Which Way Did The Underground Railroad Run In Florida? (Solution)

In Florida, the Underground Railroad Ran SouthIt traveled on the historic Old Kings Road. Florida had long been a place of refuge. During the first Spanish period, the King even encouraged escaping slaves to come to Florida under the “Kings Edict.”

How many slaves escaped on the Underground Railroad?

  • Experts estimate approximately 100,000 slaves used the Underground Railroad to escape slavery. Most slaves who used the Underground Railroad escaped to northern U.S. states and to Canada. A little known fact is that some slaves actually escaped to the Caribbean and Mexico.

Where was the Underground Railroad in Florida?

The passage from Southern Florida to Caribbean islands is known as the Saltwater Underground Railroad, or simply the Saltwater Railroad. Between 1821 and 1837, about 200 Black Seminoles journeyed from South Florida to Andros Island in the Bahamas, where chattel slavery had been outlawed.

Which direction did most Underground Railroad routes go?

The Underground Railroad went north to freedom. Sometimes passengers stopped when they reached a free state such as Pennsylvania, New Jersey, or Ohio. After 1850, most escaping enslaved people traveled all the way to Canada.

Where did the slaves in Florida escape to?

Free negros were unwanted Hundreds of Black Seminoles and fugitive slaves escaped in the early nineteenth century from Cape Florida to The Bahamas, where they settled on Andros Island, founding Nicholls Town, named for the Anglo-Irish commander and Abolitionist who fostered their escape, Edward Nicolls.

What were the positions of the Underground Railroad?

The code words often used on the Underground Railroad were: “tracks” (routes fixed by abolitionist sympathizers); “stations” or “depots” (hiding places); “conductors” (guides on the Underground Railroad); “agents” (sympathizers who helped the slaves connect to the Railroad); “station masters” (those who hid slaves in

Why did slaves escape to Florida?

Competition between Spain and Britain made Florida a haven for colonial South Carolina’s fugitive slaves in the 18th century. To destabilize British colonization in the north, Spain encouraged British slaves to escape to Florida, where they could convert to Catholicism and become Spanish citizens.

Did Harriet Tubman live in Florida?

Tubman in Northeast Florida Also well respected for her knowledge of roots and herbs and ability to cure sick soldiers, Tubman was sent to Amelia Island, Florida to help remedy a large dysentery outbreak.

How many northern states were pathways on the Underground Railroad?

Estimates vary widely, but at least 30,000 slaves, and potentially more than 100,000, escaped to Canada via the Underground Railroad. The largest group settled in Upper Canada (Ontario), called Canada West from 1841. Numerous Black Canadian communities developed in Southern Ontario.

Where is the Underground Railroad Fallout 4?

The Old North Church is the last spot on Fallout 4’s Freedom Trail, with the Railroad residing within. You’ll have to clear the place of some Feral Ghouls, then head to the basement, which can be found to the back right upon entering the church.

What were some of the routes slaves took to get from the south to the north?

During the era of slavery, the Underground Railroad was a network of routes, places, and people that helped enslaved people in the American South escape to the North.

When were slaves freed in Florida?

Every May 20, Florida celebrates Emancipation Day. Emancipation was proclaimed in Tallahassee on May 20, 1865, 11 days after the end of the Civil War and two years after the proclamation was first issued by President Abraham Lincoln.

When did the first slaves come to Florida?

The first recorded slaves to reach La Florida arrived in late September 1526 as part of the Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón expedition. Ayllón brought as many as 100 slaves to support a new Spanish settlement, which he named San Miguel de Gualdape (near present-day Sapelo Island, Ga.).

Were there slaves in Key West?

In 1860, African men, women and children being transported to Cuba on three American-owned ships, to be sold into slavery, were rescued by the U.S. Navy and brought to Key West. Local authorities took responsibility for the Africans while in Key West.

Were there tunnels in the Underground Railroad?

Contrary to popular belief, the Underground Railroad was not a series of underground tunnels. While some people did have secret rooms in their houses or carriages, the vast majority of the Underground Railroad involved people secretly helping people running away from slavery however they could.

Black History: The Underground Railroad’s Route Through Florida

Florida’s black history is intertwined with its national history. You may learn a lot about writer Zora Neale Hurston in her hometown of Eatonville, Florida, if you go there while on vacation. In Miami’s Overtownneighborhood, you may retrace the steps of legends like as Louis Armstrong, Ella Fitzgerald, and Muhammad Ali, among others. In addition, Jackie Robinson Ballpark is a great place to watch a baseball game. However, until recently, one of Florida’s most significant contributions to African-American history went virtually unnoticed: the state’s participation in the original Underground Railroad network.

What was Florida’s role in the original Underground Railroad?

Your knowledge of the Underground Railroad, a loose network of abolitionists and safe houses that assisted Black individuals from slavery from southern states into northern states or Canada, is likely to be limited to the Civil War era. Between 1810 and 1950, an estimated 100,000 freedom seekers sought sanctuary on the Underground Railroad in the United States. Harriet Tubman worked alone to free around 70 enslaved individuals. However, hundreds of years before Tubman was born, enslaved people were seeking liberation via another Underground Railroad—this one running from the North to the South.

We need to go back more than 500 years to understand why this is the case.

Why did enslaved people seek freedom in Florida?

In 1513, explorerJuan Ponce de Leónarrived near what is now the city of St. Augustine and claimed the island of La Florida for Spain. Spanish rulers had abused African labor in the New World for decades before the British famously sent enslaved individuals to Virginia in 1619, according to historians. However, there were brief moments during which Spanish Florida provided sanctuary to those seeking independence. A strategic maneuver on Spain’s side, in an effort to counter British armies and Protestantism in the New World, this was a successful one.

  • Augustine, provided that they (1) swore allegiance to the Spanish crown, (2) converted to Catholicism, and (3) completed a period of military service, which was only required of men.
  • There were no safe homes or conductors in place to protect people.
  • “You had an area that was absolutely untamed, so once you went across the boundary, you were truly in a no-land,” man’s said Miami historian Paul George.
  • “I couldn’t figure out how they accomplished it.” Despite this, they did.
  • Augustine was home to the first known party of freedom seekers, which consisted of eight men, two women, and a three-year-old boy who arrived in 1687.
  • The ladies were able to secure compensated jobs in and around St.
  • Spain benefited from this movement since the newly liberated residents provided militia support and skilled labor to Florida, while at the same time hurting the British plantation economy and imperiling the British Empire.

Located in what would become the United States, Fort Mose was the first legally sanctioned colony of free blacks in the country’s history.

Augustine’s northern defense against invading British forces.

– FSP Living History Exhibits Fort Mose (pronounced mo-ZAY) was established in 1738 by Spanish Governor Manuel Montiano, who established it as the first legally sanctioned community for previously enslaved people in what is now the United States.

Augustine’s northern boundary against the British during the American Revolution.

you were free to live your life at Mose.” “St.

Augustine was a fairly cosmopolitan city,” says the author. However, not everyone made it to St. Augustine’s without dying on the way. Unknown numbers of freedom seekers killed in the process of escaping, while others founded maroon societies in isolated coastal locations.

Was St. Augustine the only destination for freedom seekers in Florida?

Landfall was made in present-day St. Augustine by explorer Juan Ponce de León, who claimed the island of La Florida for Spain in 1513. Spaniards had been using African labor in the New World for many years before the British famously sent enslaved individuals to Virginia in 1619. Nonetheless, there were brief intervals during which Spanish Florida served as a haven for refugees seeking independence. A deliberate endeavor on Spain’s side, in an effort to counter British armies and Protestantism in the New World, this was a successful operation.

  • Augustine in the late 17th century, if they met the following requirements: (1) pledged loyalty to the Spanish crown; (2) converted to Catholicism; and (3) served in the Spanish military for at least a length of time.
  • Neither safe homes nor conductors were created at the time.
  • When you crossed the border, you were in a “no man’s land,” according to Miami historian Paul George.
  • Essentially, they were left to themselves.
  • It was in 1687 when the first documented party of freedom seekers landed at St.
  • The men toiled for salaries at theCastillo de San Marcos, where they contributed to the British blockade of Florida’s southern border with Mexico.
  • Augustine, the women were able to secure compensated jobs.

A declaration made by King Charles II of Spain in 1693 formally declared Florida to be a haven for those fleeing servitude in the Caribbean.

As part of St.

Today, the location serves as a Florida state park, where historical reenactments are occasionally held to commemorate the battle.

Approximately 100 Black men, women, and children were housed in Fort Mose during the American Revolution, and its militia of free Blacks guarded the city’s northern frontier from British invasion.

you were free to live your life at Mose,” says the author.

It was a fairly multicultural city, St. Augustine.” However, not everyone made it to St. Augustine’s without dying on the way there. On the way, an unknown number of freedom seekers died, while others created maroon societies in distant coastal regions.

Where are some places in Florida that commemorate this history?

While the tale of Florida’s participation in the Underground Railroad is mostly fragmented, the following are some locations where you may learn more about this subject in greater depth. Africa: Between 1812 and 1821, freedom seekers established a maroon settlement in what is now Manatee County. Here you may learn about local landmarks and activities that are taking place. Apalachicola National Forest’s British Fort was a haven for African-Americans fleeing the oppression of slavery in the late 18th and early 19th centuries from Georgia and the Carolinas.

  1. During the American Revolutionary War, Major General Andrew Jackson ordered the devastation of Negro Fort, as it was also known.
  2. Lieutenant James Gadsden was ordered to construct a new fort on the location of the old Negro Fort, which was completed two years later by Jackson.
  3. Near the Cape Florida Lighthouse, in Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park, you’ll discover a simple wood-framed sign commemorating Key Biscayne’s involvement in the Saltwater Underground Railroad.
  4. The Castillo de San Marcos at St.
  5. You may walk around the limestone edifice at any time of year, or you can plan your visit around a specific event.
  6. Fort Jefferson is a historic fortification built in the late 1800s.
  7. Dry Tortugas, on the other hand, has a shady past.
  8. Enslaved Africans were forced to work on the construction of the fort.
  9. After a traumatic voyage, the guys were ultimately apprehended and transported back to Garden Key or Key West, where they were sold into slavery.
  10. Today, you may wander around the grounds of this huge stronghold, whose horrific past stands in stark contrast to the natural beauty that surrounds it.
  11. Augustine is located on the location of America’s first legally sanctioned colony of free Blacks, which took place in 1665.

Alternatively, schedule a visit during one of the yearly reenactments, such as the Flight to Freedom or the Battle of Bloody Mose, when history comes to life on the battlefield. Fort Pickens: Located in Pensacola, this antebellum fort gained a reputation as a “portal to freedom.”

Why didn’t I learn about this in history class?

For a variety of causes. The first Underground Railroad was less formal and had a shorter lifespan than its Northern-bound equivalent, which began operating in the mid-19th century. Second, history books are written by those who have achieved success. Stories of cross-cultural collaboration between the Spanish, African-Americans, and Native Americans were mostly forgotten once the United Kingdom gained possession of Florida in 1763. It’s critical to remember that the Anglo version of American history ignores half of the continent, from Florida to California, where the Roman legal system and Catholicism granted freedom to the enslaved who converted from Protestantism to Catholicism—long before anyone ever fled to Canada,” said historian Jane Landers, director of the Slave Societies Digital Archive at Vanderbilt University and one of the country’s foremost experts on the Underground Railroad.

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While a small number of early scholars, notably Zora Neale Hurston, recorded Fort Mose, the original Underground Railroad was only recently recognized as a historical fact until recently.

Augustine who grew up in the shadow of the Castillo de San Marcos and only learned about it in college.

South Florida’s Connection to the Underground Railroad

This weekend, the biography “Harriet” will be released in theaters all around the United States. ‘Harriet Tubman’ is a film about Harriet Tubman, a freedom fighter who escaped slavery and helped hundreds of other slaves to freedom through the Underground Railroad system, which is the subject of the film. The network of safe houses and anti-slavery campaigners spanned from the northernmost section of the United States to the southernmost tip of Florida, and it was a worldwide phenomenon. The route taken by escaped slaves was from the Carolinas and Georgia via Florida to Key Biscayne, from there they would embark on a voyage across the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Bays area of the Bahamas.

Marvin Dunn, a Miami-based historian, conducted study on the history of the Underground Railroad and its link to the Bahamas.

He claimed that Red Bays was a popular destination for fugitive slaves hoping for safety.


“The Florida slaves who were transported to Red Bays did not just settle in the first location they came across. In order to be able to escape if slave ships or individuals who were hunting them arrived to catch them, they chose a location with a very shallow bottom and excellent view out into the ocean “Dr. Dunn said himself. Bill Baggs State Park in Key Biscayne served as a hub for escaping slaves, with boats from the Bahamas arriving at the park on a regular basis. Dr. Paul George, a resident historian at the HistoryMiami Museum, says the region where the park is located was originally held by Spain, which reduced the likelihood of slaves and anti-slavery campaigners being kidnapped.

“This park was chosen since it is located at the southernmost point.

George went on to add.

In those early years, Dr.

“They felt comfortable, and they were able to form a sense of belonging.” The announcement that the United States would acquire Florida from Spain sparked a stampede of hundreds of slaves to the Key Biscayne area in an attempt to flee before the United States gained possession of the territory in 1821.

“Once this is completed, you’ll have American officers manning the Cape Florida lighthouse, and you won’t be able to do that in terms of fugitives any more.

“She is the driving force behind the entire project.

George shared his thoughts.

The Florida slaves who were sent to Red Bays, Bahamas, identified themselves first as Americans, then as Bahamians. And their descendants have maintained a strong sense of pride in their American heritage to this day.

In Florida, Solemn Shadows of the Early Underground Railroad (Published 2017)

“The slaves from Florida who were transported to Red Bays did not just settle in the first location they came across on their journey. They chose a location, a harbor with a very shallow bottom and excellent view out into the ocean, so that if slave ships or persons hunting them arrived to catch them, they would be able to see them in time to flee “Dr. Dunn shared his thoughts on the situation. Boats from the Bahamas would dock at Bill Baggs State Park in Key Biscayne, which served as a staging area for escaping slaves.

  1. Paul George of HistoryMiami Museum says the region where the park is located was originally under the control of Spain, which reduced the likelihood of slaves and anti-slavery campaigners being apprehended.
  2. The historian was approached by Jawan Strader.
  3. And, if you make it this far down the coast and are picked up by a boat and transported to the Bahamas, you have a higher chance of achieving long-term independence “According to Dr.
  4. As Dr.
  5. In 1821, news spread that the United States would acquire Florida from Spain, prompting a stampede of hundreds of slaves to the Key Biscayne area in an attempt to flee before Americans gained control of the territory.
  6. “In terms of fugitives, once this is completed, you’ll have American officials working this Cape Florida lighthouse, and you won’t be able to do that anymore.
  7. “All of this was sparked by her enthusiasm.
  8. On the southern Florida coasts of Key Biscayne, a reality that is now a rich part of American history being imprinted.
  9. Und even today, the people who descend from them remain proud of their American heritage.

Prospect Bluff

The air has a somewhat charred scent about it. The shins of longleaf pine trees on each side of the road appear to be blackened scabs due to the weather. Controlled fires are being overseen by the United States Forest Service, which manages Prospect Bluff Historic Sites, at this time of year in order to tame the underbrush. Over the short road in front of me, I can see two little deer darting across it, racing towards a patch of uncharred woods in the distance. “Don’t let them catch you,” I say in hushed tones to the couple.

  • Runaways fleeing from Georgia, the Carolinas, and other northern states were protected by these thickets and palmetto patches more than 200 years ago when they sought refuge in this area.
  • However, there was a cost.
  • Hundreds of people answered the phone.
  • The road is still used today by individuals who want to spend their weekends on St.
  • As I head west on a rutted dirt road toward Prospect Bluff, also known as Fort Gadsden, Negro Fort, and British Fort, I notice a sign for Prospect Bluff.
  • I come into a small hunting group that has set up camp on the sandy shoulder.
  • Roads like these were known to my grandpa as pig paths, and it is three miles down this road that the park can be seen.

Wooden seats are nestled up under the branches here and there.

The berms and swales going into the woods rise and fall in rhythm with the wind, yet everything appears to be calm.

New explanatory signs have been installed, as well as a kiosk with pamphlets, relics, and a diorama.

If it weren’t for the fact that I was meeting with author and historian Dale Cox and his media-business partner, Rachael Conrad, I’d be the only one in the building right this moment.

Cox, who claims to be a descendant of the Creek tribe, has been coming to this location since he was a small boy.

As long as the War of 1812 was still running in 1814, the Spanish, who were still in control of Florida, did not resist when the British established a fort here to serve as a deterrent against the American invasion of the territory.

Many of the black troops in the new “British Fort” were reported to have been subjected to bondage.

There were a few black recruits who stayed behind.

Over time, escaped slaves and a group of Creeks established a settlement in this area.

The word got out.

The population of the village grew to more than 800 people.

There was a disturbing settlement of “Negroes” near the mouth of the Apalachicola River that was being reported in newspapers as far north as New England.

“There was a big threat from black folks with firearms who were not under supervision.

Andrew Jackson arranged the fort’s demise.

For days, the fort’s defenders fought off the siege until a shot from a United States warship damaged the fort’s ammunition storage.

Those who were spared execution were returned to bondage as a result.

The only thing that remains of Gadsden are the gentle hills on which Mr.

In the 1970s, it was designated as a National Historic Landmark.

According to Mr.

The presence of human remains was detected by cadaver dogs that were brought in last year.

One of the most significant free black communities in the young nation was located there.

She made it through.

Cox says, recalling the tense moments before the battle.

Perhaps it has spotted something fleeing through the brush and is trying to catch up. Image Sarah Beth Glicksteen contributed to this report for The New York Times.

Fort Mose

Approximately four hours separate Prospect Bluff, just above the Gulf of Mexico, and Fort Mose Historic State Park, which is on the border of the Atlantic. The trip passes through a portion of Florida that seems more like the Deep South than the tropics. Fort Mosereads has a brochure available. “Welcome to the Land of Liberty.” However, after the serenity of the forests, I get the impression that I have arrived in the suburbs. The site of the first free black community in America is currently bordered by a middle-class neighborhood in the St.

  • The monotonous hum of U.S.
  • In the next room, I find myself in the Mose (pronounced mo-SAY) visitors’ center, a low-slung gray structure that is flanked on each side by patterned burgundy and apricot tiles that are adorned with African motifs signifying life, death, and community.
  • The history of the location, which dates back to the town’s establishment in 1738, is conveyed through film, outdoor signs, and a tiny yet engaging interactive museum.
  • The second one was overtaken by a salt marsh behind the property a long time ago.
  • In order to accommodate the growing number of people, the Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose was constructed just north of the city.
  • Inside Mose’s walls, black people understood what it was like to get up whenever they felt like it, to select which tasks to perform or not, and to choose which chores to do or not.
  • Several times a year, the fort hosts activities that take place in that era.
  • A few yards away, another actor depicts a slave catcher who is just as determined as the first.
  • We are hailed by a mostly black militia, which fires muskets and a cannon at us as we make our way to liberation from captivity.
  • However, these types of performances are uncommon.

It comes to an end at the marsh’s edge. Mansions dot the horizon, looming over a sea of cordgrass that stretches for miles. The fort’s ruins may be seen in the middle distance, buried behind a mound of silt and a clump of trees that originally existed there.

The Saltwater Underground Railroad Moved Slaves From Florida to Freedom

As soon as we hear the phrase ” Underground Railroad,” we think of the network of hidden overland routes that runaway slaves used to escape north through Ohio and over the border into Canada during the American Civil War. In the early nineteenth century, the Underground Railroad sparked a liberation movement that drew individuals of all religious and racial backgrounds together in a united battle against the horror and injustice of chattel slavery in the United States. But did you know that there was a version of the Underground Railroad that operated in the South as well?

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Paul George, argues in an email interview that “there is a Southern Underground Railroad that is rarely recognized, not just to the ordinary American, but also to many students of United States history” about the Underground Railroad.

George explains that “the Saltwater Underground Railroad traveled south into SpanishFlorida — a place that was truly off the grid and adjacent to other areas outside of the United States that would be havens for fleeing slaves.” The Saltwater Underground Railroad, which is believed to have functioned between 1821 and 1861, refers to the coastal escape path taken by fugitive slaves into the British-controlled Bahamas.

The beaches of South Florida were a haven for fugitives from the slave states of the South.

A few paid for passage aboard Bahamian vessels, but others braved the treacherous Atlantic in dugout canoes and tiny boats, which they hoped would save their lives.

Why Escape To the Bahamas?

As soon as we hear the phrase ” Underground Railroad,” we think of the network of hidden overland routes that escaped slaves used to go north through Ohio and across the border into Canada during the American Civil War. As a result of the Underground Railroad’s founding in the early nineteenth century, a freedom movement was born in America, uniting people of all faiths and ethnicities in a united battle against the horror and injustice of chattel slavery. But did you know that there was a version of the Underground Railroad that operated in the Southern United States?

Paul George, resident historian atHistoryMiami Museum, explained that the Southern Underground Railroad is “little known, not just to the general American, but also to many scholars of U.S.

As George explains, “The Saltwater Underground Railroad proceeded south intoSpanish Florida, a place that was really off the grid and adjacent to other regions outside of the United States that would be havens for fleeing slaves.” The Saltwater Underground Railroad, which is believed to have functioned between 1821 and 1861, refers to the coastal escape path used by fugitive slaves to reach the British-controlled Bahamas.

South Florida’s beaches were a haven for fugitives from slave states in the South.

A few paid for passage aboard Bahamian vessels, but others braved the treacherous Atlantic in dugout canoes and tiny boats, which they hoped would save them time and money.

Following their departure from port under the cover of darkness, they encountered unthinkable dangers, including unpredictable weather and storms, recapture by slave-hunters, pirates’ attacks and unfathomably deep, black seas.

Florida Becomes a U.S. Territory in 1821

The ratification of the Onis-Adams Treaty in 1821 effectively made the state of Florida a United States territory that permitted slavery, prompting Black Floridians to make their way through palmetto fields, dense marshy flats, mangrove forests, swamps with jutting aerial roots, and other harsh terrain to the beaches of southern Florida, in the hope of securing a safe passage to freedom in the Bahamas.

  1. “Miami, and more especially Key Biscayne on the sea and ocean, seven miles southeast of Miami, was most likely the major escape site for the Saltwater Underground Railroad, according to historical evidence.
  2. “We have a tendency to see history through the eyes of the British.
  3. However, it is ironic that the Saltwater Underground Railroad comes to an end on the point of Key Biscayne, about where the lighthouse now sits.” “The Saltwater Underground Railroad Experience: Retracing Pathways to Freedom” is a series of articles that begins with an introduction.
  4. Today, there are two National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom locations in Florida: Fort Jefferson in the Dry Tortugas and Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park on Key Biscayne, both of which are located on the island of Key Biscayne.

The Underground Railroad Route

Students will learn how to distinguish between slave states and free states during the time of the Underground Railroad, as well as the difficulties of escaping and choosing the path they would have chosen. Geography, Human Geography, and Physical Geography are the subjects covered. Students should be able to distinguish between slave and free states throughout the time of the Underground Railroad. Each pupil should be given a copy of the map titled “Routes to Freedom.” Inform pupils that the Underground Railroad aided enslaved individuals as they traveled from the South to the North during the American Civil War.

Afterwards, instruct pupils to locate each slave state on the map as you pronounce its name:

  • Alabama
  • sArkansas
  • sDelaware
  • sFlorida
  • sGeorgia
  • sKentucky
  • sLouisiana
  • sMaryland
  • sMississippi
  • sMissouri
  • sMontana This state does not display on the map since it is not included in the list. Make use of a wall map of the United States to instruct children on where Montana is located.) North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia are among the states represented.

Explain to pupils that enslaved individuals did not have access to maps, compasses, or GPS systems throughout their time in slavery. The majority of enslaved individuals were never permitted to get an education, and as a result, they were unable to read or write. Consider the following question: How do you suppose enslaved people knew they were heading in the correct direction? Students should be informed that enslaved individuals resorted to guides on the Underground Railroad, as well as memory, visuals, and spoken communication to survive.

Talk about the difficulties you’ve encountered on your path.

Instruct pupils to examine the map and make note of any physical characteristics of the region that made the voyage challenging.

In order to demonstrate proper shading techniques, students should go to Alabama, then northeast via Maine and into Canada to see how the Applachian Mountains are shaded.

Students should be given the opportunity to tint their own maps. Ask:Can you think of anything else that made the travel difficult? Challenge them to come up with ideas for problems such as:

  • In the winter, being cold and outdoors
  • Not having enough food
  • Being exhausted yet unable to relax
  • Having to swim or traverse bodies of water
  • Having to travel great distances
  • Evading or avoiding people or animals

3. Ask pupils to identify the route they would have chosen if they were in their shoes. Students should be divided into small groups. Ask each group to look at the map and choose the route they would have gone to freedom if they had been able to do so. Students should choose their selections based on the states, rivers, and mountain ranges that they would have to cover on their journey. Ask each group to describe the path they would have followed and why they would have done so.

Informal Assessment

Students should discuss what they believe to be the most difficult obstacles to fleeing enslaved people, such as distance, weather, mountains, wildlife, bodies of water, or densely inhabited places, among other things. Inquire as to how their chosen method might have assisted enslaved individuals in avoiding the difficulties they were faced with.

Learning Objectives

Students will be able to:

  • The student will be able to identify slave states and free states during the time period when the Underground Railroad was active
  • Describe the difficulties encountered throughout the voyage
  • Indicate the path they would have followed, and explain their reasons.

Teaching Approach

  • Common Core Standard 1: How to interpret and share information via the use of maps and other geographic representations, geospatial technology, and spatial thinking
  • Standard 17: How to use geography to understand and interpret the past.

What You’ll Need

  • Highlighters, paper, pencils, and pens, as well as a wall map of the United States

Required Technology

  • Internet access is optional
  • Technological setup includes one computer per classroom and a projector.

Physical Space

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Naomi Friedman holds a Master’s degree in political science.


Christina Riska Simmons is a model and actress.

Educator Reviewer

Jessica Wallace-Weaver is a certified educational consultant.


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Aboard the Underground Railroad-Fort Mose Site

Drawing of how Fort Mose may have appeared in the 18th century.National Park Service employees examining the site.NHL-NPS Photos
Fort Mose, now a Historic State Park, is a precursor site of the UndergroundRailroad, demonstrating that resistance to slavery was both early and fierce,and that it arose decades before abolitionism became organized and influential.The fort, established as part of the northern defense line for Spanish St. Augustineduring the mid-18th century, was the earliest known legally sanctioned free blackcommunity in the present United States. Its site contains archeological evidenceof Native American occupations and the later British, second Spanish, and Americanpresence. Fort Mose’s inhabitants were mainly runaway black slaves from theBritish colonies of South Carolina and Georgia, who escaped to freedom to Spanish,Florida in small groups at least as early as 1687. The Spanish Governors of Floridaestablished Fort Mose in 1738, abandoned it in 1740, but reestablished the fortat a nearby site in 1752. In defending their freedom and Spanish Florida in themiddle decades of the 18th century, the black inhabitants of Fort Mose playeda significant role in the geopolitical conflicts between Britain and Spain inthe Southeast. The Fort Mose Historic State Park is open to the public. Visitors can still view the land where the settlement once stood, although there are no remains of the earth and woodon structures. Visitors can visit the newly constructed visitor center and museum or explore the ground and view the many exhibits avaliable. You can visit Fort Mose Historic State Park’s websitehere. Previous |List of Sites|Home|Next
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6 historic attractions along Florida’s Heritage Trail

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Underground Railroad

Underground Railroad was a network of people, both black and white, who helped escaped enslaved persons from the southern United States by providing them with refuge and assistance. It came forth as a result of the convergence of numerous separate covert initiatives. Although the exact dates of its inception are unknown, it was active from the late 18th century until the Civil War, after which its attempts to weaken the Confederacy were carried out in a less-secretive manner until the Civil War ended.

Quaker Abolitionists

Underground Railroad was a network of people, both black and white, who helped escaped enslaved persons from the South by providing them with refuge and assistance. A number of separate covert operations came together to form the organization. Although the exact dates of its creation are unknown, it was active from the late 18th century until the Civil War, after which its attempts to weaken the Confederacy were carried out in a less-secretive manner until the Union was defeated.

What Was the Underground Railroad?

The Underground Railroad was first mentioned in 1831, when an enslaved man named Tice Davids managed to escape from Kentucky into Ohio and his master blamed a “underground railroad” for assisting Davids in his liberation. When a fugitive slave called Jim was apprehended in 1839 in Washington, the press said that the guy confessed his plan to travel north along a “underground railroad to Boston” while under torture. The Vigilance Committees, which were established in New York in 1835 and Philadelphia in 1838 to safeguard escaped enslaved persons from bounty hunters, rapidly expanded their duties to include guiding enslaved individuals on the run.

By the 1840s, the phrase “Underground Railroad” had become part of the common lexicon in the United States. MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman and her fellow fugitives used the following strategies to escape through the Underground Railroad:

How the Underground Railroad Worked

The majority of enslaved persons aided by the Underground Railroad were able to flee to neighboring states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made catching fugitive enslaved persons a lucrative industry in the deep South, and there were fewer hiding places for them as a result of the Act. The majority of fugitive enslaved people were on their own until they reached specific places farther north. The escaping enslaved people were escorted by individuals known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were also used as hiding places throughout the war.

The personnel in charge of running them were referred to as “stationmasters.” There were several well-traveled roads that ran west through Ohio and into Indiana and Iowa.

The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.

Fugitive Slave Acts

The Fugitive Slave Acts were a major cause for many fugitive slaves to flee to Canada. This legislation, which was passed in 1793, authorized local governments to catch and extradite fugitive enslaved individuals from inside the borders of free states back to their places of origin, as well as to penalize anybody who assisted the fleeing enslaved people. Personal Liberty Laws were introduced in certain northern states to fight this, but they were overturned by the Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was intended to reinforce the preceding legislation, which was perceived by southern states to be insufficiently enforced at the time of passage.

The northern states were still considered a danger zone for fugitives who had managed to flee.

Some Underground Railroad operators chose to station themselves in Canada and sought to assist fugitives who were arriving to settle in the country.

Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad during its heyday. When she and two of her brothers fled from a farm in Maryland in 1849, she was given the name Harriet (her married name was Tubman). She was born Araminta Ross, and she was raised as Harriet Tubman. They returned a couple of weeks later, but Tubman fled on her own again shortly after, this time making her way to the state of Pennsylvania. In following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and other individuals.

Tubman was distraught until she had a vision of God, which led her to join the Underground Railroad and begin escorting other fugitive slaves to the Maryland state capital.

Tubman transported groups of fugitives to Canada on a regular basis, believing that the United States would not treat them favorably.

Frederick Douglass

In his house in Rochester, New York, former enslaved person and celebrated author Frederick Douglasshid fugitives who were assisting 400 escapees in their journey to freedom in Canada. Reverend Jermain Loguen, a former fugitive who lived in the adjacent city of Syracuse, assisted 1,500 escapees on their journey north. The Vigilance Committee was established in Philadelphia in 1838 by Robert Purvis, an escaped enslaved person who later became a trader. Josiah Henson, a former enslaved person and railroad operator, founded the Dawn Institute in Ontario in 1842 to assist fugitive slaves who made their way to Canada in learning the necessary skills to find work.

Agent,” according to the document.

John Parker was a free Black man living in Ohio who worked as a foundry owner and who used his rowboat to ferry fugitives over the Ohio River.

William Still was a notable Philadelphia citizen who was born in New Jersey to runaway slaves parents who fled to Philadelphia as children.

Who Ran the Underground Railroad?

The vast majority of Underground Railroad operators were regular individuals, including farmers and business owners, as well as preachers and religious leaders. Some affluent individuals were active, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who stood for president on two separate occasions. Smith acquired a full family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841 and freed them from their captivity. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, is credited with being one of the first recorded individuals to assist escaped enslaved persons.

Coffin stated that he had discovered their hiding spots and had sought them out in order to assist them in moving forward.

Coffin eventually relocated to Indiana and then Ohio, where he continued to assist fugitive enslaved individuals no matter where he was.

John Brown

Abolitionist John Brown worked as a conductor on the Underground Railroad, and it was at this time that he founded the League of Gileadites, which was dedicated to assisting fleeing enslaved individuals in their journey to Canada. Abolitionist John Brown would go on to play a variety of roles during his life. His most well-known duty was conducting an assault on Harper’s Ferry in order to raise an armed army that would march into the deep south and free enslaved people at gunpoint. Ultimately, Brown’s forces were beaten, and he was executed for treason in 1859.

  1. The year 1844, he formed a partnership with Vermont schoolteacher Delia Webster, and the two were jailed for assisting an escaped enslaved lady and her young daughter.
  2. Charles Torrey was sentenced to six years in jail in Maryland for assisting an enslaved family in their attempt to flee through Virginia.
  3. After being apprehended in 1844 while transporting a boatload of freed slaves from the Caribbean to the United States, Massachusetts sea captain Jonathan Walker was sentenced to prison for life.
  4. John Fairfield of Virginia turned down the opportunity to assist in the rescue of enslaved individuals who had been left behind by their families as they made their way north.

Fairfield’s strategy was to go around the southern United States appearing as a slave broker. He managed to elude capture twice. He died in 1860 in Tennessee, during the American Reconstruction Era.

End of the Line

Operation of the Underground Railroad came to an end in 1863, during the American Civil War. In actuality, its work was shifted aboveground as part of the Union’s overall campaign against the Confederate States of America. Once again, Harriet Tubman made a crucial contribution by organizing intelligence operations and serving as a commanding officer in Union Army efforts to rescue the liberated enslaved people who had been freed. MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman led a daring Civil War raid after the Underground Railroad was shut down.


Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad is a book about the Underground Railroad. Fergus Bordewich is a Scottish actor. A Biography of Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom Catherine Clinton is the first lady of the United States. Who Exactly Was in Charge of the Underground Railroad? ‘Henry Louis Gates’ is a pseudonym for Henry Louis Gates. The Underground Railroad’s History in New York is a little known fact. The Smithsonian Institution’s magazine. The Underground Railroad’s Dangerous Allure is well documented.

The Underground Railroad

The Underground Railroad, a vast network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and to Canada, was not run by any single organization or person. Rather, it consisted of many individuals – many whites but predominently black – who knew only of the local efforts to aid fugitives and not of the overall operation. Still, it effectively moved hundreds of slaves northward each year – according to one estimate,the South lost 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850. An organized system to assist runaway slaves seems to have begun towards the end of the 18th century.

The system even used terms used in railroading: the homes and businesses where fugitives would rest and eat were called “stations” and “depots” and were run by “stationmasters,” those who contributed money or goods were “stockholders,” and the “conductor” was responsible for moving fugitives from one station to the next.For the slave, running away to the North was anything but easy.

For many slaves, this meant relying on his or her own resources.

The fugitives would move at night.

While they waited, a message would be sent to the next station to alert its stationmaster.The fugitives would also travel by train and boat – conveyances that sometimes had to be paid for.

This money was donated by individuals and also raised by various groups, including vigilance committees.Vigilance committees sprang up in the larger towns and cities of the North, most prominently in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston.

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