Beginning in the late 1840s, Levi Coffin, a resident of Cincinnati, helped more than three thousand slaves escape from their masters and gain their freedom in Canada.
What role did Ohio play in the Underground Railroad?
- Several prominent abolitionists were from Ohio and they played a vital role in the Underground Railroad. Beginning in the late 1840s, Levi Coffin, a resident of Cincinnati, helped more than three thousand slaves escape from their masters and gain their freedom in Canada.
Who else helped with the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad had many notable participants, including John Fairfield in Ohio, the son of a slaveholding family, who made many daring rescues, Levi Coffin, a Quaker who assisted more than 3,000 slaves, and Harriet Tubman, who made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.
Who helped slaves cross the Ohio River?
One of the most famous conductors on the Underground Railroad was John Rankin. The Presbyterian minister and abolitionist built a house in Ripley overlooking the river after leaving Kentucky in 1818. He and neighbor John Parker assisted slaves crossing the Ohio and hiding them until it was safe for them to travel.
How did Ohio participate in the Underground Railroad?
Ohio served as the northern “trunk line” of the Underground Railroad, a system of secret routes used by free people in the North & South to help slaves escape to freedom. Escape routes developed throughout Ohio with safe houses where slaves could be concealed during the day.
Did Thomas Garrett help with the Underground Railroad?
Born on August 21, 1789 in Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, Thomas Garrett was one of the most prominent figures in the history of the Underground Railroad. He has been called Delaware’s greatest humanitarian and is credited with helping more than 2,700 slaves escape to freedom over a forty year period.
Who helped the most in the Underground Railroad?
Harriet Tubman is perhaps the best-known figure related to the underground railroad. She made by some accounts 19 or more rescue trips to the south and helped more than 300 people escape slavery.
Did Frederick Douglass help with the Underground Railroad?
The famous abolitionist, writer, lecturer, statesman, and Underground Railroad conductor Frederick Douglass (1817–1895) resided in this house from 1877 until his death. He was a leader of Rochester’s Underground Railroad movement and became the editor and publisher of the North Star, an abolitionist newspaper.
Was there slavery in Ohio?
Although slavery was illegal in Ohio, a number of people still opposed the ending of slavery. Many of these people also were opposed to the Underground Railroad. Some people attacked conductors on the Underground Railroad or returned fugitives from slavery to their owners in hopes of collecting rewards.
Where did the Underground Railroad go through Ohio?
Oberlin was one of those towns where escaping slaves could feel safe. Located in north central Ohio, Oberlin became one of the major focal points for escaping slaves. Further south, a number of communities provided assistance including Columbus and Zanesville to the east, Mechanicsburg and Urbana to the west.
How did Ohio feel about slavery?
Ohio prohibited slavery, but only in the sense that no one could buy or sell slaves within the state. Not until 1841 did Ohio enact a law so that any slave brought into the state automatically became free.
How many Underground Railroad stops in Ohio?
According to research done by the Friends of Freedom Society, there are well over 20 documented Underground Railroad sites in Columbus, but since many of those are private homes, the addresses have not been made public.
What was the nickname given to the Ohio route on the Underground Railroad?
Northeast Ohio was home to two ‘stations’ along the Underground Railroad, and ‘Station Hope ‘ was, for many escaped slaves, the last stop before reaching freedom. The conductors guided the slaves. The routes offered less than ideal conditions. Many of them led north, led to Ohio.
What did Thomas Garrett do for a living?
Thomas Garrett, a birthright Quaker, was born August 21, 1789 in Upper Darby, PA. He was an iron merchant by trade. After moving to Wilmington, DE, he married his first wife, Mary Sharpless and the couple had five children.
Was Thomas Garrett White?
*Thomas Garrett was born on this date in 1789. He was a white-American businessman and abolitionist. Thomas Garrett was the son of a farmer from Delaware County. Garrett turned his home in Wilmington into the last station on the Underground Railroad before the slaves reached freedom in Pennsylvania.
Who was Thomas Garrett married to?
In 1813, Garrett married Mary Sharpless, with whom they had five children. He became a member of the Wilmington Meeting when he moved to Wilmington, Delaware in 1822. Wilmington was advantageous for his career as it was a growing city.
Underground Railroad – Ohio History Central
Royal is a freeborn black man who saves Cora from the ravages of Ridgeway. Royal has a positive outlook on life and is committed to the goal of freedom for himself as well as for other black people. He’s a good-looking guy. read the Royal’s commentary
- “The Hippocrene Guide to the Underground Railroad,” by Charles L. Blockson, et al. Hippocrene Books, New York, NY, 1994
- Levi Coffin, Hippocrene Books, New York, NY, 1994. Levi Coffin’s recollections of his time as the rumored President of the Underground Railroad. Arno Press, New York, NY, 1968
- Dee, Christine, ed., Ohio’s War: The Civil War in Documents, New York, NY, 1968. Ohio: A Four-Volume Reference Library on the History of a Great State (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007)
- Fess, Simeon D., ed. Ohio: A Four-Volume Reference Library on the History of a Great State (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007). Gara, Larry, and Lewis Publishing Company, 1937
- Chicago, IL: Lewis Publishing Company. The Liberty Line: The Legend of the Underground Railroad is a documentary film about the Underground Railroad. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1961
- Ann Hagedorn, ed., Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1961. Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad is a book about the heroes of the Underground Railroad. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002
- Roseboom, Eugene H. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002
- The period from 1850 to 1873 is known as the Civil War Era. The Underground Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom (Columbus, OH: Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1944)
- Siebert, Wibur H. “The Underground Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom.” RussellRussell, New York, 1898
- Siebert, Wilbur Henry, New York, 1898. Ohio was a stop on the Underground Railroad. Lesick, Lawrence Thomas
- Arthur W. McGraw, 1993
- McGraw, Arthur W. The Lane Rebels: Evangelicalism and Antislavery in Antebellum America is a book about the Lane family who were antislavery activists in the antebellum era. Roland M. Baumann’s book, The Scarecrow Press, was published in 1980 in Metuchen, NJ. The Rescue of the Oberlin-Wellington Train in 1858: A Reappraisal Oberlin, OH: Oberlin College Press, 2003
- Levi Coffin and William Still, editors. Fleeing for Freedom: Stories of the Underground Railroad is a collection of short stories about people fleeing for freedom. Ivan R. Dee Publishers, Chicago, Illinois, 2004.
Underground Railroad in Ohio
“The Hippocrene Guide to the Underground Railroad,” by Charles L. Blockson, is available online at Amazon.com. Hippocrene Books, New York, NY, 1994; Levi Coffin, Hippocrene Books, 1994. Levi Coffin’s recollections of his time as the alleged President of the Underground Railroad are included. OHIO’S WAR: THE CIVIL WAR IN DOCUMENTS (New York, NY: Arno Press, 1968); Christine Dee (ed.) Ohio: A Four-Volume Reference Library on the History of a Great State, edited by Simeon D. Fess, Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007.
- The Underground Railroad’s Liberty Line is a legendary tale.
- Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press “Beyond the River” is a nonfiction book that tells the story of the Underground Railroad heroes who went undetected for decades.
- Between 1850 until 1873, the United States was in the Civil War.
- The Underground Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom.
- 1898; Wilbur Henry Siebert, New York: RussellRussell; RussellRussell, 1898; In Ohio, there was an Underground Railroad.
- McGraw, 1993.
- It was published by Scarecrow Press in Metuchen, New Jersey, and it was written by Roland M.
- a reappraisal of the 1858 Oberlin-Wellington rescue Cooper, Levi, and William Still (eds.) published Oberlin College Press in 2003 in Oberlin, Ohio.
- Ivan R.
- Slaves were referred to as “cargo” or “passengers.” Stations were used to refer to hiding locations or safe homes. Conductors were the guides who escorted the runaway slaves to freedom. Those who assisted slaves in their escape but did not guide them were referred to as agents. People who contributed financial resources to these endeavors were referred to as shareholders.
The use of the same terminology associated with railroads to describe the activities associated with the Underground Railroad became more widespread as physical railroads became more common. This allowed those actively involved in the Underground Railroad to communicate openly without fear of being turned over to the authorities by someone overhearing their conversation. At the time, these code phrases were not known outside of the network, which is understandable given their importance. The title “liberation train” or “the gospel train” was used in certain parts of the country, and in others it was referred to as “the freedom train.” By the 1850s, the name “Underground Railroad” had become the most often used in the state of Ohio.
A fugitive slave could not be assisted under state or federal law, and this was a criminal offense.
It was the plantation owner’s responsibility to apply further punishment to captured slaves when they were returned to the plantation and fields from where they had escaped. This may include physical punishment, prolonged incarceration, or even selling the slaves back to their captors.
Ohio Anti-Slavery Society
An organization known as the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society was founded by a group of people who shared a strong opposition to slavery. The Ohio Anti-Slavery Society was created in Zanesville, Ohio, in 1835, and was modeled after the framework of the American Anti-Slavery Society, which was founded in 1833 in New York City. When the society was founded, its members committed to work for the abolition of slavery and the adoption of legislation to safeguard African-Americans when they were released from the bonds of slavery.
People who opposed the abolitionists’ ideals were motivated mostly by fear, which was frequently shown in mob attacks on the abolitionists’ homes and workplaces.
When the conference was held in a barn outside of Granville, a mob erupted and attacked the abolitionists who had gathered in the barn.
In addition to bigotry, and because they were unable to accept that racism, they argued that runaway slaves from the southern states would take their employment here in Ohio.
Freedom Center in Cincinnati
When a group of people who were united in their opposition to slavery came together, they created the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society. The Ohio Anti-Slavery Society was created in Zanesville, Ohio, in 1835, and was modeled after the framework of the American Anti-Slavery Society, which was established in 1833. The members of the group promised to work for the abolition of slavery as well as the adoption of legislation to safeguard African-Americans when they were released from the bonds of the slave trade.
People who opposed the abolitionists’ ideals were motivated mostly by fear, which was frequently manifested in mob attacks on the abolitionists’ homes and offices.
When the conference was held in a barn outside of Granville, a mob erupted and attacked the abolitionists who had gathered in the building.
It was a mixture of prejudice and, because they were unable to accept that bigotry, they believed that escaped slaves from the southern states would steal their positions in Ohio instead.
Ohio was divided on the question of slavery, and only a few localities could provide complete protection. Oberlin was one of the locations where fugitive slaves may feel safe while trying to flee. Oberlin, which is located in north central Ohio, became one of the primary staging areas for fugitive slaves fleeing to Canada. More villages in the south, including Columbus and Zanesville to the east,Mechanicsburg and Urbana to the west, came together to help, as did a number of other cities. For runaway slaves, there were even more little settlements in southern Ohio, which provided them with sanctuary in an incredibly perilous region.
The major entry point into Ohio was along the Ohio River, with the most notable location being a little town known as Ripley. Hundreds of thousands of runaway slaves were helped by John Rankin and a small number of others, who helped them get started on their trip on the Underground Railroad.
When it came to slavery, Ohioans were divided, and only a few localities could provide complete protection. Slave fugitives could feel secure at Oberlin, which was one of those towns. Oberlin, which is located in north central Ohio, became one of the primary staging areas for fugitive slaves fleeing the South. More cities in the south, including Columbus and Zanesville to the east,Mechanicsburg and Urbana to the west, came together to help, as did a number of other communities in Ohio. For runaway slaves, there were even more little settlements in southern Ohio, which provided them with sanctuary in an incredibly perilous area.
It was along the Ohio River, most notably in a little village named Ripley, that the majority of people came into the state of Ohio.
African-Americans helped make the Underground Railroad work
The fact that escaping slaves made the Underground Railroad feasible was the most significant component of the Underground Railroad’s history. If it hadn’t been for their daring, tenacity, and innovation, the railroad would have been nothing more than a footnote in the history of our nation’s development. It was necessary for the majority of runaway slaves not only to get away from their owner’s estate, but also from all of the areas between them and the Ohio River, as well as from all of the other entrance points between the slave and free states.
- Aside from avoiding their previous masters, they also had to dodge the slave-catchers who prowled the countryside in pursuit of fugitives.
- The runaway slaves had a tough voyage since they had to hide in the woods during the day and travel only at night.
- As soon as they passed over the Ohio River, they had to make contact with someone they had never met before, and they had to hope that they would be able to give them with refuge and assistance on their long voyage ahead of them.
- That occurred at a period when the Ohio River frequently froze over, making it possible for the runaways to cross the river without the need of a boat.
- The ice was frequently more like giant pieces of floating ice, which needed cautious footwork to make it safely across the river at night, just by looking at the river itself and not taking into consideration the extremely low temperatures.
Slaves who had already completed the trek to freedom would frequently return to assist others, putting their own safety and freedom at tremendous risk.
Paying the Price:
The fact that escaping slaves made the Underground Railroad feasible was the most crucial feature of the Underground Railroad. They would have been a tiny footnote in our country’s history had it not been for their bravery, determination, and resourcefulness during the construction of the railroad. For the majority of fleeing slaves, getting away from their owner’s estate meant crossing all of the lands between them and the Ohio River, as well as crossing all of the other entrance points between the slave and free states.
- Aside from avoiding their previous masters, they also had to dodge the slave-catchers who patrolled the countryside looking for fugitives.
- It was a tough trek for the runaway slaves, who were forced to hide in the woods by day and walk only at night.
- As soon as they passed over the Ohio River, they had to establish contact with someone they had never met before, and they had to hope that they would be able to give them with refuge and assistance on their long journey ahead of them.
- Back then, the Ohio River frequently froze over, making it feasible for the runaways to cross without the need of a boat on a regular basis.
- The ice was frequently more like enormous pieces of floating ice, which needed cautious footwork to make it safely across the river at night, just by looking at the river itself and not taking into consideration the exceptionally freezing temperatures.
Additional information aboutthe Underground Railroad
|Topic||The Underground Railroad in Ohio|
|Time Period||Early to mid 1800s|
|Keyword(s)||Slavery, Underground Railroad, African Americans, Abolition|
|Learning standard(s)||(Grade 8 Social Studies) History Strand: Historical Thinking and Skills, Content Statement 1; Colonization to Independence, Content Statement 4; Civil War and Reconstruction, Content Statement 12 / (High School Social Studies) American History: Historical Thinking and Skills, Content Statement 2; Industrialization and Progressivism, Content Statement 13|
Underground Railroad is a word used to describe a secret network of individuals and locations that supported runaway slaves in their attempts to flee slavery in the southern United States.” This activity was most prevalent during the three decades leading up to the Civil War, and it was concentrated mostly in the regions bordering slave states, with the Ohio River serving as the focal point of much of the action.
- It is important to note that Beneath Train activities did not physically take place underground or along a railroad track, nor was it a formal group with a well defined organizational structure.
- Those who believed in abolitionist principles were at the center of the Underground Railroad campaign.
- They were members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).
- The dissemination of abolitionist ideals then extended westward into the territory that would become Indiana and Ohio in the following decades.
- The conflicting features of independence for a society that still kept enslaved people were also considered by others, which prompted many to get involved in the Underground Railroad.” Thanks to the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center for this image.
- The Underground Railroad as seen in photographs Portraits of those involved in the Underground Railroad Conductors The Underground Railroad: Its History and Legacy There is also anAdditional Resourceslist and aTeaching Guidefollowing the major source items.
The Teaching Guide also contains discussion questions and classroom exercises.
The Underground Railroad
The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County provided this contribution.
- National Underground Railroad Freedom Center — “The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center is a museum of conscience, an education center, a facilitator of discussion, and a beacon of light for inclusive freedom across the world,” according to the center’s mission statement. “It is located in the city of Cincinnati, Ohio.”
- A historical summary of the Underground Railroad and Ohio’s role in it is offered by the Ohio History Connection in this page titled “Ohio History Central: Underground Railroad” (subscription required). The National Afro-American Museum is located in Washington, D.C. Center for the Arts – At this museum in Wilberforce, Ohio, which is home to two historically black institutions, Wilberforce and Central State, visitors may take part in frequently changing exhibitions and special activities that celebrate African American history, art, and culture. Underground Railroad —A discussion and description of the Underground Railroad, as well as biographical information about abolitionists from the Detroit, Michigan region – Detroit Historical Society Underground Railroad
As a starting point, this guide will detail some possible ways for students to interact with digital content. It also includes recommendations for having students pull information from the examples given above. Guide for Participation in a Discussion (Download)
- In order to get to the North, escaping slaves would have to cross the Underground Railroad. After their journeys on the subterranean railroad, where would individuals who had traveled there choose to live? What towns and localities in Ohio did fugitive slaves pass through on their journey to freedom in Canada? Exactly where would fugitive slaves be hidden by subterranean railroad conductors
- In your county, do you know of any underground railroad stops that are still there and may be visited?
Activities in the Classroom (Download)
- Were fugitive slaves from other states uniformly welcomed in Ohio? Investigate the history of the Fugitive Slave Laws of 1793 and 1850, including how they influenced the operations of the Underground Railroad, as well as the perspectives of Ohioans on slavery during the nineteenth century. Visit the National Park Service’s list of official Underground Railroad locations for further information. Individuals or small groups can participate in this activity. Choose one to research for a brief presentation for the class (individual) OR one to research for a short presentation for the class (group) Divide the class into small groups and assign each group a different Ohio location for a group presentation. Imagine that you, or you and a group of people, have managed to flee the southern United States and make your way north
- Using the information you’ve learned about the Underground Railroad, write a first-person account of what it would have been like to make this perilous journey, either alone or with a group of other people. Consider the hazards you would face along the journey, the route you would take to get to safety, and how you would have felt about the individuals who assisted you
- Think about the people who aided you.
Underground Railroad in Ohio
Wilbur Siebert, a history professor at Ohio State University, claims that the state possessed the most extensive Underground Railroad network of any other state, with an estimated 3000 miles of pathways utilized by runaways. It was possible to enter the Ohio River from as many as twenty different sites, and to escape the river from as many as ten different points along Lake Erie. Image courtesy of the Underground Railroad Monument. Cameron Armstrong, a student at Oberlin College, developed the term Terminology.
- Using the term underground was appropriate because assisting runaway slaves was illegal and needed to be kept a secret.
- Stations are locations where people go to hide or feel protected.
- Agents are those who assist fugitive slaves in their escape but do not guide them.
- Backstory The Underground Railroad (UGRR) was a network of safe homes, hiding sites, and forest pathways that assisted runaway slaves in their attempts to escape to freedom in the northern United States or Canadian provinces.
- As early as the 1810s, other Ohioans were providing assistance to runaway slaves.
- From one station to the next, fugitive slaves made their way north.
- Owning slaves had been prohibited in Ohio since the state’s constitution was adopted in 1802, but some residents of the state continued to favor slavery.
These activists were adamant in their opposition to the Underground Railroad; some attacked conductors, while others attempted to return fugitives to their owners in the goal of receiving rewards from them.
This rule enhanced the likelihood that free blacks would be kidnapped and forced into slavery as a result of enslavement.
Runaway slaves were guided by conductors to the northernmost section of the state of Ohio, where they would spend the night before being carried over Lake Erie to freedom in Canada on the final step of their voyage.
The Underground Railroad was run by African-Americans.
There would have been virtually no opportunity for fugitive slaves to escape into freedom if they hadn’t been protected and assisted by free blacks.
Abolitionist newspaper publisher James G.
Colored individuals are virtually always in charge of such issues, which is not surprising.
It’s been a long and difficult road.
Work schedules were flexible, and slaveholders took advantage of the opportunity to travel during the holidays.
There were fewer cars on the highways due of the cold, yet there was little vegetation in the winter landscape because it was so cold.
Running away from home was made feasible by the regular freezing of the Ohio River, which allowed them to cross it on foot, although the ice was sometimes more like enormous pieces of floating ice, which needed precise footwork to make it safely over the river in the dark.
Aside from avoiding slave catchers, fugitives also had to escape roaming gangs of bounty hunters who searched the countryside in search of fugitives.
Under the Fugitive Slave Law, slaves could be traced down and returned from anywhere in the United States, but an escaped slave who crossed the Ohio River and crossed the Mason-Dixon Line was in relative safety north of the Mason Dixon Line.
Ohio was divided on the topic of slavery, and only a few places provided total sanctuary for runaways, with the town of Oberlin being the safest of these areas.
Oberlin, Ohio, was the site of Oberlin College, which was the first institution in the United States to accept females and African-Americans.
As they were aware that kidnapping Price in the town of Oberlin would be difficult due to strong anti-slavery sentiment held by the citizens of that town, they persuaded Shakespeare Boynton, the son of an influential Oberlin landowner, to lead Price to a farm west of Oberlin under the guise of digging potatoes for which he would be paid $20.
- After realizing what had occurred, anti-slavery activists in Oberlin grew enraged and promptly formed an organization in order to launch a rescue mission.
- The Ohio Historical Society provided permission to use this image.
- Eventually, after many hours of tense negotiations, the captors permitted a small number of men, including the local sheriff, to enter the room in order to verify that their paperwork were properly completed.
- Soon later, a number of Oberlin residents climbed through the window, and another group entered through the door.
- After rescuing Price, his rescuers placed him into a wagon and returned him to Oberlin.
- The Oberlin-Wellington Rescue played a significant role in mobilizing opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act in the United States.
- In lieu of posting bond, they were sent to the Cuyahoga County Jail, where they stayed for the time being.
Abolitionist and civil rights activist Langston delivered an impassioned address in court that made a powerful argument for abolition and justice for “colored folks.” However, I stand here to state that if I am sentenced to six months in prison and a fine of one thousand dollars for what I did on that day in Wellington, under the Fugitive Slave Law, and such is the protection that the laws of this country afford me, I must assume the responsibility of self-protection; and if I am claimed as a slave by some perjured wretch, I will never be sold into slavery again.
I stand here to state that I will do all in my power to assist any individual who has been apprehended and detained, despite the fact that the inevitable consequence of six months jail and a thousand dollars fine for each infraction hangs over my head!
You would do so because your manhood demanded it, and no matter what laws were in place, you would be proud of yourself for doing so; your friends would be proud of you for doing it; your children for generations to come would be proud of you for doing it; and every good and honest man would agree that you had done the right thing in the end!
- According to the judge, Langston will serve only 20 days in prison after being found guilty.
- Further south, a number of communities, including Columbus and Putnam to the east, Mechanicsburg and Urbana to the west, provided assistance to runaway slaves, including Columbus and Putnam.
- Organization known as the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society In 1835, the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society was established in Zanesville, Ohio.
- Despite the fact that Ohio was a free state, the Society was frequently targeted by local individuals wherever they conducted their meetings.
- Fear was a significant motive among people opposed to the society’s ideals, and it was frequently demonstrated in crowds who attacked abolitionists on the streets.
- When the abolitionist convention was held in a barn outside the city boundaries, a mob erupted and attacked the delegates and other attendees.
- One of the state’s oldest communities, Putnam was founded about 1800 and merged into the neighboring city of Zanesville in 1872, making it one of the state’s oldest municipalities.
Putnam was home to numerous important abolitionists throughout the nineteenth century.
Both the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society’s conventions, held in 1835 and 1839, were held at this location.
Weld, who was lecturing at the Stone Academy in preparation for the 1835 convention.
Additional violence was avoided as a result of the arrest of several of the instigators.
William Beecher, the brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe, served as the church’s first pastor when it was built in 1835, and many other anti-slavery preachers, including Frederick Douglas in 1852, have spoken here.
The Underground Railroad ran through southern Ohio.
There was a small community called Ripley that served as the primary entry point.
The Freedom Stairway is a photograph.
John Rankin is a Scottish author and poet.
Located on a three hundred-foot-high hill overlooking the Ohio River, his mansion included various secret rooms where runaway slaves might be secreted if they escaped.
Image courtesy of John Rankin House Ripley, Ohio is a town in the state of Ohio.
John Parker, a kindred soul who resided in Ripley as well, was responsible for transporting hundreds of fugitives from slavery over the Ohio River on a small boat.
Parker was taught to read and write by the doctor’s family, who also permitted him to work as an apprentice in an iron foundry.
He then relocated to Ripley, where he built a profitable foundry in the back of his home.
In a subsequent interview, John Parker stated that while the fugitives must, in most cases, take care of themselves south of the border, once they cross the Ohio River, they are in the care of their friends and family.
The majority of the time, slaves walked northward on their own, seeking for a signal that would indicate the presence of food, shelter, and rest.
Many will remain anonymous for the rest of their lives. Putnam Historic District (National Park Service) Underground Railroad – Ohio History Central, Inc. Ohio on the Road: The Underground Railroad in Ohio The Ohio Anti-Slavery Society is featured on Ohio History Central.
The Underground Railroad in Ohio
Nancy Dravenstott, Austin Kaufman, and Tami Sprang collaborated on this project.
Using primary and secondary sources to answer questions about Ohio history, History/Historical ThinkingSkills2: History/Heritage7: Following the War of 1812, the United States was divided along sectarian lines. Ohio had a significant role in these problems, notably in the anti-slavery campaign and the Underground Railroad, which both originated in the state.
Primary Sources Used:
In the home, there are hiding spots. University of Louisville’s The Underground Railroad in the Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana Borderland is an excellent resource. Spring Hill (picture courtesy of the National Park Service).
Powerpoint: Underground Railroad (available at the Ohio State University’s Harvey Goldberg Center for Excellence in Teaching’s Slideshare.net website)
It is believed that Ohio acted as the northern “tunnel line” of the Underground Railroad, a system of hidden pathways used by free persons in the NorthSouth to assist slaves in their escape to freedom during the American Civil War. Escape routes were established throughout Ohio, with safe homes serving as hiding places for slaves throughout the daytime. Homes that were formerly utilized by fleeing slaves on their way north via the Underground Railroad may still be found in several communities in Ohio today.
Instructional Steps to Implement the Lesson:
Beginning with the Underground Railroad power point presentation, students will study photographs of common hiding spots located in a safe house and react to questions that have been prepared for them. (preassessment) Guided Lesson: Students will continue to study the power point presentation about the Underground Railroad. Stops on the Underground Railroad will be marked on each student’s Ohio map, and they will be easy to find. Closing: Think-Pair-Share Strategy: Discuss the significance of the Underground Railroad in Ohio with a partner first, then with the full class.
Post-Assessment and Scoring Guideline:
Student responses will be written responses to the following question: “Explain the role Ohio played as a component of the Underground Railroad.” The teacher’s expectations are used to determine the final grade.
Materials Needed by Teacher:
Underground Railroad was a network of people, both black and white, who helped escaped enslaved persons from the southern United States by providing them with refuge and assistance. It came forth as a result of the convergence of numerous separate covert initiatives. Although the exact dates of its inception are unknown, it was active from the late 18th century until the Civil War, after which its attempts to weaken the Confederacy were carried out in a less-secretive manner until the Civil War ended.
The Society of Friends (Quakers) is often regarded as the first organized group to actively assist escaped enslaved persons. In 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with Quakers for attempting to “liberate” one of his enslaved servants. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved persons who were on the run from slavery. Abolitionist organisations founded by Quakers in North Carolina lay the basis for escape routes and safe havens for fugitive slaves during the same time period.
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, which was founded in 1816, was another religious organization that took a proactive role in assisting escaping enslaved persons.
What Was the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad was first mentioned in 1831, when an enslaved man named Tice Davids managed to escape from Kentucky into Ohio and his master blamed a “underground railroad” for assisting Davids in his liberation. When a fugitive slave called Jim was apprehended in 1839 in Washington, the press said that the guy confessed his plan to travel north along a “underground railroad to Boston” while under torture. The Vigilance Committees, which were established in New York in 1835 and Philadelphia in 1838 to safeguard escaped enslaved persons from bounty hunters, rapidly expanded their duties to include guiding enslaved individuals on the run.
MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman and her fellow fugitives used the following strategies to escape through the Underground Railroad:
How the Underground Railroad Worked
The majority of enslaved persons aided by the Underground Railroad were able to flee to neighboring states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made catching fugitive enslaved persons a lucrative industry in the deep South, and there were fewer hiding places for them as a result of the Act. The majority of fugitive enslaved people were on their own until they reached specific places farther north. The escaping enslaved people were escorted by individuals known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were also used as hiding places throughout the war.
The personnel in charge of running them were referred to as “stationmasters.” There were several well-traveled roads that ran west through Ohio and into Indiana and Iowa.
The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.
Fugitive Slave Acts
The Fugitive Slave Acts were a major cause for many fugitive slaves to flee to Canada. This legislation, which was passed in 1793, authorized local governments to catch and extradite fugitive enslaved individuals from inside the borders of free states back to their places of origin, as well as to penalize anybody who assisted the fleeing enslaved people. Personal Liberty Laws were introduced in certain northern states to fight this, but they were overturned by the Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was intended to reinforce the preceding legislation, which was perceived by southern states to be insufficiently enforced at the time of passage.
The northern states were still considered a danger zone for fugitives who had managed to flee.
Some Underground Railroad operators chose to station themselves in Canada and sought to assist fugitives who were arriving to settle in the country.
Harriet Tubman was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad during its heyday. When she and two of her brothers fled from a farm in Maryland in 1849, she was given the name Harriet (her married name was Tubman). She was born Araminta Ross, and she was raised as Harriet Tubman. They returned a couple of weeks later, but Tubman fled on her own again shortly after, this time making her way to the state of Pennsylvania. In following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and other individuals.
Tubman was distraught until she had a vision of God, which led her to join the Underground Railroad and begin escorting other fugitive slaves to the Maryland state capital.
In his house in Rochester, New York, former enslaved person and celebrated author Frederick Douglasshid fugitives who were assisting 400 escapees in their journey to freedom in Canada. Reverend Jermain Loguen, a former fugitive who lived in the adjacent city of Syracuse, assisted 1,500 escapees on their journey north. The Vigilance Committee was established in Philadelphia in 1838 by Robert Purvis, an escaped enslaved person who later became a trader. Josiah Henson, a former enslaved person and railroad operator, founded the Dawn Institute in Ontario in 1842 to assist fugitive slaves who made their way to Canada in learning the necessary skills to find work.
Agent,” according to the document.
John Parker was a free Black man living in Ohio who worked as a foundry owner and who used his rowboat to ferry fugitives over the Ohio River.
William Still was a notable Philadelphia citizen who was born in New Jersey to runaway slaves parents who fled to Philadelphia as children.
Who Ran the Underground Railroad?
The vast majority of Underground Railroad operators were regular individuals, including farmers and business owners, as well as preachers and religious leaders. Some affluent individuals were active, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who stood for president on two separate occasions. Smith acquired a full family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841 and freed them from their captivity. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, is credited with being one of the first recorded individuals to assist escaped enslaved persons.
Coffin stated that he had discovered their hiding spots and had sought them out in order to assist them in moving forward.
Finally, they were able to make their way closer to him. Coffin eventually relocated to Indiana and then Ohio, where he continued to assist fugitive enslaved individuals no matter where he was.
Abolitionist John Brown worked as a conductor on the Underground Railroad, and it was at this time that he founded the League of Gileadites, which was dedicated to assisting fleeing enslaved individuals in their journey to Canada. Abolitionist John Brown would go on to play a variety of roles during his life. His most well-known duty was conducting an assault on Harper’s Ferry in order to raise an armed army that would march into the deep south and free enslaved people at gunpoint. Ultimately, Brown’s forces were beaten, and he was executed for treason in 1859.
The year 1844, he formed a partnership with Vermont schoolteacher Delia Webster, and the two were jailed for assisting an escaped enslaved lady and her young daughter.
Charles Torrey was sentenced to six years in jail in Maryland for assisting an enslaved family in their attempt to flee through Virginia.
After being apprehended in 1844 while transporting a boatload of freed slaves from the Caribbean to the United States, Massachusetts sea captain Jonathan Walker was sentenced to prison for life.
John Fairfield of Virginia turned down the opportunity to assist in the rescue of enslaved individuals who had been left behind by their families as they made their way north.
He managed to elude capture twice.
End of the Line
Operation of the Underground Railroad came to an end in 1863, during the American Civil War. In actuality, its work was shifted aboveground as part of the Union’s overall campaign against the Confederate States of America. Once again, Harriet Tubman made a crucial contribution by organizing intelligence operations and serving as a commanding officer in Union Army efforts to rescue the liberated enslaved people who had been freed. MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman led a daring Civil War raid after the Underground Railroad was shut down.
Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad is a book about the Underground Railroad. Fergus Bordewich is a Scottish actor. A Biography of Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom Catherine Clinton is the first lady of the United States. Who Exactly Was in Charge of the Underground Railroad?
‘Henry Louis Gates’ is a pseudonym for Henry Louis Gates. The Underground Railroad’s History in New York is a little known fact. The Smithsonian Institution’s magazine. The Underground Railroad’s Dangerous Allure is well documented. The New Yorker is a publication dedicated to journalism.