Which Statement Best Characterizes The Purpose Of The Underground Railroad? (Suits you)

How would you describe the Underground Railroad?

  • The underground railroad isn’t actually a railroad, it’s just a term that meant that their activities had to be carried out in secret. The passageway ranged from 14 different Northern states and through Canada. This passageway helped slaves escape. Q: What best describes the Underground Railroad?

What was the purpose of the Underground Railroad?

The underground railroad, where it existed, offered local service to runaway slaves, assisting them from one point to another. Farther along, others would take the passenger into their transportation system until the final destination had been reached.

Which best describes the Underground Railroad?

Which of the following best describes the Underground Railroad? It was a piece of the transcontinental railroad that was built in Kansas. It was a group of abolitionists who were hiding out from the government. It was a secret escape network for enslaved people seeking freedom.

What was the purpose of the Underground Railroad quizlet?

The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early-to-mid 19th century, and used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.

What is the message of the Underground Railroad?

Value, Ownership, and Commodification. Throughout the book, the narrator emphasizes that slavery is an economic system, and that the social and moral behavior of the white characters is fundamentally governed by economic interests.

What was the purpose of the Underground Railroad Weegy?

The Underground Railroad was established to aid enslaved people in their escape to freedom.

Why was the Underground Railroad important to the Civil War?

The Underground Railroad physically resisted the repressive laws that held slaves in bondage. By provoking fear and anger in the South, and prompting the enactment of harsh legislation that eroded the rights of white Americans, the Underground Railroad was a direct contributing cause of the Civil War.

Which of the following statements best describes the Free Soil Party platform in 1848?

Which of the following statements best describes the Free Soil Party platform in 1848? Free Soilers called for no more slave states or territories.

Which statement best explains how the idea of Manifest Destiny lead to the Mexican American War quizlet?

Which statement best explains how the idea of Manifest Destiny lead to the Mexican-American War? Mexico was a barrier to achieving what many believed was America’s destiny to expand to the Pacific.

Which of the following best describes the Wilmot Proviso quizlet?

Which of the following best describes the Wilmot Proviso? It was an amendment that barred slavery from any territory acquired from Mexico.

What was the Underground Railroad quizlet Chapter 11?

– The Underground Railroad was a system of trails and people used by slaves to escape to freedom before the Civil War. – Harriet Tubman used this trail to rescue slaves.

How did the Underground Railroad lead to the Civil War quizlet?

How did the Underground Railroad cause the Civil War? *The Underground Railroad was a escape route for fugitive slaves in America. *Slaves would be helped by Northerners or “Quakers” who help slaves escape to Canada. *John Brown believed that this would bring an end to slavery.

What is the central idea of the text the Underground Railroad Commonlit?

The Underground Railroad was established to provide a secret way for slaves to escape from slavery in the South to freedom in the North.

Was the Underground Railroad a success?

Ironically the Fugitive Slave Act increased Northern opposition to slavery and helped hasten the Civil War. The Underground Railroad gave freedom to thousands of enslaved women and men and hope to tens of thousands more. In both cases the success of the Underground Railroad hastened the destruction of slavery.

Eastern Illinois University : Teaching with Primary Sources

Smuggled fugitives through the Underground Railroad during the winter seasonThe Underground Railroad was constructed to assist enslaved persons in their escape to freedom from slavery. As a result, the railroad network consisted of hundreds of hidden routes and safe homes that began in slaveholding states and extended all the way to the Canadian border, which was the only place where fugitives could be certain of their freedom. From Florida to Cuba, or from Texas to Mexico, there were shorter routes that sent travelers south.

The Underground Railroad’s success was dependent on the collaboration of past runaway slaves, free-born blacks, Native Americans, and white and black abolitionists who assisted in guiding fugitive slaves along the routes and providing safe havens in their own houses.

In the nineteenth century, there was an underground railroad.

From the jargon that was employed along the lines, the Underground Railroad received its moniker.

  • Agents, stations, stationmasters, passengers or freight, and even investors were all included in this category.
  • As a series of interconnected networks, the Underground Railroad functioned efficiently.
  • It was a gradual process on the part of those who led the fugitive slaves northward.
  • It would be transferred on to the next conductor after the “freight” had reached another stop until the full trip had been completed.
  • A great deal of hostility was built among slaveholders and their sympathizers as a result of the success of the Underground Railroad.
  • The Act allowed slave owners or their agents to request assistance from federal, state, and local law enforcement officials in non-slaveholding states in the capture of fugitive slaves.
  • African Americans who were not born into slavery were abducted by slave catchers.
  • It is sufficient for the slave-catcher to make an oath that the black guy is, in fact, a runaway slave, after which they may return the slave to its alleged owner in exchange for a reward.
  • Thousands of enslaved women and men were released and tens of thousands more were given hope as a result of the underground railroad.
  • The Underground Railroad attracted many more people, who became members and supporters.

Willie Still’s book, The Underground Railroad, is a good place to start looking (Chicago, Johnson Publishing Company, 1970) Passages to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in History and Memory (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books in association with the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, 2004); J.

Blight, Passages to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in History and Memory (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books in association with the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center), BlackPast.org has granted permission to republish their material.

Example of APA Citation for this Article: Charles Waggoner, C. Waggoner & Associates, Inc. (n.d.). From 1820 to 1861, the Underground Railroad transported people from one place to another. An historical study of social welfare. Obtainable via the website

A Dangerous Path to Freedom

Traveling through the Underground Railroad to seek their freedom was a lengthy and risky trek for escaped slaves. Runaway slaves were forced to travel long distances, sometimes on foot, in a short amount of time in order to escape. They accomplished this while surviving on little or no food and with little protection from the slave hunters who were rushing after them in the night. Slave owners were not the only ones who sought for and apprehended fleeing slaves. For the purpose of encouraging people to aid in the capture of these slaves, their owners would post reward posters offering monetary compensation for assisting in the capture of their property.

  1. Numerous arrested fugitive slaves were beaten, branded, imprisoned, sold back into slavery, or sometimes killed once they were apprehended.
  2. They would have to fend off creatures that wanted to kill and devour them while trekking for lengthy periods of time in the wilderness, as well as cross dangerous terrain and endure extreme temperatures.
  3. The Fleeing Slave Law of 1850 permitted and promoted the arrest of fugitive slaves since they were regarded as stolen property rather than mistreated human beings under the law at the time.
  4. They would not be able to achieve safety and freedom until they crossed the border into Canada.
  5. Aside from that, there were Underground Railroad routes that ran south, on their way to Mexico and the Caribbean.
  6. He was kidnapped from his northern abode, arrested, and prosecuted in Boston, Massachusetts, under the provisions of this legislation.
  7. After the trial, Burns was returned to the harshness of the southern states, from which he had thought he had fled.

American Memory and America’s Library are two names for the Library of Congress’ American Memory and America’s Library collections.

He did not escape via the Underground Railroad, but rather on a regular railroad.

Since he was a fugitive slave who did not have any “free papers,” he had to borrow a seaman’s protection certificate, which indicated that a seaman was a citizen of the United States, in order to prove that he was free.

Unfortunately, not all fugitive slaves were successful in their quest for freedom.

Harriet Tubman, Henry Bibb, Anthony Burns, Addison White, Josiah Henson, and John Parker were just a few of the people who managed to escape slavery using the Underground Railroad system.

He shipped himself from Richmond, Virginia, to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in a box that measured three feet long, two and a half feet deep, and two feet in diameter. When he was finally let out of the crate, he burst out singing.

ConductorsAbolitionists

Train conductors on the Underground Railroad were free persons who provided assistance to escaped slaves moving via the Underground Railroad system. Runaway slaves were assisted by conductors, who provided them with safe transportation to and from train stations. They were able to accomplish this under the cover of darkness, with slave hunters on their tails. Many of these stations would be in the comfort of their own homes or places of work, which was convenient. They were in severe danger as a result of their actions in hiding fleeing slaves; nonetheless, they continued because they believed in a cause bigger than themselves, which was the liberation thousands of oppressed human beings.

  • They represented a diverse range of ethnicities, vocations, and socioeconomic backgrounds.
  • Due to the widespread belief that slaves were considered property, the freeing of slaves was perceived as a theft of slave owners’ personal belongings.
  • Captain Jonathan Walker was apprehended off the coast of Florida while attempting to convey slaves from the United States to freedom in the Bahamas.
  • With the following words from one of his songs, abolitionist poet John Whittier paid respect to Walker’s valiant actions: “Take a step forward with your muscular right hand, brave ploughman of the sea!
  • She never lost sight of any of them during the journey.
  • He went on to write a novel.
  • John Parker is yet another former slave who escaped and returned to slave states in order to aid in the emancipation of others.

Rankin’s neighbor and fellow conductor, Reverend John Rankin, was a collaborator in the Underground Railroad project.

The Underground Railroad’s conductors were unquestionably anti-slavery, and they were not alone in their views.

Individuals such as William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur and Lewis Tappan founded the American Anti-Slavery Society, which marked the beginning of the abolitionist movement.

The group published an annual almanac that featured poetry, paintings, essays, and other abolitionist material.

Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave who rose to prominence as an abolitionist after escaping from slavery.

His other abolitionist publications included the Frederick Douglass Paper, which he produced in addition to delivering public addresses on themes that were important to abolitionists.

Anthony was another well-known abolitionist who advocated for the abolition of slavery via her speeches and writings.

For the most part, she based her novel on the adventures of escaped slave Josiah Henson.

Efforts of Abolitionists Telling Their Story:Fugitive Slave Narratives

Henry Bibb was born into slavery in Kentucky in the year 1815, and he was the son of a slave owner. After several failed efforts to emancipate himself from slavery, he maintained the strength and persistence to continue his struggle for freedom despite being captured and imprisoned numerous times. His determination paid off when he was able to successfully escape to the northern states and then on to Canada with the assistance of the Underground Railroad, which had been highly anticipated. The following is an excerpt from his tale, in which he detailed one of his numerous escapes and the difficulties he faced as a result of his efforts.

  • I began making preparations for the potentially lethal experiment of breading the shackles that tied me as a slave as soon as the clock struck twelve.
  • On the twenty-fifth of December, 1837, the long-awaited day had finally arrived when I would put into effect my previous determination, which was to flee for Liberty or accept death as a slave, as I had previously stated.
  • It took every ounce of moral strength I have to keep my emotions under control as I said goodbye to my small family.
  • Despite the fact that every incentive was extended to me in order to flee if I want to be free, and the call of liberty was booming in my own spirit, ‘Be free, oh, man!
  • I was up against a slew of hurdles that had gathered around my mind, attempting to bind my wounded soul, which was still imprisoned in the dark prison of mental degeneration.
  • Furthermore, the danger of being killed or arrested and deported to the far South, where I would be forced to spend the rest of my days in hopeless bondage on a cotton or sugar plantation, all conspired to discourage me.
  • The moment has come for me to follow through on my commitment.
  • This marked the beginning of the construction of what was known as the underground rail route to Canada.

For nearly forty-eight hours, I pushed myself to complete my journey without food or rest, battling against external difficulties that no one who has never experienced them can comprehend: “not knowing when I might be captured while traveling among strangers, through cold and fear, braving the north winds while wearing only a thin layer of clothing, pelted by snow storms through the dark hours of the night, and not a single house in which I could enter to protect me from the storm.” This is merely one of several accounts penned by runaway slaves who were on the run from their masters.

Sojourner Truth was another former slave who became well-known for her work to bring slavery to an end.

Green and many others, including Josiah Henson, authored autobiographies in which they described their own personal experiences.

Perhaps a large number of escaped slaves opted to write down their experiences in order to assist people better comprehend their struggles and tribulations; or perhaps they did so in order to help folks learn from the mistakes of the past in order to create a better future for themselves.

Introduction-Aboard the Underground Railroad

The Underground Railroad refers to the effort -sometimes spontaneous, sometimes highly organized – to assist persons held in bondage in North America to escape from slavery.While most runaways began their journey unaided and many completed their self-emancipation without assistance, each decade in which slavery was legal in the United States saw an increase in the public perception of an underground network and in the number of persons willing to give aid to the runaway. Although divided, the abolitionist movement was successful in expanding the informal network known as the underground railroad and in publicizing it.The term “underground railroad” had no meaning to the generations before the first rails and engines of the 1820s, but the retrospective use of the term in is made so as to include incidents which have all the characteristics of underground railroad activity, but which occurred earlier.These activities foreshadowed and helped to shape the underground railroad.The origin of the term “underground railroad” cannot be precisely determined.What is known is that both those who aided escapees from slavery and those who were outraged by loss of slave property began to refer to runaways as part of an “underground railroad” by 1840.The “underground railroad” described an activity that was locally organized, but with no real center.It existed rather openly in the North and just beneath the surface of daily life in the upper South and certain Southern cities.The underground railroad, where it existed, offered local service to runaway slaves, assisting them from one point to another.Farther along, others would take the passenger into their transportation system until the final destination had been reached. The rapidity with which the term became commonly used did not mean that incidents of resistance to slavery increased significantly around 1830 or that more attempts were made to escape from bondage. It did mean that more white northerners were prepared to aid runaways and to give some assistance to the northern blacks who had always made it their business to help escapees from slavery. The primary importance of the underground railroad was that it gave ampleevidence of African American capabilities and gave expression to AfricanAmerican philosophy. Perhaps the most important factor or aspect tokeep in mind concerning the underground railroad is that its importanceis not measured by the number of attempted or successful escapes fromAmerican slavery, but by the manner in which it consistently exposedthe grim realities of slavery and -more important- refuted the claimthat African Americans could not act or organize on their own. The secondaryimportance of the underground railroad was that it provided an opportunityfor sympathetic white Americans to play a role in resisting slavery.It also brought together, however uneasily at times, men and women ofboth races to begin to set aside assumptions about the other race andto work together on issues of mutual concern. At the most dramatic level,the underground railroad provided stories of guided escapes from theSouth, rescues of arrested fugitives in the North, complex communicationsystems, and individual acts of bravery and suffering. While most ofthe accounts of secret passageways, sliding wall panels, and hiddenrooms will not be verified by historic evidence, there were indeed sufficientdramas to be interpreted and verified.Visitors may be interested inHistoricHotels of America, a program of the National Trust for HistoricPreservation, located near the places featured in this itinerary.List of Sites|HomeComments or Questions Last Modified:EST
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Underground Railroad

When describing a network of meeting spots, hidden routes, passages, and safehouses used by slaves in the United States to escape slave-holding states and seek refuge in northern states and Canada, the Underground Railroad was referred to as the Underground Railroad (UR). The underground railroad, which was established in the early 1800s and sponsored by persons active in the Abolitionist Movement, assisted thousands of slaves in their attempts to escape bondage. Between 1810 and 1850, it is estimated that 100,000 slaves escaped from bondage in the southern United States.

Facts, information and articles about the Underground Railroad

Aproximate year of birth: 1780

Ended

The beginnings of the American Civil War occurred around the year 1862.

Slaves Freed

The commencement of the American Civil War occurred around 1862.

Prominent Figures

Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. William Still is a well-known author and poet. Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by author Levi Coffin. John Fairfield is a well-known author.

Related Reading:

The Story of How Canada Became the Final Station on the Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman’s Legacy as a Freedom Fighter and a Spion is well documented.

The Beginnings Of the Underground Railroad

Even before the nineteenth century, it appears that a mechanism to assist runaways existed. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with the assistance provided to one of his escaped slaves by “a organization of Quakers, founded for such purposes.” The Religious Society of Friends, or Quakers as they are more officially known, were among the first abolitionist organizations to emerge. Their influence may have played a role in Pennsylvania becoming the first state to abolish slavery, which was home to a large number of Quakers.

In recognition of his contributions, Levi is often referred to as the “president of the Underground Railroad.” In Fountain City, Ohio, on Ohio’s western border, the eight-room Indiana home they bought and used as a “station” before they came to Cincinnati has been preserved and is now a National Historic Landmark.

The Underground Railroad Gets Its Name

Owen Brown, the father of radical abolitionist John Brown, was a member of the Underground Railroad in the state of New York during the Civil War. An unconfirmed narrative suggests that “Mammy Sally” designated the house where Abraham Lincoln’s future wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, grew up and served as a safe house where fugitives could receive food, but the account is doubtful. Routes of the Underground Railroad It was not until the early 1830s that the phrase “Underground Railroad” was first used.

Fugitives going by water or on genuine trains were occasionally provided with clothing so that they wouldn’t give themselves away by wearing their worn-out job attire.

Many of them continued on to Canada, where they could not be lawfully reclaimed by their rightful owners.

The slave or slaves were forced to flee from their masters, which was frequently done at night. It was imperative that the runaways maintain their eyes on the North Star at all times; only by keeping that star in front of them could they be certain that they were on their trip north.

Conductors On The Railroad

Abolitionist John Brown’s father, Owen Brown, was involved in the Underground Railroad movement in New York State during the abolitionist movement. An unconfirmed narrative suggests that “Mammy Sally” designated the house where Abraham Lincoln’s future wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, grew up and served as a safe haven where fugitives could obtain food, but the account is untrustworthy. Railway routes that run beneath the surface of the land. It was in the early 1830s when the name “Underground Railroad” first appeared.

They were transported from one station to another by “conductors.” Money or products were donated to the Underground Railroad by its “stockholders.” Fugitives going by sea or on genuine trains were occasionally provided with clothing so that they wouldn’t be recognized if they were wearing their old job attire.

Many of them continued on to Canada, where they could not be lawfully reclaimed by their families.

To escape from their owners, the slave or slaves had to do it at night, which they did most of the time.

The Civil War On The Horizon

Events such as the Missouri Compromise and the Dred Scott decision compelled more anti-slavery activists to take an active part in the effort to liberate slaves in the United States. After Abraham Lincoln was elected president, Southern states began to secede in December 1860, putting an end to the Union’s hopes of achieving independence from the United States. Abolitionist newspapers and even some loud abolitionists warned against giving the remaining Southern states an excuse to separate. Lucia Bagbe (later known as Sara Lucy Bagby Johnson) is considered to be the final slave who was returned to bondage as a result of the Fugitive Slave Law.

Her owner hunted her down and arrested her in December 1860.

Even the Cleveland Leader, a Republican weekly that was traditionally anti-slavery and pro-the Fugitive Slave Legislation, warned its readers that allowing the law to run its course “may be oil thrown upon the seas of our nation’s difficulties,” according to the newspaper.

Following her capture, Lucy was carried back to Ohio County, Virginia, and punished, but she was released at some time when Union soldiers took control of the region. In her honor, a Grand Jubilee was celebrated on May 6, 1863, in the city of Cleveland.

The Reverse Underground Railroad

A “reverse Underground Railroad” arose in the northern states surrounding the Ohio River during the Civil War. The black men and women of those states, whether or not they had previously been slaves, were occasionally kidnapped and concealed in homes, barns, and other structures until they could be transported to the South and sold as slaves.

‘The Underground Railroad’ attempts to upend viewers’ notions of what it meant to be enslaved

While appearing on NPR’s Fresh Air, the director of “The Underground Railroad,” Barry Jenkins, stated that “before producing this program, [he’d] claimed that he’s the descendent of enslaved Africans.” “I believe that response has developed now,” he said further on. “I come from a long line of blacksmiths, midwives, herbalists, and spiritualists,” says the author. Because I am a researcher who is concerned in how contemporary portrayals of enslavement impact our knowledge of the past, I am impressed by the ways Jenkins wants to alter the way viewers think about – and talk about – Black American history.

Rather of seeing slaves as just things to be acted upon, much of this work has focused on reframing slaves as persons who retained identities and agency (although with some limitations) in spite of their status as property.

Pushing the boundaries of language

During an interview with NPR’s Fresh Air program, Barry Jenkins, the director of “The Underground Railroad,” stated that “before doing this show. I would have declared I’m the descendent of enslaved Africans.” As he said, “I believe that the solution has developed.” “I come from a long line of blacksmiths, midwives, herbalists, and spiritualists,” I explain. As a historian who is concerned in how contemporary portrayals of enslavement influence our understanding of the past, I am fascinated by the ways Jenkins strives to alter the way viewers think about – and talk about – Black American history.

Rather of seeing slaves as just things to be acted upon, much of this work has focused on redefining slaves as persons who retained their own identities and agency, however restricted, in spite of their position as property.

Seeing slaves on screen

As a result of the nature of their medium, filmmakers have, in some ways, done better than their peers in terms of balancing the problems of conveying the awful experiences of enslaved people as a whole while elevating the specific experiences of enslaved individuals. So, where does Jenkins fall into the historical canon of portrayals of enslavement in the cinema? A lot of people have been comparing this to the first miniseries about American chattel slavery, ” Roots “, which premiered in 2011.

The experience also provided significant opportunity for inter-racial understanding.

It was a communal experience that sparked and molded national dialogues about slavery and the history of the United States of America.

One of the most imaginative representations of slavery in recent years has been WGN’s neglected television series ” Underground.” Other recent examples include the 2016 version of ” Roots,” 2020’s ” The Good Lord Bird,” Django Unchained,” ” 12 Years a Slave,” and ” Harriet.” The most effective of these programs encourage viewers to consider new perspectives on enslavement and individuals who struggled against it.

As an example, the play “The Good Lord Bird” utilized satire to shatter long-held stereotypes of John Brown, the militant 19th-century abolitionist, and sparked fresh discussions about when it is acceptable to use violence to oppose injustice.

A delicate dance between beauty and suffering

In reading about Jenkins’ vision for “The Underground Railroad,” I can see how and why his vision is so essential at this particular time. Jenkins’ films ” Moonlight ” and ” If Beale Street Could Talk” established him as an artist who is capable of moving beyond limiting, constricting views of Black identity as one characterized primarily by sorrow and into more expansive, liberating territory. Of course, his films are not without their share of heartache. Pain, on the other hand, is not their most prominent sound.

  1. This sensibility is carried over into Jenkins’s “The Underground Railroad” as well.
  2. In particular, I was taken aback by how the sun-drenched fields of an Indiana farm serve as an eminently appropriate setting for Cora’s discovery of a newfound love with Royal.
  3. When the wind blows through the curtain of Cora’s deserted cabin, it conjures the paintings of Jacob Lawrence, which are framed by the rough timbers of the slave quarters and framing it.
  4. Atsushi Nishijima/Amazon Studios is the photographer.
  5. Cora, for example, works as an actor at a museum, where she portrays a “African savage” for the sake of the public; in one scene, she changes out of the costume and into a beautiful yellow dress to wow the audience.
  6. The attractiveness of these middle-class ideals is demonstrated in scenes depicting the etiquette and reading lessons taught by the teachers of theTuskegee-styleinstitute where Cora and other fugitives take refuge.
  7. It is only later, when Cora is compelled by her mentor to undergo forced sterilization, that it becomes clear that she has arrived in a horror show of epic proportions.
  8. Every episode contains moments of breathtaking beauty.
  9. Living with the knowledge that tranquility might suddenly and abruptly turn into devastation is a normal aspect of the human experience.

The Underground Railroad

The Underground Railroad, a vast network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and to Canada, was not run by any single organization or person. Rather, it consisted of many individuals – many whites but predominently black – who knew only of the local efforts to aid fugitives and not of the overall operation. Still, it effectively moved hundreds of slaves northward each year – according to one estimate,the South lost 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850. An organized system to assist runaway slaves seems to have begun towards the end of the 18th century. In 1786 George Washington complained about how one of his runaway slaves was helped by a “society of Quakers, formed for such purposes.” The system grew, and around 1831 it was dubbed “The Underground Railroad,” after the then emerging steam railroads. The system even used terms used in railroading: the homes and businesses where fugitives would rest and eat were called “stations” and “depots” and were run by “stationmasters,” those who contributed money or goods were “stockholders,” and the “conductor” was responsible for moving fugitives from one station to the next.For the slave, running away to the North was anything but easy. The first step was to escape from the slaveholder. For many slaves, this meant relying on his or her own resources. Sometimes a “conductor,” posing as a slave, would enter a plantation and then guide the runaways northward. The fugitives would move at night. They would generally travel between 10 and 20 miles to the next station, where they would rest and eat, hiding in barns and other out-of-the-way places. While they waited, a message would be sent to the next station to alert its stationmaster.The fugitives would also travel by train and boat – conveyances that sometimes had to be paid for. Money was also needed to improve the appearance of the runaways – a black man, woman, or child in tattered clothes would invariably attract suspicious eyes. This money was donated by individuals and also raised by various groups, including vigilance committees.Vigilance committees sprang up in the larger towns and cities of the North, most prominently in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. In addition to soliciting money, the organizations provided food, lodging and money, and helped the fugitives settle into a community by helping them find jobs and providing letters of recommendation.The Underground Railroad had many notable participants, including John Fairfield in Ohio, the son of a slaveholding family, who made many daring rescues, Levi Coffin, a Quaker who assisted more than 3,000 slaves, and Harriet Tubman, who made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.
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Underground Railroad

Underground Railroad was a network of people, both black and white, who helped escaped enslaved persons from the southern United States by providing them with refuge and assistance. It came forth as a result of the convergence of numerous separate covert initiatives.

Although the exact dates of its inception are unknown, it was active from the late 18th century until the Civil War, after which its attempts to weaken the Confederacy were carried out in a less-secretive manner until the Civil War ended.

Quaker Abolitionists

The Society of Friends (Quakers) is often regarded as the first organized group to actively assist escaped enslaved persons. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with Quakers for attempting to “liberate” one of his enslaved servants. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved persons who were on the run from slavery. Abolitionist organisations founded by Quakers in North Carolina lay the basis for escape routes and safe havens for fugitive slaves during the same time period.

What Was the Underground Railroad?

The Underground Railroad was first mentioned in 1831, when an enslaved man named Tice Davids managed to escape from Kentucky into Ohio and his master blamed a “underground railroad” for assisting Davids in his liberation. When a fugitive slave called Jim was apprehended in 1839 in Washington, the press said that the guy confessed his plan to travel north along a “underground railroad to Boston” while under torture. The Vigilance Committees, which were established in New York in 1835 and Philadelphia in 1838 to safeguard escaped enslaved persons from bounty hunters, rapidly expanded their duties to include guiding enslaved individuals on the run.

MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman and her fellow fugitives used the following strategies to escape through the Underground Railroad:

How the Underground Railroad Worked

The majority of enslaved persons aided by the Underground Railroad were able to flee to neighboring states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made catching fugitive enslaved persons a lucrative industry in the deep South, and there were fewer hiding places for them as a result of the Act. The majority of fugitive enslaved people were on their own until they reached specific places farther north. The escaping enslaved people were escorted by individuals known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were also used as hiding places throughout the war.

The personnel in charge of running them were referred to as “stationmasters.” There were several well-traveled roads that ran west through Ohio and into Indiana and Iowa.

More information may be found at The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.

Fugitive Slave Acts

The Fugitive Slave Acts were a major cause for many fugitive slaves to flee to Canada. This legislation, which was passed in 1793, authorized local governments to catch and extradite fugitive enslaved individuals from inside the borders of free states back to their places of origin, as well as to penalize anybody who assisted the fleeing enslaved people. Personal Liberty Laws were introduced in certain northern states to fight this, but they were overturned by the Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was intended to reinforce the preceding legislation, which was perceived by southern states to be insufficiently enforced at the time of passage.

The northern states were still considered a danger zone for fugitives who had managed to flee.

Some Underground Railroad operators chose to station themselves in Canada and sought to assist fugitives who were arriving to settle in the country.

Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad during its heyday. When she and two of her brothers fled from a farm in Maryland in 1849, she was given the name Harriet (her married name was Tubman). She was born Araminta Ross, and she was raised as Harriet Tubman. They returned a couple of weeks later, but Tubman fled on her own again shortly after, this time making her way to the state of Pennsylvania. In following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and other individuals.

Tubman was distraught until she had a vision of God, which led her to join the Underground Railroad and begin escorting other fugitive slaves to the Maryland state capital.

Frederick Douglass

In his house in Rochester, New York, former enslaved person and celebrated author Frederick Douglasshid fugitives who were assisting 400 escapees in their journey to freedom in Canada. Reverend Jermain Loguen, a former fugitive who lived in the adjacent city of Syracuse, assisted 1,500 escapees on their journey north. The Vigilance Committee was established in Philadelphia in 1838 by Robert Purvis, an escaped enslaved person who later became a trader. Josiah Henson, a former enslaved person and railroad operator, founded the Dawn Institute in Ontario in 1842 to assist fugitive slaves who made their way to Canada in learning the necessary skills to find work.

Agent,” according to the document.

John Parker was a free Black man living in Ohio who worked as a foundry owner and who used his rowboat to ferry fugitives over the Ohio River.

William Still was a notable Philadelphia citizen who was born in New Jersey to runaway slaves parents who fled to Philadelphia as children.

Who Ran the Underground Railroad?

The vast majority of Underground Railroad operators were regular individuals, including farmers and business owners, as well as preachers and religious leaders. Some affluent individuals were active, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who stood for president on two separate occasions. Smith acquired a full family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841 and freed them from their captivity. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, is credited with being one of the first recorded individuals to assist escaped enslaved persons.

Coffin stated that he had discovered their hiding spots and had sought them out in order to assist them in moving forward.

Finally, they were able to make their way closer to him. Coffin eventually relocated to Indiana and then Ohio, where he continued to assist fugitive enslaved individuals no matter where he was.

John Brown

Abolitionist John Brown worked as a conductor on the Underground Railroad, and it was at this time that he founded the League of Gileadites, which was dedicated to assisting fleeing enslaved individuals in their journey to Canada. Abolitionist John Brown would go on to play a variety of roles during his life. His most well-known duty was conducting an assault on Harper’s Ferry in order to raise an armed army that would march into the deep south and free enslaved people at gunpoint. Ultimately, Brown’s forces were beaten, and he was executed for treason in 1859.

  • The year 1844, he formed a partnership with Vermont schoolteacher Delia Webster, and the two were jailed for assisting an escaped enslaved lady and her young daughter.
  • Charles Torrey was sentenced to six years in jail in Maryland for assisting an enslaved family in their attempt to flee through Virginia.
  • After being apprehended in 1844 while transporting a boatload of freed slaves from the Caribbean to the United States, Massachusetts sea captain Jonathan Walker was sentenced to prison for life.
  • John Fairfield of Virginia turned down the opportunity to assist in the rescue of enslaved individuals who had been left behind by their families as they made their way north.
  • He managed to elude capture twice.

End of the Line

Operation of the Underground Railroad came to an end in 1863, during the American Civil War. In actuality, its work was shifted aboveground as part of the Union’s overall campaign against the Confederate States of America. Once again, Harriet Tubman made a crucial contribution by organizing intelligence operations and serving as a commanding officer in Union Army efforts to rescue the liberated enslaved people who had been freed. MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman led a daring Civil War raid after the Underground Railroad was shut down.

Sources

Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad is a book about the Underground Railroad. Fergus Bordewich is a Scottish actor. A Biography of Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom Catherine Clinton is the first lady of the United States. Who Exactly Was in Charge of the Underground Railroad?

‘Henry Louis Gates’ is a pseudonym for Henry Louis Gates. The Underground Railroad’s History in New York is a little known fact. The Smithsonian Institution’s magazine. The Underground Railroad’s Dangerous Allure is well documented. The New Yorker is a publication dedicated to journalism.

African American Spirituals

Harriet Tubman is seen in a full-length picture, her hands resting on the back of a chair. A reproduction of this image is available from the Prints and Photographs Division under the Reproduction Number LC-USZ62-7816. She said that she used spirituals such as “Go Down Moses” to alert slaves that she was in the area and would assist those who wished to escape. Tubman was a former slave who worked as a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad during the American Civil War. When it comes to religious folk music, aspiritual is most strongly connected with the slavery of African Americans in the American South during the 19th century.

  • The African American spiritual (also known as the Negro Spiritual) is one of the most prominent and widespread kinds of American folk music, accounting for almost a quarter of all American folk song.
  • Another is ” Deep down in my heart.” According to the King James Bible translation ofEphesians 5:19, “Speaking to yourself in psalms and hymns and spiritual melodies, singing and making music in your heart to the Lord,” the term “spiritual” is derived.
  • Participants in the gatherings would sing, chant, dance, and even enter euphoric trances during the sessions.
  • ” Jesus Leads Me All the Way,” performed by Reverend Goodwin and the Zion MethodistChurch congregation in 1970 and recorded by Henrietta Yurchenco, is an example of a spiritual sung in this way.
  • Music had long been a key part of people’s lives throughout Africa, with music-making permeating both big life events and everyday activities.
  • The gatherings were thus frequently prohibited and had to be held in secret.
  • It took a long time for the religion to gain widespread acceptance at initially.

Spirituals were increasingly important as Africanized Christianity gained traction among the slave population, serving as a means of expressing the community’s newfound faith, as well as its sufferings and hopes.

The vocal style was characterized by a plethora of freeform slides, twists, and rhythms, which made it difficult for early spiritual publishers to adequately capture.

The difficulties of slaves are described in songs such as “Sometimes I feel like a motherlesschild,” and “Nobody knows de sorrow I’ve seen,” which identify the suffering of Jesus Christ.

They are referred to as “jubilees” or “camp meetingsongs” because they are rapid, rhythmic, and frequently syncopated.

Spirituals are also frequently referred to as formalized protest songs, with songs such as ” Steal away to Jesus,” created by Wallis Willis, being interpreted as calls to emancipation from slavery by some critics and historians.

Because aiding slaves in their quest for freedom was against the law, hard proof is difficult to come across.

As Frederick Douglass, abolitionist author and former slave in the nineteenth century, wrote in his bookMy Bondage and My Freedom(1855) about his experiences singing spirituals while he was held in bondage: “If someone had been paying attention, they might have noticed something more than a desire to reach heaven in our repeated singing of ‘O Canaan, sweet Canaan, I am bound for the land of Canaan.’ We wanted to get to the North, and the North was Canaan, the land of Israel.” Featured image courtesy of Fisk University’s Prints and Photographs Division, Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-11008 and the Jubilee Singers of Nashville, Tenn.

  • The Fisk University Jubilee Singers, under the leadership of JohnW.
  • Between 1870 and 1880, a photograph was taken.
  • The formation of the Jubilee Singers, a chorus comprised of freed slaves from Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, in the 1870s ignited a worldwide interest in the musical style, which has continued to this day.
  • While some African Americans at the time connected the spiritual tradition with slavery and were uninterested in its continuation, the concerts of the Fisk Universitysingers persuaded many that it should be perpetuated.
  • The Hampton Singers of Hampton Institute (now Hampton University) in Hampton, Virginia, were one of the first groups to challenge the Jubilee Singers in terms of quality and quantity.
  • Nathaniel Dett.
  • As noted composers Moses Hogan, Roland Carter, Jester Hairston, Brazeal Dennard and Wendell Whalum have arranged spirituals for choruses, the musical form has evolved beyond its traditional folk song roots in the twentieth century.

A significant contribution to the development of spirituals on the concert hall stage has been the work of composers such as Henry T.

Follow the link to get the sheet music for ” A Balm inGiliad,” a spiritual prepared by Burleigh that is an example of his work.

In Burleigh’s footsteps were many more composers who followed in his footsteps.

The practice has persisted into more modern times, with classical performers like as Kathleen Battle and Jessye Norman regularly include spirituals in their concerts and recording sessions.

A great number of spirituals have been retained in the Gospel heritage, but their musical forms have altered considerably as harmonies have been added and the songs have been rearranged to fit new performing styles.

The classic spiritual, despite these modifications, is still alive and well in some conservative churches in the South that are either more insulated from modern influences, or that just choose to keep the older tunes alive for historical reasons.

There are some real hidden gems in this collection, including “Run old Jeremiah,” a ring shout from Jennings, Alabama, recorded by J.

Brown and A.

Simon’s Island, Georgia, in 1959.

This audio contains a conversation between folklorist Stephen Winick and a curator about the song “Kumbaya.” Even though it is significantly less widely known than its “negrospiritual” cousin, the “white spiritual” genre contains the folk song, the religious ballad, and the camp-meeting spiritual, among other things.

See also:  What States Did The Underground Railroad Start? (Suits you)

This field recording was produced in 1943 by Willis James of the Lincoln Park Singers playing “I’ll fly away,” a song written by Albert E.

This field recording seeks to demonstrate the connection that exists between black and white spirituals in general.

A series of research began with this book, which revealed the presence of white spirituals in both their oral and documented forms, with the latter being found in the shape-note tune books of rural communities.

In black spiritual performances, differences include the use of microtonally flattened notes, syncopation, and counter-rhythms denoted by handclapping, among other things.

Throughout the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, spirituals have played a key role as vehicles for social protest at various moments throughout history.

“Oh, Liberation!

A live performance of both of these songs was captured on camera by the ensemble Reverb at a concert at the Library of Congress in 2007.

While creating new protest songs, several of today’s most well-known pop singers continue to draw on the spirituals legacy as inspiration. A few of examples include Bob Marley’s “RedemptionSong,” as well as Billy Bragg’s “Sing their souls back home.”

Note

  • With hands on the back of a chair, Harriet Tubman poses for a full-length photograph. It is reproduced under the following number: LC-USZ62-7816 in the Prints and Photographs Division: She said that she used spirituals such as “Go Down Moses” to alert slaves that she was in the area and would assist those who wished to escape. Tubman was a former slave and “conductor” on the Underground Railroad. When it comes to religious folk music, aspiritual is most strongly connected with the slavery of African Americans in the American South throughout the nineteenth century. Songs about slavery became more popular in the latter few decades of the eighteenth century, leading up to the abolition of legalized slavery in the 1860s. In the United States, the African American spiritual (also known as the Negro Spiritual) is one of the most influential and widespread types of folk music. ” Swinglow, lovely chariot,” created by Wallis Willis, is one of the most well-known spirituals. Another is ” Deep down in my heart,” composed by a Wallis Willis. According to the King James Bible translation ofEphesians 5:19, “Speaking to yourself in psalms and hymns and spiritual melodies, singing and making music in your hearts to the Lord,” the term “spiritual” is derived. “Brusharbor meetings,” “bush meetings,” and “camp meetings” were informal gatherings of African slaves that took place in “praise homes” and outdoor meetings known as “brusharbor meetings,” “bush meetings,” and “camp meetings” in the eighteenth century, according to some historians. Participants would sing, chant and dance during the gatherings, and they would occasionally get into blissful trances. Singing spirituals have also been traced back to the “ring scream,” which was a shuffling circular dance to chanting and handclapping that was popular among early plantation slaves. “Jesus Leads Me All the Way,” performed by Reverend Goodwin and the Zion MethodistChurch congregation in 1970 and recorded by Henrietta Yurchenco, is an example of a spiritual sung in this fashion. Africans have always placed a high value on music, which permeates key life events as well as their daily routine. The white colonists of North America, on the other hand, were disturbed and disapproved of the slaves’ African-infused mode of worship, which they thought to be beidolatrous and untamed. As a result, the meetings were frequently prohibited and had to be held in secret. Beginning in the seventeenth century, the African population in the American colonies was first exposed to Christian beliefs. At initially, there was a gradual uptake of the religious beliefs. The slave population, on the other hand, was attracted by Biblical stories that had similarities to their own experiences, and they composed spirituals that repeated storylines about Biblical heroes such as Moses and Daniel. During the period in which Africanized Christianity took root among the slave population, spirituals were used to represent the newfound religion of the community, along with the community’s grief and optimism. As a call and answer song, spirituals are performed in a call and response format, with one or more singers giving an unbroken refrain while a chorus of vocalists provides a steady chorus of support. There were many freeform slides, twists, and rhythms in the vocal style of early spirituals, which made it difficult for early spiritual publishers to adequately transcribe them. Many spirituals, sometimes known as “sorrow songs,” are deep, sluggish, and melancholy in their delivery and content. The difficulties of slaves are described in songs such as “Sometimes I feel like a motherlesschild,” and “Nobody knows de sorrow I’ve seen,” which identify the suffering of JesusChrist. Other spirituals, on the other hand, are happier. “Jubilees” or “camp meetingsongs” are quick, rhythmic songs with a lot of syncopation that are popular among campers. ” Rocky mysoul,” ” Fare Ye Well,” and other songs are examples of this type. Musical spirituals are also occasionally referred to as formalized protest songs, with songs such as ” Steal Away to Jesus,” created byWallis Willis, being seen as calls to emancipation from slavery by certain critics. Because the Underground Railroad of the mid-nineteenth century employed terms from railways as a secret language for guiding slaves reach freedom, it is sometimes claimed that songs like “I got myticket” may have served as a code for emancipation during the American Civil War. Because it was unlawful to aid slaves achieve their release, it is difficult to obtain solid proof. In fact, Harriet Tubman used the spiritual “Go down, Moses,” in order to identify herself to slaves who may want to flee north, to identify herself to slaves who could want to flee west. During his years in bondage, Frederick Douglass, an abolitionist author and former slave from the nineteenth century, wrote in his bookMy Bondage and My Freedom(1855) about his experience of singing spirituals: “If someone had paid attention, they might have noticed something more than a hope of reaching heaven in our repeated singing of ‘O Canaan, sweet Canaan, I am bound for the land of Canaan.’ Ultimately, we desired to reach the North, and the North represented our Canaan.” Photograph courtesy of the Fisk University Prints and Photographs Division, Nashville, Tenn. Reproduction number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-10108. Detail from the Jubilee Singers at Fisk University in Nashville, Tenn. Concerts and recordings by the Fisk University Jubilee Singers, under the supervision of JohnW. Work, Jr., the first African-American to collect and publish spirituals, served to promote awareness of African-American spirituals in the community. Between 1870 and 1880, a photographer captured this image. Beginning in the 1860s, when spiritual compilations were published, spirituals became more well known and popular. The formation of the Jubilee Singers, a chorus comprised of freed slaves from Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, in the 1870s spurred a worldwide interest in the musical style, which continued into the twentieth century. Their lengthy traveling schedule in the United States and Europe featured concert performances of spirituals, which were extremely well received by the audiences that attended their shows. While some African Americans at the time connected the spiritual tradition with slavery and were uninterested in seeing it continue, the performances of the Fisk Universitysingers persuaded many that it should be kept alive. Ensembles from all across the country began to imitate the Jubilee singers, resulting in the establishment of a concert hall tradition of singing this music that has survived to the present day. The Hampton Singers of Hampton Institute (now Hampton University) in Hampton, Virginia, were one of the first vocal ensembles to challenge the Jubilee Singers in terms of quality and quantity of performances. R. Nathaniel Dett, the group’s long-time leader, led the ensemble to international acclaim in the early and mid-twentieth centuries after it was founded in 1873. Non-stop arrangements of spirituals as well as original compositions based on spirituals made Dett a household name, not only for his visionary leading talents but also for his impassioneddarrangements. As noted composers Moses Hogan, Roland Carter, Jester Hairston, Brazeal Dennard and Wendell Whalum have arranged spirituals for choruses, the musical form has evolved beyond its traditional folk song roots in the twentieth century. Moses Hogan’s a cappella arrangements of spirituals for choruses have been performed by choirs around the world. It was the efforts of composers such as Henry T. Burleigh, who made extensively performed piano-voice arrangements of spirituals for solo classical vocalists in the early twentieth century, that helped to further enhance the appearance of spirituals on the concert hall stage in the twentieth century. The sheet music for ” A Balm inGiliad,” an example of a spiritual prepared by Burleigh, can be accessed by clicking on the link provided. From an arrangement to Burleigh, Marian Anderson’s 1924 performance of “Go DownMoses” was culled (select the link to listen tothis recording). In Burleigh’s footsteps were many more composers who came after him. When it came to spirituals in the 1920s and 1930s, well-known classically educated performers like as Marian Anderson, Roland Hayes, and Paul Robeson made them a focal point of their performances. The practice has persisted into more modern times, with classical performers like as Kathleen Battle and Jessye Norman regularly include spirituals in their recitals and performances. Spirituals continue to be present in the concert hall, but their importance in African American churches has diminished in the twentieth century as Gospel music has gained in popularity and become more mainstream. A great number of spirituals have been retained in the Gospel heritage, but the musical forms have altered considerably as harmonies have been added and the songs have been rearranged to fit new performance styles. Listen to this tape of the Golden Jubilee Quartet playing “Oh, Jonah!” for an example of the Gospel Quartet style that developed in the 1940s. Despite these developments, classic spirituals continue to be practiced in some conservative churches in the South that are either more insulated from contemporary influences or that just choose to keep the ancient melodies alive. See the page African American Gospel for additional information on this topic. In the American Folklife Center archives at the Library of Congress are several recordings of these country spirituals, which were recorded between 1933 and 1942. There are some real hidden gems in this collection, including “Run old Jeremiah,” a ring shout from Jennings, Alabama, recorded by J. W. Brown and A. Coleman in 1934, which has a trance-like accompaniment of stamping feet, and “Eli you can’t stand,” a spiritual underpinned by handclapping and featuring lead singing by Willis Proctor, recorded on St. Simon’s Island, Georgia, in 1959. Many field recordings of spirituals are accessible online in this presentation, including the oldest known recording of “Come by here,” or as it is often known today, “Kumbaya,”sung by H. Wylie and captured on a wax cylinder by folklorist Robert Winslow Gordon in 1926. (the middle of this recording is inaudible, probably due todeterioration of the cylinder). On this audio, folklorist Stephen Winick gives a discussion about “Kumbaya,” which is a curator talk about the song. The folk hymn, the religious ballad, and the camp-meeting spiritual are all examples of the “white spiritual” genre, which is significantly less well-known than its “negrospiritual” cousin. With African American spirituals, white spirituals share symbolism, certain melodic characteristics, and a degree of similar origin. This field recording was recorded in 1943 by Willis James of the Lincoln Park Singers playing “I’ll fly away,” a song written by white composer Albert E. Brumley. This field recording attempts to demonstrate the connection that exists between black and white spirituals in the world. During the 1930s, George Pullen Jackson, a professor of German at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, wrote the book White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands, which brought the genre of white spirituals to public attention for the first time (1933). the first of a series of investigations that revealed the presence of white spirituals in both oral and written versions, the latter of which could be found in local rural folk song collections (such as shape-note tune books). It is possible to tell the difference between black and white spirituals in a number of ways. Microtonal flattening notes, syncopation, and counter-rhythms denoted by handclapping are all used in black spiritual performances, which distinguishes them from white spiritual performances. The distinctive vocal timbre of black spiritual singing, which includes yelling, exclamations of the phrase “Glory!” and scratchy and harsh falsetto tones, distinguishes it from other types of music. Throughout the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, spirituals have played a key role as vehicles for social protest at various moments. During the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s, spirituals and gospel music were used to support the efforts of civil rights activists and to raise awareness about their rights. “Oh, Liberation! “, and “Eyes on the Prize” were only a couple of examples of “freedom songs” that were modified from old spirituals during that time period. A live performance of both of these songs was captured on camera by the band Reverb at a concert at the Library of Congress in 2007. The torch song of the movement, “We Shall Overcome,” was a fusion of the gospel hymn “I’ll Overcome Someday” and the spiritual “I’ll Be All Right.” In many other nations throughout the world, including as Russia, Eastern Europe, China, and South Africa, freedom songs based on spirituals have also played a role in defining democratic movements. While writing new protest songs, several of today’s most well-known pop musicians continue to take inspiration from the spirituals heritage of the past. Bob Marley’s “RedemptionSong” and Billy Bragg’s “Sing their souls back home” are just a couple of examples.

Resources

  • ” African American Song,” (Songs of America)
  • ” African American Gospel,” (Songs of America)
  • ” African American Song,” (Songs of America)
  • University of Denver’s SweetChariot: The Story of the Spirituals is a must-read. Hansonia Caldwell, Hansonia Caldwell African American Music: Spirituals (third edition, Culver City, California: IkoroCommunications, Inc. 2003)
  • Ellen Koskoff, ed. African American Music: Spirituals (third edition, Culver City, California: IkoroCommunications, Inc. 2003)
  • The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Volume 3: The United States and Canada (New York and London: Garland Publishing, 2001) pp 624-629
  • Also pp523-524, pp68-69
  • Hitchcock, H. Wiley, and Stanley Sadie, The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Volume 3: The United States and Canada (New York and London: Garland Publishing, 2001). The New GroveDictionary of Music and Musicians (London: Macmillan, 1986), pages. 284-290
  • The New GroveDictionary of Music and Musicians (London: Macmillan, 1986), pp. 284-290
  • Many examples of digital recordings and sheet music of spirituals may be found on the Library of Congress online portal’s Performing Arts Encyclopedia. The Performing Arts Encyclopedia also contains a special digitized American choralmusic collection, which includes arrangements of spirituals by composers such as Henry T Burleigh and R Nathaniel Dett
  • ” Songs of the African American Civil Rights Movement,” (Songs of America)
  • ” Songs Related to the Abolition of Slavery,” (Songs of America)
  • And ” Songs of the African American Civil Rights Movement,”

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