What was the Underground Railroad and why was it important?
- The Underground Railroad was a metaphor first used by antislavery advocates in the 1840s to describe the increasingly organized and aggressive efforts to help slaves escape from bondage. The fight over fugitive slaves then became one of the primary causes of the Civil War. (By Matthew Pinsker)
What groups helped fugitives use the Underground Railroad during the mid 1800s?
Those who most actively assisted slaves to escape by way of the “railroad” were members of the free black community (including such former slaves as Harriet Tubman), Northern abolitionists, philanthropists, and such church leaders as Quaker Thomas Garrett.
How did the Quakers help the Underground Railroad?
The Quaker campaign to end slavery can be traced back to the late 1600s, and many played a pivotal role in the Underground Railroad. In 1776, Quakers were prohibited from owning slaves, and 14 years later they petitioned the U.S. Congress for the abolition of slavery.
Who founded the Underground Railroad to help fugitive slaves escape from the South quizlet?
About how many slaves did Harriet Tubman rescue? She rescued over 300 slaves using the network established by the Underground Railroad between 1850 and 1860. Who was William Still? He was a well-known abolitionist who was often called “the father of the Underground Railroad.” He helped hundred of slaves to escape.
How did the Underground Railroad help enslaved African Americans?
How did the Underground Railroad help enslaved African Americans? It provided a network of escape routes toward the North. In his pamphlet Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, on what did David Walker base his arguments against slavery? They feared that the abolition of slavery would destroy their economy.
Who helped in the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad had many notable participants, including John Fairfield in Ohio, the son of a slaveholding family, who made many daring rescues, Levi Coffin, a Quaker who assisted more than 3,000 slaves, and Harriet Tubman, who made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.
Who used the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad was the network used by enslaved black Americans to obtain their freedom in the 30 years before the Civil War (1860-1865).
Did Quakers support the Underground Railroad?
Quakers played a huge role in the formation of the Underground Railroad, with George Washington complaining as early as 1786 that a “society of Quakers, formed for such purposes, have attempted to liberate” a neighbor’s slave.
How did the Underground Railroad work?
The Underground Railroad was a secret system developed to aid fugitive slaves on their escape to freedom. The free individuals who helped runaway slaves travel toward freedom were called conductors, and the fugitive slaves were referred to as cargo.
How did the Quakers contribute to the abolition movement?
Quakers were among the first white people to denounce slavery in the American colonies and Europe, and the Society of Friends became the first organization to take a collective stand against both slavery and the slave trade, later spearheading the international and ecumenical campaigns against slavery.
Which group was most active in the Underground Railroad quizlet?
“The most active of the Railroad workers were northern free blacks, who had little or no support from white abolitionists. The most famous “conductor,” an escaped slave named Harriet Tubman, reportedly made nineteen return trips to the South; she helped some three hundred slaves escape.”
Who is William Lloyd Garrison quizlet?
(1805-1879) Garrison was a famous American abolitionist, social reformer, and journalist. He is best known for his famous paper The Liberator and for his founding of the American Anti-Slavery Society. Garrison was also a voice for the women’s suffrage movement.
What was the Underground Railroad how did the underground railroad work quizlet?
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early-to-mid 19th century, and used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.
How did the Underground Railroad lead to the Civil War quizlet?
How did the Underground Railroad cause the Civil War? *The Underground Railroad was a escape route for fugitive slaves in America. *Slaves would be helped by Northerners or “Quakers” who help slaves escape to Canada. *John Brown believed that this would bring an end to slavery.
Why is the Underground Railroad important to history?
The underground railroad, where it existed, offered local service to runaway slaves, assisting them from one point to another. The primary importance of the underground railroad was that it gave ample evidence of African American capabilities and gave expression to African American philosophy.
How did the Underground Railroad contribute to the Civil War?
The Underground Railroad physically resisted the repressive laws that held slaves in bondage. By provoking fear and anger in the South, and prompting the enactment of harsh legislation that eroded the rights of white Americans, the Underground Railroad was a direct contributing cause of the Civil War.
Underground Railroad was a network of people, both black and white, who helped escaped enslaved persons from the southern United States by providing them with refuge and assistance. It came forth as a result of the convergence of numerous separate covert initiatives. Although the exact dates of its inception are unknown, it was active from the late 18th century until the Civil War, after which its attempts to weaken the Confederacy were carried out in a less-secretive manner until the Civil War ended.
The Society of Friends (Quakers) is often regarded as the first organized group to actively assist escaped enslaved persons. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with Quakers for attempting to “liberate” one of his enslaved servants. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved persons who were on the run from slavery. Abolitionist organisations founded by Quakers in North Carolina lay the basis for escape routes and safe havens for fugitive slaves during the same time period.
What Was the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad was first mentioned in 1831, when an enslaved man named Tice Davids managed to escape from Kentucky into Ohio and his master blamed a “underground railroad” for assisting Davids in his liberation. When a fugitive slave called Jim was apprehended in 1839 in Washington, the press said that the guy confessed his plan to travel north along a “underground railroad to Boston” while under torture. The Vigilance Committees, which were established in New York in 1835 and Philadelphia in 1838 to safeguard escaped enslaved persons from bounty hunters, rapidly expanded their duties to include guiding enslaved individuals on the run.
MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman and her fellow fugitives used the following strategies to escape through the Underground Railroad:
How the Underground Railroad Worked
The majority of enslaved persons aided by the Underground Railroad were able to flee to neighboring states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made catching fugitive enslaved persons a lucrative industry in the deep South, and there were fewer hiding places for them as a result of the Act. The majority of fugitive enslaved people were on their own until they reached specific places farther north. The escaping enslaved people were escorted by individuals known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were also used as hiding places throughout the war.
The personnel in charge of running them were referred to as “stationmasters.” There were several well-traveled roads that ran west through Ohio and into Indiana and Iowa.
While some traveled north via Pennsylvania and into New England, or through Detroit on their route to Canada, others chose to travel south. More information may be found at The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.
Fugitive Slave Acts
The Fugitive Slave Acts were a major cause for many fugitive slaves to flee to Canada. This legislation, which was passed in 1793, authorized local governments to catch and extradite fugitive enslaved individuals from inside the borders of free states back to their places of origin, as well as to penalize anybody who assisted the fleeing enslaved people. Personal Liberty Laws were introduced in certain northern states to fight this, but they were overturned by the Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was intended to reinforce the preceding legislation, which was perceived by southern states to be insufficiently enforced at the time of passage.
The northern states were still considered a danger zone for fugitives who had managed to flee.
Some Underground Railroad operators chose to station themselves in Canada and sought to assist fugitives who were arriving to settle in the country.
Harriet Tubman was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad during its heyday. When she and two of her brothers fled from a farm in Maryland in 1849, she was given the name Harriet (her married name was Tubman). She was born Araminta Ross, and she was raised as Harriet Tubman. They returned a couple of weeks later, but Tubman fled on her own again shortly after, this time making her way to the state of Pennsylvania. In following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and other individuals.
Tubman was distraught until she had a vision of God, which led her to join the Underground Railroad and begin escorting other fugitive slaves to the Maryland state capital.
In his house in Rochester, New York, former enslaved person and celebrated author Frederick Douglasshid fugitives who were assisting 400 escapees in their journey to freedom in Canada. Reverend Jermain Loguen, a former fugitive who lived in the adjacent city of Syracuse, assisted 1,500 escapees on their journey north. The Vigilance Committee was established in Philadelphia in 1838 by Robert Purvis, an escaped enslaved person who later became a trader. Josiah Henson, a former enslaved person and railroad operator, founded the Dawn Institute in Ontario in 1842 to assist fugitive slaves who made their way to Canada in learning the necessary skills to find work.
Agent,” according to the document.
John Parker was a free Black man living in Ohio who worked as a foundry owner and who used his rowboat to ferry fugitives over the Ohio River.
William Still was a notable Philadelphia citizen who was born in New Jersey to runaway slaves parents who fled to Philadelphia as children.
Who Ran the Underground Railroad?
The vast majority of Underground Railroad operators were regular individuals, including farmers and business owners, as well as preachers and religious leaders. Some affluent individuals were active, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who stood for president on two separate occasions. Smith acquired a full family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841 and freed them from their captivity. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, is credited with being one of the first recorded individuals to assist escaped enslaved persons.
Coffin stated that he had discovered their hiding spots and had sought them out in order to assist them in moving forward.
Coffin eventually relocated to Indiana and then Ohio, where he continued to assist fugitive enslaved individuals no matter where he was.
Ordinary individuals, farmers and business owners, as well as pastors, were the majority of those who operated the Underground Railroad. Several millionaires, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who campaigned for president twice, were involved. For the first time in his life, Smith purchased and freed a whole family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, was one of the earliest recorded individuals to assist fleeing enslaved persons. Beginning in 1813, when he was 15 years old, he began his career.
They eventually began to make their way closer to him and eventually reached him.
End of the Line
Operation of the Underground Railroad came to an end in 1863, during the American Civil War. In actuality, its work was shifted aboveground as part of the Union’s overall campaign against the Confederate States of America. Once again, Harriet Tubman made a crucial contribution by organizing intelligence operations and serving as a commanding officer in Union Army efforts to rescue the liberated enslaved people who had been freed. MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman led a daring Civil War raid after the Underground Railroad was shut down.
Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad is a book about the Underground Railroad. Fergus Bordewich is a Scottish actor. A Biography of Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom Catherine Clinton is the first lady of the United States. Who Exactly Was in Charge of the Underground Railroad? ‘Henry Louis Gates’ is a pseudonym for Henry Louis Gates. The Underground Railroad’s History in New York is a little known fact. The Smithsonian Institution’s magazine. The Underground Railroad’s Dangerous Allure is well documented.
The Underground Railroad
|The Underground Railroad, a vast network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and to Canada, was not run by any single organization or person. Rather, it consisted of many individuals – many whites but predominently black – who knew only of the local efforts to aid fugitives and not of the overall operation. Still, it effectively moved hundreds of slaves northward each year – according to one estimate,the South lost 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850. An organized system to assist runaway slaves seems to have begun towards the end of the 18th century. In 1786 George Washington complained about how one of his runaway slaves was helped by a “society of Quakers, formed for such purposes.” The system grew, and around 1831 it was dubbed “The Underground Railroad,” after the then emerging steam railroads. The system even used terms used in railroading: the homes and businesses where fugitives would rest and eat were called “stations” and “depots” and were run by “stationmasters,” those who contributed money or goods were “stockholders,” and the “conductor” was responsible for moving fugitives from one station to the next.For the slave, running away to the North was anything but easy. The first step was to escape from the slaveholder. For many slaves, this meant relying on his or her own resources. Sometimes a “conductor,” posing as a slave, would enter a plantation and then guide the runaways northward. The fugitives would move at night. They would generally travel between 10 and 20 miles to the next station, where they would rest and eat, hiding in barns and other out-of-the-way places. While they waited, a message would be sent to the next station to alert its stationmaster.The fugitives would also travel by train and boat – conveyances that sometimes had to be paid for. Money was also needed to improve the appearance of the runaways – a black man, woman, or child in tattered clothes would invariably attract suspicious eyes. This money was donated by individuals and also raised by various groups, including vigilance committees.Vigilance committees sprang up in the larger towns and cities of the North, most prominently in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. In addition to soliciting money, the organizations provided food, lodging and money, and helped the fugitives settle into a community by helping them find jobs and providing letters of recommendation.The Underground Railroad had many notable participants, including John Fairfield in Ohio, the son of a slaveholding family, who made many daring rescues, Levi Coffin, a Quaker who assisted more than 3,000 slaves, and Harriet Tubman, who made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.|
What groups helped fugitives use the Underground Railroad? – Restaurantnorman.com
During the mid-1800s, which of the following organizations aided fugitives attempting to use the Underground Railroad?
conductors and other railroad employees Ministers and businesses are among those honored. Slaveholders and slave hunters are two different things.
Which statement best describes the contributions of Harriet?
Answer: Tubman was an abolitionist who served as a spy for the Union army in order to aid the war effort during the American Civil War. Harriet Tubman is one of the most well-known women in American history, having served as a conductor on the Underground Railroad during the American Civil War.
When did the Emancipation Proclamation go into effect?
After almost three years of deadly civil war, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation reached the third year of the conflict. It was proclaimed in the declaration that “all individuals kept as slaves” within the rebelling states “are, and henceforth shall be, free.”
How did France and Britain respond to the Emancipation Proclamation?
The Emancipation Proclamation was issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, and France and Great Britain responded in different ways. France and Britain replied to the Emancipation Proclamation by refusing to recognize the Alliance as a legitimate organization.
Which best describes how Southern slaveholders reacted to the Emancipation Proclamation?
Kentucky and Tennessee are two states in the United States. Which of the following best depicts the reaction of Southern slaveholders to the Emancipation Proclamation? They were quite enraged. People who were slaves in the South, but not in border states
Which did the Emancipation Proclamation specifically permit quizlet?
Kyrenia and Tennessee are two states in the United States. When it comes to Southern slaveholders’ reactions to Emancipation Proclamation, which of the following best reflects their reactions? This infuriated them. In the South, there were enslaved individuals; however, this was not the case in border states.
What did the South think about the Emancipation Proclamation?
The Southern states were outraged by Lincoln’s declaration. It did not result in a widespread slave revolt in the South, but it did pave the way for them to gradually free themselves from slavery in small groups. Towards the close of the Civil War, a large number of slaves deserted their owners, many of whom traveled north or west.
What did the Emancipation Proclamation specifically permit?
It was proclaimed in the declaration that “all individuals kept as slaves” within the rebelling states “are, and henceforth shall be, free.” It only applied to states that had seceded from the Union, leaving slavery unaffected in the states that remained loyal to the Union.
What were the results of the Emancipation Proclamation quizlet?
The terms in this collection (5) What exactly did Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation say about slavery? The Emancipation Proclamation of Abraham Lincoln declared that slavery would be abolished formally. It also brought in the Thirteenth Amendment, which gave the conflict new relevance, as people were now fighting to free slaves, rather than to abolish slavery.
What were the reasons for the Emancipation Proclamation quizlet?
Declaring the abolition of slavery would dissuade Europe from backing the Confederate States of America. The abolition of slavery would result in the extinction of the Southern labor force. You’ve just learned four new words!
What is the Emancipation Proclamation an example of quizlet?
According to the language of a formal statement issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, asking for the emancipation of “all individuals held as slaves” throughout the rebellious southern states, this is known as the Emancipation Proclamation.
Many historians feel that the publication of this public document changed the course of the American Civil War.
How was issuing the Emancipation Proclamation a turning point in the Civil War?
Emancipation would fundamentally alter the trajectory of the Civil War, transforming it from a war to maintain the Union to one centered on the abolition of slavery. It would also set the stage for how the nation would be transformed in the aftermath of that momentous conflict.
The Underground Railroad and the Coming of War
In many ways, the Civil War was redefined by emancipation, which transformed it from a battle to maintain the Union to one centered on the abolition of slavery. It also set the stage for how the United States would be altered in the aftermath of the war.
The Underground Railroad [ushistory.org]
The National Park Service (NPS) Through the Underground Railroad, Lewis Hayden was able to elude enslavement and later found work as a “conductor” from his home in Massachusetts. Speakers and organizers are required for any cause. Any mass movement requires the presence of visionary men and women. However, simply spreading knowledge and mobilizing people is not enough. It takes people who take action to bring about revolutionary change – individuals who chip away at the things that stand in the way, little by little, until they are victorious.
- Instead of sitting around and waiting for laws to change or slavery to come crashing down around them, railroad advocates assisted individual fleeing slaves in finding the light of freedom.
- Slaves were relocated from one “station” to another by abolitionists during the Civil War.
- In order to escape being apprehended, whites would frequently pose as the fugitives’ masters.
- In one particularly dramatic instance, Henry “Box” Brown arranged for a buddy to lock him up in a wooden box with only a few cookies and a bottle of water for company.
- This map of the eastern United States depicts some of the paths that slaves took on their way to freedom.
- The majority of the time, slaves traveled northward on their own, searching for the signal that indicated the location of the next safe haven.
- The railroad employed almost 3,200 individuals between the years 1830 and the conclusion of the Civil War, according to historical records.
Harriet Tubman was perhaps the most notable “conductor” of the Underground Railroad during her lifetime.
Tubman traveled into slave territory on a total of 19 distinct occasions throughout the 1850s.
Any slave who had second thoughts, she threatened to kill with the gun she kept on her hip at the risk of his life.
When the Civil War broke out, she put her railroad experience to use as a spy for the Union, which she did successfully for the Union.
This was even worse than their distaste of Abolitionist speech and literature, which was already bad enough.
According to them, this was a straightforward instance of stolen goods. Once again, a brick was laid in the building of Southern secession when Northern cities rallied with liberated slaves and refused to compensate them for their losses.
Abolition, Anti-Slavery Movements, and the Rise of the Sectional Controversy – The African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship
During the first part of the nineteenth century, black and white abolitionists joined forces to launch a multiracial campaign against slavery. Their efforts proved to be tremendously fruitful in the long run. Slavery was brought to public notice by abolitionists, who made it harder to ignore. They exacerbated a split that had threatened to sever the nation’s cohesiveness as early as the Constitutional Convention and had become worse since then. Despite the fact that some Quakers were slaveholders, members of that religious group were among the first to express opposition to the African slave trade, the practice of holding captives in a state of perpetual bondage, and the practice of separating enslaved family members by selling them to different masters.
In addition to sending petitions to Congress with thousands of signatures, these organizations organized abolition meetings and conferences, boycotted things created with slave labor, printed mountains of material, and delivered countless speeches in support of their cause.
Despite the fact that black and white abolitionists frequently collaborated, by the 1840s, their philosophical and methodological perspectives were divergent.
Slavery was a “notorious immorality” in the eyes of Benjamin Lay, a Quaker who wrote this book in 1737 to those who “pretend to lay claim to the pure and holy Christian faith,” as Lay describes it. Despite the fact that some Quakers owned slaves, no Christian body was more vociferous in its opposition to slavery from the seventeenth century until its abolition. petitions signed by Quakers in support of the emancipation of African Americans were presented to colonial legislatures and then to Congress in the United States of America.
Plea for the Suppression of the Slave Trade
Slavery was a “notorious immorality” in the eyes of Benjamin Lay, a Quaker who wrote this 1737 book in response to people who “pretendent to lay claim to the pure and holy Christian faith,” as Lay defined it. From the seventeenth century until the abolition of slavery, no Christian body was more vociferous in its opposition to slavery than the Society of Friends. petitions signed by Quakers in support of the liberation of African Americans were presented to colonial governments and then to Congress in the early nineteenth century.
The Conflict Between Christianity and Slavery
Slavery was a “notorious immorality” in the eyes of Benjamin Lay, a Quaker who wrote this book in 1737 to those who “pretend to lay claim to the pure and holy Christian faith.” Despite the fact that some Quakers owned slaves, no Christian body was more vocal in its opposition to slavery from the seventeenth century until its abolition.
African American emancipation petitions signed by Quakers were presented to colonial governments and eventually to the United States Congress. / Make a note of this item:
Benjamin Lay, a Quaker who considered slavery to be a “notorious immorality,” addressed this 1737 work to people who “try to lay claim to the pure and holy Christian religion.” Despite the fact that some Quakers owned slaves, no Christian body was more vocal in its opposition to slavery from the seventeenth century until the institution’s collapse. Quaker petitions for the liberation of African Americans found their way into colonial legislatures and, eventually, into the United States Congress.
Woman to Woman
Ye wives and ye mothers, your influence extends—Ye sisters and ye children, the weak are protected—The strong links are broken for one offense alone, that of possessing a color that is less fair than your own, that of possessing a color that is less fair than your own. Abolitionists recognized the importance of visual representations in mobilizing support for the abolitionist cause. Women of color were more active as speakers, petitioners, and meeting organizers in the 1830s. Variations of this female supplicant theme, pleading for inter-racial sisterhood, appeared in newspapers, broadsides, and handcraft products sold at fund-raising fairs.
Harriet Tubman—the Moses of Her People
It is only one crime that separates you from your family: possessing a skin color that is less fair than your own. Ye wives and mothers, your influence grows—Ye sisters and daughters, the helpless are protected—The strong ties are severed for one crime alone: possessing a skin color that is less fair than your own In order to garner support for the abolitionist cause, abolitionists recognized the need of visual representations. During the 1830s, when white and black women became more active as speakers, petitioners, and meeting organizers, versions of this female supplicant theme, which appealed for interracial sisterhood, appeared in newspapers, broadsides, and handicrafts sold at fund-raising fairs.
Increasing Tide of Anti-slavery Organizations
Ye wives and ye mothers, your influence extends—Ye sisters and ye children, the vulnerable are protected—The strong bonds are broken for one offense alone, that of possessing a color that is less fair than your own, and that is possessing a color that is less fair than your own. Abolitionists recognized the importance of visual representations in mobilizing support for the liberation movement. As white and black women became more active in the 1830s as speakers, petitioners, and meeting organizers, versions of this female supplicant theme, begging for interracial sisterhood, began to appear in newspapers, broadsides, and handcraft objects sold at fund-raising fairs.
William Lloyd Garrison—Abolitionist Strategies
Ye spouses and ye mothers, your power grows—Ye sisters and ye children, the defenseless are protected—The tight links are broken for a single crime: possessing a skin color that is less fair than your own. Abolitionists recognized the importance of visual representations in garnering support for the freedom movement. As white and black women grew more active in the 1830s as speakers, petitioners, and meeting organizers, versions of this female supplicant theme, begging for interracial sisterhood, appeared in newspapers, broadsides, and handcraft objects sold at fund-raising fairs.
- “Sonnet to Liberty,” written by William L. Garrison. The manuscript was written on December 14, 1840. “Song of the Abolitionist,” courtesy of the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress (3–19a)
- William L. Garrison. The date was November 10, 1841. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (3–19b)
- Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (3–19a)
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Popularizing Anti-Slavery Sentiment
After being captured in 1844 off the coast of Florida for attempting to transport slaves belonging to his religious denomination to freedom in the Bahamas, Jonathan Walker, a Massachusetts ship captain born in 1790, was sentenced to prison. He was imprisoned for more than a year and was later branded with the initials “S.S.” which stood for slave thief. American poet John Greenleaf Whittier memorialized Walker’s act in this widely circulated verse: “Then lift that mighty right hand, valiant ploughman of the surf!
The Liberty Minstrel, written by George W. Clark, is a rare outlier among songsters in that it has both music and lyrics. The word “minstrel,” which appears in the title, originally meant “wandering singer.” Clark, a white musician, composed part of the music for the piece; nevertheless, the most of it is composed of well-known tunes to which anti-slavery lyrics have been added by Clark. “Long Time Ago” is the title of a page in the book that has lyrics set to the melody of “Near the Lake,” which was previously shown in this exhibit (section 1, item 22) as “Near the Lake.” On the right-hand page, there is a poem written in opposition against slavery.
The Liberty Minstrel is a play by George W.
LeavittAlden & Company, New York, 1844.
Music was one of the most effective tools in the arsenal of the abolitionists. An abolitionist and former slave named William Wells Brown wrote TheAnti-Slavery Harp in 1848, which he described as “a collection of songs for anti-slavery assemblies” and which comprises songs and poetry from time to time. The Anti-Slavery Harp is written in the style of a “songster,” in which the words are provided together with indications of the tunes to which they are to be sung, but no music is provided. The book is open to the pages carrying lyrics set to the music of the “Marseillaise,” the French national song, which, to nineteenth-century Americans, represented the desire to bring about freedom, even if it meant using force to do it.
William Wells Brown compiled this collection.
(3) to (16) The Music Division of the Library of Congress Make a note of this item: /
Suffer the Children
Using real-life accounts of slave children who have been separated from their parents or who have been abused by their owners, this abolitionist tract, which is distributed by the Sunday School Union, aims to elicit sympathy from free children.
The notion that black children should have the same rights as white children, and that treating persons as property is “a transgression against God,” is reinforced with vivid pictures. Make a note of this item: /Back to the top of the page
Fugitive Slave Law
Approximately 10,000 fugitive slaves fled to Canada after the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, which required Northern law enforcement agents to assist in the recapture of runaways. This added to an already-excessive number of people escaping to Canada. The Colonial Church and School Society operated mission schools in western Canada, mostly for the children of escaped slaves, but they were also available to all students who met the requirements. Mistress Williams, the school’s principal, believes that their achievement demonstrates the “possibility of educating together white and brown pupils.” While the report’s primary focus is on spiritual and secular educational programs, it also includes copies of letters of gratitude from people in England who have received food, clothes, shoes, and books.
Matthew’s School in Bristol, and this early image was sent with it.
- Mission to Fugitive Slaves in Canada: Being a Branch of the Operations of the Colonial Church and School Society. 1858–1859: Society’s Offices, 1859. Mission to Fugitive Slaves in Canada: Being a Branch of the Operations of the Colonial Church and School Society. 1858–1859: Society’s Offices, 1859. Pamphlet. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (3–4a)
- Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress Mission to Fugitive Slaves in Canada: Being a Branch of the Operations of the Colonial Church and School Society. 1858–1859: Society’s Offices, 1859. Mission to Fugitive Slaves in Canada: Being a Branch of the Operations of the Colonial Church and School Society. 1858–1859: Society’s Offices, 1859. Copyprint. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (3–4a)
- Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (3–4b)
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The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
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Anthony Burns-Capture of A Fugitive Slave
A runaway slave named Anthony Burns was depicted here in the spring of 1854, following his arrest and conviction in Boston under the rules of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. His arrest and prosecution sparked riots and demonstrations among white and black abolitionists and inhabitants of Boston. The photograph is framed with events from his life, including his sale at an auction, his escape from Richmond, Virginia, his capture and incarceration in Boston, and his return to a ship that would bring him to the South, among others.
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A runaway slave named Anthony Burns was depicted here in the spring of 1854, following his arrest and conviction in Boston under the terms of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. His arrest and trial in Boston sparked riots and demonstrations among white and black abolitionists and people of Boston. In the background of the painting are incidents from his life, including his auction-room sale, his escape from Richmond, Virginia, his capture and incarceration in Boston, and his return to a ship that would convey him to the South.
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Distribution of Slaves
Despite the fact that the Southern states were collectively known as the “slave states” by the end of the Antebellum Period, this map provides statistical evidence to demonstrate that slaves were not evenly distributed throughout each state or throughout the region as a whole during that time period. Using data from the 1860 census, the map depicts the number of slaves in each county’s population as a percentage of the total population. As well as population and land area, the tables provide information on both Southern and Northern states, and an inset map depicts the scope of cotton, rice, and sugar crops.
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His struggle against slavery came to an end in October 1859, more than twenty years after the militant abolitionist John Brown had dedicated his life to the elimination of slavery. His effort to take the government armory at Harpers Ferry in western Virginia ended in failure. As part of his plan, he wanted to seize weapons from the armory and arm the slaves, who would then revolt against their owners and establish a free state for themselves. Although he had been found guilty of treason and sentenced to death, Brown maintained to the last that his only goal was to liberate the slaves, not to instigate an uprising against the government.
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Frederick Douglass on John Brown
It was in 1848 that Frederick Douglass and John Brown first met, when Douglass traveled to Brown’s house in Springfield, Massachusetts. The two became fast friends. Brown revealed to Douglass his grand plan to free the slaves, which he thought would be impossible. Brown sought Douglass’ advice and assistance over the course of the following eleven years. Brown made a final appeal to Douglass in August 1859, pleading with him to join the attack on Harpers Ferry. Douglass was adamant. After Brown was apprehended, federal marshals issued a warrant for Douglass’ arrest on suspicion of being an accomplice to the crime.
The investigation had concluded when he returned five months later to grieve the loss of his youngest daughter Annie.
A homage to “a hero and martyr in the cause of liberty,” Douglass prepared this talk as a way to honor him.
- “A Lecture on John Brown,” delivered by Frederick Douglass. This typescript was created in 1860. Frederick Douglass Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (3–8a)
- Frederick Douglass, “A Lecture on John Brown,” Frederick Douglass Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (3–8a). Corrections and drafts written by hand in 1860. Frederick Douglass Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (3–8b)
- Frederick Douglass Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
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“The Book That Made This Great War”
Harriet Beecher Stowe is best known as the author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, her first novel, which was originally published as a serial in 1851 and then as a book in 1852. Harriet Beecher Stowe was born in 1818 in New York City. Southerners were enraged by this book. Stowe received immediate recognition for her portrayal of the cruelties of slavery, notably the separation of family members, in this novel. Following the release of her book, Stowe went around the United States and Europe, advocating for the abolition of slavery.
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Uncle Tom’s Cabin—Theatrical Productions
This poster for a performance of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, directed by Tom Dailey and George W. Goodhart, displays the Garden City Quartette and the characters from the story. The novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, written by Harriet Beecher Stowe and initially published as a serial in 1851, has been the subject of several theatrical plays around the United States since its publication. Despite the fact that the majority of the key performers were generally white, persons of color were occasionally included in the cast.
African American actors and actresses were frequently only given stereotyped roles, if any, in big shows by prominent companies. Make a note of this item: /Back to the top of the page
The Underground Railroad
At the time of slavery, the Underground Railroad was a network of routes, locations, and individuals that assisted enslaved persons in the American South in their attempts to flee to freedom in the northern states. Subjects History of the United States, Social StudiesImage
Home of Levi Coffin
A network of routes, locations, and individuals existed during the time of slavery in the United States to assist enslaved persons in the American South in their attempts to go north. Subjects Social Studies, History of the United States of America
A network of routes, locations, and individuals existed during the time of slavery to assist enslaved persons in the American South in their attempts to flee to the North. Subjects Social Studies, History of the United StatesImage
Tyson Brown is a member of the National Geographic Society.
The National Geographic Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the exploration of the world’s natural wonders.
Gina Borgia is a member of the National Geographic Society. Jeanna Sullivan is a member of the National Geographic Society.
According to National Geographic Society’s Sarah Appleton, Margot Willis is a National Geographic Society photographer.
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