Although there were Underground Railroad networks throughout the country, even in the South, Ohio had the most active network of any other state with around 3000 miles of routes used by escaping runaways. The reason for this is 2-fold. That amounted to more than 400 miles of border between slave-state and free-state.
Where is the Underground Railroad in Ohio?
- The Underground Railroad Museum is located in Flushing, Ohio.
Why was Ohio so important to the Underground Railroad?
Ohio served as the northern “trunk line” of the Underground Railroad, a system of secret routes used by free people in the North & South to help slaves escape to freedom. Escape routes developed throughout Ohio with safe houses where slaves could be concealed during the day.
Why did slaves go to the Ohio River?
For many enslaved people the Ohio River was more than a body of water. Crossing it was a huge step on the path to freedom. Serving as natural border between free and slave states, individuals opposed to slavery set up a network of safe houses to assist escaped slaves seeking freedom.
What was Ohio’s role in slavery?
Ohio prohibited slavery, but only in the sense that no one could buy or sell slaves within the state. Not until 1841 did Ohio enact a law so that any slave brought into the state automatically became free. Before then, Southern slave owners regularly visited Ohio and especially Cincinnati accompanied by slaves.
Did the Underground Railroad go through Columbus Ohio?
According to research done by the Friends of Freedom Society, there are well over 20 documented Underground Railroad sites in Columbus, but since many of those are private homes, the addresses have not been made public. It was once the home of Robert Neil, son of the wealthy Neil family.
When did Ohio abolish slavery?
While the Ohio Constitution of 1851 banned slavery in the state, it left open one exception.
Was Ohio a Union or Confederate state?
The Union included the states of Maine, New York, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, California, Nevada, and Oregon. Abraham Lincoln was their President.
Was there any slavery in Ohio?
Although slavery was illegal in Ohio, a number of people still opposed the ending of slavery. Many of these people also were opposed to the Underground Railroad. Some people attacked conductors on the Underground Railroad or returned fugitives from slavery to their owners in hopes of collecting rewards.
What state ended slavery first?
In 1780, Pennsylvania became the first state to abolish slavery when it adopted a statute that provided for the freedom of every slave born after its enactment (once that individual reached the age of majority). Massachusetts was the first to abolish slavery outright, doing so by judicial decree in 1783.
What was the nickname given to the Ohio route on the Underground Railroad?
Northeast Ohio was home to two ‘stations’ along the Underground Railroad, and ‘Station Hope ‘ was, for many escaped slaves, the last stop before reaching freedom. The conductors guided the slaves. The routes offered less than ideal conditions. Many of them led north, led to Ohio.
Where is the Underground Railroad in Ohio?
National Underground Railroad Freedom Center – “The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center is a museum of conscience, an education center, a convener of dialogue, and a beacon of light for inclusive freedom around the globe. Located in Cincinnati, Ohio.”
What cities did the Underground Railroad go through?
In the decades leading up to the American Civil War, settlements along the Detroit and Niagara Rivers were important terminals of the Underground Railroad. By 1861, some 30,000 freedom seekers resided in what is now Ontario, having escaped slave states like Kentucky and Virginia.
Did the Underground Railroad go through Cincinnati?
Its location recognizes the significant role of Cincinnati in the history of the Underground Railroad, as thousands of slaves escaped to freedom by crossing the Ohio River from the southern slave states. Many found refuge in the city, some staying there temporarily before heading north to gain freedom in Canada.
Underground Railroad – Ohio History Central
According to Ohio History Central This snapshot depicts the “Freedom Stairway,” which consists of one hundred stairs going from the Ohio River to the John Rankin House in Ripley, which served as a station on the Underground Railroad during the Civil War. Presbyterian clergyman and educator John Rankin (1793-1886) spent most of his time working for the abolitionist anti-slavery struggle. The home features various secret rooms, some of which were used to hide freedom fighters. An illuminated sign was erected in front of the home to signal that it was safe for anyone seeking freedom to approach it.
An underground railroad system of safe homes and hiding places that assisted freedom seekers on their journeys to freedom in Canada, Mexico, and other countries outside of the United States was known as the Underground Railroad (UR).
Although it is unknown when the Underground Railroad had its start, members of the Society of Friends, often known as the Quakers, were actively supporting freedom seekers as early as the 1780s, according to historical records.
As early as the late 1700s, slavery was outlawed in the vast majority of Northern states.
- African Americans were forced to flee the United States in order to genuinely achieve their freedom.
- Despite the fact that slavery was outlawed in Ohio, some individuals were still opposed to the abolition of the institution.
- Many of these individuals were adamantly opposed to the Underground Railroad.
- Other people attempted to restore freedom seekers to their rightful owners in the aim of receiving prizes for their efforts.
- Over three thousand slaves were rescued from their captors and granted freedom in Canada thanks to the efforts of Levi Coffin, a Cincinnati man who lived in the late 1840s and early 1850s.
- His house was perched on a three hundred-foot-high hill with a panoramic view of the Ohio River.
- He gave the freedom seekers with sanctuary and kept them hidden until it was safe for them to proceed farther north in their quest for independence.
These individuals, as well as a large number of others, put their lives in danger to aid African Americans in their journey to freedom.
They typically chose to live in communities where there were other African Americans.
A total of eight communities along the Lake Erie shoreline served as embarkation locations for the freedom seekers’ journey to Canada, including Ashtabula, Painesville, Cleveland, Sandusky, Toledo, Huron, Lorain, Conneaut, and Conneaut.
It is still unknown exactly how the Underground Railroad came to be known by that moniker.
In 1831, a freedom seeker called Tice Davids fled from his slave owners in Kentucky, where he had been held since birth.
Davids had arrived at the coast only a few minutes before him. Following the arrival of his boat, the holder was unable to locate Davids and concluded that he “must have gone off on a subterranean path.”
- “The Hippocrene Guide to the Underground Railroad,” by Charles L. Blockson, et al. Hippocrene Books, New York, NY, 1994
- Levi Coffin, Hippocrene Books, New York, NY, 1994. Levi Coffin’s recollections of his time as the rumored President of the Underground Railroad. Arno Press, New York, NY, 1968
- Dee, Christine, ed., Ohio’s War: The Civil War in Documents, New York, NY, 1968. Ohio: A Four-Volume Reference Library on the History of a Great State (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007)
- Fess, Simeon D., ed. Ohio: A Four-Volume Reference Library on the History of a Great State (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007). Gara, Larry, and Lewis Publishing Company, 1937
- Chicago, IL: Lewis Publishing Company. The Liberty Line: The Legend of the Underground Railroad is a documentary film about the Underground Railroad. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1961
- Ann Hagedorn, ed., Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1961. Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad is a book about the heroes of the Underground Railroad. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002
- Roseboom, Eugene H. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002
- The period from 1850 to 1873 is known as the Civil War Era. The Underground Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom (Columbus, OH: Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1944)
- Siebert, Wibur H. “The Underground Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom.” RussellRussell, New York, 1898
- Siebert, Wilbur Henry, New York, 1898. Ohio was a stop on the Underground Railroad. Lesick, Lawrence Thomas
- Arthur W. McGraw, 1993
- McGraw, Arthur W. The Lane Rebels: Evangelicalism and Antislavery in Antebellum America is a book about the Lane family who were antislavery activists in the antebellum era. Roland M. Baumann’s book, The Scarecrow Press, was published in 1980 in Metuchen, NJ. The Rescue of the Oberlin-Wellington Train in 1858: A Reappraisal Oberlin, OH: Oberlin College Press, 2003
- Levi Coffin and William Still, editors. Fleeing for Freedom: Stories of the Underground Railroad is a collection of short stories about people fleeing for freedom. Ivan R. Dee Publishers, Chicago, Illinois, 2004.
The Underground Railroad in Ohio
|Topic||The Underground Railroad in Ohio|
|Time Period||Early to mid 1800s|
|Keyword(s)||Slavery, Underground Railroad, African Americans, Abolition|
|Learning standard(s)||(Grade 8 Social Studies) History Strand: Historical Thinking and Skills, Content Statement 1; Colonization to Independence, Content Statement 4; Civil War and Reconstruction, Content Statement 12 / (High School Social Studies) American History: Historical Thinking and Skills, Content Statement 2; Industrialization and Progressivism, Content Statement 13|
Underground Railroad is a word used to describe a secret network of individuals and locations that supported runaway slaves in their attempts to flee slavery in the southern United States.” This activity was most prevalent during the three decades leading up to the Civil War, and it was concentrated mostly in the regions bordering slave states, with the Ohio River serving as the focal point of much of the action.
- It is important to note that Beneath Train activities did not physically take place underground or along a railroad track, nor was it a formal group with a well defined organizational structure.
- Those who believed in abolitionist principles were at the center of the Underground Railroad campaign.
- They were members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).
- The dissemination of abolitionist ideals then extended westward into the territory that would become Indiana and Ohio in the following decades.
- The conflicting features of independence for a society that still kept enslaved people were also considered by others, which prompted many to get involved in the Underground Railroad.” Thanks to the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center for this image.
- The Underground Railroad as seen in photographs Portraits of those involved in the Underground Railroad Conductors The Underground Railroad: Its History and Legacy There is also anAdditional Resourceslist and aTeaching Guidefollowing the major source items.
The Underground Railroad
The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County provided this contribution.
- National Underground Railroad Freedom Center — “The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center is a museum of conscience, an education center, a facilitator of discussion, and a beacon of light for inclusive freedom across the world,” according to the center’s mission statement. “It is located in the city of Cincinnati, Ohio.”
- A historical summary of the Underground Railroad and Ohio’s role in it is offered by the Ohio History Connection in this page titled “Ohio History Central: Underground Railroad” (subscription required). The National Afro-American Museum is located in Washington, D.C. Center for the Arts – At this museum in Wilberforce, Ohio, which is home to two historically black institutions, Wilberforce and Central State, visitors may take part in frequently changing exhibitions and special activities that celebrate African American history, art, and culture. Underground Railroad —A discussion and description of the Underground Railroad, as well as biographical information about abolitionists from the Detroit, Michigan region – Detroit Historical Society Underground Railroad
As a starting point, this guide will detail some possible ways for students to interact with digital content. It also includes recommendations for having students pull information from the examples given above. Guide for Participation in a Discussion (Download)
- In order to get to the North, escaping slaves would have to cross the Underground Railroad. After their journeys on the subterranean railroad, where would individuals who had traveled there choose to live? What towns and localities in Ohio did fugitive slaves pass through on their journey to freedom in Canada? Exactly where would fugitive slaves be hidden by subterranean railroad conductors
- In your county, do you know of any underground railroad stops that are still there and may be visited?
Activities in the Classroom (Download)
- Were fugitive slaves from other states uniformly welcomed in Ohio? Investigate the history of the Fugitive Slave Laws of 1793 and 1850, including how they influenced the operations of the Underground Railroad, as well as the perspectives of Ohioans on slavery during the nineteenth century. Visit the National Park Service’s list of official Underground Railroad locations for further information. Individuals or small groups can participate in this activity. Choose one to research for a brief presentation for the class (individual) OR one to research for a short presentation for the class (group) Divide the class into small groups and assign each group a different Ohio location for a group presentation. Imagine that you, or you and a group of people, have managed to flee the southern United States and make your way north
- Using the information you’ve learned about the Underground Railroad, write a first-person account of what it would have been like to make this perilous journey, either alone or with a group of other people. Consider the hazards you would face along the journey, the route you would take to get to safety, and how you would have felt about the individuals who assisted you
- Think about the people who aided you.
The Underground Railroad in Ohio
Nancy Dravenstott, Austin Kaufman, and Tami Sprang collaborated on this project.
Using primary and secondary sources to answer questions about Ohio history, History/Historical ThinkingSkills2: History/Heritage7: Following the War of 1812, the United States was divided along sectarian lines.
Ohio had a significant role in these problems, notably in the anti-slavery campaign and the Underground Railroad, which both originated in the state.
Primary Sources Used:
In the home, there are hiding spots. University of Louisville’s The Underground Railroad in the Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana Borderland is an excellent resource. Spring Hill (picture courtesy of the National Park Service).
Powerpoint: Underground Railroad (available at the Ohio State University’s Harvey Goldberg Center for Excellence in Teaching’s Slideshare.net website)
It is believed that Ohio acted as the northern “tunnel line” of the Underground Railroad, a system of hidden pathways used by free persons in the NorthSouth to assist slaves in their escape to freedom during the American Civil War. Escape routes were established throughout Ohio, with safe homes serving as hiding places for slaves throughout the daytime. Homes that were formerly utilized by fleeing slaves on their way north via the Underground Railroad may still be found in several communities in Ohio today.
Instructional Steps to Implement the Lesson:
Beginning with the Underground Railroad power point presentation, students will study photographs of common hiding spots located in a safe house and react to questions that have been prepared for them. (preassessment) Guided Lesson: Students will continue to study the power point presentation about the Underground Railroad. Stops on the Underground Railroad will be marked on each student’s Ohio map, and they will be easy to find. Closing: Think-Pair-Share Strategy: Discuss the significance of the Underground Railroad in Ohio with a partner first, then with the full class.
Post-Assessment and Scoring Guideline:
Student responses will be written responses to the following question: “Explain the role Ohio played as a component of the Underground Railroad.” The teacher’s expectations are used to determine the final grade.
Materials Needed by Teacher:
Located in New Richmond, Ohio, the Ross-Gowdy House is one of a number of Underground Railroad locations in Clermont County. In the minds of many enslaved people, the Ohio River represented more than just a body of water. It was a major step forward on the road to freedom for me to cross it. Individuals opposed to slavery established a network of safe homes to provide assistance to escaped slaves who were seeking freedom along the natural boundary between free and slave states. Underground Railroad ties were strong in Clermont County during the time of the Underground Railroad.
- The Mason-Dixon line, which runs between Pennsylvania and Maryland, functioned as a de facto border between free and slave states during the American Civil War.
- Following Pennsylvania’s abolition of slavery in 1781, the Ohio River served as an unofficial line of demarcation between the states until the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in 1865.
- John Rankin was a conductor on the Underground Railroad who became well-known as a result of his exploits.
- He and his neighbor John Parker aided slaves in crossing the Ohio River and concealing them until it was safe for them to continue their journey.
- For a period of time, the abolitionist journal The Philanthropist was published out of New Richmond.
- Several historic landmarks still stand, notably the Ross-Gowdy Home, which served as the residence and office of Dr.
- The New Richmond shoreline has been classified as a National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom site by the National Park Service (NPS).
- Residents of those towns are reminded of the battle against injustice by historical buildings such as the Robert E.
- Huber mansions, which are still standing today.
- Learn more about the Underground Railroad in Clermont County by visiting one of the 33 historic sites on the Clermont County Freedom Trail, which includes 19 sites that are part of the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom.
Visit the Chilo Lock 34 Museum, which is open from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. Tuesday through Sunday for more Ohio River history.
Curious Cbus: Where Did The Underground Railroad Pass Through Columbus?
Published at 5:30 a.m. on July 30, 2020. Preceding the Civil War, thousands of individuals were able to flee slavery by journeying north through Ohio via the Underground Railroad, a loose network of safe “stations” where abolitionists and humanitarians provided assistance and refuge to former slaves. A letter from Darris Irvin to WOSU’s Curiosous Cbus, in which he expressed his interest in learning more about radio stations in the region. What he wanted to know was whether or not there was a record of Underground Railroad stations in Columbus.
- In Columbus, according to research conducted by the Friends of Freedom Society, there are well over 20 known Underground Railroad sites, albeit the addresses for many of these are not publicly available since they are private residences.
- It used to be the residence of Robert Neil, the rich Neil family’s eldest son.
- It was common practice to walk along rivers and streams in order to keep track of one’s movements from bounty hunters and their bloodhounds.
- It is currently being used as a child childcare facility after being recently converted from a funeral home.
- The congregation’s anti-slavery sentiments were strong in the mid-1800s, and the chapel’s basement served as a safe haven for African Americans who were fleeing bondage.
- When the Ohio Writers’ Program of the Work Projects Administration drew this map in 1936, it was considered groundbreaking at the time.
- The successful brick mason was also a member of the Worthington Anti-Slavery Society, which worked to end slavery in the area.
- Sites like as theKelton Housein downtown Columbus, the Hanby Housein Westerville, and the Livingston Housein Reynoldsburg are all noted for their roles as stations on the Underground Railroad in other parts of Central Ohio.
In addition, many of the structures that acted as safe havens are still in existence today. Do you have a question about our region that you’d want Curious Cbus to answer? Fill out the form below to submit your idea._
Underground Railroad aided by Ohio
The state of Ohio played a significant part in guiding runaway slaves from their lives of slavery to their aspirations of freedom. Many runaway slaves used the Underground Railroad, a legendary path to freedom traveled by thousands of runaway slaves, to reach northern destinations where they were more likely to avoid capture. The Underground Railroad was a complex system designed to transport slaves to northern destinations where they were more likely to avoid capture. According to Warren Van Tine, a history professor at Ohio State University, “Ohio was extremely vital to the success of the Underground Railroad.” “Because of its geographic position, Ohio was possibly the most important state in terms of the success of the Underground Railroad.” According to Van Tine, the Ohio River and Lake Erie served as a transportation route between Canada and Virginia.
- Several locations in Franklin County may take pride in their involvement with the Underground Railroad.
- Second Baptist Church, the Kelton House Museum and Gardens, the Margaret Agler House, and the Southwick-Good Funeral Chapel, all of which are located at 3100 N.
- “I believe that the functioning of the Underground Railroad was a very essential aspect of American history,” said William Good, proprietor of Southwick-Good Funeral Chapel in Southwick, Massachusetts.
- Attempts were made to chronicle this heritage by William Siebert, who had worked on the Ohio State University campus as a history professor and department head.
- Despite the fact that his publications and studies presented a thorough history of Ohio counties, the pathways followed by runaways and their conductors, and various personal experiences, some may argue that his works omitted certain critical information.
- In his writings, there are a number of subterranean conductors who aren’t mentioned, particularly African-Americans,” Van Tine explained.
- Finding information on specific places suspected of being train stations can be a challenging endeavor because of the secrecy surrounding them.
Wayne County, Ohio, was a hub for the Underground Railroad during its heyday. Fredericksburg, Shreveport, Millbrook, Wooster, Marshallville, Orrville, Smithville, and East Union are just a few of the cities. According to an essay authored by E. H. Hauenstein, there were two major routes that served as part of the Underground Railroad system. Slaves seeking freedom traveled north through Millersburg from the southern United States. They passed via Holmesville, Fredericksburg, Apple Creek, East Union, Smithville, and on to Seville and Medina, farther north in the state.
The route turned eastward toward Akron.
An outbound branch from Loudonville traveled north to Ashland and south to Sandusky.
It is believed that there were at least twenty major roads leading north across Ohio at any given time.
The Underground Railroad is associated with a number of well-known individuals and organizations. Individuals such as the ones listed below fall within this category:
- The following people are named Battles: Thomas S. Bell
- Charity Brown
- Owen Brown
- Timothy Burr
- David Clark
- Cheney, Hibben
- Daniels, Isaac
- Degarmon, Dr. Joseph
- King, Leicester
- Ladd, Benjamin W
- McClelland, H. R
- May, Daniel
- Oldroyd, Charles
- Eugene Pardee
- Perkins, General
- Rose, James
- Seibert, Samuel
- Taggart, Robert
- Elizur Wright.
Some of the Abolitionist groups that were most frequently associated with the Underground Railroad were the Quakers, Covenanters, Wesleyans, Methodists, and other Abolitionists. The majority of them were well-liked and well-respected members of the community. Those who assisted escaped slaves were subject to penalties of up to $1,000 for their actions. In addition, slave organizations provided incentives for the death of anyone who were involved in assisting slaves in their efforts to emancipate themselves.
Early Wayne County, Ohio newspapers frequently contain articles on anti-slavery organizations, which is not surprising given the county’s history.
On February 15, 1837, the Wooster Journal and Democratic Times published an article on it.
- Underground Railroad Locations in Ohio History Vol. 102, Summer-Autumn 1993 edition, p.133-115
- Ohio History Vol. 102, Summer-Autumn 1993 edition, p.133-115
- Ohio History Vol. 102, Summer-Aut
Cuyahoga Valley’s Ties to the Underground Railroad (U.S. National Park Service)
Image courtesy of the Library of Congress People of color were carried from slavery to freedom by way of the Underground Railroad from the time of our nation’s founding until the Civil War. The Underground Railroad was not a physical railroad; rather, it was a network of hidden pathways that led away from slave states in every direction. A large number of daring persons took part in it, including each enslaved person who attempted to leave or who offered food and guidance, freedom searchers who returned south to aid those fleeing, and free Blacks and Whites who offered assistance.
Image courtesy of the Library of Congress
Trail to Freedom
Who is the person you adore the most on this planet? Was it possible to leave everything behind and traverse the Underground Railroad to freedom? The choice to escape was not taken lightly, and it took time. Most of the time, it meant leaving behind loved ones and friends who may be punished as a result of your conduct. Nonetheless, some preferred to fly. Freedom seekers traveled by every mode of transportation available, including foot, wagon, railroad, and canal. It seems from letters and oral traditions collected by historian William Siebert in the 1880s that the Ohio Canal was used to convey cargo, which was a code word for enslaved persons in the time period.
Located between the Ohio River and Lake Erie, this 308-mile canal was a well-marked waterway linking the two bodies of water.
Others may have arrived in Cleveland disguised as canal boat passengers with aid from a friend of a friend, which was a typical code for sympathetic persons encountered along the route.
Until now, the only documented example that we have come across is that of Lewis G. Clarke, who obtained his freedom by obtaining a boat ticket to sail from Portsmouth to Cleveland.
Law of the Land
“Involuntary slavery,” as it was defined in the United States Constitution, allowed people to own other people without their consent. Following that, regulations were passed making it illegal to help “runaways” and defining the areas where slavery may exist. A provision of the second Fugitive Slave Act, which was established in 1850, specified that anybody supporting a freedom seeking would be fined $1,000 and sentenced to six months in a federal jail. Also included were provisions requiring law enforcement personnel to help slave catchers and allowing them to examine people’s houses.
A Hotbed of Abolitionists
Slavery should not exist, and those known as abolitionists thought that it should not exist and campaigned to bring it to an end despite the hazards. Northeast Ohio was a hive of abolitionist activity during the nineteenth century. Men and women, Black and White, free and enslaved, came together to fight for a common goal in their struggle. Many people were participating in politics for the very first time. Northeast Ohio women formed anti-slavery societies, distributed petitions, served as delegates to state and national antislavery conferences, and produced editorials that were published in local newspapers such as The Anti-Slavery Bugle, among other activities.
- The Free Blacks were a tiny but active abolitionist group in Northeast Ohio during the antebellum period.
- They were able to gradually influence state legislation through coordinated gatherings and petitions.
- When Malvin refused to be separated in church, he put in motion a wave of social activity that continues to this day.
- Despite the fact that he did not mention it in his book, it is possible that Malvin supported freedom seekers who were attempting to flee through the canal system.
- Ted Toth / National Park Service
Preserving the Stories
A bill known as the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Act was approved by Congress in 1998 in order to ensure that stories of resistance against slavery in the United States are shared and remembered. An important fundamental value of our nation is illustrated by the practice of abolishionism: that all human beings have the right to self-determination and freedom from oppression.
In the Network to Freedom, which is managed by the National Park Service, historic locations, facilities, and activities are recognized that can be proven to have had a connection to the Underground Railroad are identified and recognized.
The Struggle Continues
Did you know that there are as many as 27 million enslaved persons living in the globe at any given time? The existence of slaves and traffickers may be detected in practically every country, including the United States, according to Kevin Bales, a consultant to the United Nations on human slavery and trafficking. We hope that the heroism of people who stood up against slavery throughout history inspires you to think more carefully about human rights and seek ways to make current society a more humane place to live and work.
The Ohio Human Trafficking Task Force can provide you with further information regarding human trafficking in Ohio.
Underground Railroad in Ohio
Wilbur Siebert, a history professor at Ohio State University, claims that the state possessed the most extensive Underground Railroad network of any other state, with an estimated 3000 miles of pathways utilized by runaways. It was possible to enter the Ohio River from as many as twenty different sites, and to escape the river from as many as ten different points along Lake Erie. Image courtesy of the Underground Railroad Monument. Cameron Armstrong, a student at Oberlin College, developed the term Terminology.
- Using the term underground was appropriate because assisting runaway slaves was illegal and needed to be kept a secret.
- Stations are locations where people go to hide or feel protected.
- Agents are those who assist fugitive slaves in their escape but do not guide them.
- Backstory The Underground Railroad (UGRR) was a network of safe homes, hiding sites, and forest pathways that assisted runaway slaves in their attempts to escape to freedom in the northern United States or Canadian provinces.
- As early as the 1810s, other Ohioans were providing assistance to runaway slaves.
- From one station to the next, fugitive slaves made their way north.
- Owning slaves had been prohibited in Ohio since the state’s constitution was adopted in 1802, but some residents of the state continued to favor slavery.
These activists were adamant in their opposition to the Underground Railroad; some attacked conductors, while others attempted to return fugitives to their owners in the goal of receiving rewards from them.
This rule enhanced the likelihood that free blacks would be kidnapped and forced into slavery as a result of enslavement.
Runaway slaves were guided by conductors to the northernmost section of the state of Ohio, where they would spend the night before being carried over Lake Erie to freedom in Canada on the final step of their voyage.
The Underground Railroad was run by African-Americans.
There would have been virtually no opportunity for fugitive slaves to escape into freedom if they hadn’t been protected and assisted by free blacks.
Abolitionist newspaper publisher James G.
Colored individuals are virtually always in charge of such issues, which is not surprising.
It’s been a long and difficult road.
Work schedules were flexible, and slaveholders took advantage of the opportunity to travel during the holidays.
There were fewer cars on the highways due of the cold, yet there was little vegetation in the winter landscape because it was so cold.
Running away from home was made feasible by the regular freezing of the Ohio River, which allowed them to cross it on foot, although the ice was sometimes more like enormous pieces of floating ice, which needed precise footwork to make it safely over the river in the dark.
Aside from avoiding slave catchers, fugitives also had to escape roaming gangs of bounty hunters who searched the countryside in search of fugitives.
Under the Fugitive Slave Law, slaves could be traced down and returned from anywhere in the United States, but an escaped slave who crossed the Ohio River and crossed the Mason-Dixon Line was in relative safety north of the Mason Dixon Line.
Ohio was divided on the topic of slavery, and only a few places provided total sanctuary for runaways, with the town of Oberlin being the safest of these areas.
Oberlin, Ohio, was the site of Oberlin College, which was the first institution in the United States to accept females and African-Americans.
As they were aware that kidnapping Price in the town of Oberlin would be difficult due to strong anti-slavery sentiment held by the citizens of that town, they persuaded Shakespeare Boynton, the son of an influential Oberlin landowner, to lead Price to a farm west of Oberlin under the guise of digging potatoes for which he would be paid $20.
- After realizing what had occurred, anti-slavery activists in Oberlin grew enraged and promptly formed an organization in order to launch a rescue mission.
- The Ohio Historical Society provided permission to use this image.
- Eventually, after many hours of tense negotiations, the captors permitted a small number of men, including the local sheriff, to enter the room in order to verify that their paperwork were properly completed.
- Soon later, a number of Oberlin residents climbed through the window, and another group entered through the door.
- After rescuing Price, his rescuers placed him into a wagon and returned him to Oberlin.
- The Oberlin-Wellington Rescue played a significant role in mobilizing opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act in the United States.
- In lieu of posting bond, they were sent to the Cuyahoga County Jail, where they stayed for the time being.
Abolitionist and civil rights activist Langston delivered an impassioned address in court that made a powerful argument for abolition and justice for “colored folks.” However, I stand here to state that if I am sentenced to six months in prison and a fine of one thousand dollars for what I did on that day in Wellington, under the Fugitive Slave Law, and such is the protection that the laws of this country afford me, I must assume the responsibility of self-protection; and if I am claimed as a slave by some perjured wretch, I will never be sold into slavery again.
I stand here to state that I will do all in my power to assist any individual who has been apprehended and detained, despite the fact that the inevitable consequence of six months jail and a thousand dollars fine for each infraction hangs over my head!
You would do so because your manhood demanded it, and no matter what laws were in place, you would be proud of yourself for doing so; your friends would be proud of you for doing it; your children for generations to come would be proud of you for doing it; and every good and honest man would agree that you had done the right thing in the end!
- According to the judge, Langston will serve only 20 days in prison after being found guilty.
- Further south, a number of settlements, including Columbus and Putnam to the east, Mechanicsburg and Urbana to the west, gave help to fugitive slaves, including Columbus and Putnam.
- Organization known as the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society In 1835, the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society was established in Zanesville, Ohio.
- Despite the fact that Ohio was a free state, the Society was frequently targeted by local individuals wherever they conducted their meetings.
- Fear was a significant motive among people opposed to the society’s ideals, and it was frequently demonstrated in crowds who attacked abolitionists on the streets.
- When the abolitionist convention was held in a barn outside the city boundaries, a mob erupted and attacked the delegates and other attendees.
- One of the state’s oldest communities, Putnam was founded about 1800 and merged into the neighboring city of Zanesville in 1872, making it one of the state’s oldest municipalities.
Putnam was home to numerous important abolitionists throughout the nineteenth century.
Both the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society’s conventions, held in 1835 and 1839, were held at this location.
Weld, who was lecturing at the Stone Academy in preparation for the 1835 convention.
Additional violence was avoided as a result of the arrest of several of the instigators.
William Beecher, the brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe, served as the church’s first pastor when it was built in 1835, and many other anti-slavery preachers, including Frederick Douglas in 1852, have spoken here.
The Underground Railroad ran through southern Ohio.
There was a tiny village called Ripley that served as the primary access point.
The Freedom Stairway is a photograph.
John Rankin is a Scottish author and poet.
Located on a three hundred-foot-high hill overlooking the Ohio River, his mansion included various secret rooms where runaway slaves might be secreted if they escaped.
Image courtesy of John Rankin House Ripley, Ohio is a town in the state of Ohio.
John Parker, a kindred soul who resided in Ripley as well, was responsible for transporting hundreds of fugitives from slavery over the Ohio River on a small boat.
Parker was taught to read and write by the doctor’s family, who also permitted him to work as an apprentice in an iron foundry.
He then relocated to Ripley, where he built a profitable foundry in the back of his home.
In a subsequent interview, John Parker stated that while the fugitives must, in most cases, take care of themselves south of the border, once they cross the Ohio River, they are in the care of their friends and family.
The majority of the time, slaves walked northward on their own, seeking for a signal that would indicate the presence of food, shelter, and rest.
Many will stay unidentified for the rest of their lives. Putnam Historic District (National Park Service) Underground Railroad – Ohio History Central, Inc. Ohio on the Road: The Underground Railroad in Ohio The Ohio Anti-Slavery Society is featured on Ohio History Central.
Enslaved African-Americans used the Underground Railroad to escape into free states and Canada, assisted by abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. The Underground Railroad was established in the United States during the early-to-mid nineteenth century, and it was used by them to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. Citizens in Clermont County, Ohio, were significant benefactors to the Underground Railroad campaign throughout the nineteenth century.
The Freedom Trail Guide is published by the Clermont County Convention and Visitors Bureau.
The Underground Railroad in Clermont County
The Underground Railroad has a strong presence in the southern side of Clermont County, which is home to several historical monuments. Several of these areas are described in detail by Greg Roberts in this video. Mr. Roberts serves as the Ohio River National Freedom Corridor’s Director for the State of Ohio, as well as the Director of the Ohio River National Freedom Corridor. He also serves as a trustee for the Clermont County Historical Society and the Historic New Richmond Foundation.
From our collection
These two pieces from our collection can provide you with further information regarding the Underground Railroad in Clermont County. Freedom’s Struggle is a novel written by Gary L. Knepp.
Freedom’s Struggle: A Response to Slavery from the Ohio Borderlands
Clermont County’s role in the Underground Railroad was described as a “hole in the map” by a newspaper reporter. In other words, the narrative was well unknown at the time. Gary Knepp’s book, Freedom’s Struggle: A Response to Slavery from the Ohio Borderlands, fills in the gaps left by slavery in the Midwest. It piques the interest of readers who desire to explore the Clermont County Freedom Trail. Gary Knepp was the project director for the Clermont County Underground Railroad Research Project, which was established in 1989.
By Candlelight in the Evening (DVD)
Candlelight by Night
Clermont County, Ohio, was one of the most important stops on the Underground Railroad, and it was home to a number of notable figures. This movement was also associated with the Abolitionists. With nineteen places on the Network to Freedom, the county holds the record for having the most locations on the network. Approximately one-third of the slaves who fled on the Underground Railroad passed through Clermont County, according to historical records. Among the cast members of Candle by Night are actors Richard Cooper and Richard Crawford, as well as Gary Knepp and Carl Westmooreland.
Get out and explore
It is impossible to visit Clermont County and the surrounding area without coming across a location having a historical connection to the Underground Railroad.
When you visit them, you will have a fantastic opportunity to learn more about the local history. Here are a few resources to help you started on your journey.
Clermont County, Ohio Freedom Trail
In total, 33 locations are on theClermont County Ohio Freedom Trail, 19 of which have been certified by the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom (NURN). The Clermont Freedom Trail is now home to the biggest Network to Freedom program in the US, which is located in Clermont, Florida. This self-guided trip takes you through Clermont’s gorgeous rolling hills and along the Ohio River to see the sights. The Clermont County Convention and Visitors Bureau put up the exhibit. Nancy Stearns Theiss takes us on a tour of the Underground Railroad as it travels down the Ohio River.
A Tour on the Underground Railroad Along the Ohio River
The Ohio River, which runs 664 miles along Kentucky’s southern border, gave a great opportunity for enslaved people to flee to free territory in Indiana and Ohio during the American Civil War. A ship pulled up beside the Mississippi River in Madison, Indiana, beckoning runaway slave Henry Bibb upon a journey to Cincinnati, where he found the Underground Railroad. A lantern signal high on a hill near the Rankin House in Ripley, Ohio, visible from a distance of more than 100 miles away in Cincinnati prompted others to run for their lives in search of freedom.
The work was hailed as a source of inspiration for human resistance.
National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom
Use this interactiveNational Underground Railroad Network to Freedommap to find and explore more Underground Railroad locations around the country, in addition to those featured on the local Freedom Trail. This map is part of the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedommap project.
Read about the Underground Railroad
For anyone interested in learning more about the Underground Railroad, our team has compiled a list of resources for you. Discover both fiction and nonfiction created just for adult audiences on the Adult Booklist. Discover both fiction and nonfiction created for young people ranging in age from small children to teenagers on this list of recommended books for kids. During the Booklovers Podcast, listeners may learn about novels that are relevant to the Underground Railroad.
In Ohio, Homeowners Keep Underground Railroad Houses From Becoming Forgotten History
In Salem, Ohio, a small town east of Canton, Gregg Courtad came across a listing for a stately red-brick Georgian Colonial for sale. He was drawn to it by the asking price: $174,900 for the beautiful mansion on more than half an acre along a shaded street just blocks from downtown. But it was the house’s history that ultimately convinced him to buy it. An underground passage under the cellar floor, which could be reached by crawling under the kitchen grate, served as a station on the Underground Railroad, which assisted escaped slaves in their journey to freedom.
Courtad, 60, a Spanish professor at the University of Mount Union in neighboring Alliance, says the experience has instilled in him a strong sense of responsibility to care for the home and remember the people who have lived there.
He purchased it for $169,000 in 2017 and has spent thousands of dollars restoring it, with the current focus on its two-story port In the year since he purchased the five-bedroom property, Courtad has spent thousands of dollars repairing it, according to Ross Mantle of The Wall Street Journal.Dr.
- According to Dr.
- Courtad enlisted the assistance of architectural drawings from an 1899 redesign to aid him in his restoration endeavors.
- Ross Mantle writes for The Wall Street Journal about how he updated the wallpaper and rebuilt the fireplaces.
- Courtad in the restored living room of his home The residents, many of whom were Quakers, welcomed the freedom-seekers who were on their way to Canada into their homes.
- Salem, located halfway between Cleveland and Pittsburgh, was founded in 1806 and grew wealthy through manufacturing and agriculture, fueled by companies that produced everything from engines and plumbing fixtures to porcelain plates.
- According to the most recent census statistics, the town’s 11,600 residents are 93 percent white.
- After the hospital, the largest employment is a meat-packaging company named Fresh Mark, where a significant portion of the workforce is made up of Guatemalans from the surrounding area.
- Salem is located in Columbiana County, which supported 71.5 percent for Republican Party nominee Donald Trump in the 2016 presidential election.
- Real-estate salespeople said that new purchasers have been flocking to them over the past year, drawn in by the town’s charming atmosphere and inexpensive pricing.
- There are more than 80 original structures on one block alone that have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
“Because of the things I’ve faced with growing up, the history of the home means a lot more to me,” says Mr. Wallace, an IT engineer from Cleveland who is Black. The couple, both 33, purchased the 3,000-square-foot, four-bedroom, circa-1840 estate for $162,000 in December.
Sherri and Benjamin Wallace, with their children Bentli, 7, Benjamin, 8, and Graci Jai, 2. The Wallaces bought a home in Salem in March for $162,000 that has a tunnel in the basement that once was part of the Underground Railroad.
From aspirational mansions to huge business transactions, we have it all. It was because they fell in love with the house in Salem and realized that it was within their price range that they relocated from Shaker Heights, a Cleveland suburb, with their three children. It was a surprise to them when they discovered they were among the town’s few African-American residents; as a result, they have felt a little uncomfortable in their new surroundings. They are optimistic that they will begin to feel more at ease.
- Wallace, a stay-at-home parent.
- According to Karen Carter, a member of the Salem Preservation Society who grew up in the town, many people were only vaguely aware of efforts by the Society of Friends, who were once active abolitionists in town.
- “Everyone had no idea what was going on.
- Carter says of her subjects.
- The organization began purchasing properties in 1971 and today owns five buildings in the heart of town that include museum spaces as well as a library.
Homes Along Salem’s Underground Railroad
Keith Mann, dressed in a Quaker top hat from the nineteenth century, serves as a tour guide for the Salem Historical Society’s Underground Railroad trolley tour. Reporting for The Wall Street Journal by Ross Mantle 1 of 6 adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial a When someone purchases a home that was formerly a stop on the Underground Railroad, Ginger Grilli, the association’s president, contacts the new owners, organizes a visit, and provides a presentation that includes historical facts and images about the home’s connection to the Underground Railroad.
- Connie Snyder, 52, and her husband, Rich Snyder, 55, purchased two side-by-side buildings in downtown Salem for $94,000 in 2016.
- Grilli dropped by immediately after the purchase.
- Earlier this year, Connie and Rich Snyder purchased two adjacent buildings in downtown Salem that had previously been held by Jacob Heaton, who operated a dry-goods store and hosted fleeing slaves and traveling abolitionists.
- Reporting for The Wall Street Journal by Ross Mantle Herr Snyder behind the counter of Liebe Wein, which last year played home to the recreation of an abolitionist conference.
- Reporting for The Wall Street Journal by Ross Mantle “I grew up in this area, but I was unaware of the history,” explains Ms.
- “After learning the history of the house, we fell in love with it.” During the renovation process, Ms.
- The couple, who live upstairs in the neighboring building, spent a total of around $135,000 on upgrades for their home.
- The Snyders’ home is the second stop on the Underground Railroad tour put on by the historical group in the area.
- Guide Keith Mann, who is dressed in a Quaker top hat from the nineteenth century, has previously exhibited images of slave ships and distributed around chains.
- “I’d keep them hidden,” Sophia Bender, a third-grade student at Reilly Elementary School, says at the age of nine.
The house was formerly owned by an abolitionist called Calvin Moore, who used it as a dormitory for a Quaker girls school while it was still standing. It is presently owned by Meta and Steve Cramer, who are both Presbyterian preachers and are 70 and 68 years old, respectively.
This house was where an abolitionist named Calvin Moore once ran a dormitory for a Quaker girls school.
For The Wall Street Journal, photo courtesy of Ross Mantle The Cramers went to look at the house in 2010 since it was being sold by a member of Ms. Cramer’s church at the time. The real-estate agent instructed them to feel for a bulge on the wall near the stairwell, which he explained was the location of a concealed entryway that led to a hiding area for fugitive slaves. When it was discovered in 1913, the 8-by-10-foot chamber was so far up that it required a ladder to get into it. It included seats and the leftovers of a meal—chicken bones—when it was discovered.
In that moment, Mr.
After three years of trying, they finally sold the house they’d been renting in the neighborhood.
The Cramer home once maintained an 8-by-10-foot hiding spot for fleeing slaves. It was situated to require a ladder to enter and had benches. The remains of a meal—chicken bones—were found when it was discovered in 1913.
For The Wall Street Journal, photo courtesy of Ross Mantle Jason Lee’s illustrationDown the street from the Cramers is a beautiful 19th-century estate on 112 acres with a spacious guest cottage. Illustration: Jason Lee As soon as Jim Harrington purchased the house for $335,000 in January, Ms. Grilli informed him about the history of the house, which included the residence of the Anti-Slavery Bugle’s editors Benjamin Smith Jones and Jane Elizabeth Hitchcock Jones. Mr. Harrington, 56, is in the process of repairing the house, which he thinks will cost around $350,000.
In the foyer, he intends to put a framed copy of the Bugle newspaper.
I find it incredible that the people who were instrumental in ending slavery are sitting right here in this room.” The penultimate stop on the trolley route is a massive Gothic Revival farmhouse with various hiding spots and a tunnel that was formerly used to keep slaves.
Kevin Schafer and John Zamora purchased the house for $130,000 in 2002.
It was in such poor condition that it was planned for demolition until a neighbor across the street fought back and, with the assistance of others, was successful in having it listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1998.
She just informed them that it was a major money trap and that they should avoid it at all costs.
Hise’s anti-slavery activities from a town library employee who told them about the diary he kept from 1846 to 1878, which detailed Salem’s anti-slavery activities, including the efforts of slave owners who came to Salem in search of their “property” and how those efforts were thwarted.
“We were fascinated,” explains Mr.
The feeling of duty was overwhelming, as if there was a purpose why we were living here.
Even so, it takes a lot of effort to keep it up.
“It’s an honor for us to be able to live here,” Mr.
Schafer, 46, adds. “It has become an integral element of our identity.” Send your correspondence to Nancy Keates at [email protected] Dow JonesCompany, Inc. retains ownership of the copyright and reserves all rights. 87990cbe856818d5eddac44c7b1cdeb8