Construction of the City and South London Railway (C SLR) was started in 1886 by James Henry Greathead using a development of Barlow’s shield. Two 10-foot-2-inch (3.10 m) circular tunnels were dug between King William Street (close to today’s Monument station) and Elephant and Castle.
Which was the first underground line in London?
Metropolitan line Opened in 1863, The Metropolitan Railway between Paddington and Farringdon was the first, urban, underground railway in the world. An extension from Baker Street to Swiss Cottage in 1868, however, put an end to this claim to fame.
When did the first underground railway open in London?
The world’s first underground railway opened in London in 1863, as a way of reducing street congestion.
Who opened the London Underground?
On 10 January 1863, the Metropolitan Railway opened the world’s first underground railway. The railway was built between Paddington (which was called Bishop’s Road back then) and Farringdon Street.
Who invented the first underground railway?
Marc Brunel and son Isambard Kingdom Brunel built the Thames Tunnel as a foot tunnel in 1843, but by 1869 enough money had been raised from visiting tourists to develop it into a transport cargo right under the Thames river.
Who invented the underground railway?
In the early 1800s, Quaker abolitionist Isaac T. Hopper set up a network in Philadelphia that helped enslaved people on the run. At the same time, Quakers in North Carolina established abolitionist groups that laid the groundwork for routes and shelters for escapees.
Who designed London Underground map?
Originally considered too radical, Harry Beck’s London Underground Tube map has become a design classic. Now recognised across the world, the Tube map was originally the brainchild of Underground electrical draughtsman, Harry Beck, who produced this imaginative and beautifully simple design back in 1933.
Why does London Underground have 4 rails?
Originally Answered: Why does the London Underground have 4 rails? The 4th rail in electrical rail systems is to prevent stray currents from corroding 3rd party buried services in the vicinity of the railway system such as iron pipes.
Which city first underground railway opened in 1863?
The London Underground, which opened in 1863, was the world’s first underground railway system. More than 30,000 passengers tried out the Tube on the opening day and it was hailed by the Times as “the great engineering triumph of the day”. Pictured – William Gladstone on an inspection of the first underground line.
Who owns TFL?
The underground or tube in London is the oldest transport system of its kind in the world. It opened on 10th January 1863 with steam locomotives.
Which city was the first underground railway built in 1963?
Patankar, whose underground railway proposal came a hundred years after the world’s first such rail line was opened in London, passionately wanted Mumbai’s narrow island city to benefit from a transport network that would not take up additional space on the surface.
Who designed the London Underground logo?
18. London Underground (1919) The London Underground roundel, designed by Edward Johnston in 1919, has transcended its function as transport signage, and in many ways become a symbol for London itself.
Tube is an abbreviation for the London Underground, which is an underground railway system serving the London metropolitan region. A sign displaying the London Underground’s iconic roundel emblem in front of a subway station in the capital city of London. Thinkstock Images/Jupiterimages are trademarks of Thinkstock Images. Soon after the inauguration of the Thames Tunnel in 1843, a city solicitor named Charles Pearson suggested the creation of the London Underground as part of a comprehensive city improvement plan.
Building the Metropolitan Railway began in 1860 with cut-and-cover methods: trenches were dug along the streets, brick sides were added, girders or an arch of brick was built for the roof, and then the highway was rebuilt on top of it.
Despite the presence of sulfurous gases, the line was a huge success from the start, transporting 9.5 million people in its first year of operations.
Photograph courtesy of Philip Lange/Shutterstock.com The City of London and Southwark Subway Company (later known as the City and South London Railway) began construction on the “tube” line in 1866, using a tunneling shield designed by J.H.
- The route was completed in 1870.
- Although the initial concept planned for cable operation, electric traction was eventually installed before the line could be officially inaugurated.
- Upon his arrival in London in 1900, Charles Tyson Yerkes, an American railway entrepreneur, oversaw the building of more tube railroads as well as the electrification of the cut-and-cover lines, which he later oversaw.
- During World Wars I and II, stations served as air raid shelters, and the tunnels of the now-defunct Aldwych spur line were used to store exhibits from the British Museum during the latter period.
- London Underground The Mary Evans Photographic Collection After being nationalized by the London Transport Executive in 1948, the London Underground became a publicly owned and operated system.
- When the Underground was privatized in 2003, the operation of the system was transferred to Transport for London, a public corporation that supplies the Underground with human resources like as conductors and station staff.
- London Underground customers are advised to “watch the space” between the station platform and the trains, according to a sign posted at the station.
- By the beginning of the twenty-first century, the system carried more than one billion people each year.
In 2010, as part of its continuous modernization of its rolling stock, the Underground introduced its first air-conditioned vehicles for the first time. Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.
How the world’s first metro system was built – Christian Wolmar
Underground train system serving the London metropolitan region known as the London Underground (often referred to as the Tube). a sign outside a subway station in London with the London Underground’s signature roundel emblem shown on it Photographs courtesy of Thinkstock/Jupiterimages. Soon after the commissioning of the Thames Tunnel in 1843, a city solicitor named Charles Pearson advocated the construction of a subway system as part of a municipal improvement plan. It was approved by Parliament after ten years of deliberation to build a subterranean railway between Farringdon Street and Bishop’s Road, Paddington, measuring 3.75 miles (6 kilometers).
- A steam locomotive powered by coke and then coal was used to inaugurate the railway on January 10, 1863.
- The Tube System of London From a London Underground subway station, a train leaves on its route to its destination.
- The City of London and Southwark Subway Company (later known as the City and South London Railway) began construction on the “tube” line in 1866, using a tunneling shield designed by J.H.
- The route was completed in 1868.
- Prior to the line’s opening, electric traction was used instead of cable operation, which was part of the original concept.
- In 1900, Charles Tyson Yerkes, an American railway entrepreneur, came in London, and he was thereafter responsible for the building of further tube railroads as well as the electrification of the cut-and-cover lines in the capital.
- During World Wars I and II, stations served as air raid shelters, while the tunnels of the now-defunct Aldwych spur line were used to store exhibits from the British Museum during the latter period of the century.
- London Underground Photo Archive of Mary Evans After being nationalized by the London Transport Executive in 1948, the London Underground became a publicly owned entity.
- Outside firms manage the actual infrastructure of the Underground, which includes the stations, tracks, and railcars, as part of a cooperation arrangement with the private sector.
- Jupiterimages courtesy of AbleStock.com A total of 270 stations were serviced by the London Underground system, which carried around 250 miles (400 kilometers) of track.
The Underground introduced its first air-conditioned vehicles in 2010 as part of its continuing modernization of its rolling equipment. In the most recent revision and update, Amy Tikkanen provided further information.
The Underground Railroad
At the time of slavery, the Underground Railroad was a network of routes, locations, and individuals that assisted enslaved persons in the American South in their attempts to flee to freedom in the northern states. Subjects History of the United States, Social StudiesImage
Home of Levi Coffin
Levi Coffin’s residence in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he lived as an American Quaker and abolitionist. This was a station on the Underground Railroad, a network of routes, locations, and individuals that assisted enslaved persons in escaping to the North during the Civil War. Cincinnati Museum Center provided the photography. “> During the age of slavery, the Underground Railroad was a network of routes, locations, and individuals that assisted enslaved persons in the American South in escaping to the North, according to the Underground Railroad Museum.
Although it was not a real railroad, it fulfilled the same function as one: it carried passengers across large distances.
The people who worked for the Underground Railroad were driven by a passion for justice and a desire to see slavery abolished—a drive that was so strong that they risked their lives and jeopardized their own freedom in order to assist enslaved people in escaping from bondage and staying safe while traveling the Underground Railroad.
- As the network expanded, the railroad metaphor became more prevalent.
- In recent years, academic research has revealed that the vast majority of persons who engaged in the Underground Railroad did it on their own, rather than as part of a larger organization.
- According to historical tales of the railroad, conductors frequently pretended to be enslaved persons in order to smuggle runaways out of plantation prisons and train stations.
- Often, the conductors and passengers traveled 16–19 kilometers (10–20 miles) between each safehouse stop, which was a long distance in this day and age.
- Patrols on the lookout for enslaved persons were usually on their tails, chasing them down.
- Historians who study the railroad, on the other hand, find it difficult to distinguish between fact and fiction.
- Eric Foner is one of the historians that belongs to this group.
- Despite this, the Underground Railroad was at the center of the abolitionist struggle during the nineteenth century.
- Levi Coffin’s residence in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he lived as an American Quaker and abolitionist.
- Cincinnati Museum Center provided the photography.
- Person who is owned by another person or group of people is referred to as an enslaved person.
Slavery is a noun that refers to the act of owning another human being or being owned by another human being (also known as servitude). Abolitionists utilized this nounsystem between 1800 and 1865 to aid enslaved African Americans in their attempts to flee to free states.
With the exception of promotional graphics, which normally link to another page that carries the media credit, all audio, artwork, photos, and videos are attributed beneath the media asset they are associated with. In the case of media, the Rights Holder is the individual or group that gets credited.
Tyson Brown is a member of the National Geographic Society.
The National Geographic Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the exploration of the world’s natural wonders.
Gina Borgia is a member of the National Geographic Society. Jeanna Sullivan is a member of the National Geographic Society.
According to National Geographic Society’s Sarah Appleton, Margot Willis is a National Geographic Society photographer.
- According to National Geographic Society researcher Sarah Appleton, Margot Willis is a National Geographic Society researcher.
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How we made… Secrets of the London Underground
TIM DUNN, a historian and television presenter, takes us behind the scenes of his current railway series for the Yesterday television network. You and I, on the other hand, are probably more knowledgeable about trains than the typical person on the street. We know where to stand on the platform in order for the train doors to open right in front of us when the train arrives. We are well-versed in all of the shortcuts. And we’re presumably well-versed in the history of the railroads as well. However, one of the great aspects of working in the railway industry is that no matter how well I believe I understand something or where I think I belong, there are always days when my socks are blown clear off my feet.
- Working with UKTV, Brown Bob Productions, the London Transport Museum, and Transport for London, we were able to secure unprecedented access to abandoned sections of London’s Tube network – and I’m delighted to be able to share a little of the behind-the-scenes experience with you here.
- As a result, when a television production firm approaches a railway organization, there is certain to be some trepidation regarding the eventual product.
- The railroads are amazing, marvelous systems of interconnected, inventive infrastructure and equipment that have been created over three centuries to meet the requirements and expectations of society, industry, trade, and government, just as you and I do.
- The Brown Bob Productions crew was kind enough to introduce me to them a couple of years ago.
- In the end, we produced three seasons (30 episodes, which I never expected) of The Architecture The Railways Built (TATRB) for the UKTV Yesterday channel, which aired from 2009 to 2011.
- In order to create them, we collaborated with hundreds of rail, historical, and tourist organizations – ranging from Network Rail to local tour guides, from train operators to individual homes – to create them.
- The high ratings and critical acclaim received by TATRB demonstrated that we had discovered a market niche.
In Series 1, we accomplished this straight from the start, by entering the Down Street London Underground station, which had been closed for a long time.
While the production of TATRB Series 2 and 3 got underway, the Brown Bob team and LTM’s Hidden London team stayed in touch via email and telephone.
A series on some extremely special sites was submitted to, produced with, and commissioned by UKTV as a result of discussions with Transport for London.
The production crew recognized that, while these locations were intriguing in their own right, they would be much more compelling for television if additional layers of background and substance were added.
Archives video, photographs, posters, and schematics are essential components of the storytelling in SOTLU; it is a pleasure to be able to display the collection to such a large number of people.
The production crew was established in a short period of time, with many of them having previously worked on TATRB, and I was invited to present it with (the exciting) Siddy Holloway, who would serve as my co-presenter and guide.
While all of this was going on, the most critical component of the situation was being organized – access.
As a result, filming access is famously tough to come by in Hollywood.
Siddy and Chris Nix (Assistant Director of Collections and Engagement at the LTM) are highly trained and extremely familiar with all of the locations, owing to their employment with Transport for London and their frequent visits to nearly all of the sites as part of their Hidden London tour program, respectively.
- This was to be a program that celebrated, showcased, and explained many aspects of TfL’s property in a way that had never been done before.
- There are certain locations that may be recognizable to you as a Tube user or as a participant on a Hidden London trip, such as Aldwych, Holborn, Embankment, Euston, Oxford Circus, and Moorgate, that you may recognize.
- After that, there are the areas that are only a few people get to view, such as the long-abandoned York Road, St Mary’s, and old Aldgate East subway stations.
- Nonetheless, even at 4 a.m., it was a thrilling experience for Siddy and myself.
- North End station, located beneath Hampstead Heath, was a half-completed station that was eventually converted into a Cold War bunker.
- One of the most horrible filming experiences of my career took place in LTM’s Acton Depot, and it contrasted sharply with some of the best moments of my career, which took place in different off-limits storerooms of LTM’s Acton Depot.
- While under COVID lockdown, filming was difficult because nothing could be done in the traditional manner.
The presence of a socially disengaged crew and presenters in underground settings was very crucial, but also particularly difficult.
The more restricted the’secret’ place, the more difficult it was.
However, there were two advantages to doing so.
After the filming at the historic locations and the LTM Depot was completed, the editing process got underway.
I and Siddy worked together to record the voiceovers, and then we finished up the final changes and grading (which is simply the process of colour-balancing the graphics).
In comparison to other documentaries on the Tube, museums, or even UKTV’s Yesterday channel, this series is a breath of fresh air in the world of documentary television.
This is something that I, and everyone on the Secrets of The London Underground team, sincerely hope that you will enjoy reading.
Please keep in mind that all non-public area images were taken after established training and protocols, in the presence of TfL personnel, and from secure locations. This article can be found in RAIL 934.
The story of Mail Rail
From 1927 until 2003, the Post Office (London) Underground Railway, often known as the Mail Rail, was responsible for transporting mail beneath the streets of London.
During his tenure as Secretary of the Post Office, Rowland Hill delivered a report to the Postmaster General outlining his plans for a system of subterranean tubes for delivering mail. It was planned that air pressure would serve as the driving power for the vehicle. Hill envisioned it being utilized in London to connect the Post Office Headquarters and another Post Office building at Holborn, where it would have been built first. In the end, it is possible that eight additional offices were joined in.
- Pneumatic railway between Euston Station and Eversholt Street established by the Pneumatic Despatch Company, which was examined by the Post Office in 1863.
- They were sucked through the length of the tunnel in roughly one minute since the carriages were wrought iron and rode on tracks.
- Pneumatic Rail CarTrials were conducted till that time until 1866.
- After declining to come into a permanent agreement with the Company, mail was delivered for the last time in October 1874.
The birth of the Underground Railway
By the start of the twentieth century, clogged streets and fog made it impossible to deliver mail between London’s principal Post Offices and train terminals without experiencing significant delays. “The Belle Sauvage Inn, Ludgate Hill, London,” around 1885 (2004-0148) In 1909, a Departmental Committee was established to investigate the feasibility of subterranean pneumatic and electric trains. When the commission issued its recommendation in February 1911, it advocated the development of an electric railway with autonomous trains.
- The new railway system was to be comprised of six and a half miles of tunnels that would be 70 feet below ground on average.
- Paddington District Office, Western Parcels Office, Western District Office, Western Central District Office, Eastern District Office Diagram of the mail rail system, 1926 When the tunnels were being built, a brief trial track on Plumstead Marshes was built, complete with a single vehicle.
- Despite the fact that the tunneling construction was finished in 1917, the Treasury refused to allow the Post Office to order or install the working equipment since it was a wartime requirement.
- Finally, on December 5, 1927, the railway was officially inaugurated, with parcels traffic between Mount Pleasant and Paddington running on the line.
- On the 2nd of January 1928, the Liverpool Street to Eastern District Office opened its doors for parcel deliveries.
The Post Office subterranean mail train in London in 1937 (POST 109/331)
Trains and tunnels
The trains travel through a single tunnel that is 9 feet in diameter and has a double 2 foot gauge track. A few hundred yards before arriving at the station, the main tunnel is divided into two 7ft tunnels, each with a single track. Despite the fact that the trains are far smaller than those on London’s passenger underground, the stations retain their traditional appearance, with large circular walls and the familiar sound of incoming trains. During the First World War, the tunnels were utilized to hold and safeguard art masterpieces belonging to the National Portrait Gallery and the Tate Gallery, which were in danger of being destroyed.
Because of the significant wear being generated on the track, the initial rolling stock of 90 trains had to be replaced within three years of its installation.
Every container housed an average of 15 bags of letters or six bags of packages per container, depending on size.
Containers are being loaded.
Changes to the Underground Railway
The Western Parcels Office and Western District Office, as well as their respective stations, were closed in 1965. It was on 3 August 1965 that a station at the new Western District Office in Rathbone Place, which was built along an unplanned length of rail, was dedicated to the public. The Post Office Underground Railway was renamed ‘Mail Rail’ in 1987 to commemorate its 60th anniversary, and some of the trains were renovated with more streamlined casings to commemorate the occasion. The implementation of another recent update to the train control technology allowed trains to be redirected, so eliminating the infrequent hold-ups caused by the odd break-down.
Mail Rail in the 1990s
The Western Parcels Office and Western District Office, as well as their respective train stations, were decommissioned in 1966. In 1965, a station at the Western District Office in Rathbone Place, which was built on a new deviated stretch of track, took their place on the 3rd of August. The Post Office Underground Railway was renamed ‘Mail Rail’ in 1987 to commemorate its 60th anniversary, and some of the trains were renovated with more streamlined casings to commemorate this occasion. The implementation of another recent update to the train control technology allowed trains to be redirected, so eliminating the infrequent hold-ups caused by the odd breakdown on the railway.
Sources from the collection
POST 20: Organization in charge of inland mails: Post Office (London) Railway (1909-1967) POST NO. 30: Minutes of the England-Wales Meeting (1792-1920) POST 33: Minutes of the General Assembly (1921-1954) POST 92: Publications of the Post Office – Courier POST 122: Minutes of Meetings (1955-) Collection of portfolios Carter, W.G., “Post Office” (Post Office) (London) Railway. Engineering January to March 1928, Post Office Green Papers No.
36, 1936, Engineering January to March 1928, Post Office Green Papers No. 36, 1936, Engineering January to March 1928, Post Office Green Papers No. 36, 1936, Engineering January to March 1928, Post Office Green Papers No. 36, 1936, Engineering January to March 1928, Post Office Green Papers
No. 36, 1936, Engineering January to March 1928, Post Office Green Papers No. 36, 1936, Engineering January to March 1928, Post Office Green Papers