Few people know that Harriet Tubman was also a nurse. She cared for the people she rescued on the underground railroad as she led them to freedom. And later she worked as a nurse for the Union Army, nursing thousands of wounded soldiers, both black and white.
How did Harriet Tubman benefit from the Underground Railroad?
- Contrary to legend, Tubman did not create the Underground Railroad; it was established in the late eighteenth century by black and white abolitionists. Tubman likely benefitted from this network of escape routes and safe houses in 1849, when she and two brothers escaped north.
What did Harriet do as a nurse?
In 1862, Tubman traveled to Beaufort, South Carolina, to be a nurse and teacher to the many Gullah people who had been abandoned by their owners on South Carolina’s Sea Islands. And in 1865, she was appointed matron of a hospital at Fort Monroe in Virginia, where she cared for sick and wounded Black soldiers.
When did Harriet become a nurse?
Tubman offered her services to the Union Army, and in early 1862, she went to South Carolina to provide badly needed nursing care for black soldiers and newly liberated slaves. Working with General David Hunter, Tubman also began spying and scouting missions behind Confederate lines.
What kind of nurse was Harriet?
Union Army nurse Few people know that Harriet Tubman was also a nurse. She cared for the people she rescued on the underground railroad as she led them to freedom. And later she worked as a nurse for the Union Army, nursing thousands of wounded soldiers, both black and white.
What did slaves eat on the Underground Railroad?
In all contexts, enslaved people would have likely grown and eaten okra, corn, leafy greens, and sweet potatoes, as well as raised pigs, chickens, and goats, some for market.
How old would Harriet Tubman be today?
Harriet Tubman’s exact age would be 201 years 10 months 28 days old if alive. Total 73,747 days. Harriet Tubman was a social life and political activist known for her difficult life and plenty of work directed on promoting the ideas of slavery abolishment.
What did Mary Adelaide Nutting contribute to nursing?
Mary Adelaide Nutting was a leader in professional nursing and nursing education. She helped establish new standards of conduct for training nurses and for hospital treatment of nurses. Though Canadian born, she lived, went to school, and worked in Maryland for over 17 years.
Is Antebellum about Harriet Tubman?
Harriet Tubman is an American hero and an icon of freedom, a five-foot-tall African American abolitionist who guided hundreds of slaves away from the bondage of slavery. She is the best known female abolitionist of antebellum American.
Is Gertie Davis died?
Tubman and Davis married on March 18, 1869 at the Presbyterian Church in Auburn. In 1874 they adopted a girl who they named Gertie. Davis died in 1888 probably from Tuberculosis.
Does the Underground Railroad still exist?
It includes four buildings, two of which were used by Harriet Tubman. Ashtabula County had over thirty known Underground Railroad stations, or safehouses, and many more conductors. Nearly two-thirds of those sites still stand today.
What did nurses do in the Civil War?
In addition to providing medical care, the women nurses comforted and fed patients, wrote letters, read, and prayed. They managed supplies and staffed hospital kitchens and laundries.
What was Harriet Tubman favorite food?
“I was fond of milk as any young shoot,” Tubman later said to her first biographer, Sarah Bradford.
Did Harriet Tubman cure dysentery?
6. She cured dysentery. Her knowledge of the local flora in Maryland led her to find a cure for Union troops suffering from dysentery. She also helped relieve symptoms of Chicken Pox, Cholera, and Yellow Fever.
Flashback Friday – Harriet Tubman’s Overlooked Story as a Nurse
With the release of the new film “Harriet,” many people will be introduced to the daring life of Harriet Tubman, who was born into slavery on the eastern shore of Maryland and escaped in 1849, eventually becoming a fearless conductor on the Underground Railroad. During the Civil War, she served the Union Army as a spy and scout, but Hollywood conveniently ignores the fact that she was also a nurse, which is an important aspect of her character. “She nursed our soldiers in the hospitals, and knew how, when they were dying in large numbers from some malignant disease, to extract from roots and herbs, which grew near the source of the disease, the healing draught, which allayed the fever and restored numbers to health,” wrote Sarah H.
“She nursed our soldiers in the hospitals, and knew how, when they were dying in large numbers from some malignant disease, with cunning Tubman employed home remedies she acquired from her mother when working at the Freedmen’s Hospital in Washington, D.C.
It was she who nursed our soldiers in the hospitals, and she knew how to extract the healing draught from roots and herbs that grew near the source of the disease, when our soldiers were dying in droves from some malignant disease, with cunning skill, to allay their fevers and restore their numbers to health.” Harriet: The Moses of Her People is a novel by Sarah H.
As a healer and educator for the numerous Gullah people who had been abandoned by their masters in the Sea Islands of South Carolina, Tubman journeyed to Beaufort, South Carolina, in 1862.
- A number of other African American women and men served as nurses throughout the war, including Sojourner Truth and Susie King Taylor, an escaped slave who worked as a laundress and nurse for the 33rd United States Colored Infantry during the Civil War.
- Tubman, on the other hand, received no compensation or pension for her work as a nurse during the Civil War.
- 0 / 3However, she was never compensated or awarded a pension for her wartime nursing duty.
- A Union Army Nurses Pension Act was not established until 1892, and it required women to show that they had been certified as nurses by the Surgeon General, governors, or military commanders before they could receive a pension.
- Although some chefs and laundresses were able to establish that their labor was equal, a more liberal pension statute passed some years later permitted them to do so.
- Seward, petitioned Congress on Tubman’s behalf for a pension, but her request was turned down by the Congress.
- That was the extent of the acknowledgement from the other party.
- In Bradford’s words, “her modest cottage has served as a sanctuary for the persecuted and destitute, for whom she has offered assistance, for many years, even before the war.” Her ‘final task’ is to see that this hospital, which has always been her passion, is completed ere she departs.
- Bradford, who referred to Tubman as “my heroic buddy,” worked on a second edition of her book in order to gather funds for the initiative.
Both have been designated as National Historic Landmarks. Thanks to the Bjoring Center for Nursing Historical Inquiry for bringing you this Flashback Friday, as well as to Center Director Barbra Wall and University of Virginia professor emerita Arlene Keeling for their contributions.
Harriet Tubman Biography
She was known as the “Moses of her people” because she was enslaved and then fled to become a “conductor” of the Underground Railroad, where she assisted others in gaining their freedom. Aside from being a scout, spy, and guerilla fighter for the Union Army during the Civil War, Tubman also worked as a medic for the army. She is widely regarded as the first African-American woman to serve in the United States armed forces. Tubman’s precise birthdate is uncertain, however it is believed to have occurred between 1820 and 1822 in Dorchester County, Maryland, according to some estimations.
- She had eight siblings, all of whom survived.
- Early indications of her opposition to slavery and its abuses appeared when she was twelve years old and intervened to prevent her owner from striking an enslaved man who attempted to flee.
- However, despite the fact that slaves were not permitted to marry, Tubman entered into a marriage partnership with John Tubman, a free black man, in 1844.
- Tubman did not construct the Underground Railroad, contrary to popular belief; rather, it was built in the late eighteenth century by both black and white abolitionists.
- The man she married refused to accompany her, and by 1851, he had married a free black lady from the South.
- As a result of her achievement, slaveowners have offered a $40,000 reward for her arrest or murder.
- She also took part in various anti-slavery campaigns, including assisting John Brown in his failed attack on the Harpers Ferry arsenal in Virginia in 1859, which she helped organize.
As a spy and scout for the Union army, Tubman frequently disguised herself as an elderly woman.
Tubman assisted a large number of these people in obtaining food, housing, and even employment in the North.
During her time as a nurse, Tubman administered herbal cures to black and white troops who were dying of sickness or illness.
Anthony, looked after her aging parents, and collaborated with white writer Sarah Bradford on her autobiography, which she hoped would be a source of income.
She lived in Auburn, New York, and cared for the elderly in her house.
In 1895, as Davis’s widow (he died in 1888), she was ultimately given a $8 per month military pension, followed by a $20 pension in 1899 for her service in the army.
In 1896, she donated land near her home to the Harriet Tubman Home for the Aged, which is still in operation today. Tuberculosis was discovered in 1913 and Tubman was interred at Fort Hill Cemetery in Auburn, New York, with full military honors.
Profile: Harriet Tubman
She is best known for her role in guiding slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad and for her civil rights work after the war, but she also served as a nurse, spy, and scout for the Union during the Civil War. Tubman traveled to South Carolina with a group of Northern abolitionists shortly after the war began in 1862, where she cared for black soldiers and hundreds of newly freed slaves who flocked to Union camps during the war. The outbreak of dysentery reportedly occurred in one of the camps and Tubman administered a bitter brew of boiled roots and herbs, which was based on folk remedies she had learned in her home state of Maryland, according to some accounts.
- “I have been acquainted with Harriet Tubman for nearly two years,” Henry Durrant, the assistant surgeon in charge of the Union’s Contraband Hospital in Beaufort, South Carolina, wrote to Harriet Tubman in 1864.
- In common with most black women, Tubman’s responsibilities included cooking and laundry, and she was known as a “laundress.” She did, however, take on additional responsibilities for the Union as well.
- Although in poor health, Tubman continued to care for wounded soldiers in the Washington, D.C, area and was appointed matron of the Colored Hospital at Fortress Monroe, Virginia.
- Tubman worked for little or no pay for much of her military career, and she was denied the right to receive a pension.
- Cathryn Domrose is a writer and poet.
There are around 750 courses that have been accredited by the ANCC. There are two subscription choices. CE that is tailored to your requirements.
Editor’s Note: Araminta Ross was Harriet Tubman’s given name when she was born (She later changed her first name to Harriet, after her mother). Harriet Tubman was born in 1885. Photo courtesy of the public domain Introduction: She was one of 11 children born into slavery in Dorchester County, Maryland, to Harriet and Benjamin Ross. She was the youngest of the children. A nursemaid for a young infant was “hired out” by Ross’s master when she was a kid, exactly like the nursemaid seen in the illustration.
- If Ross fell asleep while holding the baby, the infant’s mother would lash her.
- When Araminta Ross, as a slave, refused to assist in the flogging of another young girl, she was permanently damaged for life.
- Ross declined to assist him when he asked her.
- He mistook the young man for Ross and struck him instead.
- She had been asleep for several days and would suffer from seizures for the rest of her life as a result.
- Tubman chose to flee the farm in 1849 because she was concerned that she and the other slaves on the property might be sold.
- Despite the fact that her brothers were terrified and turned back, she went on and arrived at Philadelphia.
- The next year, she returned to Maryland and took her sister and her sister’s two children to safety in the United States of America.
- When she returned for the third time, she went in search of her husband, only to discover that he had taken another wife.
- Tubman guided hundreds of slaves to freedom over the period of ten years, at considerable personal danger, via the Underground Railroad, a hidden network of safe homes where fugitive slaves might remain while making their way north to freedom.
- A notice published in the Cambridge Democrat (1849) offering a prize for the return of Harriet Tubman and her two brothers was published in the newspaper.
She devised ingenious strategies to aid in the success of her “forays,” such as using the master’s horse and buggy for the first leg of the journey; leaving on a Saturday night, because runaway notices could not be published in newspapers until the following Monday; turning around and heading south if she encountered potential slave hunters; and carrying a drug to administer to a baby if its crying might put the fugitives in danger.
- In fact, Tubman brought a revolver with her, which she used to intimidate the fugitives if they were too exhausted or wanted to turn back, threatening them, “You’ll be free or die.” By 1856, the capture of Tubman would have resulted in a prize of $40,000 from the Southern states.
- She immediately took out a book and pretended to be reading it.
- By 1860, Tubman had undertaken the treacherous trek to slave country 19 times, including one particularly difficult mission in which she liberated her parents, who were both 70 years old at the time.
- As she allegedly boasted to Frederick Douglass, she had “never lost a single passenger” on any of her travels during her lifetime.
- Photo courtesy of the public domain The American Civil War: As a cook, laundress, nurse, scout and spy behind Confederate lines during the American Civil War (1861-1865), Harriet Tubman was a member of the Union Army during the conflict.
- She also participated in scouting and espionage operations, which enabled her to identify prospective Army targets such as cotton warehouses and weapons storage facilities.
- The former slaves she recruited to go on a search for rebel camps and report on the movement of the Confederate army became known as the “Black Panthers.” Colonel James Montgomery and around 150 black men accompanied her on a gunboat raid in South Carolina during the summer of 1863.
- According to the Boston Commonweath, her efforts were described as follows in July 1863: “Col.
destroying millions of dollars’ worth of commissary stores, cotton fields, and lordly dwellings, and striking terror into the heart of rebeldom, bringing off nearly 800 slaves and thousands of dollars’ worth of property.” The Colored Hospital at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, was established in 1865 by Harriet, who began caring for wounded black troops at the age of twenty-five.
- Many individuals in the hospital died as a result of dysentery, a condition that is characterized by severe diarrhea.
- She spent one night searching the woods till she came upon water lilies and a crane’s beak (geranium).
- Slowly but steadily, he began to heal.
- She donated money for freedmen’s schools, aided poor youngsters, and took care of her ailing parents as best she could.
- As she previously stated in an interview, “Do you think he intended me to do this for one day or for a week?” she thought she had been called by God to help her people.
- It was first published in 1868, and then again in 1886 with a changed title (see below).
- In 1888, he succumbed to TB.
She thought that having the right to vote was essential to maintaining their freedom and independence.
She has been involved with this church from its founding in the 1850s.
In 1911, Harriet was welcomed into the Home for the Aged herself.
Harriet Tubman died in Auburn, New York, on March 10, 1913, at the age of ninety-one.
The NACW also contributed to the burial expenses and the purchase of a marble headstone for the deceased.
The Liberty Ship Harriet Tubman was christened by Eleanor Roosevelt in 1944, and the United States Postal Service commemorated her life with a postage stamp in 1995.
Devoted to inspiring, mobilizing, and equipping individuals to volunteer and serve, the Extra Mile program of Points of Light Institute is dedicated to helping them go that extra mile.
The Extra Mile Act was adopted by Congress as well as the District of Columbia government. It is totally supported by private contributions. American Memories: The Congressional Library is one of the sources. —
“I worked as a conductor on the Underground Railroad for eight years, and I can claim something that most conductors cannot: I never ran my train off the track or lost a passenger.” – Harriet Tubman, abolitionist Harriet Tubman, perhaps one of the most well-known figures of the American Civil War, was born into slavery as Araminta Ross on the Eastern Shore of Maryland somewhere between 1820 and 1821, and raised as a slave.
- During her childhood years, Tubman was “hired out” to a number of different masters, all of whom were exceptionally brutal and violent to her.
- Tubman’s father was released from slavery in 1840 as a consequence of a provision in his master’s will, but he remained to work for the family of his former employer.
- Tubman married a free black man in 1844, and her first name was changed from Araminta to Harriet after the marriage.
- Tubman’s owner decided to sell her in 1849 after she grew critically ill as a result of consequences from her head injury.
- Following her owner’s untimely death, the family began selling off all of the slaves in their possession.
- They decided to abandon a first effort, in which Tubman was joined by her siblings, since they were having second thoughts.
- Tubman eventually moved in Philadelphia, where she was able to support herself by working various odd jobs.
Tubman was adamant about helping and returned to his home state of Maryland.
This was the first of many journeys that Tubman would undertake in order to bring family members and others to liberty.
About the course of 11 years, Tubman was responsible for the rescue of over 70 slaves from Maryland and the assistance of another 50 or 60 captives on their journey to Canada.
In addition, she relocated her headquarters to Auburn, New York, which is closer to the Canadian border.
Tubman offered her nursing talents to the Union Army, and in early 1862, she traveled to South Carolina to provide much needed nursing care to black troops and recently freed slaves who had been enslaved since the war’s outbreak.
Her participation in an assault on multiple plantations along the Combahee River in June 1863 resulted in the rescue of more than 700 slaves.
Her deed was covered extensively in the news, and she became even more well-known as a result.
Despite the fact that her service in the Union Army was well recognized, she had a tough time obtaining a pension from the government.
She did not sit on the sidelines in her latter years, instead committing herself to the cause of women’s suffrage with the same zeal she had demonstrated for abolition.
Due to the fact that she had had brain surgery to attempt to ease the effects of a severe head injury that had afflicted her since infancy, and that she was basically bankrupt, Tubman was obliged to move into the facility herself in 1911.
She was laid to rest at Fort Hill Cemetery in Auburn with full military honors. “Every great dream begins with a dreamer who believes in it. Continue to remember that you have the strength, the patience, and the drive to reach for the stars in order to make a difference in the world.” ~HarrietTubman
As an escaped enslaved woman, Harriet Tubman worked as a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad, guiding enslaved individuals to freedom before the Civil War, all while a bounty was placed on her head. But she was also a nurse, a spy for the Union, and a proponent of women’s rights. Tubman is one of the most well-known figures in American history, and her legacy has inspired countless individuals of all races and ethnicities around the world.
When Was Harriet Tubman Born?
Harriet Tubman was born in 1820 on a plantation in Dorchester County, Maryland, and became well-known as a pioneer. Her parents, Harriet (“Rit”) Green and Benjamin Ross, gave her the name Araminta Ross and referred to her as “Minty” as a nickname. Rit worked as a chef in the plantation’s “large house,” while Benjamin was a wood worker on the plantation’s “little house.” As a tribute to her mother, Araminta changed her given name to Harriet later in life. However, the reality of slavery pulled many of Harriet’s siblings and sisters apart, despite Rit’s attempts to keep the family united.
Harriet was hired as a muskrat trap setter by a planter when she was seven years old, and she was later hired as a field laborer by the same planter.
A Good Deed Gone Bad
Harriet’s yearning for justice first manifested itself when she was 12 years old and witnessed an overseer prepare to hurl a heavy weight at a runaway. Harriet took a step between the enslaved person and the overseer, and the weight of the person smacked her in the head. Afterwards, she described the occurrence as follows: “The weight cracked my head. They had to carry me to the home because I was bleeding and fainting. Because I was without a bed or any place to lie down at all, they threw me on the loom’s seat, where I stayed for the rest of the day and the following day.” As a result of her good act, Harriet has suffered from migraines and narcolepsy for the remainder of her life, forcing her to go into a deep slumber at any time of day.
She was undesirable to potential slave purchasers and renters because of her physical disability.
Escape from Slavery
Harriet’s father was freed in 1840, and Harriet later discovered that Rit’s owner’s final will and testament had freed Rit and her children, including Harriet, from slavery. Despite this, Rit’s new owner refused to accept the will and instead held Rit, Harriett, and the rest of her children in bondage for the remainder of their lives. Harriet married John Tubman, a free Black man, in 1844, and changed her last name from Ross to Tubman in honor of her new husband.
Harriet’s marriage was in shambles, and the idea that two of her brothers—Ben and Henry—were going to be sold prompted her to devise a plan to flee. She was not alone in her desire to leave.
Harriet Tubman: Underground Railroad
On September 17, 1849, Harriet, Ben, and Henry managed to flee their Maryland farm and reach the United States. The brothers, on the other hand, changed their minds and returned. Harriet persisted, and with the assistance of the Underground Railroad, she was able to journey 90 miles north to Pennsylvania and freedom. Tubman got employment as a housekeeper in Philadelphia, but she wasn’t content with simply being free on her own; she desired freedom for her family and friends, as well as for herself.
She attempted to relocate her husband John to the north at one time, but he had remarried and preferred to remain in Maryland with his new wife.
Fugitive Slave Act
The Runaway Slave Act of 1850 authorized the apprehension and enslavement of fugitive and released laborers in the northern United States. Consequently, Harriet’s task as an Underground Railroad guide became much more difficult, and she was obliged to take enslaved people even farther north into Canada by leading them through the night, generally during the spring or fall when the days were shorter. She carried a revolver for her personal security as well as to “encourage” any of her charges who might be having second thoughts about following her orders.
Within 10 years, Harriet became acquainted with other abolitionists like as Frederick Douglass, Thomas Garrett, and Martha Coffin Wright, and she built her own Underground Railroad network of her own.
Despite this, it is thought that Harriet personally guided at least 70 enslaved persons to freedom, including her elderly parents, and that she educated scores of others on how to escape on their own in the years following the Civil War.
The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.
Harriet Tubman’s Civil War Service
In 1861, as the American Civil War broke out, Harriet discovered new methods of combating slavery. She was lured to Fort Monroe to provide assistance to runaway enslaved persons, where she served as a nurse, chef, and laundress. In order to assist sick troops and runaway enslaved people, Harriet employed her expertise of herbal medicines. She rose to the position of director of an intelligence and reconnaissance network for the Union Army in 1863. In addition to providing Union commanders with critical data regarding Confederate Army supply routes and personnel, she assisted in the liberation of enslaved persons who went on to join Black Union battalions.
Despite being at just over five feet tall, she was a force to be reckoned with, despite the fact that it took more than three decades for the government to recognize her military accomplishments and provide her with financial compensation.
Harriet Tubman’s Later Years
Following the Civil War, Harriet moved to Auburn, New York, where she lived with her family and friends on land she owned. After her husband John died in 1867, she married Nelson Davis, a former enslaved man and Civil War soldier, in 1869. A few years later, they adopted a tiny girl named Gertie, who became their daughter. Harriet maintained an open-door policy for anyone who was in need of assistance. In order to sustain her philanthropic endeavors, she sold her homegrown fruit, raised pigs, accepted gifts, and borrowed money from family and friends.
- She also collaborated with famed suffrage activist Susan B.
- Harriet Tubman acquired land close to her home in 1896 and built the Harriet Tubman Home for Aged and Indigent Colored People, which opened in 1897.
- However, her health continued to deteriorate, and she was finally compelled to relocate to the rest home that bears her name in 1911.
- Schools and museums carry her name, and her life story has been told in novels, films, and documentaries, among other mediums.
Harriet Tubman: 20 Dollar Bill
The SS Harriet Tubman, which was named for Tubman during World War I, is a memorial to her legacy. In 2016, the United States Treasury announced that Harriet Tubman’s portrait will be used on the twenty-dollar note, replacing the image of former President and slaveowner Andrew Jackson. Later, Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin (who previously worked under President Trump) indicated that the new plan will be postponed until at least 2026 at the earliest. President Biden’s administration stated in January 2021 that it will expedite the design phase of the project.
Early years of one’s life. The Harriet Tubman Historical Society was founded in 1908. General Tubman was a female abolitionist who also served as a secret military weapon during the Civil War. Military Times is a publication that publishes news on the military. Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. Biography. Biography. Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. Thompson AME Zion Church, Thompson Home for the Aged, and Thompson Residence are all located in Thompson. The National Park Service is a federal agency.
- Myths against facts.
- Kate Clifford Larson, Ph.D.
- Harriet Tubman is a historical figure.
- National Women’s History Museum exhibit about Harriet Tubman.
Harriet Tubman, “The Moses of Her People,” is a fictional character created by author Harriet Tubman. The Harriet Tubman Historical Society was founded in 1908. Harriet Tubman is a historical figure. The Underground Railroad (Urban Railroad). The National Park Service is a federal agency.
In Praise of Harriet Tubman; Nurse, Spy, Abolitionist
When the United States Secretary of the Treasury revealed in April 2016 that the picture of Harriet Tubman, an African American nurse, spy for the Union Army, and leader in the antislavery campaign, would replace the image of Andrew Jackson on the $20 note, the world took notice. The Harriet Tubman $20 note, which is part of a Department of the Treasury initiative to commemorate women’s suffrage, will not be ready for distribution as money until long after 2020, according to the Treasury Department.
- While serving as a nurse for sick and injured troops during the Civil War, Harriet Tubman, herself a former slave, labored hard.
- She was quite proud of the fact that she had never been off track or lost a passenger.
- I was unaware Harriet Tubman was a nurse until the unveiling of her picture on the newly designed $20 note, but I was not shocked to learn that she was such.
- As a result, we believe it is particularly vital to recognize Harriet Tubman and characterize her work as holistic nursing practice.
- Holistic nursing is defined as the act of accepting responsibility for one’s own health and healing in a broader context and with an advocacy mindset.
- Did you have a clear understanding of the topic that needed to be advocated for?
- Did you collect information or put up a persuasive argument?
- Did you persevere despite the fact that others advised you not to pursue the issue?
- Achieving advocacy is a difficult and sensitive task, but it is at the center of holistic nursing practice.
- Harriet Tubman’s advocacy went well beyond the ward and the clinic; it was a vehicle for improving people’s lives and alleviating the problems of society, even if it meant going against the grain of the institution.
When was the last time you performed an act of advocacy? Dr. Gloria F. Donnelly is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Applied Nursing and Physiotherapy.
Frequently Asked Questions
Who was Harriet Tubman?
In the United States, Harriet Tubman, née Araminta Ross, (born c. 1820 in Dorchester County, Maryland, U.S.—died March 10, 1913 in Auburn, New York) was an abolitionist who managed to escape from slavery in the South and rise to prominence before the American Civil War. As part of the Underground Railroad, which was an extensive covert network of safe homes built specifically for this reason, she was responsible for guiding scores of enslaved persons to freedom in the North. Araminta Ross was born into slavery and eventually assumed her mother’s maiden name, Harriet, as her own.
- When she was approximately 12 years old, she reportedly refused to assist an overseer in punishing another enslaved person; as a result, he hurled an iron weight that accidently struck her, causing her to suffer a terrible brain injury, which she would endure for the rest of her life.
- Tubman went to Philadelphia in 1849, allegedly on the basis of rumors that she was due to be sold.
- In December 1850, she made her way to Baltimore, Maryland, where she was reunited with her sister and two children who had joined her in exile.
- A long-held belief that Tubman made around 19 excursions into Maryland and assisted upwards of 300 individuals out of servitude was based on inflated estimates in Sara Bradford’s 1868 biography of Tubman.
- If anyone opted to turn back, putting the operation in jeopardy, she reportedly threatened them with a revolver and stated, “You’ll either be free or die,” according to reports.
- One such example was evading capture on Saturday evenings since the story would not emerge in the newspapers until the following Monday.
- It has been stated that she never lost sight of a runaway she was escorting to safety.
Abolitionists, on the other hand, praised her for her bravery.
Her parents (whom she had brought from Maryland in June 1857) and herself moved to a tiny farm outside Auburn, New York, about 1858, and remained there for the rest of her life.
Tubman spied on Confederate territory while serving with the Second Carolina Volunteers, who were under the leadership of Col.
Montgomery’s forces were able to launch well-coordinated attacks once she returned with intelligence regarding the locations of munitions stockpiles and other strategic assets.
Immediately following the Civil War, Tubman relocated to Auburn, where she began caring for orphans and the elderly, a practice that culminated in the establishment of the Harriet Tubman Home for IndigentAged Negroes in 1892.
Aside from suffrage, Tubman became interested in a variety of other issues, including the abolition of slavery.
A private measure providing for a $20 monthly stipend was enacted by Congress some 30 years after her contribution was recognized. Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Jeff Wallenfeldt was the author of the most recent revision and update to this article.
Harriet Tubman & Sojourner Truth
Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth are both well-known for their abolitionist work, but it is less well-known that they both cared for Black troops during the American Civil War. As with other former slaves fighting in the war who did not have the chance to obtain a formal nursing degree or license, their pay as nurses was withheld from the Union troops until a (real) act of Congress recognized their contributions to the war effort decades later. The knowledge of nursing and natural medicines for healing fevers and smallpox that Harriet Tubman learned from her mother, as well as the information she gained from her labor on the Underground Railroad, came from her mother.
- The next year, she was named matron of a Colored Hospital in Virginia.
- Photograph courtesy of The New Yorker Prior to her emancipation from slavery in 1826, Sojourner Truth worked as a nurse for the Dumont family.
- In 1850, she wrote The Narrative of Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave, which she had dictated because she had gotten no formal schooling before to then.
- She also appeared before both the House of Representatives and President Abraham Lincoln, among other things, to urge for nursing education and training for newly freed slaves, among other things.
For Harriet Tubman’s biography, information was obtained from the University of Virginia School of Nursing, the American Battlefield Trust, and the Journal of Holistic Nursing Practice; for Sojourner Truth’s biography, information was obtained from the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Biography, and the Galen College of Nursing, among other sources. M. Elizabeth Carnegie’s book The Paths We Tread: Blacks in Nursing Worldwide 1854–1994provided further information on this subject.
|Harriet Tubman is perhaps the most well-known of all the Underground Railroad’s “conductors.” During a ten-year span she made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom. And, as she once proudly pointed out to Frederick Douglass, in all of her journeys she “never lost a single passenger.” Tubman was born a slave in Maryland’s Dorchester County around 1820. At age five or six, she began to work as a house servant. Seven years later she was sent to work in the fields. While she was still in her early teens, she suffered an injury that would follow her for the rest of her life. Always ready to stand up for someone else, Tubman blocked a doorway to protect another field hand from an angry overseer. The overseer picked up and threw a two-pound weight at the field hand. It fell short, striking Tubman on the head. She never fully recovered from the blow, which subjected her to spells in which she would fall into a deep sleep.Around 1844 she married a free black named John Tubman and took his last name. (She was born Araminta Ross; she later changed her first name to Harriet, after her mother.) In 1849, in fear that she, along with the other slaves on the plantation, was to be sold, Tubman resolved to run away. She set out one night on foot. With some assistance from a friendly white woman, Tubman was on her way. She followed the North Star by night, making her way to Pennsylvania and soon after to Philadelphia, where she found work and saved her money. The following year she returned to Maryland and escorted her sister and her sister’s two children to freedom. She made the dangerous trip back to the South soon after to rescue her brother and two other men. On her third return, she went after her husband, only to find he had taken another wife. Undeterred, she found other slaves seeking freedom and escorted them to the North.Tubman returned to the South again and again. She devised clever techniques that helped make her “forays” successful, including using the master’s horse and buggy for the first leg of the journey; leaving on a Saturday night, since runaway notices couldn’t be placed in newspapers until Monday morning; turning about and heading south if she encountered possible slave hunters; and carrying a drug to use on a baby if its crying might put the fugitives in danger. Tubman even carried a gun which she used to threaten the fugitives if they became too tired or decided to turn back, telling them, “You’ll be free or die.”By 1856, Tubman’s capture would have brought a $40,000 reward from the South. On one occasion, she overheard some men reading her wanted poster, which stated that she was illiterate. She promptly pulled out a book and feigned reading it. The ploy was enough to fool the men.Tubman had made the perilous trip to slave country 19 times by 1860, including one especially challenging journey in which she rescued her 70-year-old parents. Of the famed heroine, who became known as “Moses,” Frederick Douglass said, “Excepting John Brown – of sacred memory – I know of no one who has willingly encountered more perils and hardships to serve our enslaved people than.” And John Brown, who conferred with “General Tubman” about his plans to raid Harpers Ferry, once said that she was “one of the bravest persons on this continent.”Becoming friends with the leading abolitionists of the day, Tubman took part in antislavery meetings. On the way to such a meeting in Boston in 1860, in an incident in Troy, New York, she helped a fugitive slave who had been captured.During the Civil War Harriet Tubman worked for the Union as a cook, a nurse, and even a spy. After the war she settled in Auburn, New York, where she would spend the rest of her long life. She died in 1913.Image Credit: Moorland-Spingarn Research Center|
Aboard the Underground Railroad- Harriet Tubman Home for the Aged
|Images of the Harriet Tubman Home for theAged, Harriet TubmanNationalHistoric Landmarks photographs|
Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad
Taking a look at Harriet Tubman, who is considered the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, our Headlines and Heroes blog. Tubman and those she assisted in their emancipation from slavery traveled north to freedom, occasionally crossing the Canadian border. While we’re thinking about the Texas origins of Juneteenth, let’s not forget about a lesser-known Underground Railroad that ran south from Texas to Mexico. In “Harriet Tubman,” The Sun (New York, NY), June 7, 1896, p. 5, there is a description of her life.
- Prints Photographs Division is a division of the Department of Photographs.
- She then returned to the area several times over the following decade, risking her life in order to assist others in their quest for freedom as a renowned conductor of the Underground Railroad (also known as the Underground Railroad).
- Prior to the Civil War, media coverage of her successful missions was sparse, but what is available serves to demonstrate the extent of her accomplishments in arranging these escapes and is worth reading for that reason.
- Her earliest attempted escape occurred with two of her brothers, Harry and Ben, according to an October 1849 “runaway slave” ad in which she is referred to by her early nickname, Minty, which she still uses today.
- Photograph courtesy of the Bucktown Village Foundation in Cambridge, Maryland.
- Her first name, Harriet, had already been chosen for her, despite the fact that the advertisement does not mention it.
She had also married and used her husband’s surname, John Tubman, as her own.
Slaves from the Cambridge, Maryland region managed to evade capture in two separate groups in October 1857.
In what the newspapers referred to as “a vast stampede of slaves,” forty-four men, women, and children managed to flee the situation.
Tubman and the majority of her family had been held in bondage by the Pattison family.
While speaking at antislavery and women’s rights conferences in the late 1800s, Tubman used her platform to convey her own story of slavery, escape, and efforts to save others.
There are few articles regarding her lectures during this time period since she was frequently presented using a pseudonym to avoid being apprehended and returned to slavery under the rules of the Federal Fugitive Slave Act.
“Harriet Tribbman,” in “Grand A.
Convention at Auburn, New York,” Anti-Slavery Bugle (Salem, Ohio), January 21, 1860, p.
Convention in Auburn, New York,” Anti-Slavery Bugle (Salem, Ohio), January 21, 1860, p.
A description of Harriett Tupman may be found in “A Female Conductor of the Underground Railroad,” published in The Daily Dispatch (Richmond, VA) on June 6, 1860, page 1.
In addition, when Tubman’s remarks were mentioned in the press, they were only quickly summarized and paraphrased, rather than being printed in their whole, as other abolitionists’ speeches were occasionally done.
With the rescue of Charles Nalle, who had escaped slavery in Culpeper, Virginia, but had been apprehended in Troy, New York, where Tubman was on a visit, Tubman’s rescue attempts shifted from Maryland to New York on April 27, 1860, and continued until the end of the year.
At the Woman’s Rights Convention in Boston in early June 1860, when Tubman spoke about these events, the Chicago Press and Tribunereporter responded with racist outrage at the audience’s positive reaction to Tubman’s story of Nalle’s rescue as well as her recounting of her trips back to the South to bring others to freedom.
- Later media coverage of Tubman’s accomplishments was frequently laudatory and theatrical in nature.
- On September 29, 1907, p.
- This and several other later articles are included in the book Harriet Tubman: Topics in Chronicling America, which recounts her early days on the Underground Railroad, her impressive Civil War service as a nurse, scout, and spy in the Union Army, and her post-war efforts.
- In keeping with contemporary biographies such asScenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman(1869) and Harriet, the Moses of her People(1886), both written by Sarah H.
- Taylor, financial secretary at Tuskegee Institute, certain content in these profiles may have been embellished from time to time.
This request was made in an essay written by Taylor shortly before to the release of his book, “The Troubles of a Heroine,” in which he requested that money be delivered directly to Tubman in order to pay off the mortgage on her property so that she may convert it into a “Old Folks’ Home.” On March 10, 1913, Tubman passed away in the Harriet Tubman Home for Aged Negroes in Auburn, New York, where she had lived for the previous twelve years.
While these newspaper stories provide us with crucial views into Harriet Tubman’s amazing heroics, they also serve as excellent examples of the variety of original materials available inChronicling America. More information may be found at:
- Harriet Tubman: A Resource Guide
- Harriet Tubman: A Resource Guide
- Runaway! from Slavery in America: A Resource Guide
- Slavery in America: A Resource Guide Newspaper advertisements for fugitive slaves, as well as a blog called Headlines and Heroes Topics in Chronicling America: Fugitive Slave Advertisements
This online collection of historic newspapers, produced by the National Digital Newspaper Program and jointly supported by the Library of Congress and the National Endowment for the Humanities, is referred to as “Chronicling America.”