Why Does Frederick Douglass Call The Underground Railroad The Upperground Railroad?

“Upperground Railroad” is a term coined by Frederick Douglass in his 1845 autobiography Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and was designed to criticize those who personally emphasized their work at helping escaped slaves. They stimulate him to greater watchfulness, and enhance his power to capture his slave.

Where does the name Underground Railroad come from?

It was a name given to the way that people escaped. No one is sure where it originally got its name, but the “underground” part of the name comes from its secrecy and the “railroad” part of the name comes from the way it was used to transport people. The Underground Railroad used railroad terms in its organization.

What does the metaphor of the underground railroad mean?

The Underground Railroad was a metaphor. Yet many textbooks treat it as an official name for a secret network that once helped escaping slaves. In this case, the metaphor described an array of people connected mainly by their intense desire to help other people escape from slavery.

Did Frederick Douglass Support the underground railroad?

The famous abolitionist, writer, lecturer, statesman, and Underground Railroad conductor Frederick Douglass (1817–1895) resided in this house from 1877 until his death. He was a leader of Rochester’s Underground Railroad movement and became the editor and publisher of the North Star, an abolitionist newspaper.

Does the Underground Railroad still exist?

It includes four buildings, two of which were used by Harriet Tubman. Ashtabula County had over thirty known Underground Railroad stations, or safehouses, and many more conductors. Nearly two-thirds of those sites still stand today.

What are three facts about the Underground Railroad?

7 Facts About the Underground Railroad

  • The Underground Railroad was neither underground nor a railroad.
  • People used train-themed codewords on the Underground Railroad.
  • The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 made it harder for enslaved people to escape.
  • Harriet Tubman helped many people escape on the Underground Railroad.

Why does Douglass not approve of the Underground Railroad?

Why does Frederick Douglass not approve of the underground railroad? because he believes, that to many people know of it. and it isn’t underground. if it was, it might be a little safer.

Is the train in the Underground Railroad a metaphor?

“The underground railroad was just a metaphor for a movement of people to be able to organise a network of abolitionists and freedom seekers.”

Was the Underground Railroad The cause of the Civil War?

The Underground Railroad physically resisted the repressive laws that held slaves in bondage. By provoking fear and anger in the South, and prompting the enactment of harsh legislation that eroded the rights of white Americans, the Underground Railroad was a direct contributing cause of the Civil War.

When did Frederick Douglass join the Underground Railroad?

In the summer of 1838 he was working as a caulker for $9 a week at Butler’s Shipyard in Baltimore – and giving all but 25 cents of his earnings to his master. Frederick Douglass was determined to escape to freedom. On Sept. 3, 1838, Frederick Douglass stepped onto a train in Baltimore.

What role did the Underground Railroad play?

The Underground Railroad provided hiding places, food, and often transportation for the fugitives who were trying to escape slavery. Along the way, people also provided directions for the safest way to get further north on the dangerous journey to freedom.

Was there really a railroad in the Underground Railroad?

Nope! Despite its name, the Underground Railroad wasn’t a railroad in the way Amtrak or commuter rail is. It wasn’t even a real railroad. The Underground Railroad of history was simply a loose network of safe houses and top secret routes to states where slavery was banned.

What states was the Underground Railroad in?

These were called “stations,” “safe houses,” and “depots.” The people operating them were called “stationmasters.” There were many well-used routes stretching west through Ohio to Indiana and Iowa. Others headed north through Pennsylvania and into New England or through Detroit on their way to Canada.

How many slaves were saved by the Underground Railroad?

According to some estimates, between 1810 and 1850, the Underground Railroad helped to guide one hundred thousand enslaved people to freedom.

What happened to Cesar in the Underground Railroad?

While the show doesn’t show us what happens after their encounter, Caesar comes to Cora in a dream later, confirming to viewers that he was killed. In the novel, Caesar faces a similar fate of being killed following his capture, though instead of Ridgeway and Homer, he is killed by an angry mob.

3. The Upperground Railroad · Underground Atlas of the Genesee · OpenValley

5 Main Street is a location in the city of Chicago. “Underground Railroad Tunnel” is an abbreviation for “Underground Railroad Tunnel.” The Plymouth Congregational United Church of Christ is a congregation of the United Church of Christ. Located on the Gideon Archer Homestead. The Howland Stone Store Museum is located in Howland, Maine. The Genesee River is located in New York State. Corinthian Hall is a historic building in Corinth, Scotland. The New York Central Railroad Station is a train station in New York City.

It is the goal of the “Upperground Railroad” map to establish a link between Rochester’s industrial development in the mid-1800s (specifically in the context of railroad lines), the influence of said development on the abolitionist movement in Rochester, the possibility of the Underground Railroad being present in Geneseo’s local history, and the impact of all these factors on the concept of romanticized history.

The phrase “Upperground Railroad” was developed by Frederick Douglass in his autobiographyNarrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass in 1845, and it was intended to critique people who particularly highlighted their efforts in aiding runaway slaves in their labor.

They make no contribution to illuminating the slave, but they make significant contributions to educating the master.

We owe a debt of gratitude to both slaves south of the line and slaves north of the line, and in assisting the latter on their journey to freedom, we should take care not to do anything that might make it more difficult for the former to escape slavery.

I would allow him to think himself surrounded by a swarm of phantom tormentors, all of whom were waiting in the wings, ready to steal his terrified victim from his demonic clutches.

Do not lend assistance to the tyrant, and do not hold the light that will enable him to track down the footprints of our flying brother.

After that, I’ll get down to the business of laying out the circumstances surrounding my escape, for which I am alone accountable and for which no one else can be made to suffer except myself.” Despite the fact that persons who speak about their labor on the Underground Railroad may have noble intentions, Douglass believes that they are engaging in destructive narcissism.

  1. Located on Geneseo’s Main Street, a rumored Underground Railroad tunnel exemplifies the irony of historical efforts to romanticize the past in a particularly effective way.
  2. As they were walking through their front yard, Ingalls and McTarnaghan found what looked to be the mother of all woodchuck holes near Main Street.
  3. The tunnel runs from what is now the intersection of Rte.
  4. Geneseo was the commercial hub of Livingston County at the time, and it would have posed a significant threat to individuals seeking to go quietly through the county on their route to Canada.
  5. I suppose that the tunnel served as a trash disposal tunnel for the firm in question.
  6. After further investigation, it was discovered that what was once thought to be a historical artifact of the Underground Railroad was in fact a garbage disposal tunnel.
  7. Several sources have been specially chosen for this exhibit in order to provide an overview of the numerous contributing and, at times, contradictory components that make up this portion of romanticized history, and they are displayed in chronological order.

3. The Upperground Railroad (also known as the Underground Railroad).

What does Douglass think of the “underground railroad,” and why?

Chapter 11 of Frederick Douglass’s Narrative of his Life On May 18, 2017, at 2:15 a.m., Martin G655067 inquired. The most recent edit was made byjill d170087 on 5/18/20172:36 AM.

Answers1

Please Include Yours. Posted byjill d170087 at 2:27 a.m. on May 18, 2017. Douglass believes that the subterranean railroad has received too much attention. He also believes that, despite the noble intentions of the slave owners, the slaves themselves suffer as a result of their liberation. They haven’t planned ahead of time. The publicity surrounding the Underground Railroad, in his opinion, increased the consciousness of slave owners, and this increased awareness was an impediment to the achievement of the ultimate outcome.

I commend those brave men and women for their great deeds, and I admire them for deliberately exposing themselves to violent punishment as a result of their open admission of their involvement in the emancipation of enslaved people.

They make no contribution to illuminating the slave, but they make significant contributions to educating the master.

We owe a debt of gratitude to both slaves south of the line and slaves north of the line, and in assisting the latter on their journey to freedom, we should take care not to do anything that might make it more difficult for the former to escape slavery.

Source(s)

In providing access to these items for educational and research purposes, the Library of Congress does not guarantee that they will be used for any other purpose than that for which they were intended. The final responsibility for doing an independent legal evaluation of an object and obtaining the appropriate permits remains with the individuals who wish to utilize the item in question. Distribution, reproduction, or other uses of protected goods that go beyond the scope of fair use or other statutory exemptions require the explicit consent of the copyright owners and/or holders of additional rights (such as publicity and/or privacy rights).

See also:  How Did The Underground Railroad Help Enslaved People? (Question)

However, there are two items from the publication entitled A Lecture on Our National Capital by Frederick Douglass, Anacostia NeighborhoodMuseum, Smithsonian Institution, and National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior, published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, 1978, for which an addition has been made to the catalog.

copyright protection (see Title 17, United States Code) or any other restrictions in the materials in The Capital and the Bay; however, It is called “‘The Freedman’s Savings and Trust Company,’ and it is located on Pennsylvania Avenue at Fifteenth Street North-West, just across from the Treasury Building.” The National Archives is given credit for this photograph in the above-mentioned publication.

According to the National Archives, this photograph has been wrongly attributed to their collections in the past.

Its origin is currently unclear.

If you would like to reproduce or receive permissions for any photographs, please contact the Historical Society of Washington, D.C. at 1307 New Hampshire Avenue North-West, Washington, D.C. 20036, email (re photos): [email protected]

The Underground Railroad and the Coming of War

In providing access to these items for educational and research purposes, the Library of Congress does not guarantee that they will be used for any other purpose than those for which they were intended. Individuals seeking to utilize an item are ultimately responsible for doing an independent legal evaluation of the object and obtaining the applicable licenses. In order to distribute, reproduce, or otherwise use protected materials in excess of what is permitted under fair use or other statutory exemptions, the express permission of the copyright owners and/or holdersof other rights (such as publicity and/or privacy rights) is necessary.

However, there are two items from the publication entitled A Lecture on Our National Capital by Frederick Douglass, Anacostia NeighborhoodMuseum, Smithsonian Institution, and National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior, published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, 1978, for which an addition has been made to the collection.

  • copyright protection (see Title 17, United States Code) or any other restrictions in the materials in The Capital and the Bay; however, According to the company, it is located on Pennsylvania Avenue at Fifteenth Street, N.W., directly across the street from the Treasury Building.
  • In their opinion, this photograph has been wrongly attributed to their collections by the National Archives.
  • Unknown as to where it came from, All pictures formerly attributed to the AColumbia Historical [email protected] in the above-mentioned publication should now be attributed to the AHistorical Society of Washington, [email protected] instead.
  • at 1307 New Hampshire Avenue North-West, Washington, D.C.

Underground Railroad

Underground Railroad was a network of people, both black and white, who helped escaped enslaved persons from the southern United States by providing them with refuge and assistance. It came forth as a result of the convergence of numerous separate covert initiatives. Although the exact dates of its inception are unknown, it was active from the late 18th century until the Civil War, after which its attempts to weaken the Confederacy were carried out in a less-secretive manner until the Civil War ended.

Quaker Abolitionists

Underground Railroad was a network of people, both black and white, who helped escaped enslaved persons from the South by providing them with refuge and assistance. A number of separate covert operations came together to form the organization.

Although the exact dates of its creation are unknown, it was active from the late 18th century until the Civil War, after which its attempts to weaken the Confederacy were carried out in a less-secretive manner until the Union was defeated.

What Was the Underground Railroad?

The Underground Railroad was first mentioned in 1831, when an enslaved man named Tice Davids managed to escape from Kentucky into Ohio and his master blamed a “underground railroad” for assisting Davids in his liberation. When a fugitive slave called Jim was apprehended in 1839 in Washington, the press said that the guy confessed his plan to travel north along a “underground railroad to Boston” while under torture. The Vigilance Committees, which were established in New York in 1835 and Philadelphia in 1838 to safeguard escaped enslaved persons from bounty hunters, rapidly expanded their duties to include guiding enslaved individuals on the run.

MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Harriet Tubman and her fellow fugitives used the following strategies to escape through the Underground Railroad:

How the Underground Railroad Worked

The majority of enslaved persons aided by the Underground Railroad were able to flee to neighboring states like as Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 made catching fugitive enslaved persons a lucrative industry in the deep South, and there were fewer hiding places for them as a result of the Act. The majority of fugitive enslaved people were on their own until they reached specific places farther north. The escaping enslaved people were escorted by individuals known as “conductors.” Private residences, churches, and schools were also used as hiding places throughout the war.

The personnel in charge of running them were referred to as “stationmasters.” There were several well-traveled roads that ran west through Ohio and into Indiana and Iowa.

The Little-Known Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico.

Fugitive Slave Acts

The Fugitive Slave Acts were a major cause for many fugitive slaves to flee to Canada. This legislation, which was passed in 1793, authorized local governments to catch and extradite fugitive enslaved individuals from inside the borders of free states back to their places of origin, as well as to penalize anybody who assisted the fleeing enslaved people. Personal Liberty Laws were introduced in certain northern states to fight this, but they were overturned by the Supreme Court in 1842. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was intended to reinforce the preceding legislation, which was perceived by southern states to be insufficiently enforced at the time of passage.

The northern states were still considered a danger zone for fugitives who had managed to flee.

Some Underground Railroad operators chose to station themselves in Canada and sought to assist fugitives who were arriving to settle in the country.

Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman was the most well-known conductor of the Underground Railroad during its heyday. When she and two of her brothers fled from a farm in Maryland in 1849, she was given the name Harriet (her married name was Tubman). She was born Araminta Ross, and she was raised as Harriet Tubman. They returned a couple of weeks later, but Tubman fled on her own again shortly after, this time making her way to the state of Pennsylvania. In following years, Tubman returned to the plantation on a number of occasions to rescue family members and other individuals.

Tubman was distraught until she had a vision of God, which led her to join the Underground Railroad and begin escorting other fugitive slaves to the Maryland state capital.

Frederick Douglass

In his house in Rochester, New York, former enslaved person and celebrated author Frederick Douglasshid fugitives who were assisting 400 escapees in their journey to freedom in Canada. Reverend Jermain Loguen, a former fugitive who lived in the adjacent city of Syracuse, assisted 1,500 escapees on their journey north. The Vigilance Committee was established in Philadelphia in 1838 by Robert Purvis, an escaped enslaved person who later became a trader. Josiah Henson, a former enslaved person and railroad operator, founded the Dawn Institute in Ontario in 1842 to assist fugitive slaves who made their way to Canada in learning the necessary skills to find work.

Agent,” according to the document.

John Parker was a free Black man living in Ohio who worked as a foundry owner and who used his rowboat to ferry fugitives over the Ohio River.

William Still was a notable Philadelphia citizen who was born in New Jersey to runaway slaves parents who fled to Philadelphia as children.

Who Ran the Underground Railroad?

The vast majority of Underground Railroad operators were regular individuals, including farmers and business owners, as well as preachers and religious leaders. Some affluent individuals were active, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who stood for president on two separate occasions. Smith acquired a full family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841 and freed them from their captivity. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, is credited with being one of the first recorded individuals to assist escaped enslaved persons.

Coffin stated that he had discovered their hiding spots and had sought them out in order to assist them in moving forward.

Finally, they were able to make their way closer to him. Coffin eventually relocated to Indiana and then Ohio, where he continued to assist fugitive enslaved individuals no matter where he was.

John Brown

Ordinary individuals, farmers and business owners, as well as pastors, were the majority of those who operated the Underground Railroad. Several millionaires, including Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who campaigned for president twice, were involved. For the first time in his life, Smith purchased and freed a whole family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, was one of the earliest recorded individuals to assist fleeing enslaved persons. Beginning in 1813, when he was 15 years old, he began his career.

They eventually began to make their way closer to him and eventually reached him.

End of the Line

The vast majority of Underground Railroad operators were everyday individuals, including farmers and business owners, as well as preachers and religious leaders. Some affluent individuals were active, such as Gerrit Smith, a billionaire who stood for president on two separate occasions. Smith acquired and freed an entire family of enslaved people from Kentucky in 1841. Levi Coffin, a Quaker from North Carolina, is credited with being one of the first persons to assist escaped enslaved people.

See also:  How Did The Underground Railroad Lead To Civil War? (Question)

Coffin stated that he had learnt their hiding spots and had sought them out in order to assist them in moving forward.

Coffin eventually relocated to Indiana and then Ohio, where he continued to assist fugitives from slavery everywhere he went.

Sources

Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad is a book about the Underground Railroad. Fergus Bordewich is a Scottish actor. A Biography of Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom Catherine Clinton is the first lady of the United States. Who Exactly Was in Charge of the Underground Railroad? ‘Henry Louis Gates’ is a pseudonym for Henry Louis Gates. The Underground Railroad’s History in New York is a little known fact. The Smithsonian Institution’s magazine. The Underground Railroad’s Dangerous Allure is well documented.

Frederick Douglass on…Democracy Promotion?!

Following the publication by the Guardian of the 100 best non-fiction books of all time last week, I was encouraged to take the time to grab the Frederick Douglass biography from the shelf in our living room and give it a quick read. (The whole text of Douglass’ 1845 autobiography may be seen online here.) This excerpt from Chapter XI, which I came across while writing about specific U.S. government initiatives to encourage democratization in other nations (link), struck me as particularly poignant: However, I have never agreed of the extremely public manner in which some of our western friends have operated what they refer to as the subterranean railroad, but which I believe has been most strongly redefined as the upperground railroad as a result of their public announcements.

I, on the other hand, perceive and am confident that those explicit announcements are a positive evil for the slaves who are still in the country and are attempting to elude capture or execution.

Their presence causes him to become more alert and increases his ability to apprehend and catch his slave.

I would keep the slave’s brutal slaveholder completely in the dark about the means of escape that the slave has devised.

Allow him to be left to fend for himself in the dark; allow a level of darkness commensurate with his crime to hang over him; and allow him to believe that with every step he takes in pursuit of the flying bondman, he is running the terrifying risk of having his hot brains dashed out by an invisible agency.

The fact is that I have no clue what Mr.

Although I disagree with him on several points, I believe that the “strategic logic” he outlines addresses a key component of the problem that I discussed in my previous piece.

If the United States government is serious about assisting in the catalysis of liberal action in authoritarian regimes, it should refrain from announcing its goal for regime change and then talking on and on about the many methods it intends to use to bring about that change.

If that’s the case, the United States’ capacity to assist democratization without inciting a counterproductive backlash is intrinsically restricted, and policymakers in the United States would be well to bear those constraints in mind when they formulate policies in the future.

As Mr. Douglass put it, “Let us not provide the tyrant any assistance; let us not hold the lamp by which he might track the footprints of our flying brother in our midst.”

selection from My Bondage and My Freedom

SelectionfromMy Bondage and My Freedom FrederickDouglassFrederickDouglass was one of the most prominent abolitionists of the 1840s and 1850s. He worked tirelessly for the abolition cause, lecturing throughout the Northand in Britain, publishing before the Civil War two now-classic autobiographicalaccounts of his life and escape from slavery, and founding and publishingthe abolitionist newspaper theNorth Starbeginning in 1847. In thefollowing excerpt fromMy Bondage and My Freedom �published in 1855,the same year as the first edition ofLeaves of Grass �Douglassdescribes his escape from slavery.I have never approved of the very public manner, in which some of ourwestern friends have conducted whattheycall the”UndergroundRailroad,”but which, I think, by their open declarations, has beenmade, most emphatically, the ” Upper ground Railroad.”Itsstations are far better known to the slaveholders than to the slaves. I honor those good men and women for their noble daring, in willinglysubjecting themselves to persecution, by openly avowing their participationin the escape of slaves; nevertheless, the good resulting from such avowals,is of a very questionable character.It may kindle an enthusiasm,very pleasant to inhale; but that is of no practical benefit to themselves,nor to the slaves escaping.Nothing is more evident, than that suchdisclosures are a positive evil to the slaves remaining, and seeking toescape.In publishing such accounts, the anti-slavery man addressesthe slaveholder,not the slave;he stimulates the former to greaterwatchfulness, and adds to his facilities for capturing his slave. My conditionin the year (1838) of my escape, was, comparatively, a free and easy one,so far, at least, as the wants of the physical man were concerned; butthe reader will bear in mind, that my troubles from the beginning, havebeen less physical than mental.The practice, from week toweek, of openly robbing me of all my earnings, kept the nature and characterof slavery constantly before me.I could be robbed byindirection,but this wastooopen and barefaced to be endured.I couldsee no reason why I should, at the end of each week, pour the reward ofmy honest toil into the purse of any man. Held toa strict account, and kept under a close watch-the old suspicion of myrunning away not having been entirely removed-escape from slavery, evenin Baltimore, was very difficult.The railroad from Baltimore toPhiladelphia was under regulations so stringent, that evenfree colored travelers were almost excluded.They must havefree papers; they must be measured and carefully examined, before they wereallowed to enter the cars; they only went in the day time, even when soexamined.The steamboats were under regulations equally stringent. All the great turnpikes, leading northward, were beset with kidnappers,a class of men who watched the newspapers for advertisements for runawayslaves, making their living by the accursed reward of slave hunting.My discontentgrew upon me, and I was on the look-out for means of escape.Withmoney, I could easily have managed the matter, and, therefore, I hit uponthe plan of soliciting the privilege of hiring my time.It is quitecommon, in Baltimore, to allow slaves this privilege, and it is the practice,also, in New Orleans.A slave who is considered trustworthy, can,by paying his master a definite sum regularly, at the end of each week,dispose of his time as he likes.It so happened that I wasnot in very good odor, and I was far from being a trustworthy slave. Nevertheless, I watched my opportunity when Master Thomas came to Baltimore(for I was still his property, Hugh only acted as his agent) in the springof 1838, to purchase his spring supply of goods, and applied to him, directly,for the much-coveted privilege of hiring my time.This request MasterThomas unhesitatingly refused to grant; and he charged me, with some sternness,with inventing this stratagem to make my escape.He told me, “Icould gonowherebut he could catch me; and, in the event of myrunning away, I might be assured he should spare no pains in his effortsto recapture me.He recounted, with a good deal of eloquence, themany kind offices he had done me, and exhorted me to be contented andobedient.”Lay out no plans for the future,” said he.”Ifyou behave yourself properly, I will take care of you.”Now, kindand considerate as this offer was, it failed to soothe me into repose. In spite of Master Thomas, and, I may say, in spite of myself, also, Icontinued to think, and worse still, to think almost exclusively aboutthe injustice and wickedness of slavery.No effort of mine or ofhis could silence this trouble-giving thought, or change my purpose torun away. About twomonths after applying to Master Thomas for the privilege of hiring mytime, I applied to Master Hugh for the same liberty, supposing him tobe unacquainted with the fact that I had made a similar application toMaster Thomas, and had been refused.My boldness in making thisrequest, fairly astounded him at the first.He gazed at me in amazement. But I had many good reasons for pressing the matter; and, after listeningto them awhile, he did not absolutely refuse, but told me he would thinkof it.Here, then, was a gleam of hope.Once master of myown time, I felt sure that I could make, over and above my obligationto him, a dollar or two every week.Some slaves have made enough,in this way, to purchase their freedom.It is a sharp spur to industry;and some of the most enterprising colored men in Baltimore hire themselvesin this way.After mature reflection-as I must suppose it was MasterHugh granted me the privilege in question, on the following terms: I was to be allowed all my time; to make all bargains for work; to findmy own employment, and to collect my own wages; and, in return for thisliberty, I was required, or obliged, to pay him threedollars at the endof each week, and to board and clothe myself, and buy my own calking tools. A failure in any of these particulars would put an end to my privilege. This was a hard bargain.The wear and tear of clothing, the losingand breaking of tools, and the expense of board, made it necessary forme to earn at least six dollars per week, to keep even with the world.All who are acquainted with calking, know how uncertain andirregular thatemployment is.It can be done to advantage only in dry weather,for it is useless to put wet oakum into a seam.Rain or shine, however,work or no work, at the end of each week the money must be forthcoming.Master Hughseemed to be very much pleased, for a time, with this arrangement; andwell he might be, for it was decidedly in his favor.It relievedhim of all anxiety concerning me.His money was sure.He hadarmed my love of liberty with a lash and a driver, far more efficientthan any I had before known; and, while he derived all the benefits ofslaveholding by the arrangement, without its evils, I endured all theevils of being a slave, and yet suffered all the care and anxiety of aresponsible freeman.”Nevertheless,” thought I, “it is a valuableprivilege another step in my career toward freedom.”It was somethingeven to be permitted to stagger under the disadvantages of liberty, andI was determined to hold on to the newly gained footing, by all properindustry.I was ready to work by night as well as by day; and beingin the enjoyment of excellent health, I was able not only to meet my currentexpenses, but also to lay by a small sum at the end of each week. All went on thus, from the month of May till August; then-for reasonswhich will become apparent as I proceed-my much valued liberty was wrestedfrom me. During theweek previous to this (to me) calamitous event, I had made arrangementswith a few young friends, to accompany them, on Saturday night, to a camp-meeting,held about twelve miles from Baltimore.On the evening of our intendedstart for the camp-ground, something occurred in the ship yard where Iwas at work, which detained me unusually late, and compelled me eitherto disappoint my young friends, or to neglect carrying my weekly duesto Master Hugh.Knowing that I had the money, and could hand itto him on another day, I decided to go to camp-meeting, and to pay himthe three dollars, for the past week, on my return.Once on thecamp-ground, I was induced to remain one day longer than I had intended,when I left home.But, as soon as I returned, I went straight tohis house on Fell street, to hand him his (my) money.Unhappily,the fatal mistake had been committed.I found him exceedingly angry. He exhibited all the signs of apprehension and wrath, which a slaveholdermay be surmised to exhibit on the supposed escape of a favorite slave. “You rascal!I have a great mind to give you a severe whipping. How dare you go out of the city without first asking and obtaining mypermission?” “Sir,” said I, “I hired my time and paid you the price youasked for it.I did not know that it was any part of the bargainthat I should ask you when or where I should go.” “You didnot know, you rascal!You are bound to show yourself here everySaturday night.”After reflecting, a few moments, he became somewhatcooled down; but, evidently greatly troubled, he said, “Now, you scoundrel!you have done for yourself; you shall hire your time no longer. The next thing I shall hear of, will be your running away.Bringhome your tools and your clothes, at once.I’ll teach you how togo off in this way.” Thus endedmy partial freedom.I could hire my time no longer; and I obeyedmy master’s orders at once.The little taste of liberty which Ihad had-although as the reader will have seen, it was far from beingunalloyed-by no means enhanced my contentment with slavery.Punishedthus by Master Hugh, it was now my turn to punish him.”Since,”thought I, “youwillmake a slave of me, I will await your ordersin all things;” and, instead of going to look for work on Monday morning,as I had formerly done, I remained at home during the entire week, withoutthe performance of a single stroke of work.Saturday night came,and he called upon me, as usual, for my wages.I, of course, toldhim I had done no work, and had no wages.Here we were at the pointof coming to blows.His wrath had been accumulating during the wholeweek; for he evidently saw that I was making no effort to get work, butwas most aggravatingly awaiting his orders, in all things.As Ilook back to this behavior of mine, I scarcely know what possessed me,thus to trifle with those who had such unlimited power to bless or toblast me.Master Hugh raved and swore his determination to”gethold of me;”but, wisely forhim, and happily forme,his wrath only employed those very harmless, impalpable missiles, whichroll from a limber tongue.In my desperation, I had fully made upmy mind to measure strength with Master Hugh, in case he should undertaketo execute his threats.I am glad there was no necessity for this;for resistance to him could not have ended so happily for me, as it didin the case of Covey.He was not a man to be safely resisted bya slave; and I freely own, that in my conduct toward him, in this instance,there was more folly than wisdom.Master Hugh closed his reproofs,by telling me that, hereafter, I need give myself no uneasiness aboutgetting work; that he “would, himself, see to getting work for me, andenough of it, at that.”This threat I confess had some terror init; and, on thinking the matter over, during the Sunday, I resolved, notonly to save him the trouble of getting me work, but that, upon the thirdday of September, I would attempt to make my escape from slavery. The refusal to allow me to hire my time, therefore, hastened the periodof flight.I had three weeks, now, in which to prepare for my journey.Once resolved,I felt a certain degree of repose, and on Monday, instead of waiting forMaster Hugh to seek employment for me, I was up by break of day, and offto the ship yard of Mr. Butler, on the City Block, near the draw-bridge. I was a favorite with Mr. B., and, young as I was, I had served as hisforeman on the float stage, at calking.Of course, I easily obtainedwork, and, at the end of the week-which by the way was exceedingly fineI brought Master Hugh nearly nine dollars.The effect of this markof returning good sense, on my part, was excellent.He was verymuch pleased; he took the money, commended me, and told me I might havedone the same thing the week before.It is a blessed thing thatthe tyrant may not always know the thoughts and purposes of his victim. Master Hugh little knew what my plans were.The going to camp-meetingwithout asking his permission-the insolent answers made to his reproaches-thesulky deportment the week after being deprived of the privilege of hiringmy time-had awakened in him the suspicion that I might be cherishingdisloyal purposes.My object, therefore, in working steadily, wasto remove suspicion, and in this I succeeded admirably.He probablythought I was never better satisfied with my condition, than at the verytime I was planning my escape.The second week passed, and againI carried him my full week’s wages- nine dollars;and so well pleasedwas he, that he gave me TWENTY-FIVE CENTS! and “bade me make good useof it!”I told him I would, for one of the uses to which I meantto put it, was to pay my fare on the underground railroad. Things withoutwent on as usual; but I was passing through the same internal excitementand anxiety which I had experienced two years and a half before. The failure, in that instance, was not calculated to increase my confidencein the success of this, my second attempt; and I knew that a second failurecould not leave me where my first did-I must either get to thefarnorth, or be sent to thefar south.Besides the exerciseof mind from this state of facts, I had the painful sensation of beingabout to separate from a circle of honest and warm hearted friends, inBaltimore.The thought of such a separation, where the hope of evermeeting again is excluded, and where there can be no correspondence, isvery painful.It is my opinion, that thousands would escape fromslavery who now remain there, but for the strong cords of affection thatbind them to their families, relatives and friends.The daughteris hindered from escaping, by the love she bears her mother, and the father,by the love he bears his children; and so, to the end of the chapter. I had no relations in Baltimore, and I saw no probability of ever livingin the neighborhood of sisters and brothers; but the thought of leavingmy friends, was among the strongest obstacles to my running away. The last two days of the week-Friday and Saturday-were spent mostlyin collecting my things together, for my journey.Having workedfour days that week, for my master, I handed him six dollars, on Saturdaynight. I seldom spent my Sundays at home; and, for fear that somethingmight be discovered in my conduct, I kept up my custom, and absented myselfall day.On Monday, the third day of September, 1838, in accordancewith my resolution, I bade farewell to the city of Baltimore, and to thatslavery which had been my abhorrence from childhood. How I gotaway-in what direction I traveled-whether by land or by water; whetherwith or without assistance-must, for reasons already mentioned, remainunexplained.
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Douglass believes the underground railroad is not secret, which puts escaping slaves in danger. Which – Brainly.com

Which passage from Frederick Douglass’s Narrative of His Life lends credence to the argument made? “I commend those brave men and women for their heroic courage, and I admire them for willingly exposing themselves to violent punishment as a result of their open admission of their involvement in the emancipation of slaves.” The slaves south of the line, as well as those north of the line, owe us a debt of gratitude, and in assisting the latter on their journey to freedom, we should take care not to do anything that might make it more difficult for the former to escape slavery.” “I have never liked of the extremely public manner in which some of our western friends have operated what they refer to as the subterranean railroad, but which I believe has been most strongly redefined as the upper-ground railroad as a result of their public announcements.” According to my observations, such a course will yield very little benefit to either themselves or the slaves who are attempting to elude capture; on the other hand, I believe and am confident that those open declarations will result in a net negative benefit to the slaves still in captivity who are attempting to elude capture.”

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