the Underground Railroad was at the center of the abolitionist struggle during the nineteenth century.
  9. Levi Coffin’s residence in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he lived as an American Quaker and abolitionist.
  10. Cincinnati Museum Center provided the photography.
  11. Person who is owned by another person or group of people is referred to as an enslaved person.

Slavery is a noun that refers to the act of owning another human being or being owned by another human being (also known as servitude). Abolitionists utilized this nounsystem between 1800 and 1865 to aid enslaved African Americans in their attempts to flee to free states.

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Tyson Brown is a member of the National Geographic Society.


The National Geographic Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the exploration of the world’s natural wonders.

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Gina Borgia is a member of the National Geographic Society. Jeanna Sullivan is a member of the National Geographic Society.

Program Specialists

Gina Borgia of the National Geographic Society is a renowned naturalist and photographer. According to Jeanna Sullivan of the National Geographic Society, ”

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Slave Live and the Underground Railroad

Historically significant time period: 1801–1877 Between the American Revolution and the conclusion of the Civil War, millions of Africans were imported to America and sold as slaves to the British and other European countries. Males, females, and children from the west coast of Africa were abducted and forced into slave ships that traveled all the way across the Atlantic Ocean to the United States. Many people grew ill and perished as a result of the two-month journey. Those who survived were auctioned off to the highest bidder at a later date.

  • Many West Africans were sold to plantation owners in South Carolina, who used them to produce rice in the swampy lowlands of the state.
  • Slaves were considered to be property.
  • Thousands attempted to flee to freedom through the Underground Railroad, which was a network of covert ways.
  • More information about the Underground Railroad may be found here.

Read This Book

Date range: 1801–1877 (historical era) A large number of Africans were imported to America as slaves between the American Revolution and the conclusion of the Civil War. Males, females, and children from the west coast of Africa were abducted and forced into slave ships that traveled all the way across the Atlantic Ocean to reach North America. Many people grew ill and perished throughout the two-month journey. They were sold at auction to the highest bidder among those who survived the ordeal.

Plantation owners that farmed rice in the swampy lowlands of South Carolina purchased a large number of West Africans.

They were regarded as valuable possessions by their masters.

Underground Railroad, sometimes known as the Underground Railroad, was a network of covert pathways that thousands of people attempted to use to get to freedom.

By readingFollow the Drinking Gourd and participating in the activities listed below, you may learn more about slave life and the Underground Railroad. More information about the Underground Railroad may be found here »

Featured Book

  • The historical era is 1801–1877. Millions of Africans were taken to America as slaves between the American Revolution and the conclusion of the Civil War. Men, women, and children from the west coast of Africa were seized and put into slave ships that traveled across the Atlantic Ocean to North America. Many people became ill and perished throughout the two-month journey. Those who managed to live were auctioned off to the highest bidder. Families were torn apart, never to be reconciled again. Many West Africans were sold to plantation owners in South Carolina, who used them to produce rice in the swampy lowlands. Planters chose West Africans over other ethnic groups because they were expert rice producers who could help the plantations thrive. Slaves were treated as though they were property. When slaves were obliged to leave the plantation, some masters ordered them to wear identification tags that allowed them to be tracked down. Thousands attempted to flee to freedom via the Underground Railroad, which was a network of covert ways. The book Follow the Drinking Gourd and the activities listed below will help you learn more about slavery and the Underground Railroad. More information regarding the Underground Railroad may be found here.

Jeanette Winter provided the images for the book Follow the Drinking Gourd. With permission from Dragonfly Books, a division of Alfred A. Knopf, this image has been used.

Recommended Book

  • Meeting and learning the song that leads a family of slaves to freedom is a must-do for any history buff. After then, talk about a few questions you have regarding the tale. Download the PDF document »


  • Meeting and learning the song that leads a family of slaves to freedom is a must for anybody interested in slavery history. Discussions should then focus on a few of key points from the narrative. The PDF is available for download here »

Using Rice Plantation Tools

  • We’ll introduce you to Peg Leg Joe and teach you the song that led a slave family to freedom. After then, talk about a few of questions you have regarding the tale. Download the PDF version »

The Underground Railroad for Kids

Overview These compelling activity books clearly depict the heroic hardships of the hundreds of slaves who sought freedom through the Underground Railroad, as well as the abolitionists, freed blacks, and former slaves who assisted them on their journey. Eighty riveting first-person accounts from runaway slaves and abolitionists are included in the book, as are thirty biographies of “passengers,” “conductors,” and “stationmasters,” including Harriet Tubman, William Still, Levi and Catherine Coffin, and other historical figures.

This activity book is completed with a timeline, a reading list, a glossary, and a list of online sites to be explored further in more detail.

Reviews A devastating time of American history is presented in age-appropriate language, without glossing over key information.

the newest book in an exceptional paperback series that combines historical research with handicraft to bring the past to life,” says the reviewer.

—From the Peoria Journal Star “It provides youngsters with a means of comprehending the tough subject of slavery.” —Learning Magazine, a publication dedicated to lifelong learning Biography of the Author For children, Mary Kay Carson has published more than 15 nonfiction books.

She currently resides in Cincinnati, Ohio.

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