Why Was Ohio Important To The Underground Railroad? (TOP 5 Tips)

Ohio served as the northern “trunk line” of the Underground Railroad, a system of secret routes used by free people in the North & South to help slaves escape to freedom. Escape routes developed throughout Ohio with safe houses where slaves could be concealed during the day.

  • Ohio served as the northern “trunk line” of the Underground Railroad, a system of secret routes used by free people in the North South to help slaves escape to freedom. Escape routes developed throughout Ohio with safe houses where slaves could be concealed during the day.

How was Ohio an important part of the Underground Railroad?

Ohio played a major role in leading escaped slaves from lives of captivity to their dreams of freedom. Canal systems, such as the Miami and Erie Canal completed in 1845, as well as motorized rail systems and freight trains gave slaves and their conductors options for escape.

Did the Underground Railroad go through Ohio?

Although there were Underground Railroad networks throughout the country, even in the South, Ohio had the most active network of any other state with around 3000 miles of routes used by escaping runaways. First Ohio was bordered by 2 slave states: Virginia and Kentucky.

Why did slaves go to the Ohio River?

For many enslaved people the Ohio River was more than a body of water. Crossing it was a huge step on the path to freedom. Serving as natural border between free and slave states, individuals opposed to slavery set up a network of safe houses to assist escaped slaves seeking freedom.

What was Ohio’s role in slavery?

Ohio prohibited slavery, but only in the sense that no one could buy or sell slaves within the state. Not until 1841 did Ohio enact a law so that any slave brought into the state automatically became free. Before then, Southern slave owners regularly visited Ohio and especially Cincinnati accompanied by slaves.

Why was the Underground Railroad important?

The underground railroad, where it existed, offered local service to runaway slaves, assisting them from one point to another. The primary importance of the underground railroad was that it gave ample evidence of African American capabilities and gave expression to African American philosophy.

How many Underground Railroad stops in Ohio?

According to research done by the Friends of Freedom Society, there are well over 20 documented Underground Railroad sites in Columbus, but since many of those are private homes, the addresses have not been made public.

Was there any slavery in Ohio?

Although slavery was illegal in Ohio, a number of people still opposed the ending of slavery. Many of these people also were opposed to the Underground Railroad. Some people attacked conductors on the Underground Railroad or returned fugitives from slavery to their owners in hopes of collecting rewards.

Was Ohio a Union or Confederate state?

The Union included the states of Maine, New York, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, California, Nevada, and Oregon. Abraham Lincoln was their President.

What state ended slavery first?

In 1780, Pennsylvania became the first state to abolish slavery when it adopted a statute that provided for the freedom of every slave born after its enactment (once that individual reached the age of majority). Massachusetts was the first to abolish slavery outright, doing so by judicial decree in 1783.

What was the nickname given to the Ohio route on the Underground Railroad?

Northeast Ohio was home to two ‘stations’ along the Underground Railroad, and ‘Station Hope ‘ was, for many escaped slaves, the last stop before reaching freedom. The conductors guided the slaves. The routes offered less than ideal conditions. Many of them led north, led to Ohio.

Underground Railroad – Ohio History Central

According to Ohio History Central This snapshot depicts the “Freedom Stairway,” which consists of one hundred stairs going from the Ohio River to the John Rankin House in Ripley, which served as a station on the Underground Railroad during the Civil War. Presbyterian clergyman and educator John Rankin (1793-1886) spent most of his time working for the abolitionist anti-slavery struggle. The home features various secret rooms, some of which were used to hide freedom fighters. An illuminated sign was erected in front of the home to signal that it was safe for anyone seeking freedom to approach it.

An underground railroad system of safe homes and hiding places that assisted freedom seekers on their journeys to freedom in Canada, Mexico, and other countries outside of the United States was known as the Underground Railroad (UR).

Although it is unknown when the Underground Railroad had its start, members of the Society of Friends, often known as the Quakers, were actively supporting freedom seekers as early as the 1780s, according to historical records.

As early as the late 1700s, slavery was outlawed in the vast majority of Northern states.

  • African Americans were forced to flee the United States in order to genuinely achieve their freedom.
  • Despite the fact that slavery was outlawed in Ohio, some individuals were still opposed to the abolition of the institution.
  • Many of these individuals were adamantly opposed to the Underground Railroad.
  • Other people attempted to restore freedom seekers to their rightful owners in the aim of receiving prizes for their efforts.
  • Over three thousand slaves were rescued from their captors and granted freedom in Canada thanks to the efforts of Levi Coffin, a Cincinnati man who lived in the late 1840s and early 1850s.
  • His house was perched on a three hundred-foot-high hill with a panoramic view of the Ohio River.
  • He gave the freedom seekers with sanctuary and kept them hidden until it was safe for them to proceed farther north in their quest for independence.

These individuals, as well as a large number of others, put their lives in danger to aid African Americans in their journey to freedom.

They typically chose to live in communities where there were other African Americans.

A total of eight communities along the Lake Erie shoreline served as embarkation locations for the freedom seekers’ journey to Canada, including Ashtabula, Painesville, Cleveland, Sandusky, Toledo, Huron, Lorain, Conneaut, and Conneaut.

It is still unknown exactly how the Underground Railroad came to be known by that moniker.

In 1831, a freedom seeker called Tice Davids fled from his slave owners in Kentucky, where he had been held since birth.

Davids had arrived at the coast only a few minutes before him. Following the arrival of his boat, the holder was unable to locate Davids and concluded that he “must have gone off on a subterranean path.”

See Also

  1. “The Hippocrene Guide to the Underground Railroad,” by Charles L. Blockson, et al. Hippocrene Books, New York, NY, 1994
  2. Levi Coffin, Hippocrene Books, New York, NY, 1994. Levi Coffin’s recollections of his time as the rumored President of the Underground Railroad. Arno Press, New York, NY, 1968
  3. Dee, Christine, ed., Ohio’s War: The Civil War in Documents, New York, NY, 1968. Ohio: A Four-Volume Reference Library on the History of a Great State (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007)
  4. Fess, Simeon D., ed. Ohio: A Four-Volume Reference Library on the History of a Great State (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007). Gara, Larry, and Lewis Publishing Company, 1937
  5. Chicago, IL: Lewis Publishing Company. The Liberty Line: The Legend of the Underground Railroad is a documentary film about the Underground Railroad. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1961
  6. Ann Hagedorn, ed., Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1961. Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad is a book about the heroes of the Underground Railroad. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002
  7. Roseboom, Eugene H. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002
  8. The period from 1850 to 1873 is known as the Civil War Era. The Underground Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom (Columbus, OH: Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1944)
  9. Siebert, Wibur H. “The Underground Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom.” RussellRussell, New York, 1898
  10. Siebert, Wilbur Henry, New York, 1898. Ohio was a stop on the Underground Railroad. Lesick, Lawrence Thomas
  11. Arthur W. McGraw, 1993
  12. McGraw, Arthur W. The Lane Rebels: Evangelicalism and Antislavery in Antebellum America is a book about the Lane family who were antislavery activists in the antebellum era. Roland M. Baumann’s book, The Scarecrow Press, was published in 1980 in Metuchen, NJ. The Rescue of the Oberlin-Wellington Train in 1858: A Reappraisal Oberlin, OH: Oberlin College Press, 2003
  13. Levi Coffin and William Still, editors. Fleeing for Freedom: Stories of the Underground Railroad is a collection of short stories about people fleeing for freedom. Ivan R. Dee Publishers, Chicago, Illinois, 2004.

Underground Railroad aided by Ohio

The state of Ohio played a significant part in guiding runaway slaves from their lives of slavery to their aspirations of freedom. Many runaway slaves used the Underground Railroad, a legendary path to freedom traveled by thousands of runaway slaves, to reach northern destinations where they were more likely to avoid capture. The Underground Railroad was a complex system designed to transport slaves to northern destinations where they were more likely to avoid capture. According to Warren Van Tine, a history professor at Ohio State University, “Ohio was extremely vital to the success of the Underground Railroad.” “Because of its geographic position, Ohio was possibly the most important state in terms of the success of the Underground Railroad.” According to Van Tine, the Ohio River and Lake Erie served as a transportation route between Canada and Virginia.

  • Several locations in Franklin County may take pride in their involvement with the Underground Railroad.
  • Second Baptist Church, the Kelton House Museum and Gardens, the Margaret Agler House, and the Southwick-Good Funeral Chapel, all of which are located at 3100 N.
  • “I believe that the functioning of the Underground Railroad was a very essential aspect of American history,” said William Good, proprietor of Southwick-Good Funeral Chapel in Southwick, Massachusetts.
  • Attempts were made to chronicle this heritage by William Siebert, who had worked on the Ohio State University campus as a history professor and department head.
  • Despite the fact that his publications and studies presented a thorough history of Ohio counties, the pathways followed by runaways and their conductors, and various personal experiences, some may argue that his works omitted certain critical information.
  • In his writings, there are a number of subterranean conductors who aren’t mentioned, particularly African-Americans,” Van Tine explained.
  • Finding information on specific places suspected of being train stations can be a challenging endeavor because of the secrecy surrounding them.

Underground Railroad in Ohio

Escaped slaves from their lives of captivity to their aspirations of freedom were helped a great deal by the people of Ohio. It was an elaborate system meant to transport escaped slaves to northern areas where they had a better chance of avoiding arrest. The Underground Railroad, a famous path to freedom utilized by thousands of runaway slaves, was a complex network of routes designed to get them to safety. According to Warren Van Tine, a history professor at Ohio State University, “Ohio was critical to the success of the Underground Railroad.” In terms of the success of the Underground Railroad, Ohio was possibly the most important state due to its geographic position, according to the author.

  • Canal systems, such as the Miami and Erie Canal, which was constructed in 1845, as well as motorized rail networks and freight trains provided slaves and their conductors with alternatives for emancipation and freedom.
  • Stations were housed in a number of structures that are still intact today, including There are many structures located at 3100 N.
  • that are worth mentioning.
  • “I believe that the functioning of the Underground Railroad was a very essential aspect of American history,” said William Good, proprietor of Southwick-Good Funeral Chapel in Southwick, New Hampshire.
  • “Every second ancient home had been a station on the Underground Railroad,” according to “Vignettes,” a collection of books recording Ohio history.
  • In Van Tine’s opinion, Siebert was one of the first persons to conduct serious investigation and documentation on the subject.
  • “The job of (Siebert) has been abandoned.

” According to Siebert, “one of the most important things to note is that he and other researchers who have done study on the Underground Railroad wrote from a white point of view.” Finding information on specific places suspected of being train stations can be a challenging endeavor because of the secrecy surrounding the operation.

Because “people just don’t know for sure,” Van Tine explained, it is difficult to gather statistics.

  • Ohio played a significant part in guiding runaway slaves away from their life of slavery and toward their hopes of freedom. The Underground Railroad, a famous route to freedom used by thousands of fugitive slaves, was a complex network of routes meant to transport slaves to northern regions where they would have a better chance of avoiding arrest. “Ohio played a critical role in the success of the Underground Railroad,” said Warren Van Tine, an Ohio State University history professor. “Because of its geographical position, Ohio was possibly the most important state in terms of the success of the Underground Railroad.” According to Van Tine, the Ohio River and Lake Erie gave access to both Canada and Virginia. Canal networks, such as the Miami and Erie Canal, which was constructed in 1845, as well as motorized rail systems and freight trains provided slaves and their conductors with means of escaping. Locations all around Franklin County may take pride in their involvement in the Underground Railroad. Stations were housed in a number of buildings that still exist today. Second Baptist Church, the Kelton House Museum and Gardens, the Margaret Agler House, and the Southwick-Good Funeral Chapel, all of which are located at 3100 N. High St., are among the structures on the list. “I believe that the functioning of the Underground Railroad was a very essential aspect of American history,” said William Good, proprietor of Southwick-Good Funeral Chapel. “We’re honored to have had a role in it.” “Every second old home had been a stop on the Underground Railroad,” according to the author of “Vignettes,” a series of volumes commemorating Ohio History. William Siebert, a former professor and chair of the history department at Oregon State University, endeavored to compile a record of this heritage. According to Van Tine, Siebert was “one of the first persons to thoroughly investigate and document the issue.” Despite the fact that his publications and studies presented a thorough history of Ohio counties, the pathways followed by runaways and their conductors, and various personal encounters, some may argue that his works omitted certain key information. “His (Siebert’s) work is unfinished. In his writings, there are a number of subterranean conductors who aren’t mentioned, particularly African-Americans,” Van Tine added. “One of the most important things to note is that Siebert and others who have done study on the Underground Railroad wrote from a white point of view,” says the author. Finding information on some places suspected of being train stations can be a challenging process due to the secrecy surrounding them. “It’s quite difficult to gather statistics because individuals simply don’t know for sure,” Van Tine explained.
See also:  How Did The Underground Railroad Affect Us Today? (Question)

Ohio played a significant part in guiding runaway slaves from their lives of captivity to their aspirations of freedom. The Underground Railroad, a famous route to freedom used by thousands of fugitive slaves, was a complex network of routes meant to transport slaves to northern regions where they would have a better chance of escaping arrest. “Ohio was extremely vital to the success of the Underground Railroad,” said Warren Van Tine, a history professor at Ohio State University. “Due to its geographic position, Ohio was possibly the most important state in terms of the success of the Underground Railroad.” According to Van Tine, the Ohio River and Lake Erie served as a gateway to both Canada and Virginia.

  1. Locations all around Franklin County may take pride in their involvement in the Underground Railroad.
  2. The Second Baptist Church, the Kelton House Museum and Gardens, the Margaret Agler House, and the Southwick-Good Funeral Chapel, all of which are located at 3100 N.
  3. “I believe that the functioning of the Underground Railroad is a very essential aspect of American history,” said William Good, proprietor of Southwick-Good Funeral Chapel.
  4. “Siebert was one of the first persons to thoroughly investigate and document the issue,” Van Tine remarked.
  5. “His (Siebert’s) work is unfinished.
  6. “One of the most important things to note is that Siebert and others who have done study on the Underground Railroad wrote from a white point of view.” Finding information on some places suspected of being train stations might be difficult due to the secrecy surrounding them.

Ohio Anti-Slavery Society

An organization known as the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society was founded by a group of people who shared a strong opposition to slavery. The Ohio Anti-Slavery Society was created in Zanesville, Ohio, in 1835, and was modeled after the framework of the American Anti-Slavery Society, which was founded in 1833 in New York City. When the society was founded, its members committed to work for the abolition of slavery and the adoption of legislation to safeguard African-Americans when they were released from the bonds of slavery.

People who opposed the abolitionists’ ideals were motivated mostly by fear, which was frequently shown in mob attacks on the abolitionists’ homes and workplaces.

When the conference was held in a barn outside of Granville, a mob erupted and attacked the abolitionists who had gathered in the barn.

In addition to bigotry, and because they were unable to accept that racism, they argued that runaway slaves from the southern states would take their employment here in Ohio.

Freedom Center in Cincinnati

The fact that the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center is located in Cincinnati is a blessing for the state of Ohio. This center serves as a clearinghouse for information regarding the Underground Railroad and organizes educational programs to raise awareness of issues impacting African-Americans, among other things. The Center first opened its doors in 2004. There are three buildings that make up the Freedom Center, and they represent the three foundations of freedom: courage, cooperation, and perseverance.

Hours are 11 a.m.

Tuesday through Sunday.

The Journey

Ohio was divided on the question of slavery, and only a few localities could provide complete protection. Oberlin was one of the locations where fugitive slaves may feel safe while trying to flee. Oberlin, which is located in north central Ohio, became one of the primary staging areas for fugitive slaves fleeing to Canada. More villages in the south, including Columbus and Zanesville to the east,Mechanicsburg and Urbana to the west, came together to help, as did a number of other cities. For runaway slaves, there were even more little settlements in southern Ohio, which provided them with sanctuary in an incredibly perilous region.

The major entry point into Ohio was along the Ohio River, with the most notable location being a little town known as Ripley.

Journey’s end

In search of a safe refuge where they could live with their families without the fear of being shackled in captivity, escaping slaves came across the United States of America. The only certain location was Canada (and, to a lesser extent, Mexico), although getting to these locations was far from straightforward. As soon as an escaped slave arrived on the borders of Canada, they discovered that living there was incredibly harsh, with little job and strict segregation. After escaping slaves made it to Canada, they would frequently return to Ohio, where they might join tiny enclaves of freed slaves that had already been established in remote places, where they could try to stay as inconspicuous as they possibly could.

ABOVE: The narrative of a slave was recounted at the New Boston Fair.

African-Americans helped make the Underground Railroad work

The fact that escaping slaves made the Underground Railroad feasible was the most significant component of the Underground Railroad’s history. If it hadn’t been for their daring, tenacity, and innovation, the railroad would have been nothing more than a footnote in the history of our nation’s development. It was necessary for the majority of runaway slaves not only to get away from their owner’s estate, but also from all of the areas between them and the Ohio River, as well as from all of the other entrance points between the slave and free states.

  • Aside from avoiding their previous masters, they also had to dodge the slave-catchers who prowled the countryside in pursuit of fugitives.
  • The runaway slaves had a tough voyage since they had to hide in the woods during the day and travel only at night.
  • As soon as they passed over the Ohio River, they had to make contact with someone they had never met before, and they had to hope that they would be able to give them with refuge and assistance on their long voyage ahead of them.
  • That occurred at a period when the Ohio River frequently froze over, making it possible for the runaways to cross the river without the need of a boat.
  • The ice was frequently more like giant pieces of floating ice, which needed cautious footwork to make it safely across the river at night, just by looking at the river itself and not taking into consideration the extremely low temperatures.

Slaves who had already completed the trek to freedom would frequently return to assist others, putting their own safety and freedom at tremendous risk.

Paying the Price:

The fact that escaping slaves made the Underground Railroad feasible was the most crucial feature of the Underground Railroad. They would have been a tiny footnote in our country’s history had it not been for their bravery, determination, and resourcefulness during the construction of the railroad. For the majority of fleeing slaves, getting away from their owner’s estate meant crossing all of the lands between them and the Ohio River, as well as crossing all of the other entrance points between the slave and free states.

  • Aside from avoiding their previous masters, they also had to dodge the slave-catchers who patrolled the countryside looking for fugitives.
  • It was a tough trek for the runaway slaves, who were forced to hide in the woods by day and walk only at night.
  • As soon as they passed over the Ohio River, they had to establish contact with someone they had never met before, and they had to hope that they would be able to give them with refuge and assistance on their long journey ahead of them.
  • Back then, the Ohio River frequently froze over, making it feasible for the runaways to cross without the need of a boat on a regular basis.
  • The ice was frequently more like enormous pieces of floating ice, which needed cautious footwork to make it safely across the river at night, just by looking at the river itself and not taking into consideration the exceptionally freezing temperatures.

Additional information aboutthe Underground Railroad

The Underground Railroad was a physical barrier between slaves and the draconian laws that kept them in slavery. … In addition to inciting dread and resentment in the South and encouraging the passage of severe legislation that curtailed the rights of white Americans, the Underground Railroad was a direct contributor to the outbreak of the American Civil War in the United States. Many men, women, and children gained their freedom as a consequence of the efforts of the Underground Railroad. It also contributed to the demise of the institution of slavery, which was eventually abolished in the United States during the American Civil War.

The Underground Railroad was diverted to Canada as its eventual destination after the passing of the Fugitive Slave Act as part of the Compromise of 1850.

In newly constructed settlements in Southern Ontario, tens of thousands of slaves were resettled. In an instant, their work became more difficult and perhaps dangerous.

Is slavery still legal in Texas?

A physical resistance to the harsh laws that kept slaves in bondage was demonstrated by the Underground Railroad movement. … The Underground Railroad played a significant role in the Civil War by inciting dread and resentment in the Southern states and pushing the passage of severe legislation that restricted the rights of white Americans. Many men, women, and children gained freedom as a consequence of the labor of the Underground Railroad. It also had a role in undermining the system of slavery, which was eventually abolished in the United States during the American Civil War era.

The Underground Railroad was diverted to Canada as its eventual destination following the enactment of the Fugitive Slave Act as part of the Compromise of 1850.

The difficulty and danger of their work increased overnight.

How many slaves died trying to escape?

During the infamous “Middle Passage” across the Atlantic, at least 2 million Africans–10 to 15 percent of the total–perished. Additional deaths occurred during the march to or detention near the shore, bringing the total to 15 to 30 percent. Over the course of history, for every 100 slaves that made it to the New World, another 40 perished in Africa or during the Middle Passage to the New World.

How many slaves did Harriet Tubman save?

We know that Tubman saved around 70 people – relatives and friends — over approximately 13 journeys to Maryland, according to her own statements and comprehensive documentation on her rescue operations.

When did Ohio free slaves?

Slavery was abolished in Ohio by the state’s initial constitution in 1802, which was adopted in 1802. However, at the same time, Ohio, which borders slave-state Kentucky across the Ohio River, took the lead in enforcing a strict anti-immigrant policy against black people.

When was Ohio founded?

The first day of March in 1803 was March 1.

When did Ohio became a state?

The first day of March in the year 1803 was March 1.

What role did Ohio play in the Civil War?

As a major contributor to Union army men, military commanders, and supplies during the American Civil War, the state of Ohio played a crucial role. Prior to the Civil War, Ohio was an important stop on the Underground Railroad, and it continued to be a safe haven for escaped and runaway slaves during the war years.

Did Ohio fight for the North or South?

During the American Civil War, the state of Ohio sent more than 260 regiments of troops to the United States government. A total of 310,654 Ohioans were drafted into the Northern army and served for varied lengths of time throughout the war. Every major battle of the war was fought by warriors from the state of Ohio. Ohioans made significant contributions to the Northern triumph.

Ohio’s Underground Railroad to Freedom | Know Ohio

Underground Railroad in Cleveland, Ohio Underground Railroad in Lake County, Ohio Underground Railroad Museum Underground Railroad Stations Map Ripley, Ohio Underground Railroad Which anti-slavery population in Ohio was important for the Underground Railroad Underground Railroad in Cleveland, Ohio Underground Railroad in Lake County, Ohio Underground Railroad in Lake County, Ohio How Did Slaves Cross the Ohio River Underground Railroad in Lake County, Ohio See more entries in the FAQ category.

See also:  When Did People Use The Underground Railroad To Help Slaves Escape? (Perfect answer)

The Ohio River and the Underground Railroad

Located in New Richmond, Ohio, the Ross-Gowdy House is one of a number of Underground Railroad locations in Clermont County. In the minds of many enslaved people, the Ohio River represented more than just a body of water. It was a major step forward on the road to freedom for me to cross it. Individuals opposed to slavery established a network of safe homes to provide assistance to escaped slaves who were seeking freedom along the natural boundary between free and slave states. Underground Railroad ties were strong in Clermont County during the time of the Underground Railroad.

  1. The Mason-Dixon line, which runs between Pennsylvania and Maryland, functioned as a de facto border between free and slave states during the American Civil War.
  2. Following Pennsylvania’s abolition of slavery in 1781, the Ohio River served as an unofficial line of demarcation between the states until the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in 1865.
  3. John Rankin was a conductor on the Underground Railroad who became well-known as a result of his exploits.
  4. He and his neighbor John Parker aided slaves in crossing the Ohio River and concealing them until it was safe for them to continue their journey.
  5. For a period of time, the abolitionist journal The Philanthropist was published out of New Richmond.
  6. Several historic landmarks still stand, notably the Ross-Gowdy Home, which served as the residence and office of Dr.
  7. The New Richmond shoreline has been classified as a National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom site by the National Park Service (NPS).
  8. Residents of those towns are reminded of the battle against injustice by historical buildings such as the Robert E.
  9. Huber mansions, which are still standing today.
  10. Learn more about the Underground Railroad in Clermont County by visiting one of the 33 historic sites on the Clermont County Freedom Trail, which includes 19 sites that are part of the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom.

Visit the Chilo Lock 34 Museum, which is open from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. Tuesday through Sunday for more Ohio River history.

Underground Railroad in Ohio

Wilbur Siebert, a history professor at Ohio State University, claims that the state possessed the most extensive Underground Railroad network of any other state, with an estimated 3000 miles of pathways utilized by runaways. It was possible to enter the Ohio River from as many as twenty different sites, and to escape the river from as many as ten different points along Lake Erie. Image courtesy of the Underground Railroad Monument. Cameron Armstrong, a student at Oberlin College, developed the term Terminology.

  1. Using the term underground was appropriate because assisting runaway slaves was illegal and needed to be kept a secret.
  2. Stations are locations where people go to hide or feel protected.
  3. Agents are those who assist fugitive slaves in their escape but do not guide them.
  4. Backstory The Underground Railroad (UGRR) was a network of safe homes, hiding sites, and forest pathways that assisted runaway slaves in their attempts to escape to freedom in the northern United States or Canadian provinces.
  5. As early as the 1810s, other Ohioans were providing assistance to runaway slaves.
  6. From one station to the next, fugitive slaves made their way north.
  7. Owning slaves had been prohibited in Ohio since the state’s constitution was adopted in 1802, but some residents of the state continued to favor slavery.

These activists were adamant in their opposition to the Underground Railroad; some attacked conductors, while others attempted to return fugitives to their owners in the goal of receiving rewards from them.

This rule enhanced the likelihood that free blacks would be kidnapped and forced into slavery as a result of enslavement.

Runaway slaves were guided by conductors to the northernmost section of the state of Ohio, where they would spend the night before being carried over Lake Erie to freedom in Canada on the final step of their voyage.

The Underground Railroad was run by African-Americans.

There would have been virtually no opportunity for fugitive slaves to escape into freedom if they hadn’t been protected and assisted by free blacks.

Abolitionist newspaper publisher James G.

Colored individuals are virtually always in charge of such issues, which is not surprising.

It’s been a long and difficult road.

Work schedules were flexible, and slaveholders took advantage of the opportunity to travel during the holidays.

There were fewer cars on the highways due of the cold, yet there was little vegetation in the winter landscape because it was so cold.

Running away from home was made feasible by the regular freezing of the Ohio River, which allowed them to cross it on foot, although the ice was sometimes more like enormous pieces of floating ice, which needed precise footwork to make it safely over the river in the dark.

Aside from avoiding slave catchers, fugitives also had to escape roaming gangs of bounty hunters who searched the countryside in search of fugitives.

Under the Fugitive Slave Law, slaves could be traced down and returned from anywhere in the United States, but an escaped slave who crossed the Ohio River and crossed the Mason-Dixon Line was in relative safety north of the Mason Dixon Line.

Ohio was divided on the topic of slavery, and only a few places provided total sanctuary for runaways, with the town of Oberlin being the safest of these areas.

Oberlin, Ohio, was the site of Oberlin College, which was the first institution in the United States to accept females and African-Americans.

As they were aware that kidnapping Price in the town of Oberlin would be difficult due to strong anti-slavery sentiment held by the citizens of that town, they persuaded Shakespeare Boynton, the son of an influential Oberlin landowner, to lead Price to a farm west of Oberlin under the guise of digging potatoes for which he would be paid $20.

  1. After realizing what had occurred, anti-slavery activists in Oberlin grew enraged and promptly formed an organization in order to launch a rescue mission.
  2. The Ohio Historical Society provided permission to use this image.
  3. Eventually, after many hours of tense negotiations, the captors permitted a small number of men, including the local sheriff, to enter the room in order to verify that their paperwork were properly completed.
  4. Soon later, a number of Oberlin residents climbed through the window, and another group entered through the door.
  5. After rescuing Price, his rescuers placed him into a wagon and returned him to Oberlin.
  6. The Oberlin-Wellington Rescue played a significant role in mobilizing opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act in the United States.
  7. In lieu of posting bond, they were sent to the Cuyahoga County Jail, where they stayed for the time being.

Abolitionist and civil rights activist Langston delivered an impassioned address in court that made a powerful argument for abolition and justice for “colored folks.” However, I stand here to state that if I am sentenced to six months in prison and a fine of one thousand dollars for what I did on that day in Wellington, under the Fugitive Slave Law, and such is the protection that the laws of this country afford me, I must assume the responsibility of self-protection; and if I am claimed as a slave by some perjured wretch, I will never be sold into slavery again.

I stand here to state that I will do all in my power to assist any individual who has been apprehended and detained, despite the fact that the inevitable consequence of six months jail and a thousand dollars fine for each infraction hangs over my head!

You would do so because your manhood demanded it, and no matter what laws were in place, you would be proud of yourself for doing so; your friends would be proud of you for doing it; your children for generations to come would be proud of you for doing it; and every good and honest man would agree that you had done the right thing in the end!

  • According to the judge, Langston will serve only 20 days in prison after being found guilty.
  • Further south, a number of settlements, including Columbus and Putnam to the east, Mechanicsburg and Urbana to the west, gave help to fugitive slaves, including Columbus and Putnam.
  • Organization known as the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society In 1835, the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society was established in Zanesville, Ohio.
  • Despite the fact that Ohio was a free state, the Society was frequently targeted by local individuals wherever they conducted their meetings.
  • Fear was a significant motive among people opposed to the society’s ideals, and it was frequently demonstrated in crowds who attacked abolitionists on the streets.
  • When the abolitionist convention was held in a barn outside the city boundaries, a mob erupted and attacked the delegates and other attendees.
  • One of the state’s oldest communities, Putnam was founded about 1800 and merged into the neighboring city of Zanesville in 1872, making it one of the state’s oldest municipalities.

Putnam was home to numerous important abolitionists throughout the nineteenth century.

Both the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society’s conventions, held in 1835 and 1839, were held at this location.

Weld, who was lecturing at the Stone Academy in preparation for the 1835 convention.

Additional violence was avoided as a result of the arrest of several of the instigators.

William Beecher, the brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe, served as the church’s first pastor when it was built in 1835, and many other anti-slavery preachers, including Frederick Douglas in 1852, have spoken here.

The Underground Railroad ran through southern Ohio.

There was a tiny village called Ripley that served as the primary access point.

The Freedom Stairway is a photograph.

John Rankin is a Scottish author and poet.

Located on a three hundred-foot-high hill overlooking the Ohio River, his mansion included various secret rooms where runaway slaves might be secreted if they escaped.

Image courtesy of John Rankin House Ripley, Ohio is a town in the state of Ohio.

John Parker, a kindred soul who resided in Ripley as well, was responsible for transporting hundreds of fugitives from slavery over the Ohio River on a small boat.

Parker was taught to read and write by the doctor’s family, who also permitted him to work as an apprentice in an iron foundry.

He then relocated to Ripley, where he built a profitable foundry in the back of his home.

In a subsequent interview, John Parker stated that while the fugitives must, in most cases, take care of themselves south of the border, once they cross the Ohio River, they are in the care of their friends and family.

The majority of the time, slaves walked northward on their own, seeking for a signal that would indicate the presence of food, shelter, and rest.

Many will stay unidentified for the rest of their lives. Putnam Historic District (National Park Service) Underground Railroad – Ohio History Central, Inc. Ohio on the Road: The Underground Railroad in Ohio The Ohio Anti-Slavery Society is featured on Ohio History Central.

The Underground Railroad in Ohio

Topic The Underground Railroad in Ohio
Time Period Early to mid 1800s
Keyword(s) Slavery, Underground Railroad, African Americans, Abolition
Grade level(s) 6-12
Learning standard(s) (Grade 8 Social Studies) History Strand: Historical Thinking and Skills, Content Statement 1; Colonization to Independence, Content Statement 4; Civil War and Reconstruction, Content Statement 12 / (High School Social Studies) American History: Historical Thinking and Skills, Content Statement 2; Industrialization and Progressivism, Content Statement 13

Wilbur Siebert, a history professor at Ohio State University, claims that the state of Ohio had the most extensive Underground Railroad network of any state, with an estimated 3000 miles of pathways utilized by fugitives. There were more than twenty places of access along the Ohio River, and as many as ten points of escape along the shores of Lake Erie throughout the war. Image courtesy of the Underground Railroad Memorial. Cameron Armstrong, a student at Oberlin College, developed the concept of terminology.

  • The term “underground” was employed since assisting fugitive slaves was illegal and so had to be kept a secret from the authorities.
  • These included the terms “railroad” and “railroad station,” which were both used to describe people and places in the United States during the Civil War.
  • Stations are places where people go to hide or find refuge.
  • It is agents who assist fugitives from slavery in their escape but do not guide them.
  • Backstory Safe homes, hiding locations, and bush pathways made up part of the Underground Railroad (UGRR), which assisted runaway slaves in their attempts to escape to freedom in the northern United States and Canada.
  • By the 1810s, an increasing number of Ohioans were assisting escaped slaves.
  • Emancipated slaves made their way along the north coast from station to station.

Ohio has prohibited slavery since the state’s constitution was adopted in 1802, yet some residents of the state continued to favor slavery until recently.

They were correct in their fears.

When the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 was passed, slave owners were given the ability to retrieve fugitive slaves, even if they had fled to another state.

As a result, many African Americans thought that the only way to fully achieve their independence was to leave the United States.

Several communities along the lake’s shoreline, including Toledo, Cleveland, Sandusky, Ashtabula Harbor, and Lorain, were frequently used as exit sites, according to the report.

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The involvement of free blacks in the actions of the UGRR cannot be exaggerated, despite the fact that white abolitionists were instrumental in their escape.

Even well-known abolitionists were hesitant to trust them when they received word of a new batch of slaves travelling through.

Birney, white editor of the abolitionist publication The Philanthropist, who wrote in February 1837 to Lewis Tappan, “The Slaves are fleeing in considerable numbers across Ohio to Canada.

For the time being, I don’t know anything about them.

Holiday travel was common, and slaveholders took advantage of the relaxed work schedules.

Because of the chilly weather, fewer people were on the roads, yet there was little greenery to be seen in the winter scenery.

Running away from home was made feasible by the regular freezing of the Ohio River, which allowed them to cross it on foot, although the ice was sometimes more like enormous pieces of floating ice, which needed precise stepping to make it over the river safely at night.

Escaping slave catchers, roaming gangs of bounty hunters, and other dangers were also on the agenda for those attempting to flee.

While slaves could be tracked and returned from anywhere in the United States under the Fugitive Slave Law, escaping slaves who crossed the Ohio River and stayed north of the Mason-Dixon Line were in a relatively secure environment.

Ohio was divided on the topic of slavery, and only a few places provided total sanctuary for runaways, with the town of Oberlin being the safest of these areas by far.

As the site of Oberlin College, the first school in the United States to admit females and black students, Oberlin served as a critical junction on the Underground Railroad, providing five different routes to safety.

Emergency Response in Oberlin and Wellington When John Price, a 17-year-old fugitive slave from Kentucky, was apprehended in Oberlin on September 13, 1858, two slave hunters and two federal marshals tracked him to the city.

Price was instead taken to Wellington, some 10 miles south of Oberlin, where the officers planned to catch a train headed south and return Price to Kentucky, where they would collect a prize.

Participants in the Oberlin-Wellington Search and Rescue mission The Ohio Historical Society provided permission for use of this photograph.

Eventually, after many hours of tense negotiations, the captors permitted a small number of men, including the local sheriff, to enter the chamber in order to verify that their documents were correct.

An influx of Oberlin residents clambered in via the window and another group entered through the front door shortly after, according to witnesses.

Price continued on the UGRR for a few more days, eventually arriving in Canada in the process.

Thirty-seven individuals who assisted in the rescue of Price were indicted in Federal Court out of a group of two hundred who had convened in Wellington.

Sixty-two of these were free blacks, including Charles Henry Langston, who was instrumental in ensuring that Price was transported to Canada rather than being released to local authorities.

The fact that we are all human is something we can all agree on.

Although the Court attempted to keep the applause to a hushed level, the audience continued to clap loudly for a long period of time.

Midwestern Ohio was a stop on the Underground Railroad.

Columbus and Putnam were the most notable of these settlements.

Anti-slavery organization in the state of Ohio.

Those who joined the group swore to work for the abolition of slavery as well as the establishment of legislation to safeguard African Americans once they were freed from slavery.

After attending a meeting in Zanesville, Ohio, John Rankin, one of the society’s founders, was assaulted.

A conference of the Ohio Anti-Slavery Convention was scheduled for Granville in 1836, but the municipality refused to allow it to take place inside its borders because of the presence of slaves.

Settling in the little town of Putnam in the state of Ohio The town of Putnam, Ohio, was founded about 1800 and merged into the neighboring city of Zanesville in 1872, making it one of the state’s oldest communities.

Many renowned abolitionists lived in Putnam County.

The Underground Railroad’s station in this location Built in 1809, Stone Academy is one of the city’s most historic structures.

In preparation for the 1835 convention, renowned abolitionist Theodore D.

Putnam’s Academy, which served as the focal point of abolitionist activities in the town, was assaulted once more at the 1839 convention, when 200 anti-abolitionists planning to burn down the entire town were confronted by 70 citizens of Putnam at the town’s entrance.

The congregation of Putnam Presbyterian Church, located nearby, was heavily involved in the abolitionist movement throughout the Civil War period.

An abolitionist prayer service was held in the basement of the church for many years, a service that had its origins at Stone Academy in 1833 and had been going on since then.

There was a little town called Ripley that served as the primary access point.

The Freedom Stairway is pictured above.

Rankin, John John Rankin was a Presbyterian preacher and educator who spent a significant portion of his life to the antislavery cause.

In Rankin’s house, a lamp was put in a window to signal that it was safe for escaped slaves to cross the Ohio River and take refuge there.

It is located in the town of Ripley.

Then there was John Parker, a kindred spirit who also resided in Ripley and was responsible for transporting hundreds of escaped slaves across the Ohio River in a small boat.

He had been born as a slave in Norfolk, Virginia.

After completing his apprenticeship and earning enough money to buy his freedom, he relocated to Ripley, where he went on to create a thriving foundry in the back of his house.

When asked about the fugitives in a subsequent interview, John Parker stated that they had to fend for themselves in most cases south of the border, but that once across the Ohio River, they were under the care of their friends.

Nonetheless, most slaves ventured northward on their own, hoping to find a signal that would indicate the presence of food, water, and rest.

There are those who will stay anonymous for the rest of their lives. Putnam Historic District on the National Park Service’s website. Underground Railroad (Ohio History Central) In Ohio, you may see the Underground Railroad. Ohio Anti-Slavery Society (OAC) – Ohio History Central

The Underground Railroad

The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County provided this contribution.

Additional Resources

  1. The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County made a contribution to this work.

Teaching Guide

As a starting point, this guide will detail some possible ways for students to interact with digital content. It also includes recommendations for having students pull information from the examples given above. Guide for Participation in a Discussion (Download)

  1. In order to get to the North, escaping slaves would have to cross the Underground Railroad. After their journeys on the subterranean railroad, where would individuals who had traveled there choose to live? What towns and localities in Ohio did fugitive slaves pass through on their journey to freedom in Canada? Exactly where would fugitive slaves be hidden by subterranean railroad conductors
  2. In your county, do you know of any underground railroad stops that are still there and may be visited?

Activities in the Classroom (Download)

  1. Activities in the class room (Download)

Underground Railroad

Enslaved African-Americans used the Underground Railroad to escape into free states and Canada, assisted by abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. The Underground Railroad was established in the United States during the early-to-mid nineteenth century, and it was used by them to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. Citizens in Clermont County, Ohio, were significant benefactors to the Underground Railroad campaign throughout the nineteenth century.

The Freedom Trail Guide is published by the Clermont County Convention and Visitors Bureau.

The Underground Railroad in Clermont County

Enslaved African-Americans used the Underground Railroad to escape into free states and Canada, assisted by abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. The Underground Railroad was established in the United States during the early-to-mid nineteenth century, and it was used by enslaved African-Americans to escape into free states and Canada. A significant portion of the Underground Railroad movement was funded by citizens of Clermont County, Ohio. The movements for freedom and equality for all Americans were spearheaded by many of them as well.

From our collection

These two pieces from our collection can provide you with further information regarding the Underground Railroad in Clermont County. Freedom’s Struggle is a novel written by Gary L. Knepp.

Freedom’s Struggle: A Response to Slavery from the Ohio Borderlands

Clermont County’s role in the Underground Railroad was described as a “hole in the map” by a newspaper reporter. In other words, the narrative was well unknown at the time. Gary Knepp’s book, Freedom’s Struggle: A Response to Slavery from the Ohio Borderlands, fills in the gaps left by slavery in the Midwest. It piques the interest of readers who desire to explore the Clermont County Freedom Trail. Gary Knepp was the project director for the Clermont County Underground Railroad Research Project, which was established in 1989.

By Candlelight in the Evening (DVD)

Candlelight by Night

Clermont County, Ohio, was one of the most important stops on the Underground Railroad, and it was home to a number of notable figures. This movement was also associated with the Abolitionists. With nineteen places on the Network to Freedom, the county holds the record for having the most locations on the network. Approximately one-third of the slaves who fled on the Underground Railroad passed through Clermont County, according to historical records.

Among the cast members of Candle by Night are actors Richard Cooper and Richard Crawford, as well as Gary Knepp and Carl Westmooreland. The documentary provides an interesting investigation at the role played by Clermont County.

Get out and explore

Clarion County, Ohio was one of the most significant stops on the Underground Railroad, and it was home to a large number of slaves. This organization was also a component of the Abolitionist movement. With nineteen sites on the Network to Freedom, the county holds the record for having the most places on the Network to Freedom. Clermont County is thought to have been the gateway for one-third of the slaves who fled on the Underground Railroad. Among the cast members of Candle by Night are actors Richard Cooper and Richard Crawford, as well as Gary Knepp and Carl Westmooreland A interesting investigation of Clermont County’s historical significance is presented in this documentary.

Clermont County, Ohio Freedom Trail

In total, 33 locations are on theClermont County Ohio Freedom Trail, 19 of which have been certified by the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom (NURN). The Clermont Freedom Trail is now home to the biggest Network to Freedom program in the US, which is located in Clermont, Florida. This self-guided trip takes you through Clermont’s gorgeous rolling hills and along the Ohio River to see the sights. The Clermont County Convention and Visitors Bureau put up the exhibit. Nancy Stearns Theiss takes us on a tour of the Underground Railroad as it travels down the Ohio River.

A Tour on the Underground Railroad Along the Ohio River

The Ohio River, which runs 664 miles along Kentucky’s southern border, gave a great opportunity for enslaved people to flee to free territory in Indiana and Ohio during the American Civil War. A ship pulled up beside the Mississippi River in Madison, Indiana, beckoning runaway slave Henry Bibb upon a journey to Cincinnati, where he found the Underground Railroad. A lantern signal high on a hill near the Rankin House in Ripley, Ohio, visible from a distance of more than 100 miles away in Cincinnati prompted others to run for their lives in search of freedom.

The work was hailed as a source of inspiration for human resistance.

National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom

While the Ohio River gave an incredible chance for enslaved people to escape to free territory in Indiana and Ohio, it did so for a total of 664 miles along Kentucky’s border. On the banks of the Ohio River in Madison, Indiana, the Underground Railroad enticed Henry Bibb to board a riverboat bound for Cincinnati. It was then that he learned of the Underground Railroad. A lantern signal high on a hill near the Rankin House in Ripley, Ohio, visible from a distance of more than 100 miles away in Cincinnati prompted others to escape for their lives in search of safety.

The work became a source of motivation for those who were fighting for their rights.

Within the pages of her bookA Tour on the Underground Railroad Along the Ohio River, author Nancy Theiss (Ph.D.) leads readers on a journey (along with extensive information on historical landmarks) to explore these places of courage and sacrifice.

Read about the Underground Railroad

For anyone interested in learning more about the Underground Railroad, our team has compiled a list of resources for you. Discover both fiction and nonfiction created just for adult audiences on the Adult Booklist. Discover both fiction and nonfiction created for young people ranging in age from small children to teenagers on this list of recommended books for kids. During the Booklovers Podcast, listeners may learn about novels that are relevant to the Underground Railroad.

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