Terms in this set (12) A network of abolitionists that secretly helped slaves escape to freedom by setting up hiding places and routes to the North. Harriet Tubman is a key person to its success.
How did Frederick Douglass help with the Underground Railroad?
He also helped slaves escape to the North while working with the Underground Railroad. He established the abolitionist paper The North Star on December 3, 1847, in Rochester, NY, and developed it into the most influential black antislavery paper published during the antebellum era.
Who was Millard Fillmore Apush?
(1849-1850), Whig president who was a Southern slave holder, and war hero (Mexican-American War). Won the 1848 election. Surprisingly did not address the issue of slavery at all on his platform. He died during his term and his Vice President was Millard Fillmore.
What year did Underground Railroad begin?
system used by abolitionists between 1800-1865 to help enslaved African Americans escape to free states.
Why was the Underground Railroad a cause of the Civil War?
The Underground Railroad physically resisted the repressive laws that held slaves in bondage. By provoking fear and anger in the South, and prompting the enactment of harsh legislation that eroded the rights of white Americans, the Underground Railroad was a direct contributing cause of the Civil War.
Does the Underground Railroad still exist?
It includes four buildings, two of which were used by Harriet Tubman. Ashtabula County had over thirty known Underground Railroad stations, or safehouses, and many more conductors. Nearly two-thirds of those sites still stand today.
Was Underground Railroad an actual railroad?
Nope! Despite its name, the Underground Railroad wasn’t a railroad in the way Amtrak or commuter rail is. It wasn’t even a real railroad. The Underground Railroad of history was simply a loose network of safe houses and top secret routes to states where slavery was banned.
Who was Stephen Douglas quizlet?
Douglas? (1813-1861) Stephen A. Douglas aka “little Giant” was a democratic senator from Illinois, Presidential candidate against Lincoln in 1858, one of the minds behind the Compromise of 1850, Popular Sovereignty, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Who was William Walker Apush?
William Walker, (born May 8, 1824, Nashville, Tenn., U.S.—died Sept. 12, 1860, Trujillo, Honduras), adventurer, filibuster, and revolutionary leader who succeeded in making himself president of Nicaragua (1856–57).
What was Millard Fillmore known for?
Millard Fillmore is best known for assuming the presidency after the death of Zachary Taylor, becoming the 13th U.S. president.
Who invented the Underground Railroad?
In the early 1800s, Quaker abolitionist Isaac T. Hopper set up a network in Philadelphia that helped enslaved people on the run.
What role did the Underground Railroad play?
The Underground Railroad provided hiding places, food, and often transportation for the fugitives who were trying to escape slavery. Along the way, people also provided directions for the safest way to get further north on the dangerous journey to freedom.
When did Harriet Tubman start the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad and Siblings Tubman first encountered the Underground Railroad when she used it to escape slavery herself in 1849. Following a bout of illness and the death of her owner, Tubman decided to escape slavery in Maryland for Philadelphia.
Where did the Underground Railroad originate?
The Underground Railroad was created in the early 19th century by a group of abolitionists based mainly in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Within a few decades, it had grown into a well-organized and dynamic network. The term “Underground Railroad” began to be used in the 1830s.
The Underground Railroad and the Coming of War
The Underground Railroad served as a symbol for the abolition of slavery. Despite this, many textbooks refer to it as the official name of a covert network that formerly assisted fugitive slaves in their escape. The pupils who are more literal in their thinking begin to wonder whether these established escape routes were genuinely beneath the surface of the land. However, the phrase “Underground Railroad” is best understood as a rhetorical technique that was used to illustrate a point by comparing two entities that were diametrically opposed to one another.
Understanding the origins of the term has a significant impact on its meaning and use.
There could be no “underground railroad” until the general public in the United States became aware with genuine railways, which occurred throughout the 1830s and 1840s.
The term also draws attention to a particular geographic direction.
- Even while slaves fled in every direction on a map, the metaphor delivered its most potent punch in areas that were closest to the nation’s busiest railroad stations.
- Also, why would they want to compare and irrevocably link a large-scale operation to assist escaped slaves with a well-organized network of hidden railways in the first place?
- Abolitionists, or those who pushed for the abolition of slavery as soon as possible, desired to publicize, and possibly even inflate, the number of slave escapes and the depth of the network that existed to help those fugitives in order to gain public support.
- This appeared to be a potentially deadly game to several of the participants.
According to his Narrativein 1845, “I have never approved of the very public manner in which some of our western friends have conducted what they call theunderground railroad,” warning that these mostly Ohio-based (“western”) abolitionists were establishing a “upperground railroad” through their “open declarations.” The public’s awareness of slave escapes and open disobedience of federal law only grew in the years that followed, especially when the contentious Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed.
- Anxious fugitives and their accomplices retaliated with greater force this time around.
- A former slave called William Parker was aided to escape to Canada by him in September 1851 after Parker had organized a resistance movement in Christiana, Pennsylvania that resulted in the death of a Maryland slaveholder and the confusion of federal officials.
- The infamously strict statute was used to prosecute just around 350 fugitive slave cases between 1850 and 1861, with none of them taking place in the abolitionist-friendly New England states after 1854.
- Students sometimes appear to image escaped slaves cowering in the shadows, while cunning “conductors” and “stationmasters” constructed sophisticated covert hiding spots and coded communications to aid spirit fugitives on their route to freedom in the nineteenth century.
- An alternative explanation for the Underground Railroad should be offered in terms of sectional divisions as well as the onset of the Civil War.
- When American towns felt endangered in the nineteenth century, they turned to extra-legal “vigilance” clubs for assistance.
- Almost immediately, though, these organizations began providing protection to fugitive slaves who had escaped from their masters.
Many now-forgotten personalities such as Lewis Hayden, George DeBaptiste, David Ruggles, and William Still were instrumental in organizing the most active vigilance committees in cities such as Boston, Detroit, New York, and Philadelphia during the era of the Great Depression.
It was via these vigilance groups that the Underground Railroad came to be regarded as the organized core of the network.
The vigilance concept was imitated during the 1840s, when William Parker established a “mutual protection” group in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, and when John Brown established his League of Gileadites in Springfield, Massachusetts, respectively.
They kept their secrets close to their chests, but these were not clandestine operators in the way of France’s Resistance.
vigilance agents in Detroit crammed newspaper pages with information regarding their monthly traffic volume.
One entrepreneurial individual circulated a business card with the words “Underground Railroad Agent” written on the back.
In addition to being available for classroom use, a surprising amount of this covert material may be found online.
The book presents the fascinating materials he collected while serving as the Philadelphia Vigilance Committee’s head of research and documentation.
And the amount of literature about the Underground Railroad that is readily available is growing all the time.
How could they disclose their presence and run the danger of being apprehended if they kept documents detailing their illicit activities?
Aside from the security provided by state personal liberty statutes, those assisting fleeing criminals sometimes benefited from an overarching unwillingness across the North to support federal action or reward southern authority.
Attempts to pass personal liberty or anti-kidnapping legislation in northern states, led by Pennsylvania, began as early as the 1820s.
The Supreme Court ruled in two important instances, Prigg v.
Booth (1859), that these northern personal liberty guarantees were unconstitutional and hence unenforceable.
They may also be surprised to learn that a federal jury in Philadelphia found the primary defendant in the Christiana treason trial not guilty after only fifteen minutes of deliberation.
This was the popular mood that was utilized by northern vigilance committees in order to keep their problematic efforts on behalf of fugitives going for as long as possible.
No well-known Underground Railroad worker was ever killed or sentenced to a considerable amount of time in prison for assisting fugitives once they crossed the Mason-Dixon Line or the Ohio River in the course of their work.
The branding of Jonathan Walker, a sea captain convicted of transporting runaways, with the mark “S.S.” (“slave-stealer”) on his hand was ordered by a federal marshal in Florida in 1844 after he was apprehended.
What did occur, on the other hand, was an increase in rhetorical violence.
The threats became more serious.
Following that, the outcomes affected the responses that eventually led to war.
The hunt for fugitives and those who assisted them served as a major catalyst for the nation’s debate about slavery, which began in 1850.
When measured in words, however, as seen by the antebellum newspaper articles, sermons, speeches, and resolutions prompted by the fugitive-hunting issue, the “Underground Railroad” proved to be a metaphor that served to spark the American Civil War in the most literal sense.
In Frederick Douglass’s Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave, published by the Anti-Slavery Office in Boston in 1845, page 101 is quoted ().
Campbell’s book, The Slave Catchers: Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law: 1850–1860 (New York: W.
Norton, 1970), contains an appendix that discusses this topic.
See, for example, Graham Russell Gao Hodges’ David Ruggles: A Radical Black Abolitionist and the Underground Railroad in New York City (David Ruggles: A Radical Black Abolitionist and the Underground Railroad in New York City) (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010).
To learn more about this, see Fergus M.
Douglass, Frederick, “Life and Times of Frederick Douglass,” in Park Publishing’s Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (Hartford, CT: Park Publishing, 1881), p.
He is the author of Lincoln’s Sanctuary: Abraham Lincoln and the Soldiers’ Home (2003) and the co-director of House Divided: The Civil War Research Engine at Dickinson College, both of which are located in Pennsylvania.
APUSH Unit 4 Notes: African Americans in the Early Republic
Land and slaves were considered to be the most valuable assets in the South. Slaves were viewed as though they were pieces of property that could be purchased and sold. When it came to how they treated other humans, some whites were so sensitive that they referred to slavery as “that odd institution.” In addition to farm labor, many slaves learned sophisticated trades and worked as house servants, in factories or on construction crews, among other occupations. Slaves labored in ” gangs ” under the supervision of an overseer on enormous plantations in the Cotton Belt.
In the low region of South Carolina and Georgia, slaves who farmed rice were organized into a “task system.” Since they were under less supervision, they were able to finish their jobs in an eight-hour workday.
Some slaves choose to live away from their owners and work for themselves on their own time schedules.
Slavery conditions differed from one plantation to the next. For example:
- Some slaves were treated kindly, whilst others were beaten on a regular basis. All of them suffered as a result of being stripped of their liberty
- Families might be torn apart at any time if a business owner decides to sell a wife, husband, or kid to another party. Women were particularly susceptible to sexual exploitation.
The vast majority of slaves were housed on plots of land owned by planters who had at least twenty slaves. More than 200 slaves resided on very big farms, which accounted for 2.4 percent of all slaves. Only a small number of slaves lived in restricted black communities. Instead, they maintained a tight relationship with their masters. Slaves were trained to be meek and obedient by their masters by physical and psychological techniques. They attempted to persuade slaves that whites were superior and had the right to govern over blacks by using fear and intimidation.
Early Attempts Against Slavery
Denmark Vesey, a former slave who purchased his freedom, plotted a slave uprising in 1822 that became known as the Vesey Slave Conspiracy, according to historians. He intended to gain control of Charleston, assassinate the governor, and burn the city. The plan was foiled when several slaves informed their masters of the scheme they were involved with. In response, Vessey was apprehended and taken to trial, where he was finally executed by hanging. Despite the fact that this effort of revolt failed, it generated widespread anxiety and resulted in stricter legislation protecting the rights of slaves.
African Americans constituted barely 1% of the population in the northern hemisphere. Despite the fact that freedom existed, it did not imply equality. They were denied the right to vote, and segregated regions isolated them from white people. African Americans founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church in response to prejudice. It was the first black-run Protestant church in the United States. To demonstrate their opposition to slavery, the vast majority of members refused to purchase anything made by slaves.
Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World was written by David Walker, an abolitionist who was African-American. Despite the fact that it was outlawed in several Southern states, it was nevertheless able to smuggle into those areas.
Nat Turner’s Rebellion
Nat Turner was the leader of the bloodiest slave uprising in history, which took place in 1831. He and his accomplices killed 55 white individuals in a single day, but the whites were able to beat them, even going so far as to execute around 30 people without putting them on trial. Another 20 persons would be tried, but they would all be executed. Despite the fact that Turner was apprehended and incarcerated, the panic among slaveholders and other southerners grew even stronger, and they began to devise alternate strategies.
It is estimated that only a small percentage of all slaves ever participated in coordinated acts of violent rebellion. The majority of people knew that the chances of a successful insurrection were extremely slim. As a result, they came up with new strategies for resisting white supremacy. A large number of slaves showed their dissatisfaction through indirect or passive resistance:
- Slaves would labor inefficiently or slowly in order to complain
- Some employees refused to work by pretending illness or injury
- Others stole supplies. In the eyes of many, stealing from the master was not a sin but a means of increasing their part of the products of the master’s labor. Slaves perpetrated acts of sabotage using tools and agricultural implements, among other things. A number of animals were neglected or abused, and barns were set ablaze. The ultimate act of defiance was the poisoning of the masters’ food supply.
Image courtesy of the Wikimedia Commons The Underground Railroadwas made up of persons who were prepared to assist slaves in their attempts to flee to the North and Canada. They were instrumental in the emancipation of hundreds of thousands of slaves from the South. Despite the fact that it is thought that only a small number of persons were participating in the Underground Railroad, its impacts on the lives of many slaves were profound. Harriet Tubman, the most well-known individual associated with the Underground Railroad, directly assisted over 300 slaves.
Watch this video: AP United States History – Antebellum Politics
In 1848, as a prelude to the American Civil War, the South’s growing anxiety of abolition of slavery got more and more intense and intense. More land was added to the United States, which prompted the question of which states would be designated as free states and which as slave states? Despite the fact that the South had greater influence in the administration, they were concerned that their ideals about how the country should be administered were not being satisfied. This notion was fueled in part by the fact that the Justice system had failed them time and time again when it came to capturing runaway slaves, as previously stated.
- However, for the people of the South, it was the principle of the matter and an issue that was near to home that stoked their southern nationalism, in the traditional sense of the term.
- Both black and white abolitionists, as well as those sympathetic to their cause, ran safe-houses in their communities.
- Another well-known conductor of the period was Levi Coffin, a Quaker abolitionist who became so involved in the cause that his hometown of Columbus, Ohio, was given the nickname “Grand Central Station” to correspond with the Underground Railroad’s image and reputation.
- The irony is that this was one of the numerous concerns that the southerners had that ultimately led to their participation in the Civil War.
For their outspoken unwillingness to adhere to the rules of the period and their determination to do what is right no matter what the consequences, both the conductors and the runaways should be remembered and revered. Citation/s
Abolitionist Movement: AP® US History Crash Course Review
Please keep in mind that this essay was prepared a few years ago and may not reflect the most recent modifications to the AP® certification program. In the meanwhile, we are gradually updating these posts and will remove this disclaimer once the post has been updated. Thank you for your understanding! Are you preparing for the Advanced Placement® US History exam? Do you need to learn everything there is to know about the abolitionist movement? Hint: If you’re reading this, the answer to both of those questions is a resounding “yes.” We won’t make you feel intimidated: in our APUSH crash course study, we’ll teach you all you need to know to comprehend the characteristics and characters of the abolitionist movement.
What is the abolitionist movement?
The abolitionist movement, also known as abolitionism, was a struggle to abolish slavery in the United States that took place before to and during the American Civil War. We all know that this movement finally achieved success, but how did it do so? When the First Great Awakening took place in the 1730s and 1740s, one of the earliest widely disseminated antislavery messages was spread. The Enlightenment scholars James Oglethorpe, Granville Sharp, and Hannah More were among those who began to make reasonable arguments against slavery as a violation of human rights about the same period.
- After the Revolutionary War, which resulted in the establishment of the United States of America, people’s attitudes began to shift.
- According to the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, slavery was forbidden in all regions north of the Ohio River and west of the Mississippi River.
- Abolishing slavery in the Southern states took a lot longer than it did in the North.
- The elimination of the Atlantic slave trade was a significant step toward the realization of comprehensive abolitionism.
- Due to a lack of strong enforcement of the rule, slaves were still being imported on a limited basis, notwithstanding the prohibition.
- The plantation economy in the southern United States was almost exclusively based on slave labor.
- Many plantation owners believed that the movement’s success was sowing the seeds of a slave revolt on their property.
In the 1820s and 1830s, the messages of the Second Great Awakening motivated a large number of reformers to take up their own causes.
Many people were moved by this awakening to consider slavery to be a wicked system that should not be permitted.
The abolitionist movement was growing in popularity in the 1830s, but not all abolitionists were created equal.
Others, less extreme in their views, advocated for a more progressive path of liberation.
In 1833, he and other students at Oberlin College came together to organize the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Abolitionists gained a tremendous deal of support from free blacks, free people of color, and religious organizations such as the Society of Friends.
The Liberator was a weekly newspaper published in Boston that began publication in 1831 and ran for three decades.
The Mexican-American War was yet another significant turning point in the battle over slavery (1846-1848).
With the Compromise of 1850, an attempt was made to alleviate the ensuing conflict. There were five significant clauses in it:
- California was accepted as a free state
- Slavery would be decided in Utah Territory and New Mexico Territory based on popular sovereignty
- Texas’s limits were reduced to their current condition
- And other events occurred. The slave trade was prohibited in Washington, D.C.
- The Fugitive Slave Act was tightened
- And the American Civil War was ended.
California was admitted as a free state; slavery would be decided in Utah Territory and New Mexico Territory on the basis of popular sovereignty; Texas’s limits were lowered to their current position; and The slave trade was outlawed in Washington, D.C.; the Fugitive Slave Act was reinforced; and the Underground Railroad was decommissioned.
Why is the abolitionist movement important?
So, what is it about the abolitionist movement that we are so interested in? Briefly said, it was one of the most extensive, diverse, and effective social reform movements in the history of the United States. As a result of the movement’s inclusion of periodicals, religious organizations, educational institutions, as well as Americans of all classes and races, it eventually became one of the most crucial elements in its success. When it comes to the Civil War and the antebellum period, the abolitionist movement is a significant player.
During this time period, the abolition of slavery was the most powerful social movement in the world.
It was established on the principles of quick modernization and progress, which included industrialization, railways, and abolition, among other things.
There are certain people and characteristics of the abolitionist movement that are essential to comprehending the nineteenth century.
For the APUSH exam, you should be aware of events such as the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade in 1808, the first publication of The Liberator in 1831, the Second Great Awakening, the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act, the Emancipation Proclamation, and the Thirteenth Amendment, to name a few.
What You Need to Know for the APUSH Exam – Multiple-Choice
With this year’s AP® US History test, the multiple-choice section provides you with stimulus material that you can use to direct your responses to the questions. An example of propaganda might be a primary or secondary book, a speech, a chart, a graph, a map, or any other type of stimulus material. You should be familiar with essential documents and patterns that are associated with a topic if you want to perform well on the APUSH multiple-choice part. This will help you distinguish these papers and patterns when you see them on the test.
As an example, multiple-choice questions regarding the abolitionist movement may include maps of the Underground Railroad, tables comparing free and slave populations, or passages from works like as The Liberator, the Emancipation Proclamation, or Uncle Tom’s Cabin, among other things.
The following is an excerpt from the speech: “Standing with God and the crushed and bleeding slave on this occasion, I will, in the name of humanity, which is outraged, in the name of Liberty, which is fettered, in the name of the constitution and Bible, which are disregarded and trampled upon, dare to call into question and denounce.
Southern Democrats (A) Southern planters (B) Northern abolitionists (C) Northern merchants (D) Northern abolitionists The right answer is C.
Southern Democrats and plantation owners, in general, were adamant in their opposition to abolition.
Moreover, northern merchants were unlikely to support Douglass since they had an economic stake in slavery, particularly in terms of transporting and insuring the capital of the United States of America.
What You Need to Know for the APUSH Exam – Essays and Document-Based Questions
The extended essays and multiple-choice questions on the APUSH test provide you with an opportunity to demonstrate your contextualizing abilities. On problems pertaining to the Civil War, the antebellum period, Reconstruction, or even broader social reform efforts, the abolitionist movement might be relevant. As an illustration, here is a previousAPUSHlong essay question: In this paper, you will examine whether the Mexican-American Conflict (1846–1848) was a watershed moment in the debate over slavery in the United States, by looking at how things changed and how they remained unchanged from the time before and after the war.
- First, you must develop a thesis statement that takes a position on the subject — for example, decide to what degree the Mexican-American War had an influence on the slavery argument.
- Talk about the portions of the movement that occurred before to the War, such as William Lloyd Garrison and The Liberator, Frederick Douglass, and others.
- You may find more specific scoring standards for a question like this one from the College Board by visiting their website.
- The abolitionist movement is complicated, and you’ve come to the end of ourAPUSH crash course study to learn more about it.
Let’s put everything into practice. Try this AP® US History practice question:
You will get the opportunity to demonstrate your contextualizing abilities on the APUSH exam’s lengthy essays and DBQ. On matters pertaining to the Civil War, the antebellum period, Reconstruction, or even broader social reform efforts, the abolitionist movement may be called upon for assistance. A pastAPUSHlong essay question, for example, was as follows: Evaluating the extent to which the Mexican-American Conflict (1846–1848) was a watershed moment in the debate over slavery in the United States, by examining what changed and what remained the same from the time preceding and after the war, So, how would you go about answering this?
You can next proceed on to your study of the Mexican-American War in the context of the abolitionist movement, if you have determined that it was a watershed moment in the slavery issue.
Consider the conditions that existed following the Mexican-American War, such as popular sovereignty, the Compromise of 1850, and so on.
Having these resources in hand will prepare you for the AP® US History test in May, which will focus on the abolitionist movement and other topics.
Chapter 18: Renewing the Sectional Struggle
Revival of the Sectional Struggle in 1848-1854 (Chapter 18) The Sovereignty Panacea that is Popular Popular Sovereignty is the concept that the people of a country should be able to choose whether or not slavery is permitted in their jurisdiction. It was well-liked by politicians because it represented a middle ground between abolitionists and slaveholders in the American South. General Lewis Cass, a veteran of the War of 1812, was selected as the Democratic Party’s presidential nominee at the Democratic National Convention in Baltimore.
- Cass was not anti-slavery; instead, he advocated for people sovereignty.
- In Philadelphia, the Whigs selected Zachary Taylor as their candidate for president, following a convention of the party.
- There were too many adversaries for Henry Clay to be picked, thus he was passed over.
- They were in favor of federal assistance for internal improvements.
- Zachary Taylor was elected president of the United States in 1848.
- “Californy Gold” is a term used to describe gold from California.
- Because of the large inflow of people linked with the California gold rush, there was violence and sickness, and the little Californian administration was completely overwhelmed.
The southerners were opposed to California’s admittance as a free state because it would disturb the balance of free and slave states in the Senate, which they considered unfair.
By 1850, southerners began to call for more stringent fugitive-slave legislation.
Senatorial Giants are nearing the end of their careers.
Henry Clay, John Calhoun, and Daniel Webster, who are collectively known as the “immortal trinity,” spoke during the discussion.
He advocated for the North to create a more stringent runaway slave statute.
His ultimate goal was for America to have two presidents, one from the South and one from the North, with each having a veto power of one vote on every issue.
He was an outspoken opponent of slavery, but he considered the disintegration of the Union to be far worse.
Seward was a senator from New York who was an outspoken opponent of slavery.
President Zachary Taylor was an outspoken opponent of slavery who appeared ready to reject any deal between the North and the South that passed through Congress.
President Fillmore signed a series of agreements contained within the Compromise of 1850, which was signed by President Jefferson Davis.
The slave trade was also abolished in the District of Columbia, but a stronger runaway slave legislation was created to counteract this trend.
The talk of secession died down, and both the Northerners and the Southerners were convinced that the agreements would put an end to the slavery debate.
The Fugitive-Slave Law of 1850, often known as the Bloodhound Bill, stated that escaping slaves were not permitted to testify on their own behalf and were also denied the right to a jury trial.
This statute was the only significant benefit that the South received as a result of the agreement.
Franklin Pierce was selected as the Democratic Party’s presidential nominee in 1852 at the Democratic National Convention in Baltimore.
When the Whigs met in Baltimore, they decided on Winfield Scott as their presidential candidate.
The Whig Party received a divided vote, with Northern Whigs opposing the party’s policy (support for Fugitive Slave Law) but accepting the candidate, and Southern Whigs supporting the platform but rejecting the candidate (Northern Whigs) (they doubted his support of the Fugitive Slave Law).
The election of 1852 signaled the demise of the Whig political party.
Awakenings in the Expansionist Movement South of the Border The Mexican War’s success rekindled the spirit of Manifest Destiny in the United States.
For the United States, a canal route connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans that traveled through Central America would be of critical importance.
Neither America nor Britain were permitted to strengthen or gain sole control of any isthmian waterway under the terms of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850.
These individuals were referred to as “slavocrats.” In July 1856, a slavocrat named William Walker ascended to the position of President of Nicaragua.
Southerners planned to seize Cuba and transform it into a collection of slave nations, according to historians.
President Polk made an offer to Spain to purchase Cuba for $100 million, but the Spanish government rejected.
Both missions were sunk in the water.
It was because of this that President Pierce became more interested in seizing Cuba from Spain, either militarily or by purchase.
The Ostend Manifesto was the name given to this paper.
The paper was finally leaked, and the Northerners were able to thwart the President’s slave-driven agenda.
The Treaty of Wanghia was the first diplomatic agreement between the United States and China, and it was signed in 1844.
The Treaty of Kanagawa, signed in 1854, opened the door to a limited amount of trade between the United States and Japan.
The Gadsden Purchase and the Promoters of the Pacific Railroad Following the acquisition of California and Oregon, the proposal for a transcontinental railroad was made.
Is it better to be in the north or the south?
Following negotiations in 1853, the Gadsden Purchase region was sold to the United States in exchange for a sum of $10 million dollars.
The proposed Northern railroad route passed through Nebraska territory, which was not guarded by military forces at the time.
Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Embezzlement Plot Attempting to break the North-South impasse on westward expansion, Senator Stephen A.
It would be decided by popular sovereignty whether or not they would be subject to slavery.
As a result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which prohibited slavery in the projected Nebraska Territory, came into conflict.
The Kansas-Nebraska Bill had the complete backing of President Pierce.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act shattered two compromises: the Compromise of 1820 was overturned by the legislation, and the Compromise of 1850 was rejected by Northerners as a result of the act’s implementation.
The Republican Party was founded in the Mid-West, and it was strongly opposed to slavery on moral grounds. Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers, Know-Nothings, and other opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act were represented in the party. The Republican Party was despised by the people of the South.
APUSH Ch. 18 Flashcards
Revival of the Sectional Struggle, 1848-1854 (Chapter 18). Sovereignty as a Popular Medicine Sovereignty by Popular Vote: the belief that the people of a region should be able to vote whether or not slavery should be permitted in their jurisdiction. The fact that it was a compromise between the abolitionists and the slaveholders made it a popular choice among politicians. General Lewis Cass, a veteran of the War of 1812, was selected as the Democratic Party’s presidential candidate at the Democratic National Convention in Baltimore.
- General Taylor’s political victories are numerous.
- Taylor did not have an official stance on slavery, although he did possess a large number of slaves throughout his time in the United Kingdom.
- Men from the North who opposed slavery and did not trust Cass and Taylor formed the Free Soil Party.
- They contended that if slavery were abolished, wagelabor would be eliminated, and with it, the opportunity for the average American worker to become a landowner would be eliminated.
- “Californy Gold” is a term used to describe gold found in California.
- Because of the large inflow of individuals linked with the California gold rush, there was violence and sickness, and the little Californian government was overwhelmed.
- It was the southerners who opposed California’s admittance as a free state because it would disrupt the balance of free and slave states in the United States Senate.
South Carolina residents began to call for harsher runaway slave laws by 1850.
Senatorial Giants are nearing the end of their days.
Henry Clay, John Calhoun, and Daniel Webster, collectively known as the “immortal trinity,” were present at the discussion and gave their speeches.
It was his suggestion that the Northern states pass more stringent runaway slave legislation.
His ultimate goal was for America to have two presidents, one from the South and one from the North, with each having a veto power of one vote in each chamber.
He was an outspoken opponent of slavery, but he saw the disintegration of the Union to be far more harmful.
Seward was a senator from New York who was an outspoken opponent of slavery.
Taylor was a staunch opponent of slavery and appeared prepared to reject any agreement between the North and South that passed through Congress.
President Fillmore signed the Compromise of 1850, which comprised a series of agreements.
As a result, the slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia, but a more stringent fugitive-slave statute was adopted.
Secession talk died down, and both the Northerners and Southerners were certain that the concessions would put an end to slavery as a problem in their respective states.
In part because of the Compromise of 1850, which granted independence to California and the territories of New Mexico and Utah, the Senate became lopsided in favor of the northern states and territories.
People from the North who helped slaves flee were subjected to fines and imprisonment.
Some historians contend that the Compromise of 1850 fueled Northerners’ determination to keep the Union intact.
The Whigs have suffered a crushing defeat.
Both the Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law were supported by him.
He also backed the Compromise of 1850 as well as the Fugitive Slave Act of 1857.
The election of 1852 was won by Franklin Pierce.
Because of the Fugitive Slave Law, the movement came to a grinding halt.
The Mexican War’s success rekindled the spirit of Manifest Destiny among the American people.
For the United States, a canal route connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans that passed through Central America would be of critical significance.
Neither America nor Britain were allowed to strengthen or gain sole control of any isthmian waterway under the terms of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850.
“Slavocrats” were a term used to describe these individuals.
His efforts to legalize slavery were ultimately unsuccessful, and he was assassinated in 1860 by the countries around him.
In the Senate, this would help to restore some balance.
A pair of expeditions of Southern men fell onto Cuba between 1850 and 1851, with the goal of seizing control of the island.
Cuban authorities seized an American ship, the Black Warrior, in 1854, and sent it to Spain.
A classified report on the purchase of Cuba was to be prepared by the American diplomats in Spain, England, and France, according to the Secretary of State.
If Spain refused to allow America to purchase Cuba for $120 million, the document claimed that America would invade Cuba on the grounds that Spain’s continuing control of Cuba threatened American interests.
China’s Allure of Asia Opium War: fought between Britain and China over the rights of British traders to traffic opium in China; Britain won the war in 1842, gaining possession of Hong Kong as a result of its victory.
The Treaty of Kanagawa, which was signed in 1854, opened the door to a limited amount of trade between the United States and Japan.
Gadsden Purchasers and the Pacific Railroad Promoters The transcontinental railroad was conceived when California and Oregon were annexed.
What region do you prefer?
President Jefferson Davis had Secretary of War James Gadsden purchase a section of Mexico from Santa Anna through which the railroad would travel.
Southerners contended that the train should pass through Texas and the New Mexico territory since Texas had already been established as a state and the New Mexico territory had been legally established as an independent territory (it had federal troops to provide protection from Indians).
Several suggestions for structuring this area were put up by the Northerners.
Douglas advocated that the Territory of Nebraska be divided into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska.
Slavery would be inferred in Kansas, but freedom would be presumed in Nebraska.
Douglas was obliged to advocate the repeal of the Missouri Compromise after it was ratified by the Senate.
Legislation for the American Civil War is passed by Congress.
The Democratic Party suffered as a result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Because it was founded in the Mid-West, the Republican Party had strong anti-slavery principles. Democrats, Free-Soilers, Know-Nothings, and other opponents of the Kansas–Nebraska Act formed the Kansas–Nebraska Act Opposition Party. The Republican Party was despised throughout the South.
- Cali has been acknowledged as a free state (the north has gotten this)
- Slave trading is outlawed in Washington, DC (the north receives this). Returning slaves to their owners (s. receives this)
- New and Tough Fugitive Slave Law – bringing slaves back to their owners.
- Magistrates are paid 3 cents each rule slave free and 7 cents per rule slave slave
- They are also paid a bonus of 7 cents every rule slave slave.
Slaves who managed to flee were unable to testify on their behalf, and they were denied the right to a jury trial. Officers were supposed to assist in the capture of fugitive slaves. Those discovered to be assisting slaves would face a fine or imprisonment. This fueled the wrath in the northern hemisphere. Among other things, they “forbade state authorities or private people from cooperating with federal courts in implementing the Fugitive Slave Act” and “attempted to provide runaways with safety and a fair trial” (Text pg.
- 1850- The Treaty of Paris, signed by Great Britain and the United States, stated that the two countries would work together to safeguard Central America’s neutrality and that neither power would seek to reinforce or exercise sole control over any future isthmian canal.
- Commodore Matthew C.
- A former American navy commander who was instrumental in persuading Japan to open its doors to international trade.
- Cuba’s annexation has long been an objective of U.S.
- Strip of land in Arizona and New Mexico that Mexico received in exchange for 10 million dollars paid for by the United States. The construction of a Transcontinental Railroad is required.
Senator from Illinois who has considerable power. A Democrat who aspired to be president of the United States. He was the one who came up with the concept of Popular Sovereignty. The Kansas and Nebraska Territories were established by law in 1854, but the issue of slavery was left open to citizens, thereby reversing the Missouri Compromise.
Compromise of 1850
As a result of the Mexican-American War in 1848, America gained control of the northern third of Mexico. Among these lands were cotton-producing regions, which provided the South with opportunities to grow its slave economy. The North and the West were the most vocal in their opposition to the expansion. The expansion of slavery into any western countries was resisted by a vocal abolitionist movement in the North, who argued that slavery was immoral. In the West, the Free Soil Party rejected it since it would put them in direct conflict with free labor in terms of economics.
The idea to allow popular sovereignty to settle the matter of slavery in the New Mexican and Utah territories was met with fierce opposition on all sides of the political spectrum.
Just as if the issue of slavery’s constitutional and ethical existence in the new world wasn’t already a source of contention, the political balance between the north and the south in Congress became even more polarizing.
Thousands of people of the United States traveled to the area in hopes of getting wealthy.
The Southerners hoped that New Mexico would be admitted as a slave state and therefore help to balance the north-south political imbalance in the United States Senate.
As a result, suggesting that California become a free state and join the Union was a plan that only a small number of southerners supported.
One of the most persistent issues for slave owners was the promise of freedom for slaves if they were able to escape to the United States’ northern states.
As a result, the Southern states demanded that the federal government take drastic measures to put a stop to it.
There was a significant bit of political maneuvering going on during the argument.
This was to be the final occasion that Daniel Webster from Massachusetts, Henry Clay from Kentucky, and John C.
Webster was a supporter of the Compromise, whilst Calhoun was a staunch opponent.
Since the purchase of Louisiana in 1803 by the United States, slavery’s extension into newly acquired areas has put the notion of federalism to the test.
Given that slaves had been judicially ruled to be property, southerners argued that denying them entry into any territory constituted a violation of their civil freedoms.
The fundamental argument focused over the constitutional authority granted to Congress to legislate over territories, as well as the personal guarantee of property, which was protected under the 5th Amendment to the Constitution.
This was a violation of both the 5th Amendment liberties and the right of a state to decide whether or not to have slavery.
Although the Compromise of 1820 provided a temporary solution to the problem, it did not resolve the fundamental constitutional debate surrounding federalism.
The subject would resurface with the acquisition of new territory as a result of the Mexican-American War in 1848, prompting the question of whether Congress could lawfully legislate on the question of slavery in the territories.