Where Was The Underground Railroad Located? (TOP 5 Tips)

There were many well-used routes stretching west through Ohio to Indiana and Iowa. Others headed north through Pennsylvania and into New England or through Detroit on their way to Canada.

Why was it called the Underground Railroad?

  • Underground Railroad was used for slaves who evidently, grew tired of the way the southern whites treated them. Though, the name says that it’s an “Underground Railroad” it was given that name because of the way escaped slaves had to be carried out secretly.

Was the Underground Railroad in the North or South?

Underground Railroad, in the United States, a system existing in the Northern states before the Civil War by which escaped slaves from the South were secretly helped by sympathetic Northerners, in defiance of the Fugitive Slave Acts, to reach places of safety in the North or in Canada.

Was there an actual Underground Railroad?

Nope! Despite its name, the Underground Railroad wasn’t a railroad in the way Amtrak or commuter rail is. It wasn’t even a real railroad. The Underground Railroad of history was simply a loose network of safe houses and top secret routes to states where slavery was banned.

When did Underground Railroad take place?

The Underground Railroad takes place around 1850, the year of the Fugitive Slave Act’s passage. It makes explicit mention of the draconian legislation, which sought to ensnare runaways who’d settled in free states and inflict harsh punishments on those who assisted escapees.

What states was the Underground Railroad in?

Most of the enslaved people helped by the Underground Railroad escaped border states such as Kentucky, Virginia and Maryland. In the deep South, the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made capturing escaped enslaved people a lucrative business, and there were fewer hiding places for them.

Did the Underground Railroad go through Indiana?

The Underground Railroad in Indiana was part of a larger, unofficial, and loosely-connected network of groups and individuals who aided and facilitated the escape of runaway slaves from the southern United States. An eastern route from southeastern Indiana counties followed stations along the Indiana-Ohio border.

Were quilts used in the Underground Railroad?

Two historians say African American slaves may have used a quilt code to navigate the Underground Railroad. Quilts with patterns named “wagon wheel,” “tumbling blocks,” and “bear’s paw” appear to have contained secret messages that helped direct slaves to freedom, the pair claim.

Where did the Underground Railroad lead to?

Underground Railroad routes went north to free states and Canada, to the Caribbean, into United States western territories, and Indian territories. Some freedom seekers (escaped slaves) travelled South into Mexico for their freedom.

How many episodes does the Underground Railroad have?

Born into slavery in Maryland, Harriet Tubman escaped to freedom in the North in 1849 to become the most famous “conductor” on the Underground Railroad. Tubman risked her life to lead hundreds of family members and other slaves from the plantation system to freedom on this elaborate secret network of safe houses.

Places of the Underground Railroad (U.S. National Park Service)

A map of the United States depicting the many paths that freedom seekers might follow in order to attain freedom. NPS provided the image. When enslaved African Americans attempted to obtain their escape via the use of an underground railroad network of routes, safehouses, and resources distributed across the country, they were referred to as “fugitives from justice.” This attempt was frequently spontaneous, with enslaved persons setting off on their quest to liberation on their own initiative.

During the 1820s and 1830s, the United States experienced a surge in the number of people who sought independence from oppression.

In certain instances, the choice to aid a freedom seeking may have been a result of a spur of the moment decision.

Origins of the Underground Railroad

Enslaved people have long sought liberation, dating back to the earliest days of the institution of slavery. Colonial North America – which included Canada and the northern states of the United States – was heavily involved in the slave trade during the nineteenth century. Newly enslaved Africans frequently fled in groups with the intention of establishing new communities in isolated locations. Slavery was particularly widespread in the northern states, making escape extremely difficult. Before the mid-nineteenth century, Spanish Florida and Mexico were the most popular escape destinations for those fleeing bondage.

  1. The Clemens’ residence is owned by James and Sarah Clemens.
  2. Following the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850 by Congress, Canada became a shelter for many people who were hoping to gain their freedom.
  3. Those living in free Black communities in the North were devastated by this.
  4. However, as a result of these seizures and kidnappings, a large number of individuals were persuaded to provide assistance as part of the Underground Railroad.
  5. Formerly enslaved men and women also played an important part in assisting freedom seekers, such as the Clemens family, in their quest for freedom.
  6. In addition to establishing a school and a cemetery, they served as a station on the Underground Railroad from their residence.

Several freedom seekers made their way to Greenville as their last destination. Bethel AME Church is a congregation of African-Americans. Photo by Smallbones, used under a Creative Commons license.

The Role of Women in the Underground Railroad

A large number of women were involved in the Underground Railroad. Harriet Tubman was one of the most well-known Underground Railroad conductors, having undertaken more than a dozen excursions into slave-holding states to assist oppressed persons in their journey to freedom. Despite the fact that Tubman had several hiding places, oral histories indicate that she regularly stopped at the Bethel AME Church in Greenwich Township, New Jersey, to rest. Freedom seekers traveling north from Maryland’s Eastern Shore and Delaware were accommodated in the church, which was located in the center of the Black village of Springtown.

  1. One of her most well-known routes was through Delaware, which led north.
  2. CC BY-SA 4.0 license, photo by Historic Newton.
  3. Mary Jackson and her family, who lived in Massachusetts at the time, donated their farm as a safe haven for anyone fleeing slavery through the Underground Railroad.
  4. Ellen was instrumental in the establishment of the Freedman’s Aid Society in Newton in 1865.
  5. Dr.
  6. Photo by Jim Roberts, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
  7. Due to the fact that the Underground Railroad was made up of a loose network of persons – both enslaved and free – there is little evidence on how it functioned and who was involved.
  8. When she blogged about her experiences hosting freedom seekers at their home, she received a lot of positive feedback.
  9. Nathan Thomas House in Schoolcraft, Michigan.

Legacy of the Underground Railroad

Locations related with the Underground Railroad may be found all throughout the United States, and a number of national preservation projects are devoted to recording these historical places of significance. In the case of the National Park Service’sNetwork to Freedomprogram, for example, the program includes locations that may be proven to have a link to the Underground Railroad. By working in conjunction with government agencies, people, and organizations to recognize, preserve, and promote the history of resistance to enslavement through escape and flight, the Network to Freedom hopes to bring attention to this important part of human history.

  1. The Barney L.
  2. The public domain is a term used to describe a piece of property that is owned by the public.
  3. Identification, evaluation, and protection of America’s historic and archeological resources are the goals of this National Park Service initiative, which brings together public and private efforts.
  4. This is true of places such as theBarney L.
  5. With the help of the Underground Railroad, Barney was able to escape from his bondage.
  6. Barney finally settled in Denver, where he made a name for himself as a successful businessman.
  7. Barney was also an outspoken fighter for African-American civil rights, and he played a crucial part in Colorado’s admittance to the Union as a free state.
  8. Ford Building contribute to the telling of the tale of the Underground Railroad and its participants – both free and enslaved – in the United States.

Members of the public can assist in the recognition and preservation of locations, structures, and landscapes linked with the Underground Railroad by nominating them to the Network to Freedom or to the National Register of Historic Places.

Underground Railroad

See how abolitionists in the United States, like as Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass, and Thomas Garrett, assisted enslaved people in their attempts to escape to freedom. Learn about the abolitionist movement in the United States, as well as the importance of the Underground Railroad in this historical period. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. is a publishing company that publishes encyclopedias. View all of the videos related to this topic. When escaped slaves from the South were secretly assisted by sympathetic Northerners, in defiance of the Fugitive Slave Acts, to reach safe havens in the North or Canada, this was referred to as the Underground Railroad in the United States.

Even though it was neither underground nor a railroad, it was given this name because its actions had to be carried out in secret, either via the use of darkness or disguise, and because railroad words were employed in relation to the system’s operation.

In all directions, the network of channels stretched over 14 northern states and into “the promised land” of Canada, where fugitive-slave hunters were unable to track them down or capture them.

Harriet Beecher Stowe, best known for her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, obtained firsthand experience of escaped slaves via her association with the Underground Railroad in Cincinnati, Ohio, where she lived for a time during the Civil War.

The existence of the Underground Railroad, despite the fact that it was only a small minority of Northerners who took part in it, did much to arouse Northern sympathy for the plight of slaves during the antebellum period, while also convincing many Southerners that the North as a whole would never peacefully allow the institution of slavery to remain unchallenged.

When was the first time a sitting president of the United States appeared on television?

Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.

The Underground Railroad

It was far-reaching in scope, covering the whole United States and beyond, and profound in significance for a nation whose very existence was intertwined with the sale of human life.

However, because of its secrecy, that history has proven to be a tough one to uncover.

What was the Underground Railroad?

For enslaved persons seeking freedom, Western Pennsylvania served as a key corridor via which they might travel. They traveled largely on foot, with the odd trip in secret compartments of wagons and other modes of conveyance. They followed paths that had been sculpted by nature through rivers, streams, and mountains, and they did it mostly on foot. It is impossible to know how many there were because no formal records were kept and just a few informal ones have survived. Some writings written by people who aided in this subterranean process—sometimes referred to as “conductors”—have survived, providing some indication of the hardships suffered by those going on the railroad.

  • Affected by the Fugitive Slave Laws were also free individuals of African descent who resided in the region.
  • Even more were transformed into the voice of social transformation and self-empowerment for all Blacks of the time period and beyond.
  • From Slavery to Freedom, an exhibition at the Senator John Heinz History Center, will take you on a journey through more than 250 years of African-American history.
  • One of the several Underground Railroad routes in western Pennsylvania entered through Uniontown in Fayette County, proceeded through Blairsville in Indiana County, and then continued on into Mercer, Venango, and Erie Counties before coming to an end in the city of Pittsburgh.

Western Pennsylvania Underground Railroad Sites

For enslaved persons seeking freedom, western Pennsylvania served as a key highway. They traveled largely on foot, with the odd trip in secret compartments of wagons and other modes of conveyance. They followed pathways that had been formed by nature via rivers, streams, and mountains. Because no formal records were kept and only a few informal ones survived, it is impossible to estimate their numbers. Some writings written by people who aided with this subterranean process—sometimes referred to as “conductors”—have survived, providing some indication of the hardships suffered by those going on the railway.

  1. The Fugitive Slave Laws had an impact on free people of African descent who resided in the area, causing them to abandon their homes in fear of being captured and sold into slavery.
  2. Unlike any other period in history, history has no end.
  3. The exhibition highlights the history of the anti-slavery movement, the Underground Railroad, and the impact of 19th-century activism on the quest for civil rights in Pittsburgh.
  4. One of the several Underground Railroad lines in western Pennsylvania entered through Uniontown in Fayette County, proceeded through Blairsville in Indiana County, and then continued on into Mercer, Venango, and Erie Counties before coming to an end in the state’s capital.

The Blairsville Area Underground Railroad Projectprovides tours of the town and cemetery, as well as UGRR-related locations, such as the Underground Railroad Museum, as part of its educational outreach.

City Baths

Third Street between Market and Ferry Streets in downtown Pittsburgh is home to a barbershop and safehouse that serves the community. Slaves were given a fresh appearance as well as a head start on their escape to the United States. Using lists of famous hotel visitors and advertisements made by persons seeking for escaped slaves, historians have confirmed the hotel’s role in the abolitionist movement. Daytime: A economic, social, and political club for the city’s white elites; nighttime: a station on the Underground Railroad for slaves fleeing to the United States.

See also:  Why Would Someone Help Slaves On The Underground Railroad? (The answer is found)

Freedom Road Cemetery

Mercer County Historical Society 119 South Pitt St. Mercer, PA 16137 (724.662.3490) Mercer County Historical Society The Stoneboro Fairgrounds Cemetery is located on the right side of the road, directly across from the entrance gate. Liberia was a runaway slave settlement founded by the Travis family, who were themselves free Blacks. All that is left of Liberia is a cemetery. For many years, this town served as a haven for tired travelers on their journey. A popular target of slave catchers, it was also a frequent target of their raids.

Only a handful of people remained in the region, including one entrepreneur who sold cigars and alcohol to his neighbors.

Gibson House (Mark Twain Manor)

The Jamestown Future Foundation is located at 210 Liberty St. in Jamestown, Pennsylvania 16134 and can be reached at 724.932.5455. Dr. William Gibson, a well-known Jamestown physician, accompanied Samuel Clemens on his journey to Russia. Clemens authored a book on their adventures, titled Innocents Abroad, which is available on Amazon. It has been speculated that the home served as a halt on the Underground Railroad. There is evidence of a tiny chamber that was utilized as a station on the Underground Railroad in the basement.

The Gibson House is a historic structure that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

John C. Peck Oyster House

Fourth Street between Wood and Market Streets in downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania A station halt on the Underground Railroad.

Plaque Honoring Jane Gray Swisshelm

600 Grant St., in the heart of downtown Pittsburgh In downtown Pittsburgh, on Sixth Avenue, at the Heinz headquarters is the Heinz Museum. Jane Grey Swisshelm had direct experience with slavery and became committed to the abolitionist fight for the Underground Railroad as a result. She started publishing an abolitionist weekly in Pittsburgh in 1848, called the Pittsburgh Saturday Visitor.

Private homes in Arthurville and Hayti

Pittsburgh’s Lower Hill neighborhood It is believed that the fugitives were hiding out in private homes in the predominantly African-American neighborhoods of Arthurville and Hayti, where they were assisted by agents and conductors such as the Rev.

Lewis Woodson, Samuel Bruce, George Gardner and Bishop Benjamin Tanner, the father of the noted black artist Henry Ossawa Tanner, who is depicted on a United States postage stamp.

St. Matthew’s A.M.E. Church in Sewickley

Sewickley is located at 345 Thorn St. Built in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, in 1857, they functioned as Underground Railroad operators. One common technique of providing food to escaped slaves in the Pittsburgh region was for conductors to disguise as hunters at night and carry a game bag full with foodstuffs to their destination.

Wylie A.M.E. Church

Hill District, 2200 Wylie Avenue, 2200 Wylie Avenue On July 11, 1850, a group of African American residents gathered at the church and passed resolutions criticizing the recently proposed Fugitive Slave Bill, which had been sponsored by the United States Congress. A request was made at this assembly for the complete amalgamation of their organizations in order to secure protection against slave hunters who come into Pittsburgh in search of fugitives.

Demolished Sites

Avery Memorial A.M.E. Zion Church, at the corner of Nash and Avery Streets, was afterwards known as Avery College and then as Avery Memorial A.M.E. Zion Church. In 1812, Charles Avery moved to Pittsburgh from New York. His interest in the cotton industry led him on purchasing excursions to the southern United States, where he became interested in the situation of the Negro slaves. He became a member of the abolitionist movement and assisted slaves in their escape from the South to Canada via the underground railroad.

  • Avery’s riches enabled him to build the Allegheny Institute and Mission Church, which became known as Avery College.
  • The basement, which was only accessible by concealed trap doors, was most likely a “station” (hiding spot) on the Underground Railroad’s secret underground network.
  • During the night, a rowboat was employed to transport them up the canal to the tunnel entrance in secrecy.
  • When Avery passed away, his net worth was estimated to be $800,000.
  • Workmen dismantled the red brick structure of Avery College in Old Allegheny’s Dutchtown to make room for the East Street Valley Expressway, which has been a source of contention for years.
  • Old-timers, on the other hand, believed that demolition of the structure signaled the end of a notable Pittsburgher’s dream.

Crawford Grill

In the Hill District, this was a hub of Black social life where performers such as Art Blakey, Mary Lou Williams, and John Coltrane drew a racially diverse and international audience.

Founded by William “Gus” Greenlee, a major person in Pittsburgh’s Black community who was also the owner of the Pittsburgh Crawfords, the city’s Negro League baseball club, the Pittsburgh Crawfords was founded in 1903.

Monongahela House

Formerly located at the junction of Water and Smithfield Streets, this hotel has been demolished. One of the city’s most luxurious hotels, as well as a hotbed of anti-slavery activities. It had a staff of 300 free Blacks who were in regular touch with a steady stream of affluent Southern merchants who arrived from the north and east.

Point View Hotel

Once stood at the intersection of Water and Smithfield Streets, this hotel has been demolished. A prominent anti-slavery activist and one of the city’s most luxurious hotels, the Grand Hotel is a landmark. It had a workforce of 300 free Blacks who were in daily touch with a steady stream of affluent Southern merchants who came from the north and east to do business.

What was the Underground Railroad? : Harriet Tubman

The Underground Railroad was established in the early nineteenth century and reached its zenith between 1850 and 1860, when it was at its most active. It’s possible that reliable numbers on fleeing slaves who used the Underground Railroad may never be discovered because so much of what we know now comes from narratives written after the Civil War. Between 1810 and 1860, it is estimated that over 100,000 slaves managed to escape using the network. In the upper south, the bulk of slaves were transported from slave states that bordered free states such as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland; very few slaves were transported from the Deep South.

Various Underground Railroad routes were discovered.

Why was it called Underground Railroad?

The Underground Railroad was neither underground nor a railroad; it was a network of people and ideas. Due to the network’s clandestine actions being secret and illegal, it was necessary for them to remain “underground” in order to aid fleeing slaves in their efforts to remain hidden from the authorities. Historically, the word “railroad” was used to describe a developing transportation system whose proponents communicated in secret through the usage of railroad code (also known as railroad code).

The homes where fugitives would rest and dine were referred to as “stations” or “depots,” and the owner of the property was referred to as the “station master,” while the “conductor” was the person in charge of transporting slaves from one station to the next, among other things.

Secret codes and phrases are included in this exhaustive collection.

Organization

The Subterranean Railroad was neither underground nor a railroad; it was a network of people and ideas that existed before the Civil War. Due to the network’s covert actions being secret and illegal, it was necessary for them to remain “underground” in order to aid escaped slaves in their efforts to remain hidden from prying eyes. In this case, the name “railroad” was adopted since the railroad was a new mode of transportation and its proponents utilized railroad code to communicate in a coded manner in secret.

A “station” or a “depot” refers to a place where fugitives might remain and eat.

A “conductor” is the person in charge of transporting slaves from one station to another. “Stockholders” were those who contributed money, food, and clothes to the Underground Railroad in exchange for a share in its profits. Secret codes and phrases are listed in this thorough collection.

Fugitive Slave Act of 1850

Until 1850, fugitives had a minimal probability of being apprehended while residing in free states. Following the enactment of the Fugitive Slave Actas part of the Compromise of 1850, the Underground Railroad was diverted to Canada as its final objective, with the United States being the final destination. In newly constructed settlements in Southern Ontario, tens of thousands of slaves were resettled. In an instant, their work became more difficult and perhaps dangerous. A $1000 fine or six months in jail was imposed on anybody who assisted slaves.

Slave catchers were lavishly compensated, and even free African Americans were subjected to re-education through the destruction of their free documents.

The end of the Underground Railroad

On January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves in the Confederate states of the United States of America. Following the war’s conclusion, the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution was ratified in 1865, thereby ending slavery in the whole United States and putting an end to the Underground Railroad’s operations throughout the country.

Supporters of the Underground Railroad

Abolitionist President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, freeing slaves in the Confederate states. Immediately following the war’s conclusion in 1865, Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, thus abolishing slavery across the United States and thereby bringing the Underground Railroad to a close.

Underground Railroad – Ohio History Central

According to Ohio History Central This snapshot depicts the “Freedom Stairway,” which consists of one hundred stairs going from the Ohio River to the John Rankin House in Ripley, which served as a station on the Underground Railroad during the Civil War. Presbyterian clergyman and educator John Rankin (1793-1886) spent most of his time working for the abolitionist anti-slavery struggle. The home features various secret rooms, some of which were used to hide freedom fighters. An illuminated sign was erected in front of the home to signal that it was safe for anyone seeking freedom to approach it.

  • An underground railroad system of safe homes and hiding places that assisted freedom seekers on their journeys to freedom in Canada, Mexico, and other countries outside of the United States was known as the Underground Railroad (UR).
  • Although it is unknown when the Underground Railroad had its start, members of the Society of Friends, often known as the Quakers, were actively supporting freedom seekers as early as the 1780s, according to historical records.
  • As early as the late 1700s, slavery was outlawed in the vast majority of Northern states.
  • African Americans were forced to flee the United States in order to genuinely achieve their freedom.
  • Despite the fact that slavery was outlawed in Ohio, some individuals were still opposed to the abolition of the institution.
  • Many of these individuals were adamantly opposed to the Underground Railroad.
  • Other people attempted to restore freedom seekers to their rightful owners in the aim of receiving prizes for their efforts.

Over three thousand slaves were rescued from their captors and granted freedom in Canada thanks to the efforts of Levi Coffin, a Cincinnati man who lived in the late 1840s and early 1850s.

His house was perched on a three hundred-foot-high hill with a panoramic view of the Ohio River.

He gave the freedom seekers with sanctuary and kept them hidden until it was safe for them to proceed farther north in their quest for independence.

These individuals, as well as a large number of others, put their lives in danger to aid African Americans in their journey to freedom.

They typically chose to live in communities where there were other African Americans.

A total of eight communities along the Lake Erie shoreline served as embarkation locations for the freedom seekers’ journey to Canada, including Ashtabula, Painesville, Cleveland, Sandusky, Toledo, Huron, Lorain, Conneaut, and Conneaut.

It is still unknown exactly how the Underground Railroad came to be known by that moniker.

See also:  About How Many People Participated In The Underground Railroad System? (Suits you)

In 1831, a freedom seeker called Tice Davids fled from his slave owners in Kentucky, where he had been held since birth.

Davids had arrived at the coast only a few minutes before him. Following the arrival of his boat, the holder was unable to locate Davids and concluded that he “must have gone off on a subterranean path.”

See Also

  1. According to the Ohio History Central website. Photo of the “Freedom Stairway,” which consists of one hundred stairs that go from the Ohio River to the John Rankin House in Ripley, which served as a stop on the Underground Railroad. John Rankin (1793-1886) was a Presbyterian preacher and educator who spent a significant portion of his life to the antislavery cause. The mansion features multiple secret rooms, some of which were used to hide freedom fighters during the American Revolution. An illuminated sign was set in front of the home to signal that it was safe for anyone seeking freedom to enter the building. As a museum, the John Rankin House is a component of the Ohio History Connection’s state-wide network of historic sites, which includes the John Rankin House. Known as the Underground Railroad, it was a network of safe homes and hiding places that assisted freedom seekers on their journeys to freedom in areas such as Canada, Mexico, and other countries other than the United States. Freedom seekers were guided from place to place by white and African-American “conductors,” who were both white and black. Despite the fact that it is unknown when the Underground Railroad had its start, members of the Society of Friends, popularly known as the Quakers, were actively aiding slaves as early as the 1780s. By the 1810s, a small number of citizens in Ohio were assisting freedom fighters. As early as the late 1700s, slavery was outlawed in the vast majority of northern states. But even if freedom seekers relocated to a free state, the United States Constitution as well as the Freedom Seeker Law of 1793 and the Freedom Seeker Law of 1850 allowed slave owners to recover their property from them. Afro-Americans had to leave the United States in order to genuinely achieve their independence. Some Underground Railroad stations developed as a consequence, and these could be found across Ohio and other free states, providing freedom seekers with safe havens while on their trip to Canada. Some people in Ohio resisted the abolition of slavery despite the fact that slavery was illegal in the state. People in this community thought former slaves would relocate to the state, steal employment away from the white population, and demand similar rights as whites. There were a lot of people that were against the Underground Railroad. Conductors came under attack from a number of passengers. Other people attempted to restore freedom seekers to their rightful owners in the aim of receiving rewards for their actions. Ohio was home to a number of renowned abolitionists who played an important part in the Underground Railroad network. Over three thousand slaves were rescued from their captors and granted freedom in Canada because to the efforts of Levi Coffin, a Cincinnati citizen who lived in the late 1840s. Abolitionists dubbed Coffin the “president of the Underground Railroad” as a result of his efforts on their behalf. African Americans seeking freedom were accommodated at the home of John Rankin, a Presbyterian preacher serving in Ripley as a conductor. A three-hundred-foot-high hill overlooking the Ohio River served as the setting for his mansion. He used a lamp to indicate freedom seekers in Kentucky when it was safe to cross the Ohio River, and he would tell them when it was not. He offered sanctuary for the freedom searchers and kept them hidden until it was safe for them to proceed farther north. When John Parker, Rankin’s next-door neighbor, took a boat across the Ohio River, he transported hundreds of slave fugitives. In order to aid African Americans in their journey to freedom, these men and a large number of others endangered their lives. A number of the freedom seekers chose to remain in Ohio when they arrived there. In most cases, they chose to live in communities with other African Americans. Many of the freedom seekers carried on to Canada after their initial stop in the country. A total of eight communities along the Lake Erie shoreline served as embarkation locations for the freedom seekers’ journey to Canada, including Ashtabula, Painesville, Cleveland, Sandusky, Toledo, Huron, Lorain, and Conneaut. Wilbur Siebert, a historian, estimated that Ohio had around three thousand miles of Underground Railroad pathways. Uncertainty persists as to how the Underground Railroad came to be known by its current name. A story involving Ohio is one such example of this. When Tice Davids fled from his slave owners in Kentucky in 1831, he became known as the “Freedom Seeker.” A boat chased after Davids as he swam across the Ohio River. His holder was close behind him. Just a few minutes before him, Davids arrived at the shoreline. When Davids failed to appear after landing his boat, the holder concluded that he “must have used a subterranean path.”

Underground Railroad in Iowa

Initially funded by the National Park Service’s Network to Freedom program in 2002, the Iowa Network to Freedom project, which investigated persons and locations involved with the Underground Railroad in Iowa, became the Iowa Freedom Trail Project in 2003. After a five-year period of grant funding, volunteers have continued to collect information from historical resources and compile it into a form containing general information, such as biographical data, resource references, associated properties, and researcher information, among other things, to be used by the public.

  • Individuals (by name)
  • Individuals (by county)
  • Places (by county)
  • Research Files (by county)
  • Inventory of Individuals (by name)
  • Inventory of Places (by county)
  • Inventory of Research Files

If you have any concerns concerning the Iowa Freedom Trail Project, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Researching Underground Railroad Activity

Since 2002, volunteers at the State Historical Society of Iowa have been doing research into the Underground Railroad’s presence in the state. The research and biographical form instructions can be found here. If you are interested in researching Underground Railroad activity in Iowa and have access to historical documents and primary sources, please review the instructions for submitting a research and biographical form to learn how you can contribute to the project.

  • Beginning in 2002, members of the Iowa State Historical Society conducted investigation into possible Underground Railroad activities in the state. The research and biographical form instructions can be found here. If you are interested in researching Underground Railroad activity in Iowa and have access to historical documents and primary sources, please review the instructions for submitting a research and biographical form to learn more about how you can contribute to the project.

Iowa and the Underground Railroad

Since 2002, volunteers with the State Historical Society of Iowa have been doing research on Underground Railroad involvement in the state. If you are interested in investigating Underground Railroad activities in Iowa and have access to historical records and original sources, please examine the research and biographical form guidelines to see how you may contribute to the project.

  • The John Brown Freedom Trail (1859)
  • Abolitionist Movement Primary Sources
  • Underground Railroad Primary Sources
  • Underground Railroad Sites in the Iowa Culture mobile app

Underground Railroad in New York

Travel down New York’s Underground Railroad to commemorate the history and valor that carried America to freedom during the American Civil War era. Note: Please join I LOVE NY for a panel discussion with top experts from Underground Railroad tourist destinations. You can see it here. Why did New York play such a significant part in the Underground Railroad, which helped approximately 100,000 enslaved people escape to freedom in the northern United States and Canada during the American Civil War?

Visiting New York’s Underground Railroad system, which stretches from Brooklyn to Buffalo and everywhere in between, and learning the stories of America’s most courageous abolitionists along the route, is a popular tourist attraction.

For further information, please see the Underground Railroad page on the New York State Department of Parks, Recreation, and Historic Preservation’s website.

Tour the Underground Railroad in Bucks County

To get to the stations in Upper and Central Bucks County, use these driving directions: Upper Bucks County Take a driving trip across Lower Bucks County with these driving directions.

LOWER BUCKS COUNTY

The African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME Church) is the oldest African American church in Bensalem and a former Underground Railroad safe post, having been built over 200 years ago. Hundreds of slaves were rowed up the Delaware River by Robert Purvis, an abolitionist and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society, from Philadelphia to the church and their farm in Bensalem, Pennsylvania. It is estimated that he assisted around 9,000 fugitives in fleeing, making him one of the most influential men in Bucks County who was linked with abolitionism at the time.

Leroy Allen, an escaped slave from Roanoke, Virginia, sought refuge here before joining the Union Army to fight for his freedom in the war against slavery.

The Archambault House

The Archambault House, which is most notable for the exquisite iron grillwork on its porch, was a station on the Underground Railroad during the American Civil War and is now a museum. Joseph O. Archambault, a dentist, innkeeper, postmaster, and previous proprietor of the Brick Hotel, assisted slaves in their efforts to continue their journey north. Please keep in mind that this is a private property, so please keep your distance.

Bristol

Bristol was one of many stations on the route to liberation, and it served as a haven for fugitive slaves on their path to freedom. The citizens of Bristol even went so far as to purchase the freedom of fugitive Dick Shad, who had sought safety in Bristol after being a slave in Virginia for twenty years. Bristol now has a plethora of ancient buildings and destinations that are just waiting to be explored by visitors. You may do some shopping on Mill Street, and then enjoy some fresh air in the iconicBristol Wharf area.

Continental Tavern

A number of stops on the route to freedom were made in Bristol, and it served as a safe haven for fugitive slaves on the run. Dick Shad, a fugitive who had sought sanctuary in Bristol after being a slave in Virginia for twenty years, was released by the citizens of Bristol, who donated his freedom to the city. There are several historic buildings and locales in Bristol that are just waiting to be found. You may do some shopping on Mill Street, and then enjoy some fresh air in the iconicBristol Wharfarea.

Harriet Tubman Memorial Statue

While strolling down the shoreline, be sure to stop at the Harriet Tubman Memorial Statue, which is one of the most important Underground Railroad landmarks in Bucks County.

Tubman devoted her life to the cause of liberation and is considered to be one of the most well-known conductors on the Underground Railroad, according to historians. Before the Civil War, she put her life in danger a number of times in order to assist approximately 70 slaves northward.

Langhorne

As a stop on the Underground Railroad during the Civil War, Langhorne (then known as the village of Attleboro) served as a link between Princeton, New Jersey, and New York City. Bucks County’s first free black settlements were established in Attleboro, and the American Methodist Episcopal church, founded in 1809, is the oldest congregation of its kind to have been established in the county. There are African-American Union Army veterans buried in several of Bucks County’s different cemeteries, including the Langhorne Cemetery.

Since then, a great deal has changed!

Newtown Theatre

In the early 1850s, the Newtown Theatre, which is the world’s oldest continuously functioning movie theater, was known as Newtown Hall. It is currently known as the Newtown Theatre. It was a favorite gathering place for town meetings and anti-slavery demonstrations. Several notable abolitionists, including Lucretia Mott and Frederick Douglass, are recorded as having spoken at this event. Happy hour deals are available at the 18th centuryTemperance House Tavern, if you need to refuel for the rest of your travel.

Yardley

Early in the nineteenth century, the Newtown Theatre, which is the world’s oldest continuously functioning movie theater, was known as Newtown Hall. A popular meeting place for community gatherings and anti-slavery demonstrations, it was located here. Here are some of the most famous abolitionists of the time, including Lucretia Mott and Frederick Douglass. Happy hour deals are available at the 18th centuryTemperance House Tavern, if you need to refuel for the rest of your trip. Then make arrangements to stay in one of their 13 old hotel rooms for the night if time permits.

See also:  How Many People On The Underground Railroad? (TOP 5 Tips)

CENTRAL BUCKS COUNTY

In 1776, members of the Buckingham Meeting House (also known as the Solebury Friends Meeting House) voted to abolish the practice of slave ownership. Following the kidnapping of Benjamin “Big Ben” Jones, a local slave and well-known personality, abolitionists presented a series of anti-slavery lectures in this area and in Lambertville, Pennsylvania. Today, the meetinghouse serves as a venue for community gatherings.

Doylestown

When the Buckingham Meeting House (also known as the Solebury Friends Meeting House) was founded in 1776, members voted to abolish the practice of slave ownership. The kidnapping of Benjamin “Big Ben” Jones, a revered figure in the community, prompted a series of anti-slavery lectures in both this city and Lambertville by anti-slavery activists. The meetinghouse now serves as a venue for community gatherings.

Mount Gilead Church

In 1776, members of the Buckingham Meeting House (also known as the Solebury Friends Meeting House) voted to abolish slavery.

Following the kidnapping of Benjamin “Big Ben” Jones, a local slave and well-known personality, abolitionists presented a series of anti-slavery talks in this area and at Lambertville. Today, the meetinghouse serves as a venue for community gatherings.

New Hope

The town of New Hope served as the terminus of the Underground Railroad in the county of Bucks. In this location, slaves would cross the Delaware River into New Jersey, where they would continue their trek north. Are you a history buff who enjoys learning new things? While in town, pay a visit to the Parry Mansion Museum for a guided tour of the building’s history. The home, which was built in 1784 by one of New Hope’s founders, Benjamin Parry, contains furniture in 11 rooms that illustrate the estate’s 125-year history of décor.

1870 Wedgwood Inn

In the cellar of this Victorian bed and breakfast’s original construction, munitions were kept safe throughout the American Revolutionary War. However, during the time of the Underground Railroad, it was utilized to conceal persons as they made their way northwards across the United States. People used to utilize the subterranean tunnel system to travel to the canal and then on to Lumberville, which is accessible through a hatch in the Gazebo on the property’s grounds. Remember to take advantage of the world-class eating and unique shopping available in the neighborhood while you are in New Hope.

UPPER BUCKS COUNTY

Begin your journey back in time at the Bucks County Visitor Center in Quakertown, which is conveniently located. The Visitor Center, which is located just off Rt. 309 in the historic downtown district, shares space with the Quakertown Historical Society and the Upper Bucks Chamber of Commerce in a beautiful 19th century barn. In addition, the building contains a glass-enclosed exhibit showcasing historic objects that illustrate the 150-year history of manufacturing and trade in the Upper Bucks County area.

Richard Moore House

The distance between stops, which might be up to 10 miles, led to Richard Moore’s stone home being one of the most significant sites on the Underground Railroad for slaves going through Bucks County during the abolitionist movement. Moore, a potter from the area, became well-known for his friendliness, and many people were sent to his house. Henry Franklin, a former slave, was the driver of the wagon that delivered pottery, coal, and the secret slaves hidden beneath the goods for Moore. Robert L.

Moore’s generosity is now available for purchase.

Do you want to know more about the history?

Underground Railroad

The Underground Railroad was a clandestine network of abolitionists that operated between 1861 and 1865. (people who wanted to abolish slavery). In order to get away from enslavement in the American South, they assisted African Americans in escaping to free northern states or Canada. The Underground Railroad was the most important anti-slavery emancipation movement in North America at the time of its founding. It was responsible for transporting between 30,000 and 40,000 fugitives to British North America (nowCanada).

Please check The Underground Railroad for a plain English explanation of the subject matter (Plain-Language Summary).

(people who wanted to abolish slavery).

The Underground Railroad was the most important anti-slavery emancipation movement in North America at the time of its founding.

It was responsible for transporting between 30,000 and 40,000 fugitives to British North America (now Canada). This is the full-length entry on the Underground Railroad that can be found here. Please check The Underground Railroad for a plain English overview of the story (Plain-Language Summary).

Origins

When the 1793 Act to Limit Slavery was passed, a clause specified that any enslaved person who made it to Upper Canada would be declared free upon arrival. In response to this, a limited number of enslaved African Americans in quest of freedom were urged to enter Canada, mostly on their own. During and after the War of 1812, word traveled even further that independence was possible in Canada. The enslaved slaves of US military commanders in the South carried news back to the North that there were free “Black men in red coats” in British North America, which was confirmed by the British.

It gave slavecatchers the authority to track down fugitives in northern states.

Organization

When the 1793 Act to Limit Slavery was passed, a clause specified that any enslaved person who made it to Upper Canada would be freed upon arrival. There was an increase in immigration to Canada from the United States, especially by enslaved African Americans seeking freedom. Following the War of 1812, word of the possibility of independence in Canada travelled even wider. The enslaved slaves of US military commanders in the South carried news back to the North that there were free “Black men in red coats” in British North America, which sparked a national outcry.

After the passing of the American Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, the number of freedom-seekers arriving in Upper Canada surged considerably.

Symbols and Codes

A clause of the 1793 Act to Limit Slavery declared that any enslaved person who made it to Upper Canada would be freed upon reaching the territory. This motivated a limited number of enslaved African Americans in quest of freedom to cross the border into Canada, most of whom did so on their own. Following the War of 1812, the news that independence was possible in Canada traveled even wider. The enslaved slaves of US military commanders from the South sent news back to the North that there were free “Black men in red coats” in British North America.

It gave slavecatchers the authority to track down fugitives in Northern states.

Station Masters

“Station masters” were in charge of running the safe houses. They welcomed fugitives into their house and gave them with meals, a change of clothing, and a safe haven to rest and hide from the authorities. Prior to delivering them to the next transfer location, they would frequently give them money. WilliamStill, a black abolitionist who lived in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was in command of a station there. He accompanied a large number of freedom seekers on their way to Canada. He kept a list of the men, women, and children that came to his station, including Tubman and her passengers, and he transcribed their names.

He was the owner and operator of a radio station in Syracuse, New York.

Catharines, both in Upper Canada, from 1837 until 1841, when he decided to permanently move there.

A large number of women worked as station masters as well.

Lucretia Mott and Laura Haviland, both Quakerwomen, as well as Henrietta Bowers Duterte, the first Black female undertaker in Philadelphia, are just a few of the women honored. A large number of other women worked alongside their spouses to own radio stations.

Ticket Agents

“Station masters” were in charge of keeping safehouses safe for people. They welcomed fugitives into their house and offered them with meals, a change of clothing, and a safe haven to rest and hide while on the run from the authorities. They frequently handed them money before escorting them to the next transfer station. WilliamStill, a black abolitionist who lived in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was in command of a station. On their way to Canada, he supported a large number of freedom-seeking individuals.

  1. In addition to being a station master, Jermain Loguen was a prominent abolitionist activist.
  2. It was there that he finally made a permanent home after spending the previous five years living freely between Hamilton and St.
  3. In addition to his public lectures and articles published in anti-slavery journals, Loguen was well recognized for his writings on the subject.
  4. Lucretia Mott and Laura Haviland, both Quakerwomen, as well as Henrietta Bowers Duterte, the first Black female undertaker in Philadelphia, are just a few of the women who have made history in their fields.

Ways to the Promised Land

“Lines” were the names given to the pathways that people took in order to reach freedom. In total, 14 northern states and two British North American colonies — Upper Canada and Lower Canada — were connected by the network of roads. At the end of the line lay “heaven,” also known as “the Promised Land,” which was undeveloped land in Canada or the Northern United States. A nod to the Big Dipper constellation, which points to the North Star and serves as a navigational aid for freedom-seekers seeking their way north, “the drinking gourd” was a reference to the Big Dipper.

A large number of people undertook the perilous journey on foot.

The Underground Railroad, on the other hand, did not simply operate on land.

They traveled at night and slept throughout the day on a regular basis.

The Canadian Terminus

During the last decades of enslavement in the United States, an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 freedom seekers crossed the border into Canada. Approximately 15,000 to 20,000 fugitives entered the Province of Canada between 1850 and 1860 alone. Because of this, it became the primary terminal for the Underground Railroad. The immigrants settled in various sections of what is now the province of Ontario. Among these were Niagara Falls, Buxton, Chatham, Owen Sound, Windsor, Sandwich (now a part of Windsor), Hamilton, Brantford, London, Oakville, and Toronto.

  1. Following this huge migration, Black Canadians assisted in the creation of strong communities and made significant contributions to the development of the provinces in where they lived and worked.
  2. The Provincial Freeman newspaper published a thorough report of a specific case in its publication.
  3. They were on the lookout for a young man by the name of Joseph Alexander.
  4. Alexandra was present among the throngs of people and had a brief verbal encounter with his previous owner.

He turned down the men’s offer of $100 in exchange for accompanying them to Windsor. The guys were forced to flee town after the mob refused to allow them to steal Alexander’s possessions. Alexander was left to live his life in complete freedom.

Legacy

The Underground Railroad functioned until the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which prohibited slavery, was ratified in 1865. Freedom-seekers, free Blacks, and descendants of Black Loyalists settled throughout British North America during the American Revolutionary War. It is possible that some of them resided in all-Black colonies, such as the Elgin Settlement and the Buxton Mission in Ontario, the Queen’s Bush Settlement and the DawnSettlement near Dresden in Ontario, as well as Birchtown and Africaville in Nova Scotia, although this is not certain.

Early African Canadian settlers were hardworking and forward-thinking members of society.

Religious, educational, social, and cultural institutions, political groupings, and community-building organizations were all founded by black people in the United States.

(See, for example, Mary Ann Shadd.) African-American men and women held and contributed to a diverse variety of skills and abilities during the time period of the Underground Railroad.

They also owned and operated saw companies, frozen food distributors, livery stables, pharmacies, herbal treatment services and carpentry firms.

Black people took an active role in the struggle for racial equality.

In their communities, they waged war on the prejudice and discrimination they met in their daily lives in Canada by getting meaningful jobs, securing homes, and ensuring that their children received an education.

Many people were refused the right to dwell in particular neighborhoods because of their color.

Through publications, conferences, and other public activities, such as Emancipation Day celebrations, Black groups expressed their opposition to racial prejudice and worked to make society a better place for everyone.

Beginning with their search for independence, security, wealth, and human rights, early Black colonists worked to create a better life for themselves, their descendents, and their fellow citizens in the United States.

In addition, see: Underground Railroad (Plain Language Summary); Black Enslavement in Canada (Plain Language Summary); Chloe Cooley and the Act to Limit Slavery in Upper Canada; Anti-slavery Society of Canada; Josiah Henson; Albert Jackson; Richard Pierpoint; and Editorial: Black Female Freedom Fighters (in English and French).

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