Levi Coffin, (born October 28, 1798, New Garden [now in Greensboro], North Carolina, U.S.—died September 16, 1877, Cincinnati, Ohio), American abolitionist, called the “President of the Underground Railroad,” who assisted thousands of runaway slaves on their flight to freedom.
What was the Underground Railroad and who ran it?
- What Was the Underground Railroad? Who Ran the Underground Railroad? The Underground Railroad was a network of people, African American as well as white, offering shelter and aid to escaped enslaved people from the South. It developed as a convergence of several different clandestine efforts.
What race was Levi Coffin?
Levi Coffin was born in North Carolina on October 28, 1798 into a Quaker family who greatly influenced by the teachings of John Woolman a Quaker preacher, who believed slaveholding was not compatible with the Quaker beliefs and advocated emancipation.
How old was Levi Coffin when he died?
Perhaps the most outstanding “conductor” of the Underground Railroad was Harriet Tubman. Born a slave herself, she began working on the railroad to free her family members. During the 1850s, Tubman made 19 separate trips into slave territory.
Is Levi Coffin black or white?
He was a white-American abolitionist and unofficial president of the Underground Railroad. Levi Coffin, from New Garden, N.C., was the only son among seven children. The young Levi received the bulk of his education at home, which proved to be good enough for Coffin to find work as a teacher for several years.
How many slaves did Levi Coffin save?
Historians have estimated that the Coffins helped approximately 2,000 escaping slaves during their twenty years in Indiana and an estimated 1,300 more after their move to Cincinnati. (Coffin didn’t keep records, but estimated the number to be around 3,000.)
How did Levi Coffin hide slaves?
A part of the legendary Underground Railroad for fleeing slaves of pre-Civil War days, this registered National Historic Landmark is a Federal style brick home built in 1839. Escaping slaves could be hidden in this small upstairs room and the beds moved in front of the door to hide its existence.
Who were Levi coffins parents?
In 1854, he helped found an African American orphanage in Cincinnati. He also pressured the federal government during the Civil War to establish the Freedmen’s Bureau. In addition, Coffin helped African Americans establish their own businesses and obtain educational opportunities.
When did Levi Coffin get married?
It includes four buildings, two of which were used by Harriet Tubman. Ashtabula County had over thirty known Underground Railroad stations, or safehouses, and many more conductors. Nearly two-thirds of those sites still stand today.
How did Harriet Tubman find out about the Underground Railroad?
The Underground Railroad and Siblings Tubman first encountered the Underground Railroad when she used it to escape slavery herself in 1849. Following a bout of illness and the death of her owner, Tubman decided to escape slavery in Maryland for Philadelphia.
Who financed the Underground Railroad?
5: Buying Freedom Meanwhile, so-called “stockholders” raised money for the Underground Railroad, funding anti-slavery societies that provided ex-slaves with food, clothing, money, lodging and job-placement services. At times, abolitionists would simply buy an enslaved person’s freedom, as they did with Sojourner Truth.
How many slaves did Harriet Tubman free?
Harriet Tubman is perhaps the most well-known of all the Underground Railroad’s “conductors.” During a ten-year span she made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom. And, as she once proudly pointed out to Frederick Douglass, in all of her journeys she “never lost a single passenger.”
Where did Levi Coffin hide slaves?
The Coffins began sheltering fugitive slaves in Indiana during the winter of 1826–27, not long after their arrival at Newport. Their home became one of several Underground Railroad stops in a larger network of sites that provided aid to runaway slaves as they traveled north to freedom in Canada.
Levi Coffin – Ohio History Central
According to Ohio History Central Copper etched picture of Levi Coffin (1798-1877), a Quaker who sympathized with fleeing slaves and was shown in this photograph of the original copper engraving. From 1826 through 1846, he and his wife Catharine provided assistance to more than two thousand fleeing slaves at Fountain City, in Wayne County, Indiana. As a key actor in the Underground Railroad network that assisted thousands of runaway slaves in their attempts to escape to freedom in the years leading up to the American Civil War, Levi Coffin is remembered today.
He belonged to the Society of Friends, which he founded.
In fact, by the time he reached the age of fifteen, Coffin had already began assisting escaped slaves.
In 1847, Coffin relocated to the city of Cincinnati.
- During this time, he also became a participant in the Underground Railroad.
- The majority of northern states had either banned slavery or passed legislation to phase down the practice gradually.
- As a result, the supporters of the Underground Railroad set up safe homes in both free and slave states to shield African Americans throughout their journey.
- In recognition of Coffin’s active engagement in the Underground Railroad, his fellow abolitionists dubbed him the “president of the Underground Railroad.” Levi Coffin also aided African Americans in a variety of different ways.
- During the Civil War, he exerted more pressure on the federal government to establish the Freedmen’s Bureau.
- On September 16, 1877, he passed away in Cincinnati.
- Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by author Levi Coffin. Levi Coffin’s recollections of his time as the rumored President of the Underground Railroad. Arno Press, New York, NY, 1968
- Coffin, Levi, and William Still. Coffin, Levi, and William Still. Fleeing for Freedom: Stories of the Underground Railroad is a collection of short stories about people fleeing for freedom. Ivan R. Dee Publishers, Chicago, IL, 2004
- Hagedorn, Ann. Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad is a book about the heroes of the Underground Railroad. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002
- Roseboom, Eugene H. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002
- The period from 1850 to 1873 is known as the Civil War Era. The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society published the book in 1944.
Levi Coffin, 1798-1877
Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by the author Levi Coffin in the 1960s. Levi Coffin’s recollections of his time as the alleged President of the Underground Railroad are included. ’68; Levi Coffin and William Still (co-authors of ’68); New York, NY: Arno Press Tales of Freedom on the Underground Railroad is a collection of stories about people fleeing for their lives to find freedom. In 2004, Ivan R. Dee published a book in Chicago, Illinois, titled Hagedorn. “Beyond the River” is a nonfiction book that tells the story of the Underground Railroad heroes who went undetected for decades.
Roseboom, Eugene H., ed., New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002. Between 1850 until 1873, the United States was in the Civil War. In 1944, the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society published a book titled “The History of Columbus.”
8 Key Contributors to the Underground Railroad
Isaac Hopper, an abolitionist, is shown in this image from the Kean Collection/Getty Images. As early as 1786, George Washington expressed dissatisfaction with a “organization of Quakers, founded for such reasons,” which had sought to free a neighbor’s slave. Quakers were instrumental in the establishment of the Underground Railroad. Slavery was opposed in especially in Philadelphia, where Isaac Hopper, a Quaker who converted to Christianity, created what has been described as “the first working cell of the abolitionist underground.” Hopper not only protected escaped slave hunters in his own house, but he also constructed a network of safe havens and recruited a web of spies in order to get insight into their plans.
Hopper, a friend of Joseph Bonaparte, the exiled brother of the former French emperor, went to New York City in 1829 and established himself as a successful businessman.
READ MORE: The Underground Railroad and Its Operation
2. John Brown
John Brown, an abolitionist, about 1846 GraphicaArtis/Getty Images courtesy of Similar to his father, John Brown actively participated in the Underground Railroad by hosting runaways at his home and warehouse and organizing an anti-slave catcher militia following the adoption of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, which he inherited from his father. The next year, he joined several of his sons in the so-called “Bleeding Kansas” war, leading one attack that resulted in the deaths of five pro-slavery settlers in 1856.
Brown’s radicalization continued to grow, and his ultimate act occurred in October 1859, when he and 21 supporters seized the government arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia), in an effort to incite a large-scale slave uprising.
3. Harriet Tubman
John Brown, an abolitionist, about 1846. Image via Getty Images courtesy of GraphicaArtis Following the adoption of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, John Brown, like his father before him, actively participated in the Underground Railroad, sheltering runaways at his home and warehouse and forming an anti-slave catcher militia. The next year, he and many of his sons took part in the so-called “Bleeding Kansas” war, leading one raid that ended in the death of five pro-slavery settlers. The next month, in December 1858, Brown raided three Missouri plantations, freeing 11 enslaved individuals, after which he and his fugitive companions embarked on a roughly 1,500-mile trip across the continent to Canada.
The next December, Brown was apprehended and convicted, and he was executed.
4. Thomas Garrett
‘Thomas Garrett’ is a fictional character created by author Thomas Garrett. The New York Public Library is a public library in New York City. The Quaker “stationmaster” Thomas Garrett, who claimed to have assisted over 2,750 escaped slaves before the commencement of the Civil War, lived in Wilmington, Delaware, and Tubman frequently stopped there on her route up north. Garret not only gave his guests with a place to stay but also with money, clothing & food. He even personally led them to a more secure area on occasion, arm in arm.
Despite this, he persisted in his efforts.
He also stated that “if any of you know of any poor slave who needs assistance, please send him to me, as I now publicly pledge myself to double my diligence and never miss an opportunity to assist a slave to obtain freedom.”
5. William Still
William Still is a well-known author and poet. Photograph courtesy of the Hulton Archive/Getty Images Many runaways traveled from Wilmington, the final Underground Railroad station in the slave state of Delaware, to the office of William Still in adjacent Philadelphia, which was the last stop on their journey. The Vigilance Committee of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, which provided food and clothing, coordinated escapes, raised funds, and otherwise served as a one-stop social services shop for hundreds of fugitive slaves each year, was chaired by Still, who was a free-born African American.
Still ultimately produced a book in which he chronicled the personal histories of his guests, which offered valuable insight into the operation of the Underground Railroad as a whole.
His assistance to Osborne Anderson, the only African-American member of John Brown’s company to survive the Harpers Ferry raid, was another occasion when he was called upon.
6. Levi Coffin
Charles T. Webber’s painting The Underground Railroad depicts fleeing slaves Levi Coffin, his wife Catherine, and Hannah Haydock providing assistance to the group of fugitive slaves. Getty Images/Bettina Archive/Getty Images Levi Coffin, often known as the “president of the Underground Railroad,” is said to have been an abolitionist when he was seven years old after witnessing a column of chained slaves people being taken to an auction house. Following a humble beginning delivering food to fugitives holed up on his family’s North Carolina plantation, he rose through the ranks to become a successful trader and prolific “stationmaster,” first in Newport (now Fountain City), Indiana, and subsequently in Cincinnati, Kentucky.
In addition to hosting anti-slavery lectures and abolitionist sewing club meetings, Coffin, like his fellow Quaker Thomas Garrett, stood steadfast when hauled before a court of law.
His writings state that “the dictates of humanity came in direct conflict with the law of the land,” and that “we rejected the law.”
7. Elijah Anderson
The Ohio River, which formed the border between slave and free states, was referred to as the River Jordan in abolitionist circles because it represented the border between slave and free states. Madison, Indiana, was an especially appealing crossing point for enslaved persons on the run, because to an Underground Railroad cell established there by blacksmith Elijah Anderson and several other members of the town’s Black middle class in the 1850s. With his fair skin, Anderson might have passed for a white slave owner on his repeated travels into Kentucky, where would purportedly pick up 20 to 30 enslaved persons at a time and whisk them away to freedom, sometimes accompanying them as far as the Coffins’ mansion in Newport.
An anti-slavery mob devastated Madison in 1846, almost drowning an agent of the Underground Railroad, prompting Anderson to flee upriver to Lawrenceburg, Indiana, where he eventually settled.
8. Thaddeus Stevens
Mr. Thaddeus Stevens is an American lawyer and senator. Bettmann Archive courtesy of Getty Images; Matthew Brady/Bettmann Archive Thaddeus Stevens, a representative from Pennsylvania, was outspoken in his opposition to slavery. The 14th and 15th amendments, which guaranteed African-American citizens equal protection under the law and the right to vote, respectively, were among his many accomplishments, and he also advocated for a radical reconstruction of the South, which included the redistribution of land from white plantation owners to former enslaved people.
Despite this, it wasn’t until 2002 that his Underground Railroad activities were brought to light, when archeologists uncovered a hidden hiding hole in the courtyard of his Lancaster house.
Seward, also served as Underground Railroad “stationmasters” during the era.
The President of the Underground Railroad
When Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin was published in 1852, the account of Eliza Harris’s traumatic escape from slavery over the ice floes of the Ohio River had been known for years among Quaker abolitionists in eastern Indiana, who had read about her ordeal in her journal. Levi and Catharine Coffin of Newport, Indiana—now Fountain City—had taken in the genuine Harris before she embarked on her trek to Canada, according to legend. Despite the fact that Levi did not publish his account of Harris’s escape until 1876 in hisReminiscences of Levi Coffin, the news had travelled to Cincinnati and reached the ears of Stowe, who resided in Cincinnati from 1832 to 1849 and was familiar with the area.
- Levi’s biography recounted the experiences of fugitives he had assisted throughout his life, beginning when he was a little child in North Carolina and continuing through his years as a wealthy merchant and banker in the Midwest.
- Located on Fountain City’s main street, the Coffins’ home is now a National Historic Landmark.
- They constructed the home in 1839 for themselves and their four children, as well as, it appears, for the purpose of assisting fugitive slaves.
- There is a secret entrance in an upper bedroom that leads to the attic.
- The kitchen is placed in the basement, which allows for the preparation of huge meals for large groups of people at any time of day or night without attracting the attention of the neighbors.
When it came to summer kitchens in Indiana during that time period, “traditionally,” notes Hahn, “they would be in a separate structure behind the main home.” “We assume that the idea was that burying it beneath the house, combined with the well, would allow them to function on a 24-hour basis.” They would be able to accomplish whatever needed to be done, such as cooking meals or providing people, without having to worry about disturbing anyone on the main floor of the home.” Occasionally, parties of a dozen or more freedom seekers would converged on the Coffin home at the same time to seek refuge.
Similarly to Levi’s description of the usage of a comparable area in his Cincinnati home many years later, Hahn believes the huge attic was most likely utilized to host these gatherings of people.
In all of their years working with the Underground Railroad, the Coffins were never successful in apprehending a single fugitive under their care.
As one of the 12 new museums to visit in 2016, Smithsonianmagazine put it on the list with Pompeii, the new MOMA in San Francisco, and other worldwide institutions.
In order to portray the tale of the Underground Railroad, Hahn argues that there aren’t many artifacts to choose from: In addition to static exhibits, the museum offers interactive experiences such as listening to a poem by a mother who is attempting to describe what it is like to raise a child in slavery or experimenting with an interactive map that shows the proximity of Quaker and free black communities in Indiana.
When my daughter visits an exhibit, she gravitates toward one that allows visitors to pick from numerous personalities, including a freedom seeker and a conductor, and make decisions about where to go, where to hide, when to go, and with whom to provide information.
In his description of the home, Hahn highlights two aspects that make it compelling: first, the fact that the house hasn’t altered since it was erected 180 years ago, and second, the thorough record left by Levi.
“We’re talking about someone who was actively involved in the struggle against that system.” “I was actively involved in breaching the law at the time.” Without a doubt, according to Hahn, there were hundreds of additional people in that town who assisted Levi and Catharine in their endeavors to house fugitives.
Webber, created for the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition, portrays Levi and Catharine Coffin, together with Hannah Haddock, assisting a group of escaped slaves. Image credit: Cincinnati Art Museum (courtesy of the Cincinnati Art Museum).
who was the president of the underground railroad
The Underground Railroad, as it is now called, began operating in the late 18th century, according to historical records. It went north and flourished steadily until President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, thereby ending slavery in America. Approximately 100,000 enslaved persons may have fled using the network by 1850, according to one estimate In this scene from Levi CoffinWebber, Levi Coffin, his wife Catherine, and Hannah Haydock are seen as they aid a group of escaped slaves.
What race was Levi Coffin?
Abolitionist, farmer, merchant, and humanitarian, Levi Coffin (October 28, 1798 – September 16, 1877) was an American Quaker who also happened to be a Republican.
Is Levi Coffin still alive?
(1798–1877) was a deceased person.
How old was Levi Coffin when he died?
From 1798 until 1877, deceased
How did Levi Coffin hide slaves?
This listed National Historic Landmark, which was erected in 1839 in the Federal style, served as a stop on the renowned Underground Railroad for fugitive slaves during the pre-Civil War era of the United States. Escaped slaves might be sheltered in this little upstairs chamber, which could be concealed by moving the mattresses in front of the door to conceal its presence.
Does the Underground Railroad still exist?
This listed National Historic Landmark, which was erected in 1839 in the Federal style, was a stop on the renowned Underground Railroad for fugitive slaves during the pre-Civil War era. It is possible that escaping slaves may be secreted in this little upstairs chamber, which could be concealed by rearranging the mattresses in front of the door.
How true is the Underground Railroad?
While the novel and the series aren’t wholly based on true events, the network itself was a very real phenomenon that assisted hundreds of thousands of slaves in their attempts to elude capture.
How long was the Underground Railroad active?
Between 1800 and 1865, abolitionists utilized a system to aid enslaved African Americans in their attempts to escape to free states.
Did Shields Green have a son?
The identities of his wife and son are not known at this time. The identity of his owner and employment remain unknown. It’s possible that he had more than one son, but apart than this, little is known about his life in South Carolina before the Civil War.
What did Catherine Coffin do?
His wife and son’s names are not known at this time. Nobody knows who he belongs to or what he does for a living! Other than this, little is known of his life in South Carolina. It is possible that he had more than one kid.
Who was Levi Coffin’s wife?
Catherine White is a woman who lives in the United Kingdom.
What did the coffins do during the Civil War?
The Civil War saw him visit various contraband camps and continue to assist slaves on their journey to escape through the Underground Railroad. Following the war’s conclusion, Coffin donated more than $100,000 for the Western Freedman’s Aid Society, which provided food, clothes, money, and other forms of assistance to freshly liberated African-Americans.
When did Levi Coffin get married?
The date was October 28, 1824. (Catherine White)
What was Levi Coffin nickname?
Underground Railroad President, a position he held for many years.
In recognition of Coffin’s active engagement in the Underground Railroad, his fellow abolitionists dubbed him the “president of the Underground Railroad.”
How many runaway slaves did he help?
Between 1800 and 1865, it is estimated that the “railroad” assisted as many as 70,000 people (but estimates range from 40,000 to 100,000) in their attempts to flee slavery. Even with assistance, the trek was exhausting.
Why is the Levi Coffin House important?
A REFUGE FOR THOSE SEEKING FREEDOM Over 1,000 freedom seekers used this eight-room house as a safe haven on their route to Canada. It is now a historical landmark. Levi and Catharine Coffin’s home was dubbed “The Grand Central Station of the Underground Railroad” because of its location on the Underground Railroad.
How many slaves did Harriet Tubman free?
FREEDOM SEEKERS WILL ENJOY THIS DESTINATION. Over 1,000 freedom seekers used this eight-room house as a safe haven on their route to Canada. It is now a museum. Home of Levi and Catharine Coffin became known as “The Grand Central Station of the Underground Railroad.” Levi and Catharine Coffin’s home is located in the historic district of Philadelphia.
Why is Levi Coffin called Grand Central?
A HAVEN FOR THOSE SEEKING FREEDOM More than 1,000 freedom seekers passed through this eight-room house on their way to Canada. Levi and Catharine Coffin’s home was dubbed “The Grand Central Station of the Underground Railroad” after the couple who lived there.
Were there tunnels in the Underground Railroad?
A SAFE HAVEN FOR THOSE SEEKING FREEDOM This eight-room house served as a safe haven for more than 1,000 freedom seekers on their trip to Canada. The residence of Levi and Catharine Coffin became known as “The Grand Central Station of the Underground Railroad.”
Who created the Underground Railroad?
Isaac T. Hopper was an abolitionist who lived in the nineteenth century. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved persons who were on the run from slavery. 20th of April, 2021
What happened to Caesar in the Underground Railroad?
Isaac T. Hopper was an abolitionist. Abolitionist and Quaker Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia in the early 1800s to assist enslaved persons who were fleeing their masters’ hands. The 20th of April, 2021.
Where did the Underground Railroad start?
Isaac T. Hopper was an abolitionist who lived in the United States. In the early 1800s, Quaker abolitionist Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia to assist enslaved persons who were fleeing their oppressors. The 20th of April, 2021
What happened to Lovey in the Underground Railroad?
Activist and abolitionist Isaac T. Hopper In the early 1800s, Quaker abolitionist Isaac T. Hopper established a network in Philadelphia that assisted enslaved persons who were on the run. The date is April 20, 2021.
Why did the Underground Railroad end?
The Emancipation Proclamation, published on January 1, 1863, freed slaves in the Confederate states. President Abraham Lincoln signed the proclamation. Following the war’s conclusion, the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution was ratified in 1865, thereby ending slavery in the whole United States and putting an end to the Underground Railroad’s operations.
Who is scheels green?
1830-1859) was a period of time in the United States. A fugitive slave who went by the name of “Emperor,” Shields Green was murdered by firing squad in 1859 for his participation in John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry.
A slave in South Carolina, Shields Green was born between the years of 1825 and 1836, with his exact birth year shifting from year to year.
What happened to John Brown’s son’s?
The infant son (who must remain nameless) was born on April 26, 1852, in Akron, Ohio, and died of whooping cough 21 days later. He was laid to rest in Akron. Ellen Brown (the second) was born on September 25, 1854, in Akron, Ohio, to Ellen Brown (the first).
Was Emperor a real person?
In 2020, Mark Amin will direct an American historical drama film based on the novel of the same name by Mark Amin and Pat Charles. An enslaved person called Shields Green, sometimes known as Emperor, managed to escape to freedom and join in abolitionist John Brown’s attack on Harpers Ferry, which inspired the film.
Where was Levi Coffin from?
Guilford County is located in the state of North Carolina in the United States.
When was Catherine Coffin born?
Catherine White Coffin’s obituary
|Birth||10 Sep 1803Guilford County, North Carolina, USA|
|Death||22 May 1881 (aged 77) Avondale, Hamilton County, Ohio, USA|
|Burial||Spring Grove Cemetery Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, USA Show Map|
|Memorial ID||18947694 · View Source|
Who ended slavery?
President Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, in Springfield, Illinois. As part of the Emancipation Proclamation, President Abraham Lincoln declared that “all individuals kept as slaves. should be then, from this time forward, and forever free,” which became effective on January 1, 1863. After the approval of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1865, slavery was finally declared officially abolished in the United States (here).
‘President of the Underground Railroad’ Levi Brown Was Born in 1798
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States. As part of the Emancipation Proclamation, President Abraham Lincoln declared that “all individuals kept as slaves. shall be then, from this time forward, and forever free,” which became effective on January 1, 1863, and was signed by President Thomas Jefferson. Slavery was not officially abolished in the United States until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1865. (here).
It was an informal network of individuals and residences across the United States that assisted runaway slaves – slaves who had fled from plantations in the South – in their attempts to seek safety in the northern tier of the country, Canada, and to a lesser degree, Mexico and the Caribbean It was not a railroad in the traditional sense, but rather a network of roads that slaves used to go from one place to another.
- However, in line with the image of a railroad, the persons who assisted the escape slaves were referred to as “conductors” or “station masters,” and their residences were referred to as “stations” or “depots,” respectively.
- Although the escaped slave was occasionally escorted by a conductor, in most cases the station master merely handed the fugitive slave with directions to the next station.
- fugitives, slave hunters, and abolitionists are all represented.
- Before the American Revolution, when slavery was legal in all of the colonies, the majority of escaped slaves sought refuge in communities in marshes, forests, and mountains.
- Abolitionists in the South who crossed the Mississippi River to the North, notably in the cities of New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, could live as free men and women by the year 1810.
- The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made it a federal criminal for any free person to aid a fugitive slave in his or her escape.
- However, several northern states enacted legislation that either overrode or undercut the federal legislation.
Juries in the Northern United States frequently found in favor of fleeing slaves regardless of the evidence, thereby awarding them emancipation.
By the 1830s, there was a burgeoning abolitionist movement in the northern United States.
While the majority of abolitionist organizations were based in the North, a small number of Southerners thought that slavery was immoral and created abolitionist groups in their own localities as well.
Despite the fact that many individuals opposed slavery, only a small number of people were committed enough to the cause to assist runaway slaves in escaping their owners.
Sectional tensions and the Fugitive Slave Act are two issues that need to be addressed.
Abolitionist organisations were illegal in the South, and their publications were prohibited.
Individuals who hide fugitives may be subject to fines or imprisonment.
It was a shock to thousands of African Americans who had been living in freedom in the North that they were now at risk of being seized and returned to slavery in the South.
The Fugitive Slave Act, on the other hand, had a negative impact on most of the northern states.
Northerners who had previously turned a blind eye to the reality of slavery were now witnessing them play out in their own backyards and neighborhoods.
People were becoming more ready to aid fleeing slaves and provide them safe passage to Canada, where they would be out of reach of federal marshals and slave hunters, despite the hazards.
No single individual was familiar with all of the participants; each station master was simply aware of the location of the next station, who lived there, and whether or not there were any more stations in the vicinity.
The Underground Railroad’s informal and private character has left much of its history unknown to historians, who have only recently discovered it.
Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by author Levi Coffin.
He and his wife Catherine claimed to have assisted around 3,000 men and women in their attempts to escape slavery.
His ancestors were members of the Society of Friends (Quakers), who were abolitionists against slavery.
Coffin was given the opportunity to aid escaped slaves when he was a young man.
Indiana was a free state, and Newport was home to a large number of Quakers as well as escaped slaves during the American Revolution.
The town’s strategic position, as well as the fact that it was populated by black and white people who were opposed to slavery, made it a popular destination for men and women fleeing enslavement.
In 1847, the Coffins relocated to Cincinnati, where he established a warehouse to enable him to sell items produced by free employees rather than slaves.
Following the Civil War, Coffin worked to gather funds in Europe and the United States’ northern states to assist African Americans in establishing businesses and farms following their freedom.
Levi Coffin was only one of many men and women who worked persistently to aid escaped slaves, and some historians believe that Levi Coffin inflated his achievements and that his celebrity was not wholly earned.
A free black man from New Jersey, William Still, acquired a similar title – “Father of the Underground Railroad” – and, in his own memoirs, commended the fortitude of the fugitives themselves, who took far more risks than the white abolitionists who assisted them.
A story of the Underground Railroad
Levi Coffin wrote about his experiences assisting escaped slaves in his memoirs, which was released after the Civil War. He also shared his story of how he initially became involved in assisting slaves in their escape to freedom.
From the White House to Freedom on the Underground Railroad
The Underground Railroad, written by William Still and first published in 1872, based on the author’s own experience working with the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society in order to give a compelling and accurate description of the journey from slavery to freedom. Still documented hundreds of runaway slaves and the abolitionists who assisted them along the road, relying on interviews and firsthand recollections for his research. Still, who was the son of escaped slaves, recognized the necessity of chronicling these experiences and was meticulous in ensuring their correctness and authenticity.
More information regarding the enslaved homes of President John Tyler may be found by clicking here.
Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons Please Show Me More James Christian Tyler was born into slavery on the plantation of Robert Christian, the father of future First Lady Letitia Christian Tyler, and throughout his life he worked for various members of the Christian family, including Robert Christian himself.
- James B.
- James’ experience with the Tylers ultimately led to his appointment as President of the United States.
- Christian, a businessman in the city of Richmond, Virginia.
- When John Tyler became president, James Christian was invited to serve as a member of the White House domestic staff.
- He acknowledged that his responsibilities had not been particularly demanding.
- He couldn’t ask for more.
- This is an heirloom portrait of Letitia Christian Tyler, President John Tyler’s first wife, which has been passed down down the generations.
- President Tyler’s great-great grandson, John Tyler Griffin, is the great-great grandson of Letitia and President Tyler.
- James revealed to William Still that his first instructor, Robert Christian, was also his father, which was not an uncommon occurrence at the time.
According to the family, James’ closeness with them “was obvious in his characteristics.” “He had a legitimate right to pity and care because of his hair, which was insignificant.” Due to his lighter skin tone and “Anglo-Saxon” characteristics, he was allocated to lighter labor and spent the most of his time in the household rather than working in the fields.
- Enslaved persons with lighter complexion were frequently accorded a better social rank by their masters.
- Many slave owners, motivated by a desire to have their most “refined” enslaved persons working in the home and maybe a sense of pity for those who were their blood relatives, granted men like James Christian the kinds of tasks and privileges he mentioned.
- The enslaved people on his Sherwood Forest plantation was said to be “uniformly pleasant and joyous,” according to one northern visitor to the farm.
- He was unflinching in his judgment of President Tyler’s performance.
- Tyler,” he admitted to Still and his fellow abolitionists.
- They assessed the president appropriately.
- Portrait of President John Tyler by George Peter Alexander Healy, painted in 1859.
- This organization is known as the White House Historical Association (White House Collection) Please Show Me More Ultimately, James Christian determined that he was willing to take the risk of escaping Virginia in order to try to elude slave labor and slavery.
- Christian in Richmond and had fallen in love with a free lady who lived there, but he was unable to marry her due of his enslaved status.
- He made the decision to go to Canada, believing that there would be a better possibility of reuniting with the lady he cherished there.
- Due to the fact that Still’s book is the sole written account of James Hambleton Christian’s life, we know nothing about what happened to this former White House inhabitant after he departed Philadelphia.
We can only hope, as the men who assisted him did, that he was able to obtain “the benefits of liberty and a free wife in Canada,” as he described them. 8
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Reminiscences of Levi Coffin, the reputed president of the underground railroad; being a brief history of the labors of a lifetime in behalf of the slave, with the stories of numerous fugitives, who gained their freedom through his instrumentality, and many other incidents.
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Chicago citation style:
To provide you with the greatest convenience, citations are created automatically from bibliographic data. Citations may not be entire or accurate, so please be patient.
APA citation style:
The Memoirs of Levi Coffin, the reputed president of the underground railroad; being a brief history of the labors of a lifetime on behalf of the slave, with the stories of numerous fugitives who gained their freedom through his instrumentality, and many other incidents. Coffin, L. (1876). The Memoirs of Levi Coffin, the reputed president of the underground railroad; being a brief history of the labors of a lifetime on behalf of the slave. The following image was obtained from the Library of Congress:
MLA citation style:
Levi Coffin is a fictional character created by author Levi Coffin. A collection of recollections of Levi Coffin, the reputed president of the underground railroad; comprising a brief history of the labors of a lifetime on behalf of the slave, as well as the stories of numerous fugitives who gained their freedom through his instrumentality, as well as numerous other incidents Web. Obtainable from the Library of Congress, lccn.loc.gov/13005748 (located on the Internet).
The Underground Railroad
|The Underground Railroad, a vast network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and to Canada, was not run by any single organization or person. Rather, it consisted of many individuals – many whites but predominently black – who knew only of the local efforts to aid fugitives and not of the overall operation. Still, it effectively moved hundreds of slaves northward each year – according to one estimate,the South lost 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850. An organized system to assist runaway slaves seems to have begun towards the end of the 18th century. In 1786 George Washington complained about how one of his runaway slaves was helped by a “society of Quakers, formed for such purposes.” The system grew, and around 1831 it was dubbed “The Underground Railroad,” after the then emerging steam railroads. The system even used terms used in railroading: the homes and businesses where fugitives would rest and eat were called “stations” and “depots” and were run by “stationmasters,” those who contributed money or goods were “stockholders,” and the “conductor” was responsible for moving fugitives from one station to the next.For the slave, running away to the North was anything but easy. The first step was to escape from the slaveholder. For many slaves, this meant relying on his or her own resources. Sometimes a “conductor,” posing as a slave, would enter a plantation and then guide the runaways northward. The fugitives would move at night. They would generally travel between 10 and 20 miles to the next station, where they would rest and eat, hiding in barns and other out-of-the-way places. While they waited, a message would be sent to the next station to alert its stationmaster.The fugitives would also travel by train and boat – conveyances that sometimes had to be paid for. Money was also needed to improve the appearance of the runaways – a black man, woman, or child in tattered clothes would invariably attract suspicious eyes. This money was donated by individuals and also raised by various groups, including vigilance committees.Vigilance committees sprang up in the larger towns and cities of the North, most prominently in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. In addition to soliciting money, the organizations provided food, lodging and money, and helped the fugitives settle into a community by helping them find jobs and providing letters of recommendation.The Underground Railroad had many notable participants, including John Fairfield in Ohio, the son of a slaveholding family, who made many daring rescues, Levi Coffin, a Quaker who assisted more than 3,000 slaves, and Harriet Tubman, who made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.|
Reminiscences of Levi Coffin, the reputed president of the underground railroad; being a brief history of the labors of a lifetime in behalf of the slave, with…
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